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Feminism by gp5u6K

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									Feminism
Politicization of the sex-class identity




                                    Gender
                                 Oppression
              Political
             Resources
Education,   & Interest
Economic
   &
 Political
 1929 JCPC reversed Supreme Courts decision



 1927 “Person’s Case” Senate appointments



     1866 British MP John Stuart Mill women the
  1921 Agnes Macphail 1st electedpetitionedMP Parl.
     Nat. UK to grant Women Voters was
1920 of the League of suffrage to women created

       1830s- 1860s Movement to abolish slavery
        Universal Suffrage    vote
        1921 Federal Election
       1800s Organized women’s rights movement
“No room at the top”
  In 1990:
 only 3.5% of the world’s cabinet
  ministers were women
 women held no ministerial
  positions in 93 countries
 women were completely absent from the four highest
  levels in government in 50 countries: 5 in the group
  of Western European states; 16 in Asia and the
  Pacific; 8 in Latin America and the Caribbean; 21 in
  Africa
 women occupied less than 5% of the top positions in
  international organizations, including the UN and the
  European Community
 only a handful of women served as finance ministers
  (Bhutan, Finland, New Zealand, San Marino, Taiwan)
     entering the polling booth

               Occupying highest offices of the state


Gro Harlem Brundtland         Indira Ghandi
 Twice Prime Minister        Prime Minister of
of Norway in the 1980s        India, 1966-77

            Margaret Thatcher
            Prime Minister of
           Britain, 1979- 1990
1830s- 1860s Movement to Abolish Slavery

       “The first organized
       movement for women’s rights
       came form the movement to
       abolish slavery.

       ….. women’s rights
       organizers broke down many
       conventional barriers to the
       public participation of black
       people and women.”
                       Rowbotham (1992)
     Political Participation
  Substantial growth for women?

Women’s lack of direct participation
   in top-level policy-making
                  ETHNICITY
  FINANCES
                    ORGANIZATION
      TRADITION
 Different
Ideologies               Different
                         Strategic
                         Measures




             Different
             Political
              Goals
                1869 J.S. Mill Published
            On the Subjection of Women

                                           PRIVATE SPHERE
                       Pursuit of the
                         franchise
                        legal rights
PUBLIC SPHERE
LEGAL                          ACCESS TO
RIGHTS                         EDUCATION




          Private, political
         & economic sphere
                     PUBLIC SPHERE
PRIVATE SPHERE



          Sacrifice?



     Who occupies the private sphere?   ?
 1988 - Supreme court confirmed abortion
 laws unconstitutional

1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms


  1970s and 1980s women entered universities
  and work force in increasing numbers

   “happy-housewife”      Betty     The Feminine
         myth            Friedan      Mystique


1960s Powerful emergence of Liberal Feminism
Gloria                  Naomi Wolf
Steinem



          KATE MILLET
                        The electoral gap in the
                        US has been shown to be
                        critical to the success of
                        the Democratic Party and
                        to the nomination and
                        election of some women
                        candidates.




Largest & most activist women’s mvt in the world
  1992: outgoing Congress had only 6.4% women
members incoming =11% in House, 7% in Senate.
        structural reforms


WILL WOMEN SHARING POLITICAL POWER
         EQUALLY WITH MEN
      CHANGE THE WAY WE LIVE?
            & Political Leadership
Studies indicate that a ‘critical mass’ of from 30-
35%
inclusion of women in political leadership and gov’t is
needed to affect public policies.
Women should not settle for an in-name-only
share
of leadership…should use their positions to campaign
for specific party commitments to the nomination,
election and appt = # of men and women to national
office, parls, cabs, courts, regional and st. legs,
commissions, advisory groups.
Parties and women’s orgs should seek out
potential
women candidates for political office and provide
 them with training in pol. and ldsp skills, funding and
“Good Wives & Wise Mothers”



           $
     TRADITION

                ?
?
Biased Work force

    Deeply rooted Traditions

               Choices?



        April 10, 1946
        Japan’s first       VOTE
       “all person’s” election
Radical Reform             Liberal Feminism




             Marxist Feminism
CYBER-FEMINISM

								
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