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Marbury v. Madison Established judicial review and the ability to declare a statute void - as a legitimate power of the Court. Dred Scott v. Sandford Ruled that slaves were not citizens and could not sue for freedom Plessy v. Ferguson Separate facilities for blacks and whites satisfied the Fourteenth Amendment so long as they were equal. Set up Separate but Equal Brown v. Topeka The landmark decision by the Supreme Court that desegregated public schools throughout the country. Schenck Vs. United States Set up “Clear and Present Danger” in public speech Miranda v. Arizona Person arrested must be informed of their rights to remain silence and a lawyer. McCulloch v. Maryland States can not tax federal banks. Set up implied Powers Engel v. Vitale Recitation of prayer written by state cannot be said in public schools Roe v. Wade Decided states were limiting abortion too much, interpreted as right to an abortion Gibbons v. Ogdon Federal law has supremacy over state law Barron Vs. Baltimore Constitution limitations ( Bill of Rights) restrained only the national government, not in the states and cities. University of California Vs. Bakke Court force University to eliminate the special admissions program based only on race. But allowed institutions to take race into account. Set up reverse discrimination United States Vs. Nixon The President must turn over tapes to Congress. No person, not even the president of the United States, is above the law. Miller Vs.California Obscene Material is not protected by the first amendment. Set up guideline for obscenity laws Gideon v. Wainwright • Supreme Court stated that all defendants are guaranteed to have a lawyer represent them if they can not afford one and to expand the 6th amendment to include representation to everyone no matter what degree of charge. Wallace v. Jaffree A law was passed in Alabama calling for a minute of meditation before school began. The law was amended in 1981, changing the wording from only “silent meditation” to adding “or voluntary prayer”. This made it unconstitutional Gitlow v. N.Y New York attempted to outlaw certain speech. For the first time the supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment, which guarantees freedom of speech, could be applied to the states. Bush v. Gore A 7-2 majority of justices found that a ballot recount then being conducted in certain counties in the State of Florida was to be stopped due to the lack of a consistent standard. A 5-4 majority further declared in a per curiam opinion that there was insufficient time to establish standards for a new recount that would meet Florida's deadline for certifying electors. Adarand Constructor v. Pena United States Supreme Court case which held that all racial classifications must be analyzed by a reviewing court under a standard of "strict scrutiny," the highest level of Supreme Court review a "compelling governmental interest." Everson v. Board of Education United States Supreme Court case in American Establishment Clause law. In addition to incorporating the Establishment Clause (applying it to the States through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment), Lemon Vs. Kurtzman Direct government assistance to religious school was unconstitutional. Set up guidelines for state to help religious schools. Gregg v. Georgia Death Penalty ruled constitutional Webster Vs. Reproductive Health Services Supreme Court ruled that public money could not be used to fund public facilities of abortion. And after the fetus is 20 weeks old, the doctor must test the ability to survive. Furman Vs. Georgia Case raised the question of racial imbalances in the use of the death penalty Court ruled that there was an “apparent arbitrariness use of the sentence” California Vs. Greenwood Courts ruled that garbage cans left in the street are not expected to remain private, so the evidence is admissible. Mapp Vs. Ohio Evidence Found in an Illegal Search cannot be used. Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens Supreme Court gave a group of students permission to form a Christian Club. Declared the Equal Access Act constitutional Tinker V. Des Moines Independent Community School District Court allowed students to wearing black armbands to protest Vietnam. Wesberry V. Sanders Set up “ One man- One Vote” doctrine. Man most Gerrymandering unconstitutional. Majority-Minority gerrymandering is constitutional. Clinton V. City of N.Y. SC declared the Line-Item Veto Act 1996 unconstitutional. SC said president was using powers given only to the Congress.
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