LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL by yOCx5U4n

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 42

									                           LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL

                                  Program of Study
                                                       2008-2009

                                                 SCHOOL COMMITTEE
                                                          Paul Avella
                                                          Charles Ellis
                                                       Michael Fontanella
                                                         Nancy Mizzoni
                                                         Shawna Stea




                                                    ADMINISTRATION
                                                   John J. Buckey, Principal
                                          Anthony J. Loprete, Assistant Principal




                                                  Littleton High School
                                                Telephone: 978-952-2555
                                               Main Office: Extension 1100
                                             Website: http://www.littletonps.org




All Littleton Public School programs, activities and employment opportunities are offered without regard to race, color, sex,
religion, national origin, sexual orientation and disability. Anyone with concerns regarding perceived violations of this policy
should contact Dianna Peterson, Director of Pupil Personnel Services at (978) 468-8951.


                                             LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL
                                                      56 KING STREET
                                              LITTLETON, MASSACHUSETTS 01460
                                                             (978) 952-2555

John J. Buckey
Principal

February 6, 2007

Dear Students & Parents:

Preparing our annual Program of Study requires significant collaboration and thoughtful planning by the entire school community.
Faculty members add new courses and also eliminate or redefine others. Department heads, the administration, the director of
curriculum and your teachers all consider programmatic changes carefully, with the best interest of students in mind. I encourage you
to peruse the information carefully and then to request additional information and clarification from teachers, counselors, and
departmental leaders.

You should have a schedule with 30 credits. The Program of Study includes the credits for each course. Your guidance counselor will hav
more information on how to design your schedule in terms of courses and alternatives in meeting our distribution and graduatio
requirements and the Commonwealth’s time on learning requirement.

In addition to the course selections, our school offers a wide range of co-curricular activities including competitive team sports, performin
arts groups, student government and many special interest clubs. I encourage you to participate in these important activities, as they wi
provide you with different perspectives, challenges, and opportunities to meet other students.

Please remember that the scheduling process does not always produce the desired end result. You may encounter situations where courses ar
cancelled due to low enrollments or conflicts developed during the scheduling process that require you to make other choices. We will do ou
best to develop a a schedule to honor your requests and one that has the fewest number of conflicts possible. It is our goal to have you
schedule completed for you prior to leaving for summer break. If achieved that would provide you the opportunity to make changes to you
schedule before leaving, and virtually eliminate changes over the summer and when we return in the fall.

It is our goal for students to consider selecting the most personally challenging and rewarding academic program possible. We
encourage students to carefully consider the various courses offered, as well as the different levels within the same course, and to ask
questions when uncertain. Students should consider obligations outside of school and balance their course selections with this
information in mind. We look forward to working together as you plan your future.

Sincerely,

John J. Buckey




                                                            2
                        LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL
                               Alone We Achieve…Together We Succeed


                                    Mission Statement
The closely-knit community of Littleton High School is dedicated to maximizing the intellectual, social,
physical, and emotional growth of all its students. In our pursuit of educational excellence, we maintain a
safe environment where all students feel valued, respect themselves, develop a caring and compassionate
attitude, use their minds effectively in learning and decision-making, and understand and appreciate the
diversity and interdependence of all people. We believe that, provided the opportunity, every student, with
effort, can and will meet high standards of achievement. To that end, students, teachers, administrators,
support personnel, parents, and the community work in partnership to help students to become life-long
learners and self-reliant, responsible, productive citizens in a constantly changing world.




                         Expectations for Student Learning
ACADEMIC EXPECTATIONS

      READ FOR COMPREHENSION & UNDERSTANDING

      W RITE EFFECTIVELY

      COMMUNICATE CLEARLY

      PROBLEM SOLVE CREATIVELY


CIVIC EXPECTATION

      COMMUNITY SERVICE LEARNING


SOCIAL EXPECTATION

      CO-CURRICULAR PARTICIPATION




                                              3
COURSE SELECTION
All students, in all grades, are to be scheduled in six classes per semester. Requests for an exception will
be examined on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration what the student’s parent, counselor and
building principal believe is in the student’s best educational interest.

A college preparatory curriculum consists of a MINIMUM OF FOUR ACADEMIC courses (English,
mathematics, social studies, science, foreign language) each of the four high school years. The more selective
the college one has in mind, the more rigorous the academic load should be, both in course difficulty and in
number of classes taken.

High school students have a range of choices in their course work, subject to the graduation credit and
distribution requirements. To keep many options for further education and career choices open, students are
encouraged to take the most appropriately challenging program possible. Experience indicates that most
students make career choices after their high school years; therefore, the school encourages students to select
courses from a wide range of disciplines.

In choosing their programs, students should work closely with their guidance counselors, parents, and teachers.
Parents who have questions about program and course selections are urged to call the Guidance Department
to schedule a conference. Every effort will be made by school personnel to see that program requirements are
met, but the final responsibility for meeting these requirements for promotion and graduation rests with the
student and his/her parent(s) or guardian(s).

Once the school opens in the fall, it is expected that each student will continue with the schedule that has been
developed during the course selection process. Any minor adjustments must take place during the first two
weeks of school, via communication with the guidance counselors. A good education depends on a full 90 day
(semester) or 180 day (full year) presence in a class. Course changes requested after the two week add/drop
period are strongly discouraged. Guidance Counselor, Department Head, Teacher and possibly Assistant
Principal input will be required to affect such a change. Littleton High School does not accept course change
based on personal incompatibility between a student and teacher.

Any student who withdraws from a course after first quarter will receive a grade of withdraw pass/WP or
withdraw failing/WF. If a senior drops or withdraws from a class after transcripts have been sent out to colleges,
Littleton High School will notify all colleges of the change in the student’s schedule.


COURSE LOAD
All students are required to select and maintain enrollment in a minimum of six, 5-credit courses or their
equivalent, and carry a minimum of 30 credits. Any exception to this minimum requirement must be approved
by the principal. Students must carry a full course load to be eligible to participate in co-curricular activities
such as: athletics, drama, student government, or any team, club or squad. Seniors are required to carry 30
credits in their senior year, regardless of the credits earned in previous years. The high school principal may
grant an exemption after consultation with the student and the student’s guidance counselor.

Beginning with the 9th grade, progress toward graduation depends upon the accumulation of credits. One
hundred (110) credits are required for graduation. Students' programs are checked to make certain that each
student will have adequate credits to progress with his/her class. Although every effort is made to ensure the
students have adequate credits, meeting requirements is the responsibility of each student and his/her parent(s)
or guardian(s). Students should know their credit total to date and be certain that they have sufficient credits for
promotion as well as appropriate courses in the distribution requirements.




                                                  4
COURSE CHANGES
 1. Course changes should be completed within the first two weeks of a course.
 2. Courses dropped after the first two weeks will appear on the transcript as either ―W‖ (withdrawal) or ―WF‖
    (withdrawal while failing).
 3. Academic credit will be awarded when the student transfers to a different level of the same course.
 4. Exceptions to these procedures may be made at the discretion of the principal.


GRADUATING FROM LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL
           1. Graduation from LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL implies that students have satisfactorily
           completed an approved course of study and that they have passed The Massachusetts
           Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) and/or other requirements established by the
           school district.
           2. One hundred (110) credits, with specific departmental requirements, are needed to receive a
           diploma from Littleton High School.
           3. Only approved courses will be accepted for graduation. Course work taken anywhere but at
           Littleton High School must be approved in advance to avoid loss of credit through
           misunderstanding. Approval must be granted by the principal.
           4. Students who are away for a term or year to participate in a student exchange program or
           otherwise study abroad may receive credit towards graduation when: 1)study plans are approved
           by the principal in advance; and 2) the institution where the study occurred submits a record of
           the student’s work. In these instances, the principal and the student’s guidance counselor will
           evaluate the work and assign credit for it according the standards prevailing at Littleton High
           School.
           5. Prior credit earned from accredited schools is transferable, with the following exceptions:
           doctrinal religion courses; driver's education; service activities such as teacher, office, or library
           assistant.
           6. Students enrolling in summer school for make-up credit must have prior written approval from
           a Littleton High School counselor. Students may enroll in a maximum of two courses per summer
           in an accredited summer school program.

           7. A student may repeat a course that s/he has taken and passed, but it will not be for credit.
           Although both grades will be recorded, only the higher grade will be used in computing the G.P.A.
           (grade point average).

           8. The high school Guidance Department will provide information and counseling for all students
           to enable them to develop a schedule of courses that will meet requirements for colleges,
           vocational schools, or any post-high school program selected by the student and his/her parents.



                                        Promotion Requirements:
                                For entrance        Grade
                                                                  27.5 credits
                                to:                 10
                                                    Grade
                                                                    55 credits
                                                    11


                                                5
                                                            Grade
                                                                         82.5 credits
                                                            12
                                     For graduation:                      110 credits

DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENTS
We establish minimum course requirements in seven different areas. These courses form a central curriculum
that all students must pursue in order to graduate from Littleton High School.

Working closely with their child and their child's guidance counselor, families are encouraged to develop a
tentative four-year program which will meet these requirements, challenge the student, and accommodate his
or her particular interests. This program should be reviewed each spring prior to preliminary registration for the
following year, in order to determine if it is still appropriate.



Subject              Littleton High     Required by              Recommended by         Recommended by most
                     School             Massachusetts State      most 4-year            selective colleges*
                     Graduation         colleges and             colleges
                     Requirements       universities
                     20 credits         20 credits               20 credits             20 credits -honors level
English                                                                                 classes
                     15 credits         15 credits through       15 credits             20 credits including
Mathematics          through            Algebra II               through                Trigonometry and
                     Algebra II                                  Algebra II.            Analytical Geometry
                     15 credits to      15 credits to include    15 credits to          20 credits to include US
Social Sciences      include 2 yrs      US History               include US History     History, World History
                     of US History                                                      and Economics
                     15 credits         15 credits with lab      15-20 credits          15-20 credits including
Science              with lab                                    including biology      biology and chemistry or
                                                                 and chemistry or       physics
                                                                 physics
                     10 credits in      10 credits in the        10-15 credits in the   15 credits in the same
Foreign Language     the same           same language            same language          language
                     language
Wellness/Health      7.5 credits

Fine/Practical       5 credits                                   Fine or performing     Fine or performing arts
Arts/New Media                                                   arts
Electives            22.5 credits       10 credits               Electives that         Electives that enrich your
                                                                 enrich your            academic program
                                                                 academic program
Recommendations are based on the minimum requirements for college admission.

*Students seeking admissions to highly competitive institutions should consider as many honors level and
Advanced Placement (AP) classes as possible, complete 4 years of the same foreign language, pursue
calculus and advanced levels of course work in science.


COMMUNITY SERVICE
LHS Community Service Learning: Beginning with the class of 2012, fifty (50) hours of service over four years
needs to be completed prior to May 1st of the year of graduation. The classes of 2011, 2010, and 2009 will be
required to complete thirty-six (36) hours.


COURSE CANCELLATION
                                                      6
Courses with insufficient enrollment are subject to cancellation at the discretion of the administration. The
administration also reserves the right to limit course and section size, thus deferring some students’ requests.




LEVELS OF INSTRUCTION
Advanced Placement (AP) — These exacting courses follow an Advanced Placement curriculum that prepares
     the student to take the AP exam. These courses are suitable for the intellectually mature student who is
     ready to engage in intensive college-level work. Colleges may grant credit and/or advanced placement
     to those students who perform satisfactorily on the exam(s).

Honors (H)—These rigorous courses provide accelerated instruction and enrichment experiences for those
     students who exhibit both exceptional ability and motivation in a particular subject area.

College Preparatory (CP)—These challenging courses provide students with the instruction and experience(s)
      he/she will need to successfully manage the challenges of a four-year college.

GRADE POINT AVERAGE
Beginning in the 2008-2009 academic year, all grade point averages are a simple, unweighted average based upon a four-point
scale. Littleton High School does not use grade point averages to calculate class rank. Reports on the school profile and on
students' transcripts may include information on grade and GPA distribution within the class.
                                             Grade        Grade Point
                                             A+              4.30
                                             A               4.00
                                             A-              3.67
                                             B+              3.33
                                             B               3.00
                                             B-              2.67
                                             C+              2.33
                                             C               2.00
                                             C-              1.67
                                             D+              1.33
                                             D               1.00
                                             D-              0.67
                                             F                0


Grade point average is calculated at the end of grades 10 and 11. GPA is calculated for Seniors at the end of
Semester I and again at the end of Semester II.

DUAL ENROLLMENT PROGRAM
The Education Reform Act of 1993 gave authorization for the Dual Enrollment Program to be developed.
Qualified public high school students, (who have a minimum GPA of 3.0), can earn both high school and
college credit through this program by taking courses at Massachusetts State Universities, Colleges, and
Community Colleges. These are courses that are part of the regular credit-earning program of a college or
university, and which are taken with the prior written approval of the Principal for dual credit.
1. Students are eligible for university credit through the Dual Enrollment Program.
2. Students must be juniors or seniors.
3. All students requesting Dual Enrollment courses must have a valid reason for seeking dual enrollment.
(The course is not available at LHS and is relevant to post graduation plans.) Election of a course must be
considered to be in the best interest of the student.
4. Student’s discipline record may be considered in determining eligibility for the Dual Enrollment Program.
                                                     7
5. Students must have no more than four (4) unexcused absences in each class during the semester in
which they apply for the Dual Enrollment Program.
6. Class times are dictated by the college’s schedule.
7. No grades are assigned for first or third marking periods. This may impact rank in class.
8. A final grade is awarded at the completion of each course. This will coincide with second and fourth
marking periods.
9. All students wishing to enroll due so at their own expense and must have each course approved in
writing by the Principal before enrollment.
10. The Principal has final approval on all requests for the Dual Enrollment Program.


REPORTING PROGESS
Report cards are issued four times during the school year.


   A+     97-99      B+       87-89   C+     77-79     D+     67-69       F     Below 59     P     Pass

   A      93-96      B        83-86    C     73-76      D     63-66       W     Withdraw     M    Medical

   A-     90-92      B-       80-82   C-     70-72     D-     60-62     AUD          Audit   I   Incomplete



ACADEMIC RECOGNITION
Principal’s List and Honor Roll recognition will be determined by ―letter grades‖.

Principal’s List:
Grades of A in all subjects

Honor Roll
Grades of A or B in all subjects



SUMMER SCHOOL CREDIT
Students must earn a minimum grade of 50% in the academic year course in order to participate in summer
school.
To earn credit for the summer school course, students must earn a grade of at least 80% (B-). While summer
school courses may appear on the transcript, credit for a summer school course where a student received
below an 80% will not be granted.




                                                  8
NATIONAL HONOR SOCIETY

   National Honor Society is a prestigious organization, ranking high among administrators, faculty
   members, students, parents, and residents of the school community. Its reputation for excellence is
   the result of years of commitment on the part of everyone involved. National Honor Society
   membership is often regarded as a valid indicator that the student will succeed in life and particularly in
   studying as the post-secondary education level. The Honor Society member has already exhibited
   academic achievement, leadership, honorable and admirable character, as well as service
   demonstrating that the member is willing to use talents and skills for the improvement of society.
   Through NHS chapter service activities, members maintain and extend the qualities that won them
   selection. Membership is thus both an honor and a commitment.

Leadership: A student who demonstrates leadership contributes ideas that improve the civic life of the
     school, exemplifies a positive attitude, and is able to delegate responsibilities and motivate others.

      Exercises positive influence on peers in upholding school ideals
      Inspires positive behavior in others
      Successfully holds school offices or positions of responsibility
      Is a leader in the classroom, at work, and in other school or community activities

Service: Service is generally considered to be those actions undertaken by the student which are done
      with or on behalf of others without any direct financial or material compensation to the individual
      performing the service.

      Volunteers and provides dependable and well organized assistance, is gladly available, and is
       willing to sacrifice to offer assistance
      Cheerfully and enthusiastically renders any requested service to the school
      Participates in some community service, for either a public or charitable organization. For example, volunteer
       services for the elderly, poor, or disadvantaged, or service activities through Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts or church
       groups

Candidates for National Honor Society must have completed the community service graduation
requirement prior to their application

Character: A person of character demonstrates the following six qualities: respect, responsibility,
trustworthiness, fairness, caring, and citizenship.

      Upholds principles of morality and ethics
      Demonstrates the highest standards of honest and reliability
      Regularly shows courtesy, concern, and respect for others
      Actively helps rid the school of bad influences or environment




                                                    9
LHS GUIDANCE PHILOSOPHY
The Littleton High School guidance program is a comprehensive, student-centered guidance program
aimed at assisting all students in achieving academic success. The guidance program is developmental,
sequential, and focused on attainment of specified student outcomes. As an integral part of the overall
educational process, the program emphasizes the concept of total growth and development.
The guidance curriculum is founded on the changing needs of the individual, family, school and
community. The Guidance and Counseling Program will be responsible for assisting all students in
developing competencies needed for educational, personal and vocational development. These
competencies include processing information, communication skills, use of technology, problem solving
and teamwork. Guidance services are aligned to these competencies and are delivered through a
curriculum designed to meet the specific needs of high school students.
Littleton High School has selected Family Connection from Naviance to support our mission to provide an
exemplary guidance curriculum that enables our students and parents to be active participants in college
and career planning. Naviance Family Connection offers a comprehensive website that you and your
student can use to help in making decisions about colleges and careers. Naviance Family Connection is
linked with Naviance Counselor’s Office, which we use in our department to track and analyze data about
college and career plans. Students and parents may access Naviance at
http://tcci.naviance.com/littletonhs or via the homepage of the LHS website. The guest password is lhs.
Individual student access codes may be obtained from a student’s counselor.
Guidance Seminar 11 – Building your Foundation                                                 1 Credit
      This one-term course is designed to introduce juniors to post-secondary planning and the college
      admissions process. Students will become skilled in the Naviance College and Career Management
      System, College Admissions Testing, Resume Building, Recommendations, Scholarships and other
      information relevant to post-secondary planning. By the end of the course, students will have
      participated in each step of the college application process and will have developed a list of viable
      post-secondary options to explore during the summer and fall prior to the Senior year. Classes will
      meet three times per week. The other two days will be directed study hall.

Guidance Seminar 12 – Stepping Into the Future                                                 1 Credit

      This one-term course will help you determine your final post-secondary plans. In this seminar,
      students will finalize their list of colleges and complete the application process. A major component
      of applying to college is making sure that the various sections of the application (which are mailed
      separately) all arrive at the college on time. This is a complex process, which we will help you
      coordinate throughout the year. Special attention will be given to the Common Application and
      online applications. The course will meet one day per week and the remaining four days will be a
      directed study hall.




                                             10
ENGLISH
Philosophy

The ELA curriculum provides instruction in the areas of reading, writing, critical thinking, and oral communication in
alignment with the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks. The ELA department supports these core goals by focusing on the
following mutually supporting practices:

       drilling fundamentals of literacy: direct instruction in grammar, vocabulary, rhetorical concepts, literary concepts;
       developing and nuancing rhetorical skills: direct instruction and repeated practice in the disciplines of brainstorming,
        drafting and revision for various writing situations (exam writing, formal critical analysis, oral reports, writing in the
        workplace, creative writing);
       developing and nuancing reading and interpretive skills: posing critical and comparative questions to model and
        develop comprehension and close analysis of both classic and contemporary cultural texts and cultural issues; direct
        instruction in research skills required to access and document authoritative information that speaks to critical questions.

We mean for all Littleton High School graduates, upon completion of the ELA curriculum, to have developed appreciation for
and demonstrated achievement in the power and pleasure of articulacy, supported by sound interpretive and communication
skills that will be crucial to their becoming skilled, thoughtful, and engaged participants in a democratic society and
marketplace.

All ELA students will be exposed to a wide variety of literary and non-literary writing genres. Those students who elect to take
ELA Honors courses will receive more comprehensive grounding in the historical development and landmark texts of Western
literary culture than will students in ELA College Preparatory courses. ELA Honors courses are designed for students who do
not merely appreciate, but actively love literature, read avidly and well on their own, and strive not just for competence, but
marked expertise in writing. Honors and AP courses will be distinguished from College Preparatory courses by higher
expectations in vocabulary development, reading load, writing load, analytical skills, writing elegance, and dedication to
pursuing work independently.


English I (College Prep) #194                                                              5 credits

        This course will continue to drill and develop fundamentals of literacy introduced at the middle
        school level: basic grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, basic rhetorical and literary concepts.
        Particular emphasis will be placed on beginning to understand grammar rhetorically, on how specific
        grammatical choices enable writers to manipulate emphasis and meaning. Students will be directed
        to experiment with combining and modifying sentences so as to emphasize particular ideas. By the
        end of the year, students should have a clear grasp of the function of a thesis in analytical
        arguments, of how to support a thesis with evidence, of how to analyze that evidence, and of how to
        present quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will learn important distinctions
        between key rhetorical modes: narrating, summarizing, explaining, analyzing, reflecting, arguing.
        Students will be continually pressed to write clearer, more specific, more complicated, and more
        comprehensive paragraphs than they did in middle school. The course will provide students with an
        introduction to basic literary genres and to thinking about genre. Students will be exposed to
        samples of the following genres: non-fiction essays/arguments, short stories, short lyric poems, epic
        poetry, one or two plays, all or selections of two novels (depending on length). Students will
        demonstrate their knowledge of the meaning and usage of real-life vocabulary. Some, but not all,
        reading and writing for this course will occur during class hours. 8-10 pages of formal, typed written
        assignments per semester.


English I (Honors) #195                                                                    5 credits


                                                        11
       This course will rapidly review and test fundamentals of literacy introduced at the middle school
       level: basic grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, rhetorical concepts, literary concepts. Particular
       emphasis will be placed on understanding and using grammar rhetorically, on recognizing and how
       specific grammatical choices enable writers to manipulate emphasis and meaning. Students will be
       directed to experiment with combining and modifying sentences so as to emphasize particular
       ideas. By the end of the year, students should have a clear grasp of the function of a thesis in
       analytical arguments, of how to support a thesis with evidence, of how to analyze that evidence, and
       of how to present quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will learn important
       distinctions between key rhetorical modes: narrating, summarizing, explaining, analyzing, reflecting,
       arguing. Students will be continually pressed to write clearer, more specific, more complicated, and
       more comprehensive paragraphs than they did in middle school, and to assemble and link a series
       of paragraphs into a polished, sustained essay. The course will provide students with an
       introduction to basic literary genres and to thinking about genre. Students will be exposed to
       samples of most or all of the following genres: short lyric poems, an ancient play or epic, a
       Shakespearean play, a modern play, two novels (one classic, one contemporary), non-fiction
       essays/arguments, a film. Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the meaning and usage of
       real-life vocabulary. Most reading, drafting, and final revision of papers for this course will be
       assigned as homework. Class time will be largely dedicated to discussion and intermediate revision.
       12-14 pages of formal, typed writing assignments per semester.

English II (College Prep) #104                                                5 credits

       This course will briefly review, test, and extend core literacy skills covered and in English I CP:
       intermediate grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, intermediate rhetorical and literary concepts.
       Emphasis on a rhetorical understanding and use of grammar will continue, reinforced mostly
       through careful editing of student writing and additional exercises modeled on MCAS and SAT
       formats. Students will continue to work on developing and nuancing meaningful theses for analytical
       arguments, supporting their theses with relevant, well-selected and well-analyzed evidence,
       presenting quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will review and extend their
       understanding of key rhetorical modes (including exemplify, survey, report, satirize, synthesize,
       discuss, dramatize, represent). Students will be directed to attend to writing style and precision: apt
       word choice, variety in length and complexity of sentences, control of point of view. Students will be
       coached in assembling and linking a series of paragraphs into a polished, sustained essay,
       particularly the five-paragraph essay form required on the MCAS and SAT exams. Students will
       receive training in essay exam writing and reading practices tested on the MCAS and SAT exams.
       The course will provide students with a sampling of iconic texts of American literary history and of
       non-fictional texts addressing contemporary cultural issues and debates (digital culture, student life,
       consumer culture, sexism, racism, substance abuse, etc.). Students will demonstrate their
       knowledge of the meaning and usage of real-life vocabulary. Some, but not all, reading and writing
       for this course will occur during class hours. 8-12 pages of formal, typed writing assignments per
       semester.

English II (Honors) #105                                                     5 credits

       This course will test and extend core literacy skills covered and in English I Honors: intermediate
       grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, intermediate rhetorical and literary concepts. Emphasis on a
       rhetorical understanding and use of grammar will continue, reinforced mostly through careful editing
       of student writing and additional exercises modeled on MCAS and SAT formats. Students will
       continue to work on developing and nuancing meaningful theses for analytical arguments,
       supporting their theses with relevant, well-selected and well-analyzed evidence, presenting quoted
       evidence effectively and accurately. Students will review and extend their understanding of key
       rhetorical modes (including exemplify, survey, report, satirize, synthesize, discuss, dramatize,
       represent). Students will be directed to attend to writing style and precision: apt word choice, variety
       in length and complexity of sentences, control of point of view, control of verb tense/voice, control
                                                12
       and variation of focus. Students will be coached in developing the sophistication of their essays
       (including of course the five-paragraph essay form required on the MCAS and SAT exams), but also
       in thinking carefully about managing transitions and contrasts that exceed MCAS-level expectations.
       Students will receive training in essay exam writing and reading practices tested on the MCAS and
       SAT exams. The course will provide students with cultural background for and significant grounding
       in iconic texts of American literary history (covering the ―theme‖ and ―character development‖ motifs
       emphasized on the MCAS, but also addressing form and controversy at a more sophisticated level).
       Authors will likely include Bradstreet, Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Poe, Whitman, Dickinson,
       Twain, Cather, James, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Miller, among others. Students will be exposed to
       secondary critics articulating diverging views on one or more of these primary authors and will
       summarize and assess these critics’ varying viewpoints. Students will demonstrate their knowledge
       of the meaning and usage of real-life vocabulary. Some, but not all, reading and writing for this
       course will occur during class hours. Most reading, drafting, and final revision of papers for this
       course will be assigned as homework. Class time will be largely dedicated to discussion and
       intermediate revision. 12-14 pages of formal, typed writing per semester.




With a few exceptions, the following elective options may be enrolled in by both juniors and seniors. All of the courses can
earn students credit towards their ELA graduation requirement. When selecting from these offerings, please bear in mind that
since ALL students are required to take English during EVERY semester of their high school education, “electives” in
English do not work the same way as electives in other disciplines. Be aware of the following constraints and expectations
when making your selections:

      Most are single semester courses; some run a full year.
      When enrolling for semester courses, bear in mind that you must be enrolled in an English course during each of the
       four semesters that comprise your junior and senior years. You may not “skip” English during any single semester.
       Likewise, you may NOT be enrolled in two English courses during a single semester.
      Approximately two thirds of these electives are offered at a College Prep level; one third of these electives are offered
       at either an Honors or an AP level.
      Students in CP classes should expect up to 80 pages of reading per week, up to 40 vocabulary words per term, and 8-12
       typed pages of formal writing per semester.
      Students in Honors classes should expect up to 150 pages of reading per week (rare, but possible), up to 60 vocabulary
       words per term, and 14-20 typed pages of formal writing per semester.
      In most cases, seniors will have first priority in selecting among available courses.
      No course may be taken more than once.
      Under-enrolled courses (fewer than 15 students) may be cancelled after the enrollment period. Students in under-
       enrolled courses who need ELA credit will be assigned to another course.

AP English Language: Juniors and Seniors                                                 5 credits

       A full-year course offered to juniors and seniors, AP Language is a college freshman level rhetoric
       and critical thinking course. The reading theme for this course will be ―Greatest Hits from the History
       of Ideas and Arguments.‖ We will read entire texts or excerpts from Plato, The Bible, St. Augustine,
       the Gawain poet, Machiavelli, Voltaire, Montaigne, More, Hobbes, Paine, Wollstonecraft, Bentham,
       Carlyle, Marx, Arnold, Eliot, Woolf, Arendt, Foucault, Eagleton, Baudrillard and/or others. Emphasis
                                                13
       will be placed on detecting, synthesing, analyzing, and developing arguments while developing
       close-reading skills. The course will include exposure to college-level library skills and academic
       documentation (including mandatory work at the UMass Lowell library to develop an annotated
       bibliography on an independent research topic). Three formal critical writing assignments per term.
       Two in-class exam-writing assignments per term. Brief (under three week) intensive exam
       preparation session during the third term. Students will be held accountable for rhetorical and
       theoretical terms and concepts related to the class, as well as for college-level general reading
       vocabulary. This class prepares students to take the AP Language Exam.

AP Literature and Composition: SENIORS ONLY                                    5 credits

       A full-year course offered only to seniors who have previously taken AP Language and
       Composition, AP Literature and Composition is a college freshman level literature and composition
       course. The reading theme for this course will be ―Survey of English Literature.‖ Readings will
       include samples of the English essay tradition (partly to prepare/inspire students’ work on college
       essays), an extensive unit on traditional English poetry and prosody, a Shakespeare play, 4-6
       English novels (likely Jane Austen, Mary Shelley, Charles Dickens, E. M. Forster, James Joyce,
       Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf), an extensive unit on Victorian and modern English/American poetry
       and prosody, and several secondary critical readings. Students will acquire terminology and
       analytical skills to closely examine and interpret structure, style, theme, context, and figurative
       language informing iconic literary texts from various genres and periods. Three formal critical writing
       assignments per term. Two in-class exam-writing assignments per term. Brief (under three week)
       intensive exam preparation session during the third term. This class prepares students to take the
       AP Literature Exam.

The Novel: Part I and Part II (College Prep)                         Part I:    2.5 credits
                                                                               Part II: 2.5 credits

       You may enroll in either one or both parts of this two-semester sequence (including taking only the
       second part of the sequence). Three to four novels per semester. In Part I expect at least two
       novels from before the twentieth century. Students should expect to write formal critical essays on
       all of the novels (up to 4 pages long), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary
       encountered in them. Students will research and write a critical and oral report on one novelist
       whose work they research independently. At least 70% of the reading and writing for this class will
       be done at home, then discussed and reviewed in class.

The Novel: Part I and Part II (Honors)                                         Part I: 2.5 credits
                                                                               Part II: 2.5 credits

       You may enroll in either one or both parts of this two-semester sequence (including taking only the
       second part of the sequence). Four to six novels per semester. In Part I expect at least three novels
       from before the twentieth century. Students should expect to write formal critical essays on all of the
       novels (up to 6 pages long), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in
       them. Students will work with assigned secondary sources on at least two occasions, and will also
       research and write a critical and oral report on one novelist whose work they research
       independently. At least 90% of the reading and writing for this class will be done at home, then
       discussed and reviewed in class.

The Stage on the Page (College Prep)                                           2.5 credits

       This one-semester course surveys five to six plays, including at least one ancient Greek play and
       one Shakespearean play. Students should expect to write formal critical essays on all of the plays
       (up to 4 pages long—some may be comparisons of two plays at once), and will be held accountable
       for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in them. Students should expect to be called upon regularly
       to deliver passages dramatically and with understanding. Students will research and write a critical
                                               14
       and oral report on one playwright whose work they research independently. The class will view and
       critique at least one live performance. At least 70% of the reading and writing for this class will be
       done at home, then discussed and reviewed in class.



Literature and Film (College Prep)                                           2.5 credits

       This one-semester course will examine literary texts paired with filmed adaptations. 6-8 Pairings.
       Pairings may include The Bible and DeMille’s 10 Commandments, Homer’s Odyssey and the Coen
       brothers’ Oh Brother Where Art Thou?, Chretien de Troyes’ medieval romances and The Holy Grail,
       T.S.Eliot’s The Waste Land and Terry Gilliam’s The Fisher King, Hamlet in various versions, E.M.
       Forster and Merchant-Ivory’s versions of Howard’s End, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and
       Apocalypse Now, Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours, Nick
       Hornby’s High Fidelity. What happens to a literary work when it moves from page to screen? What
       can be enhanced? What lost? How does the role of the reader/viewer change in relation to either
       kind of text when one shifts between mediums? How do significant gaps in time between the
       production of the literary and the film text affect our experiences of either? How does the casting of
       film ―stars‖ affect our understanding of literary characters as they are represented in movies?
       Students should expect to write formal critical essays on at least four of the pairings (up to 4 pages
       long), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in them. Students will
       research and write a critical and oral report on one novel and/or film pairing that they research
       independently.
*NOTE: 70% of required screenings will take place outside of class.

Literature and Film (Honors)                                                 2.5 credits

       This one-semester course will examine literary texts paired with filmed adaptations. 8-10 Pairings.
       Pairings may include The Bible and DeMille’s 10 Commandments, Homer’s Odyssey and the Coen
       brothers’ Oh Brother Where Art Thou?, Chretien de Troyes’ medieval romances and The Holy Grail,
       T.S.Eliot’s The Waste Land and Terry Gilliam’s The Fisher King, Hamlet in various versions, E.M.
       Forster and Merchant-Ivory’s versions of Howard’s End, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and
       Apocalypse Now, Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours, Nick
       Hornby’s High Fidelity. What happens to a literary work when it moves from page to screen? What
       can be enhanced? What lost? How does the role of the reader/viewer change in relation to either
       kind of text when one shifts between mediums? How do significant gaps in time between the
       production of the literary and the film text affect our experiences of either? How does the casting of
       film ―stars‖ affect our understanding of literary characters as they are represented in movies?
       Students should expect to write formal critical essays on at least four of the pairings (up to 4 pages
       long), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in them. Students will
       research and write a critical and oral report on one novel and/or film pairing that they research
       independently.
*NOTE: 70% of required screenings will take place outside of class.

Creative Writing (College Prep)                                                      2.5 credits

       This semester course allows students to try their hand in writing creatively in various literary genres,
       including one mandatory submission in verse, and another in fiction. While creative writing
       assignments will be significantly self-directed, this class will include traditional academic
       assignments in reading, grammar, vocabulary, and critical writing. The class will work as a peer jury
       to provide feedback on one another’s work and as an editorial board for a school-wide literary
       magazine.

Creative Writing (Honors)                                                    2.5 credits

                                                   15
       This one-semester course allows students to try their hand in writing creatively in various literary
       genres, including one mandatory submission in verse, and another in fiction. While creative writing
       assignments will be significantly self-directed, this class will include traditional academic
       assignments in reading, grammar, vocabulary, and critical writing. The class will work as a peer jury
       to provide feedback on one another’s work and as an editorial board for a school-wide literary
       magazine.

*No student may take Creative Writing more than once at either the College Prep or the Honors level.


Shakespeare’s Villains (Honors)                                                   2.5 credits

       This one-semester course will investigate the villainous characters of four Shakespearean plays.
       We will look at the havoc that these scoundrels, cheats, and miscreants create, and investigate
       patterns both within and between the texts we read. Titles are likely to include, but are not limited to:
       Macbeth, Richard III, Hamlet, and Titus Andronicus. Students will need to contribute meaningfully
       to class discussions, write engaging and sophisticated academic papers, and take part in casual
       scene re-enactments.


Literary Non-Fiction/New Journalism (College Prep)                                2.5 credits

       In this one-semester course, students will examine, analyze and write non-fiction essays and
       journalism written to endure as works of literature. We will sample some classic examples of the
       English and American essay, including works by Addison and Steele, Charles Lamb, Henry David
       Thoreau, Robert Louis Stevenson, Max Beerbohm, G.K.Chesterton, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell,
       E.B. White, James Thurber, Joan Didion, Nicholson Baker, and others. How and why does the
       essay emerge as a genre and what purposes does it serve? What makes for an effective essay?
       How can we articulate the defining marks of a writer’s style? What can creative non-fiction
       accomplish that other literary genres can not? Students should expect to write formal critical essays
       on at least four essays or pairs of essays (up to four pages long), and to write at least two original
       samples of literary non-fiction (up to four pages long). Students will be held accountable for
       unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in the essays. Students in this course may serve as an editorial
       board for a campus magazine.


The Short Story (College Prep)                                                            2.5 Credits

       In this one-semester course students will examine, analyze and write short stories. We will sample
       some classic examples of the European and American short story, including works by Maupassant,
       Tolstoy, Chekov, Henry James, Rudyard Kipling, Henry James, Katherine Mansfield, Ernest
       Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Flannery O’Connor, Eudora Welty, and others. How and why does the
       short story emerge as a genre and what purposes does it serve? What makes for an effective short
       story? How can we articulate the defining marks of a writer’s style? What can a short story
       accomplish that other literary genres—especially the novel--cannot? Students should expect to write
       formal critical essays on at least four stories or pairs of stories (up to four pages long), and to write
       at least two original samples of short stories (up to four pages long). Students will be held
       accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in the essays.

Writing in and about the Workplace (College Prep)                         2.5 Credits

       In this one-semester course students will practice the basics of workplace writing: letters of
       application, resumes, memos, power-point presentations, reports, career research. They will also as
       read and respond critically to writing about the workplace (both fiction and non-fiction). Students will
       assemble mock application/presentation/research packages for two hypothetical workplace settings.
                                                    16
       Students should also expect to write formal critical essays on at least three readings.
       Readings/selections about the workplace may include or be excerpted from Friedrich Engels’ The
       Condition of the Working Class, Natalie Schor’s The Overworked American, Joel Bakan’s The
       Corporation, Tony Jeary’s Life is a Series of Presentations, Thomas Friedman’s The World is Flat,
       Paul Hawken’s The Ecology of Commerce, The Essays of Warren Buffet, Spector and McCarthy’s
       The Nordstrom Way and/or others. How do aspiring professionals research jobs or careers and put
       themselves on the job market? What communication and writing skills will I need to acquire and
       keep a job? How has the world of work evolved over the last century? What is the world of work
       likely to look like when I enter the workplace? What kinds of competing views exist about the nature
       and function of work? Students will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in
       the essays.

Considering Youth Culture (College Prep)                                             2.5 credits

       In this course we will look at popular cultural texts and phenomena either marketed to or produced
       by persons under thirty, as well as critical secondary readings weighing the implications of these
       texts and phenomena. Primary texts under consideration to include video games, films, television
       shows, internet media, popular music, YA fiction, commercials/fashion. Students will be required to
       design and teach at least two of the ―units‖ featured over the course of the semester. Expect
       secondary readings about youth culture to be lengthy and rigorous.

*Students enrolling in this course will be asked to pay a $30 materials fee to cover the cost of new, consumable books,
which they will keep upon completion of the course.




                                                    17
SOCIAL STUDIES
Philosophy
The world of students includes local and personal relationships such as their families, their community,
and their memberships in various organizations. The social studies are more than the study of history; they
are the study of human interaction and the whole experience of being human. Through study of United
States history, students will gain an understanding of the unique characteristics of American society, the
historical development of its social structure, its economic system, and its political organization. A crucial
emphasis of instruction in the social studies is the historical development of world cultures, which provides
students with the understanding and skills necessary to interpret their world and act effectively as informed
and responsible citizens.

In this age of globalization, students should recognize the relevance of events, whether they happened
recently or hundreds of years ago, locally or thousands of miles away. Students should recognize how and
why other cultures and their experiences are important to our society.

As students begin their development into effective and responsible adults, their success will be determined
largely by their abilities to read critically, analyze information including primary and secondary sources of
all types, and form original conclusions. Achievement in these skills for all students is a primary focus of
the Social Studies Department.

World History II – Grade 9 (Honors) #295                                                 5 Credits
      This course focuses on the political, social, and economic history of the world beginning with the French
      Revolution. The course will investigate the development of free institutions, the struggles of the working
      people, and imperialism worldwide. Key areas of focus for the 20th century include the two world wars,
      the superpower era, and the contemporary world. Students gain an understanding of each key area of
      study through the use of music, art, literature, maps, primary sources, simulations, and statistics.
      Throughout the year, students will be engaged in analyzing social, political and economic problems. It is
      expected that students will demonstrate advanced analytical, writing, reading, speaking and studying
      skills.

World History II – Grade 9 (College Prep) #294                                           5 Credits
      This course focuses on the political, social, and economic history of the world beginning with the French
      Revolution. The course will investigate the development of free institutions in, the struggles of the
      working people, and imperialism worldwide. Key areas of focus for the 20th century include the two
      world wars, the superpower era, and the contemporary world. Students gain an understanding of each
      key area of study through the use of music, art, literature, maps, primary sources, simulations, and
      statistics. Throughout the year, students will be engaged in analyzing social, political and economic
      problems. Emphasis is placed on writing, reading, listening, speaking, and study skills.

United States History I (Honors) #205                                                     5 Credits
      This course will trace the early developments of the United States, from the political, economic, and
      social factors which led to the American Revolution through reconstruction following the Civil War.
      Emphasis will be placed on the Constitution as a living framework for the growth of American democracy
      and its republican government. The course will further explore the pressures put on that government
      through the period of westward expansion, changing foreign policies, and sectionalism. Students will be
      required to read primary and secondary sources, to respond to document based questions, and to
      engage in essay writing to enhance their understanding of the curriculum. Advanced skills in the areas of
      reading, analysis, and writing will be necessary for successful completion of the course.




                                                18
United States History I (College Prep) #204                                             5 Credits
      This course will trace the early developments of the United States, from the political, economic, and
      social factors which led to the American Revolution through reconstruction following the Civil War.
      Emphasis will be placed on the Constitution as a living framework for the growth of American democracy
      and its republican government. The course will further explore the pressures put on that government
      through the period of westward expansion, changing foreign policies, and sectionalism. Students will be
      required to read primary and secondary sources, to respond to document based questions, and to
      engage in essay writing to enhance their understanding of the curriculum.

United States History (Advanced Placement) #216                                        5 Credits
      AP U.S. History is a challenging course that is meant to be the equivalent of a freshman college
      course in which students may earn college credit. It is a full year survey of American History from
      the age of exploration and discovery to the present. Solid reading and writing skills, coupled with a
      willingness to devote considerable time to homework and study, are necessary to succeed.
      Emphasis is placed on critical and evaluative thinking skills, essay writing, interpretation of original
      documents, and scholarly materials. Students are expected to take the AP exam.

United States History II (Honors) #215                                             5 Credits
      The development of the United States is traced from 1870 to the end of the twentieth century. This
      course is designed for college preparatory students. The main emphasis of the course is on the
      internal development of the nation—economically, socially, politically—and the growth of a
      distinctive American way of life. Students enrolled in the honors course are expected to
      demonstrate advanced skills in the areas of reading, analysis, and writing which will be enhanced
      throughout the year with rigorous primary source readings and writing assignments.

United States History II (College Prep) #214                                           5 Credits
      The development of the United States is traced from 1870 to the end of the twentieth century. This
      course is designed for college preparatory students. The main emphasis of the course is on the
      internal development of the nation—economically, socially, politically—and the growth of a
      distinctive American way of life. Students will improve their skills in reading primary and secondary
      sources, and in responding to document based questions. Essay writing will be emphasized to
      prepare students for subject-area standardized tests.

Psychology (Honors) #223                                                            2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
      This is a one-semester introductory course encompassing the principles and theories of psychology.
      The course will give students the opportunity to explore subjects studied by behavioral scientists, to
      learn how psychology is applied in solving problems of humanity, to experiment and to learn and
      evaluate methods of research. Students will relate the psychological concepts learned to their own
      lives. In addition, honors psychology students will be challenged to explore the stages of the human
      lifespan and evaluate methods of therapeutic psychology. Students will design, conduct, and
      evaluate an experiment as a term project.

Psychology (College Prep) #224                                                     2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
      This is a one-semester introductory course encompassing the principles and theories of psychology.
      The course will give students the opportunity to explore subjects studied by behavioral scientists, to
      learn how psychology is applied in solving problems of humanity, to experiment and to learn and
      evaluate methods of research. Most importantly, students will be challenged to relate psychological
      concepts to their own lives.



                                               19
You and the Law (College Prep) #234                                                   2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 10, 11 and 12
      You and the Law is a one-semester course in practical law. Topics such as criminal law, consumer
      law, family law, housing law, and individual rights are explored. Class activities include reading
      case studies, role playing, and mock trials which pertain to legal issues such as vandalism, drug
      and alcohol abuse, shoplifting, drunk driving and crime prevention. Community resource people
      such as police officers, lawyers, probation officers, legal aid assistants, correctional officers or local
      and state politicians will be part of the speakers program.

Economics (College Prep) #235                                                     2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
      Economics is a one-semester course which involves the study of how individuals and societies
      decide how to use scarce resources in order to satisfy their unlimited wants. Concepts developed
      are supply-and-demand relationships, the business cycle, social costs and social goods, values and
      characteristics of command and market systems, the role of fiscal and monetary policy in our
      present-day economy, and the impact of international trade on all countries. Students study the
      ideas of the well-known economists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In addition, the
      students study strategies related to personal investments. Students are introduced to such skills as
      analyzing issues, making rational decisions, interpreting economic data found in graphs and charts,
      and estimating future trends and outcomes.

Ethics (College Preparatory) #238
Open to Grades 11 and 12                                                             2.5 Credits
      The study of Ethics will to enhance students’ self awareness, consciousness about their
      surroundings, and implications of their actions and the actions of others. The course is divided into
      three main categories: A brief history of ethics, timeless ethical questions, and contemporary ethical
      issues in students’ daily lives. This course will explore some very sensitive topics. Students are
      expected to investigate these topics with open minds and to engage in intelligent discussion around
      them. Ethics involves equal parts research, discussion, analysis, and composition to increase the
      development and articulation of thoughts and opinions.

Introduction to Sociology (College Preparatory) #222                               2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 – 12
      The objective of this course is to investigate our modern society and through this investigation better
      understand ourselves and others and how we behave in groups. Topics include group dynamics,
      leadership, conformity, peer pressure, marriage and the family, collective behavior, socialization, ,
      gender roles, and the influence of the media on society. Student participation is an essential part of
      this course. Students will engage in sociological research within the various communities of which
      they are members, including their families, LHS, Littleton, Massachusetts, the United States, and
      the world.

European History (Advanced Placement) #218                                                 5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
      AP European History is a challenging full-year course that is meant to be the equivalent of a
      freshman college course in which students may earn college credit. The study of European history
      since 1450 introduces students to cultural, economic, political and social developments that played
      a fundamental role in shaping the world in which they live. Solid reading and writing skills, coupled
      with a willingness to devote considerable time to homework and study, are necessary to succeed.
      Students enrolled in this course will enter college with the ability to analyze historical evidence and
      historical interpretation and an ability to express their historical perspectives in writing.



                                                20
Facing History and Ourselves:
The Holocaust, Genocide and Human Behavior (Honors) # 233                            2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 10, 11 and 12
      This Facing History course will follow the scope and sequence of Facing History and Ourselves
      using the resource book Holocaust and Human Behavior. It will lead students to an understanding
      of history as a sequence of events resulting from actions and decisions made by individuals instead
      of seeing history as a series of inevitable events. Students will examine their roles and
      responsibilities as global citizens and understand the diameters of their ―universes of obligation‖ and
      the potential for a wide-reaching impact that each individual has on a daily basis. These themes will
      be examined through a series of readings, videos, activities, and reflections. The primary historical
      case study will be an examination of the Holocaust, followed by shorter units that examine genocide
      in the 20th century. Students will reflect on the universality of racism and social injustice, the
      importance of global awareness and the potential for each person to make a difference. Students
      are required to attend at least FOUR class film viewings beyond the school day.

Race and Membership in America (College Prep) #241                                                  2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
      This course will lead students to an understanding of the issues of race in American history. The
      themes of self-definition and identity, the notion of ―difference,‖ the concept of ―race,‖ civil rights,
      immigration over the last 200+ years, and education, among other themes, will be examined. We
      will consider the experiences of various ethnic groups in the United States, including, but not limited
      to, Chinese-Americans, African Americans, Native Americans. The course will examine the roles
      science and education have played in institutionalizing ―difference‖ in the United States. We will
      examine the policy decisions made based on these notions of difference, and the legacies such
      decisions have left. Using contemporary history and current events, students will consider how their
      choices shape the nature of society. Students are required to attend at least FOUR class film
      viewings beyond the school day.




                                                21
MATHEMATICS
Philosophy
Realizing that today’s society places many demands upon the individual, we assume the task of relating
mathematics as a functional, meaningful, and basic tool necessary in all aspects of life. We are committed
to educating students to become logical thinkers by expanding their mathematical capabilities and
interests and by including the use of technology.

Students are expected to be active participants in the educational process, and, along with their teachers,
assume responsibility for the learning of mathematics. As educators we recognize that while all students
can benefit from the study of mathematics at various levels, not all students proceed at the same pace.
Therefore, we strive to promote learning through an individualized and self-directed approach whenever
possible.

We recognize that each student is capable of learning and should be made aware of the usefulness and
practicality of mathematics. The ultimate goal is to develop an attitude in the students that will stimulate
curiosity in, and an appreciation of, mathematics.

―Mathematical problem solving is the hallmark of an effective mathematics program. Skill in mathematical
problem solving requires practice with a variety of mathematical problems as well as a firm grasp of
mathematical techniques and their underlying principles. Armed with this deeper knowledge, the student
can then use mathematics in a flexible way to attack various problems and devise different ways of solving
any particular problem. Mathematical problem solving calls for reflective thinking, persistence, learning
from the ideas of others, and going back over one’s own work with a critical eye. Success in solving
mathematical problems helps to create an abiding interest in mathematics.‖
                                                        The Massachusetts Mathematics Curriculum
Framework


Algebra I (College Prep) #316                                                          5 Credits
      Algebra I is designed to be the first course in a sequence to prepare students for college work.
      Throughout the course, students will develop the language of algebra, explore the many uses of algebra
      in the real world, and prepare for future courses in mathematics. Among the topics studied are rational
      numbers, polynomials, linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations, graphing, and systems of
      equations. Problem solving will be an integral part of the course.

Geometry (Honors) #305
                                                                                          5 Credits
       This course in Euclidean Geometry gives students extensive preparation in two-dimensional geometry
       as well as an introduction to three-dimensional concepts. The concepts of proof are intertwined with the
       properties of form and shape. Major topics covered include properties of parallel lines, congruence,
       similarity, coordinate geometry, polygons, trigonometry, circles, transformations, area and volume.
       Students will apply logical reasoning throughout the course and will be introduced to proofs in a variety of
       forms. The Geometers’ Sketchpad software, the graphic calculator, and the tools of geometry will be
       used to explore geometric concepts and applications.

Geometry (College Prep) #304                                                          5 Credits
    This course in Euclidean Geometry is designed to develop a solid background in geometric skills while
    placing emphasis on mathematical thinking. The concepts of points, lines, planes, properties of parallel
    lines, congruence, similarity, coordinate geometry, polygons, right triangle trigonometry, circles, area,
    and volume will be explored. Students will apply logical reasoning through the course and will be
    expected to use their Algebra 1 skills to solve problems in each topic area. The Geometers’ Sketchpad
    software and the tools of geometry will be used to explore geometric concepts and applications.

                                                 22
Algebra II (Honors) #315                                                                 5 Credits
      Algebra II, the second course in algebra, focuses on developing skills in manipulating linear, quadratic,
      and absolute values expressions and equations. It offers the student an analytical and in-depth approach
      to equation solving, graphing, functions, problem solving, systems of equations, rational expressions,
      and complex numbers. Students will use and interpret a variety of graphs to solve problems including
      maximum and minimum. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.

Algebra II (College Prep) #314                                                           5 Credits
      This second course in algebra reviews and solidifies many of the concepts presented in Algebra 1 and
      provides the necessary preparation for the next course in analytic geometry and trigonometry. Topics
      covered include: solving problems, graphing, equations, functions, systems of equations, matrices,
      rational expressions, and complex numbers. Students will also use and interpret graphs to solve
      problems. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.

  Precalculus (Honors) #333                                                5 Credits
      Pre-requisite: It is strongly recommended that students received at least a B- in Honors Algebra II,
      an A- in College Prep Algebra II, or an A- on a Pre- Calculus readiness exam.

       This course is intended as preparation for advanced high school and/or college courses in calculus. A
       thorough study of functions and their graphs will permeate the course, including linear, quadratic,
       polynomial, exponential and logarithmic functions. Other topics include the complex number system,
       inequalities, and trigonometry. Students entering this course should have a solid understanding of the
       topics covered in Algebra 2. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.

Precalculus (College Prep) #318                                                                    5 Credits
      This course is intended as preparation for college courses in calculus and/or to extend the students
      knowledge of mathematics beyond algebra and geometry to facilitate an understanding of more
      advanced courses in science or related fields. A graphing calculator will be used to examine the nature
      of many functions such as linear, quadratic, polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, inverse, and
      trigonometric. Graphs and properties of functions will be extensively studied. The TI 83/84 graphing
      calculator is essential for success in this course.

Calculus (Advanced Placement) #335                                                           5 Credits
      AP Calculus is a rigorous course designed for students who intend to take the Advanced Placement
      Exam in Calculus. This course is taught at a rapid pace, containing all topics covered by the AP exam.
      The first semester is spent studying a variety of functions, limits, derivatives, and a variety of applications
      of derivatives. The second semester is spent studying area under curves, definite and indefinite
      integrals, volumes of revolution, and differential equations. Students enrolling in this course are
      expected to take the AP exam offered in May. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success
      in this course.

Calculus (Honors) #334                                                                       5 Credits
      This course is for students who want to study calculus at a pace slower than the advanced placement
      curriculum. It will introduce concepts of limits, continuity, differentiation, and integration and apply them
      to the solution of word problems from a wide range of fields of study. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is
      essential for success in this course.

Statistics (College Prep) #337                                                         5 Credits
       This course is designed for students who have successfully completed Algebra II. In this course
       students will learn to collect organize and display relevant data and use the appropriate statistical
       method to analyze the data. Students will also develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are
       based on data. They will learn to design surveys to generate data, choose representative samples, and
       identify biases in samples and survey questions. Students will also apply basic concepts of probability

                                                  23
as it relates to statistics and compare the results of experimental probability with predicted probability.
The emphasis for this course is on active learning, the use of real-world data, and technology integration.
The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.




                                          24
SCIENCE
Philosophy
The science curriculum at Littleton High School is designed to address Littleton High School’s mission that all
students will learn and achieve at a high level. “We believe that students should be exposed to the process of scientific
inquiry so they can acquire and interpret scientific knowledge, and begin to realize the wider applicability of scientific
problem-solving methods.” By making the laboratory the focal point of learning, rather than a lecture-reading method,
we seek to foster students' appreciation for the scientific process. **

The science experience begins with all freshman students enrolled in Biology. After the successful completion of
freshman Biology, course selections should reflect a student’s ability, interests, and future educational and career
plans. The student may choose to be introduced to the content and methods of several of the sciences or may wish to
concentrate, doing advanced work in one or two of the sciences. All courses and levels are designed to vary in rigor,
breadth and depth of coverage.

By graduation, all students will have the opportunity to master the following fundamental goals:
     1. Application of the principals, laws, and fundamental understandings of the natural sciences.
     2. Ability to observe, inquire and critically analyze a scientific investigation.
     3. Understand and apply the scientific method design process.
     4. Experience common and cutting edge laboratory techniques.
     5. Oral, graphical and written presentations that focus on using evidence to support a scientific inquiry.



**In our efforts to develop and present a science curriculum reflecting best practices of high-performing high schools, the Littleton High School science department strives to
keep abreast of the curricula of strong science programs in our surrounding communities. As a reflection of these inquiries, portions of the introduction to the LHS science
curriculum have been excerpted and adapted from a similar document authored by the Acton-Boxborough science department.



Biology (Advanced Placement) #461                                                               5 Credits
Prerequisite: C+ Biology I and Chemistry I
       This is a challenging course that should be looked at as equivalent to a college freshmen biology course. It will
       review Honors Biology content in much more depth and cover additional content areas of plant systems,
       reproduction and development, animal behavior and a survey of domains and kingdoms. Part of the course is
       devoted to preparation for the AP exam, which students are strongly encouraged to take.

Biology (Honors) #492                                                                        5 Credits
      This course is designed to prepare students for AP science classes and a college science major. The
      approach will be inquiry based with emphasis on using tables and graphs, predicting, formulating
      hypotheses, designing experiments and analyzing data. Content areas include the chemistry of life,
      structure and function on the cellular level, continuity of life (genetics), evolution and biodiversity, major
      human body systems, and ecology. All areas will be covered in depth and students should expect two
      long term projects.

Biology (College Prep) #491                                                        5 Credits
      This course is designed to acquaint students with the fundamentals of biology and prepare for
      college level biology. The approach will be inquiry based with emphasis on using tables and
      graphs, predicting, formulating hypotheses, designing experiments and analyzing data. Content
      areas include the chemistry of life, structure and function on the cellular level, continuity of life

                                                                            25
       (genetics), evolution and biodiversity, major human body systems, and ecology. One long term
       project should be expected.

Chemistry (Honors) #405                                                             5 Credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I
      This 10th grade chemistry course is the second in the honors course sequence. It is necessary for
      students to demonstrate high science and math achievement. Also they should be able to function
      with a high degree of independence. The purpose of the course is to prepare for AP science
      classes and a college science major. Content areas include matter and energy, atomic structure,
      periodicity, ionic and covalent compounds, stoichiometry, gas laws, solutions, chemical equilibrium,
      and acids and bases.

Chemistry (College Prep) #404                                                        5 Credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I or recommendation from math or chemistry teacher
      These 10th, 11th, or 12th grade classes are designed to acquaint students with the fundamentals of
      chemistry, and prepare them to function successfully in a non-science major college level. Content
      areas include matter and energy, atomic structure, periodicity, ionic and covalent compounds,
      stoichiometry, gas laws, solutions, chemical equilibrium, and acids and bases.

Chemistry II (Honors) #415
Prerequisite: Chemistry (College Prep or Honors)                                   2.5 Credits
      This course will review chemistry I and finish the text at a much more rigorous level with the idea of
      preparation for college level chemistry classes. Topics emphasized will be acids/bases, redox
      reactions, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and organic chemistry. The depth of content and
      focus on computation make this valuable preparation for students.

Physics (Honors) #429                                                                   5 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra II (Honors)

This rigorous course is designed to master the concepts
and mathematics for the study of forces, motion, sound, light and the conservation and transmission of energy.
Development of concepts will be done through an emphasis on independent laboratory investigation, significant
problem solving, project development and modeling and the use of computer technology. The use and knowledge of
geometry and algebra is essential.

Physics (College Prep) #428                                                             5 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I

Concurrent enrollment in Algebra II is recommended
This introductory course is designed to develop the concepts and mathematics for the study of forces, motion, sound,
light and the conservation and transmission of energy. Development of concepts will be done through an emphasis on
group and individual laboratory investigation, problem solving, project development and the use of computer
technology. The use and knowledge of geometry and algebra is essential.

Physics (Advanced Placement) #426                                                 5 credits
Prerequisite: C+ average in physics
       This is a course for students who may take the AP Physics exam or are interested in pursuing a
       career in science or engineering. The course will enhance topics covered in Physics I and cover
       topics not covered in that course. The course will be focused on increased understanding of
       mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, and optics and AP Physics exam
       preparation.

Introduction to Engineering (College Prep) #433                                         2.5 credits

                                                  26
Prerequisite: Completion of or current enrollment in Algebra II is recommended
       This semester-long course is a survey course of the principal engineering fields to give students
       hands on experience with various practical applications of science. The course is project based to
       apply the engineering model of inquiry, design, and prototyping to design products, deconstruct and
       build machines, and learn about basic circuitry. The investigation and application of scientific
       knowledge will allow students to understand the role of engineering and technology occupations in
       the world today.




Advanced Engineering (Honors) #434                                                      2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Introduction to Engineering and Physics
       This semester-long course is an advanced course to allow students to work in teams to develop and
       investigate current engineering issues. Energy supply, conservation, technological sustainability and
       other communication, manufacturing and transportation engineering topics will be explored through
       student designed labs. An emphasis will be placed on research development and presentation of
       information.

Environmental Science (College Prep) #446                                           5 Credits
      Environmental science is a course dealing with environmental issues on local and global levels.
      The course will provide students with the principles, concepts, and methodologies needed to
      understand the interrelationships of the natural worlds, and to identify and analyze environmental
      problems. Topics will include ecology and biodiversity, air and water pollution, energy use and
      conservation, global climate change and waste management.

Anatomy and Physiology (Honors) #445                                                  5 Credits
Prerequisite: C+ average in Biology and Chemistry I
      This course involves the study of the human body systems - both structure and function. Emphasis
      will be placed on describing how the functions of various systems are integrated to maintain a
      homeostatic balance in the body. A comparison of the human to other mammals is accomplished
      through laboratory dissection. This course will be beneficial to students planning to major in biology
      or medical and health related fields.

The Dynamic Earth (College Prep) #431                                           2.5 credits
     This course is designed to educate students about the world around them. It will work to answer the
     question: Why does the surface of the earth look the way that it does? The approach will be project
     based with emphasis on research and presentation. Students will study the origin, structure, and
     physical phenomena of the earth. The focus of this course is Structural Geology. Topics to be
     covered include: rocks and minerals, mapping, weathering and erosion, and plate tectonics, as well
     as volcanic activity and earthquakes.

Oceanography (College Prep) #432                                                  2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Biology
      This course is designed to give students a window into the hidden world within the oceans. The
      approach will be project based with emphasis on research and presentation. Students will study the
      origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the world’s oceans. An emphasis will be placed on
      marine biology and marine geology, with additional study of marine physics and chemistry.

Forensic Science (College Prep) #430                                               2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Biology
      This semester-long course will explore the science of criminal investigation. Students will learn to
      approach the solution to a crime using scientific methodology. Topics such as securing a crime
      scene, identifying blood splatter patterns, collecting fingerprints, and examining hair and fiber
                                            27
evidence will be covered through intriguing true stories and interviews with police personnel and
forensic professionals. Fans of the television show CSI, those students considering crime-scene
investigation as a career, and readers of crime fiction will find this course interesting and exciting.




                                        28
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Philosophy
All students are given the opportunity to become proficient in one or more of the following languages;
Latin, French and Spanish. All language classes stress the four skills inherent in language study: reading,
writing, listening and speaking. Courses aid students in understanding other cultures and the connection
to their own culture. Foreign language study should enrich their lives, open up a wider variety of career
choices, and ultimately encourage them to communicate better and contribute more to our multicultural
society.

Basic Conversational French (College Prep) #518                                   5 Credits
      Basic Conversational French is conducted entirely in French. Through the exclusive use of the
      French language in the classroom, students will improve speaking, listening, reading and writing
      skills. Using the text French for Mastery, students will explore thematic units that incorporate
      vocabulary acquisition, verb tenses, listening comprehension and short readings. Assessments will
      include oral presentations, compositions, listening comprehension quizzes and written tests.
      Students should have completed French I with a grade of B or better or have permission from the
      instructor.

Advanced Conversational French (Honors) #519                                      5 Credits
     Advanced Conversational French is conducted entirely in French. Through the exclusive use of the
     French language in the classroom, students will achieve proficiency in the areas of speaking,
     listening, reading and writing. Through the reading of literary texts and periodicals in the target
     language, students will discuss themes and current events and maintain journals that reflect insight
     and opinion. Assessments will include oral presentations, debates, compositions, listening
     comprehension quizzes and written tests. Students should have completed French III with a grade
     of B or better.

Spanish I (College Prep) #521                                                      5 Credits
     This course is designed to develop basic listening-comprehension skills with minor emphasis on the
     reading and writing skills. The listening-comprehension and speaking skills are developed through
     practice involving interests that are common to daily life using various culturally-based themes.
     While studying about Spanish and Latin American life, the cultural differences and similarities with
     the United States are pointed out and discussed. At the end of this course, students should be able
     to understand and engage in short conversations. They will be able to read relatively simple
     Spanish paragraphs and write accurately what they can say.

Spanish II (College Prep) #522                                                         5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a C average in Spanish I or with recommendation of the teacher.
      This course is an extension of Spanish I. The listening-comprehension and speaking skills are
      further developed through tapes, conversations, and audio-visual aids. Reading selections continue
      to develop their language breadth and cultural understanding. The topics and purpose of all activities
      vary to expand vocabulary and basic structures learned as well as continue to develop cultural
      awareness. Writing skills at this level aim at reinforcing structure and allow for individual self-
      expression. At the end of this course students should be able to read and comprehend main ideas
      of material written at varying levels of complexity and be able to express themselves and their
      opinions fairly accurately.

Spanish III (Honors) #523                                                               5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a C average in Spanish II or with recommendation of the teacher.
      This course is designed to maintain and continue the development of oral skills while emphasizing
      reading skills. More emphasis is put on writing skills, not only to reinforce new structures, but also to
      use new vocabulary and develop a style of self-expression. At the end of this course, the students
                                               29
      should have a better understanding of the language structure enabling them to converse or write at
      some length on subjects concerning themselves, their surroundings, Spanish culture, and literature.
      Short written compositions will be required.



Spanish IV (Honors) #524                                                               5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a B- average in Spanish III or with recommendation of the teacher.
      This course is designed as a thorough review of previously learned material through a careful
      integration of all four skills (listening/speaking/reading/writing) with increased emphasis on the
      writing skill. Some emphasis is placed on vocabulary and structural distinctions found within the
      language. Readings of a more literary type as well as other selected reading materials appropriate
      to this course are included. The Spanish language is the main medium of speech for class
      discussions. At the end of this course students should be able to read, write, and discuss in some
      depth varying topics written for a native speaker. Written compositions will be required.

Spanish (Advanced Placement) #525                                                    5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a B average in Spanish IV or with recommendation of the teacher.
      This course is a college level course intended for students who wish to further develop their
      proficiency in all four language skills. It encompasses aural/oral skills improvement, intensive
      reading comprehension, grammar review, and training in the organization and writing of
      compositions. Students will gain an insight into cultural aspects of the various Spanish speaking
      countries in terms of their language and literature. This course emphasizes Spanish for active
      communication.

Latin I (College Prep) #530                                                           5 Credits
        The first year of Latin stresses the study of basic vocabulary and grammar to help students learn to read
        and
        comprehend the Latin language. The course also seeks to develop an understanding of some of the
        features
        of Roman influence on history and civilization. Additional attention is given to English derivatives and
        Latin
        phrases and sayings used in the English Language.

Latin II (College Prep) #531                                                        5 Credits
       The second year of Latin continues the study of vocabulary and more complex grammar to help
       students learn to read the texts of ancient Roman authors. The course also prepares students to
       understand and analyze more specific events and periods of Roman history, culture, and
       mythology. Continued study is devoted to English derivatives, Latin phrases and expressions
       commonly used in the English language.

Latin III (Honors) #532                                                                 5 Credits
       Prerequisite: At least a C average in Latin II or with recommendation of the teacher.
       This course continues the study of vocabulary and more complex grammar to help students read
       the texts of ancient Roman authors. The goal of the study of Latin at the upper levels is to read and
       discuss Latin texts. In this course, students study and analyze specific events and periods of
       Roman history, culture, and mythology. Continued study is devoted to English word derivations and
       Latin expressions commonly used in the English language.




                                              30
31
ART
Philosophy
The aim of the visual arts program is to enable students to become better observers and interpreters of their
world. Through practice and exploration student artists discover new perspectives on themselves and their
experience. They learn to evaluate and constructively criticize their own artwork and the work of others. By
providing students with the opportunity to develop skills, create, look at, and respond to works of art, students
will learn to ―make meaning from experience, respond to creativity, and contribute to society.‖ (Massachusetts
Arts Frameworks)

Introduction to Art I (1st Semester only) #891                                         2.5 Credits
The foundation and prerequisite for Introduction to Art II and Intermediate I and II
       The emphasis in this class will be on developing confidence in drawing while providing students with an
       in depth understanding of the elements and principles of design. Skills such as shading and perspective
       are taught with a concentration on drawing from direct observation. Various drawing media and styles
       are introduced. Materials Fee - $35.00

Introduction to Art II (2nd Semester only) #892                                        2.5 Credits
      Designed as a continuation of Introduction to Art I, this course provides an introduction to color theory,
      painting and sculpture. The first term focuses on color theory and design. Students will explore the role
      of color in the development of form, depth, and composition. In the second term, students are exposed
      to sculpture as a new possibility for self expression. Materials Fee - $35.00

Intermediate Art I #801                                                                2.5 Credits
Prerequisite: Introduction to Art I
      This course will provide students with the opportunity to explore a variety of art media in two and three
      dimensional projects. Assignments will focus on problems which have professional applications.
      Bookmaking, theatrical design, product design and illustration are among the subjects explored.
      Materials Fee - $35.00

Intermediate Art II #802                                                                 2.5 Credits
      As a continuation of Intermediate Art I students will apply their art skills to practical as well as creative
      problem solving. Students will apply their knowledge to projects which enhance the school environment
      and involve subject matter from other curricula. Students will be encouraged to think creatively and
      independently. A research and creative project focused on a professional artist/designer will be
      assigned. Materials Fee - $35.00

Ceramics #827                                                                       2.5 Credits
     This course will provide students with an understanding of clay as both a sculptural and functional
     material. Students will learn hand building, making pottery on the wheel and a variety of decorative and
     glazing techniques. Materials Fee - $35.00

Art Major #814                                                                            5 Credits
Prerequisite: Intermediate I or II
      In this class, students refine their art skills, with a focus on drawing from the figure. Students work to
      deepen their understanding of the uses of both two dimensional and three dimensional art media. In
      order to learn new ways to approach the same subject matter, students are encouraged to work in
      series. Students participate in class critiques and learn to apply art terminology to discussions of their
      work. Materials Fee - $35.00

Portfolio Preparation #824                                                                 5 Credits
Prerequisite: Art Major
      This course is intended for students with an ongoing interest in art or for those who wish to compile a
      portfolio for college applications. Students learn about the criteria used to judge a portfolio and will learn
      how to document their work for submission. The focus will be on creating a portfolio that highlights the
                                                 32
       student’s specific skills while reflecting a breadth of art ability. Students complete an independent project
       exploring a topic or theme of their own choice. Guest speakers from art colleges are invited to speak.
       Materials Fee - $35.00


Studio Art (Advanced Placement) #836                                                       5 Credits
      Students who elect this course will be creating a portfolio for art school. The course structure correlates
      to foundation classes taught at the college level. Students are required to develop a series of projects
      which focus on technical skills and exploration of conceptual issues. Because of the requirements for
      accreditation, students must be willing to work after school as well as in class. Fifteen to twenty projects
      must be completed over two semesters. AP Studio Art can be elected as an independent study or as
      part of the Art Major/Portfolio class. Materials Fee - $35.00

Art History (Advanced Placement) #217                                                       5 Credits
       This course is designed to provide Littleton students with the same background in art history as an
       introductory college course in art history. Students electing this course will study a diverse historical and
       cultural sampling of the major works of art represented in various art forms: architecture, sculpture,
       painting, and other art forms. Students will learn to observe art intelligently and critically as well as
       analytically. It is the goal of this course to provide students with an opportunity to interrelate their
       knowledge of history and literature in order to enrich their understanding of art history. While no prior
       knowledge of art history is assumed, this course does require a high degree of academic commitment in
       order to meet college standards.




                                                  33
NEW MEDIA
The New Media department is committed to developing a student’s capacity for imaginative and reflective thinking
as it relates to contemporary society. The courses offered trace the ways technology has impacted and defined
visual art in the 20th and 21st centuries. Students are offered a range of classes that are continuously evolving in
order to explore technology. Within the New Media department, Photography courses are offered and present a
full range of conceptual, critical, and technical approaches to contemporary photographic practice while supporting
student’s individual interests and methodology.

Photography #651 (Grades 10, 11 and 12)                                                 2.5 credits
     Photography II is an advanced class for students who would like to develop critical and technical skills. I
     assume that students at this level have achieved a degree of independence and are starting to evolve
     ideas, a visual language, and dialogue about their work. Students participate in critiques of their own work
     and that of fellow students, and work on acquisition of technical control. I will introduce you to medium-
     format cameras, alternative processes and the use of lighting in photography. By the end of this semester
     you should have a solid grasp of the technical aspects and an awareness of what you are interested in
     photographing. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

Photography II #650 (Grades 11 and 12)
Prerequisite: Photography                                                                2.5 credits
      This course introduces the camera and darkroom as creative tools. You are taught to use various types of
      cameras and related equipment, to properly expose and develop film, and to create black-and-white prints.
      After we have covered the fundamentals, we will shift our emphasis to photography as a visual language.
      Class critiques of work from photo assignments will provide a forum to critically discuss photography as an
      art form in both personal and cultural terms. Class will be divided between the classroom and supervised
      darkroom sessions. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

Visual Culture #645                                                                           2.5 Credits
      This course introduces the study of visual culture. How does our current visual culture function the way it
      does? How are all of our visual languages—from ―high‖ art to TV, movies, and popular culture—organized
      by society? What is the study of "visual culture"? How is it related to the study of media and
      communications more generally?
      We examine and discuss a wide range of approaches to the creation and interpretation of visual
      experience. We consider the many ways that paintings, photographs, films, marketing, and branding
      everyday objects both shape and are shaped by the concepts, values, and meanings that constitute cultural
      life in contemporary societies.
      Students develop the skills necessary to write effectively about the visual world and to think productively
      about the creation of images and the meanings that surround them.

Beginning Digital Photography #631                                                       2.5 Credits
     Students will work with images in the digital realm. We cover Adobe Photoshop through step-by-step
     lessons and assignments using your own images. We explore combining images from various sources
     including photographs, video, drawings, or printed originals, and carefully explain and demonstrate
     scanning from slides and prints. The class will teach the fundamentals of color correcting, digital retouching,
     input and output resolution, and optimizing files for printing. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

Intro to New Media #630                                                                2.5 Credits
       This course will introduce students to digital media. Students will focus on developing technical skills in
       electronic imaging. The student will learn the basics of digital photography, digital video and web design.
       The student will then have the opportunity to choose an area in which to focus and develop a final project
       utilizing that medium.
       Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

TV Studio #643                                                                            5 Credits

                                                34
       Students learn the basics of video production and TV broadcasting. They will write proposals and scripts,
       create storyboards to create a television show. Students will then shoot digital footage and edit on a non-
       linear editing system (Final Cut Pro). Students will utilize digital video cameras to produce programming for
       the High School’s cable access channel. The course will be designed to give students access and
       knowledge of all aspects of a T.V. studio. Responsibilities will include directing, editing, lighting, sound as
       well as acting in or hosting a T.V. show proposed by the student. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

History of Photography #646                                                           2.5 Credits
      This course examines photographs and critical issues surrounding photography in the 19th and 20th
      centuries. The relationships of photography to the other arts and to literary, political, social and
      philosophical issues are keys to this discussion. The course briefly surveys photography’s varied histories,
      and then selects particular moments and issues for deeper critical examination.




                                                 35
WELLNESS
Philosophy
Students enrolled in Wellness will participate in a wide variety of activities and learning experiences which will
develop the individual’s physical, intellectual, emotional, and social self. The overall goal of the program is to
educate and empower students to strive for their optimal level of personal wellness throughout their lifespan.
The wellness curriculum at Littleton High School is aligned with the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks
as well as the National Standards.

Fitness and Conditioning #021 (Grades 9-12)                                             2.5 Credits
      This one semester course can be taken as an elective or to meet graduation requirements. In this course,
      students will design and implement a personal fitness plan. Classroom instruction will be utilized to
      supplement training activities. The curriculum includes: cardio training, strength training, flexibility training,
      group exercise activities, nutrition information, and rest and recovery techniques.

Sports and Games I #022 (Grades 9/10)                                                     2.5 Credits
      This one semester course can be taken as an elective or to meet graduation requirements. The curriculum
      includes: soccer, flag football, field hockey, team handball, volleyball, basketball, floor hockey, lacrosse,
      rugby, ultimate frisbee, softball, badminton, gym tennis, table tennis, court tennis, and action games.

Sports and Games II #023 (Grades 11/12)                                                2.5 Credit
      This one semester course is an elective for students during their junior and/or senior year(s) and is
      intended for students who enjoy physical education activities. The curriculum includes many activities from
      Sports and Games I as well as several new activities.

Health # 010 (Grade 9/10)                                                            2.5 Credits
      This one semester course is required for all freshmen. The course includes topics about physical
      health (i.e. nutrition, lifestyle factors, and human sexuality), social health (i.e. communication, peer
      pressure/harassment, healthy relationships) and mental health (i.e. mental disorders, eating disorders,
      addictive behaviors, relaxation techniques.)

Nutrition #017                                                                           2.5 Credits
Prerequisite: Biology
       This one semester course is an elective for sophomores, juniors and seniors who have an interest in
       nutrition and the body’s use of nutrients. The course will focus on the relationship between diet and athletic
       performance, as well as the effect of diet on certain health problems. There will also be an emphasis on the
       chemistry and biology behind nutrition.

Child Development #018                                                                  2.5 Credits
Prerequisite: Health I
      This one semester course is an elective for juniors and seniors who have an interest in early childhood
      education. The course will focus on the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of children
      from fetal development to approximately age twelve. There will also be an emphasis on parenting and
      family challenges.




                                                  36
MUSIC & THEATER ARTS
Philosophy
The purpose of music education in the Littleton Public Schools is to assist each student, commensurate with
his individual capacity, to appreciate, understand, and respond with discrimination to the aesthetic effect of
music. Aesthetic responsiveness is attained by providing experiences in making and listening to music that
increases the student’s sense of beauty, his concept of discrimination, and his receptivity to a wide range of
human emotions.

The music program is geared to develop sensitivity to the cultural heritage of the world through an
understanding and appreciation of music in its many forms. This sensitivity is developed by providing
participative experience with music of many lands and people, of many composers of different eras, and of
many types and styles - both vocal and instrumental, in the classical, folk and popular fields.

High School Band (Full year – every day) #900                                     5 Credits
      The Littleton Senior High Band is comprised of a marching, pep, and concert band. The marching
      band performs in local parades, at pep rallies and at home football games and occasionally at away
      games. The concert band’s repertoire is chosen from wind ensemble, concert band, chamber
      ensemble and orchestral transcription. The ensemble presents several concerts annually.

High School Chorus (Full year – every day) #901                                     5 Credits
      This course is offered to any student grades 9-12. Prior singing experience is helpful but not required.
      The music studied will range from classical to show and popular music of the 20 th and 21st Century.
      The chorus performs in two major concerts annually as well as being featured in the Memorial Day
      Parade, occasional performances at organizations such as Council of Aging, Hewlett Packard, etc.

Music Theory #950                                                                 2.5 Credits
      This course is in the basic elements of music, presupposing no previous knowledge of music.
      Materials of traditional harmony are covered including basic notation of whole notes, half notes,
      quarter notes and sixteenth notes as well as their corresponding rests. Students will study the forming
      of major and minor scales, intervals and chord construction, leading to the basic principals of part
      writing. Skill areas are stressed including some piano, signing or playing at least one musical
      instrument. Melodic & rhythmic dictation is studied as well as major minor chords which includes
      modes. Students will have the opportunity to write and compose music for a small ensemble.

Theatre Arts I #101                                                                  2.5 Credits
      Theater I is an introductory course in the dramatic arts. No prior experience is necessary. This class
      explores character development, techniques and processes to give the student a foundation in acting.
      Reading and analysis of dramatic repertoire, as well as current events and field trips, are additional
      elements of the course. The course culminates in a performance of selected material.

Theatre Arts II #102                                                                 2.5 Credits
      Theater II is an advanced course in the dramatic arts. The Theater I class, appropriate dramatic
      experience, or permission of the instructor is required to enroll. Topics covered include playwriting and
      technical theater, as well as continued reading and analysis of dramatic repertoire. Current events and
      field trips are additional elements of the course. The course culminates in a performance of selected
      material.

Drama Workshop, Advanced #103 (Gr. 10, 11, 12)                                   2.5 Credits
     Advanced Drama is a semester long performance-based course designed for students who are
     interested in theater and may possibly pursue careers associated with the arts and/or
     communications. Students will prepare scripted scenes for performance, will self-script scenes,
     perform improvisation and study various acting methods. This course will provide opportunities for
                                              37
      students also interested in backstage and in directing. Prerequisites: Theater Arts I and Theater Arts
      II.

History of Musical Theater #106 (Gr 11, 12)                                           2.5 Credits
      This course will follow the path of American musical theater from its roots in the operettas of European
      comic opera during the late 19th Century to its maturity in the 1940s and 1950s and onto the present
      where recent developments create a form that reflects current American trends and attitudes.




                                              38
SPECIAL EDUCATION
As mandated by the Massachusetts Department of Education, special education services are designed to
foster collaboration and link sound practice with statutory and regulatory requirements. The clear intent of the
revised Individualized Educational Program Process is to ―ensure that all students are challenged to excel,
progress within the general curriculum, and are prepared for independence in adult life, including post-
secondary education and/or employment.‖ To this end, several programs have been designed to provide
support for students with a variety of disabilities and educational needs.

The Massachusetts Department of Education has established a three-step process to identify and plan for
the special education student. Following a formal referral, a student with a suspected disability in the general
curriculum must participate in an evaluation after which a Team meeting is convened to determine eligibility,
develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP), and establish placement criteria. Once a final IEP is
written and signed, the identified special education student may receive direct or indirect service through one
of our specified programs. These may include academic support within a regular education class or
specialized instruction within the Learning Center setting. For students with more significant educational or
behavioral needs, the Adaptive Program, CORE academic classes and/or emotional/behavioral intervention
services may be provided in order to afford access to the curriculum with appropriate modifications and
accommodations. Specifics of the course parameters are determined by the needs of the respective
population. Collaboration and communication among special education liaisons, classroom teachers, parents,
students, and outside support professionals are paramount in the success of our special education students.
We strive to promote the cognitive, social, and emotional growth of each child in order that she/he may
maximize her/his potential and thereby become a productive contributor to society.

Transition #092                                                                                  1 credit
Prerequisite: IEP or 504 plan
        This twice weekly first semester course is for freshmen and other incoming special education students.
        It will focus upon development of skills that are essential to a successful transition to the Littleton High
        School academic, social, and behavioral environment. Areas of concentration include organization,
        time management, advocacy, and application of curriculum skills.

Curriculum Skills 9 – 10 #093                                                           1 - 2.5 credits
Prerequisite: IEP or 504 plan
        This course of specialized instruction is designed to provide students in grades 9 and 10 with the
        necessary skills to access the mainstream curriculum and make effective progress in the general
        classroom. Development of such independent skills may include note taking, test preparation, writing,
        generation and use of graphic organizers, reading comprehension, use of resources, self-help,
        mathematics, assistive technology, critical thinking, and areas of content difficulties.

Curriculum Skills 11 – 12 #094                                                 1 - 2.5 credits
Prerequisite: IEP or 504 plan
        This course of specialized instruction expands upon Curriculum Skills 9 – 10. Focus areas are
        designed to advance the independent application of learned skills, including those pertaining to
        advocacy, academic success, and post-secondary planning.

Adaptive Program                                                              credits
Prerequisite: IEP




                                                 39
ADDITIONAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
Senior Project: The Senior Project is designed to merge a student’s own interests and passions with academic
life. This course allows students to explore, in depth, a topic of importance to them. The project itself is student-
directed with guidance and accountability provided by the advisor. Beginning in a required Junior-year seminar,
students will create an essential question which will then shape their experience for the entire project, as they
combine interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The final product of these efforts will exhibit both personal
investment and academic rigor, while ultimately giving something back to the school or local community. From
presenting a performance piece to constructing a piece of furniture, the opportunities to investigate, explore, and
create are almost without limit.

As a capstone experience, the Senior Project allows students to demonstrate their mastery of Littleton High
School’s Expectations for Student Learning. Successful completion of at least 2.5 credits of Senior Project is
required for graduation beginning with the Class of 2012.
One Semester Senior Project #008                                                                       2.5 Credits
       Most students will elect the half year project. In the Junior year, students will be introduced to the project
       and will engage in a seminar to help them choose topics and questions for further study. During the Fall or
       Spring semesters, students will engage in research, collaboration, and community service learning around
       their chosen topic. Final exhibitions will take place in December and May.

Full Year Senior Project #020                                                             5 Credits

       The full year project is designed for students wishing to engage in extended research or to build extensive
       community service projects. In the Junior year, students will be introduced to the project and will engage in a
       seminar to help them choose topics and questions for further study. Throughout the Senior year, students
       will work with their advisors to conduct research, engage in collaboration, and develop the community
       service aspect of their work. Final exhibitions will take place in May.

Virtual High School #030                                                            2.5 or 5 credits

       In addition to selecting courses offered at Littleton High School, students may also apply to enroll in
       courses through VHS (Virtual High School).These challenging courses are appropriate for self-directed
       students who have the ability to manage the responsibilities of independent, self-guided learning. The VHS
       course catalog and additional information is available at www.govhs.org. A sample page of VHS course
       offerings is included on the next page. As Littleton High School is limited in the number of courses we can
       sponsor, students must apply in writing at the time of course selection. See your Guidance Counselor for an
       application form.

Community Service Learning #040                                                             1 credit
       Our Mission Statement closes with the commitment ―to help students…become responsible, productive
       citizens in a constantly changing world‖. To that end, our Community Service Learning program provides
       students with opportunities for civic engagement through service to the school and greater community. A
       minimum of thirty-six hours of documented Community Service Learning is required for graduation.
Career Exploration/Internship Program #043                                          2.5 or 5 credits
       This program is designed to immerse students into the real world of careers and provide a unique
       opportunity to experience the career world beyond Littleton High School’s existing curriculum. The program
       is primarily open to seniors, but juniors and underclassmen may be considered pending the principal’s
       approval. Students will be evaluated using the Massachusetts Work-Based Learning Plan. A final project
       detailing the experience will be required for credit. This program is graded on a Pass/Fail basis.
Teacher Assistant #013                                                       2.5 credits per semester

                                                 40
       Certain disciplines offer opportunities for qualified seniors and juniors to serve as teachings assistants. See
       your guidance counselor for more details.

Finance I (College Prep) #339                                                       2.5 credits
This course covers the principals and practices of the financial world with a focus on investing and building personal
wealth. Students will learn to manually complete financial records, process an entire accounting cycle and create
investment and money saving strategies for real world use. Students will take part in a semester long online stock market
investment game. Students will work in groups or individually where they will learn how to invest
money into a multitude of financial resources.




                                                  41
                                                                              Virtual High School
                                                                            Sample Course Offerings
Virtual High School offers a catalog of full semester courses in the Arts, Foreign Language, Language Arts, Life Skills, Math, Science, Social Studies, Technology and AP 1 Study to students in VHS member
schools. Core courses are NCAA accredited. The courses listed are current at the time of publication. Visit our website at www.goVHS.org for the most recent offerings.
Pre-AP Courses                                           International Business: An Exploration*                  Algebra 2                                           Democracy in America?
 Introduction to Biology                                Introduction to Statistics*                              AP Calculus AB*                                      Digital Geography - More than a Jeopardy Category!
  Introduction to Calculus AB*                           Investing in the Stock Market*                           AP Calculus BC*                                      Eastern and Western Thought*
 Introduction to Chemistry*                            Learning to Invest in the Stock Market                   AP Statistics*                                       Film and Literature: The European Experience
  Introduction to Computer Science*                      Marketing and the Internet*                              Calculus for Business                                Foundations of a Nation: Early American History
 Introduction to Economics*                             Personal Finance*                                        Integrated Algebra and Geometry                      Gods of CNN: The Power of Modern Media
  Introduction to English Language and Composition       Statistics and Business Quality Management               Introduction to Calculus AB*                         IB Economics
  Introduction to English Literature and Composition                                                              Introduction to Statistics*                          IB Information Technology in a Global Society
 Introduction to Environmental Science                Foreign Language                                           Math You Can Use In College*                         Introduction to Economics*
 Introduction to Physics B                              AP French Language                                       Mathematical Reasoning and Logic                     Introduction to Sociology*
 Introduction to Statistics*                            AP Spanish Language/Spanish V                           Number Theory: Patterns, Puzzles and                 Introduction to U.S. History
 Introduction to U.S. History
                                                         Basic Mandarin: Chinese Language and Culture*                Cryptography*                                   Lewis and Clark’s Expedition: A Interactive Journey
  Preparing for College Essays
                                                         Latin 1                                                 Statistics and Business Quality Management*          Peacemaking
                                                         Spanish Culture and 20th Century Hispanic                                                                     Pearl Harbor to the Atomic Bomb
                                                            Literature                                          Science                                                Practical Law: What You Need to Know About the
AP Courses
                                                         Writing in Spanish*                                      Anatomy & Physiology: A Study in Stability               Law
  AP Biology
  AP Calculus AB*                                                                                                 Animal Behavior and Zoology                          Psychology – A Introduction*
  AP Calculus BC*
                                                       Language Arts                                              AP Biology                                          Service-Learning*
                                                         101 Ways to Write a Short Story*                         AP Chemistry*                                        Sports and American Society*
  AP Chemistry*
  AP Computer Science A*                                Academic Writing*                                        AP Environmental Science*                            The Glory of Ancient Rome
  AP Economics                                           AP English Language and Composition                      AP Physics B*                                        The Golden Age of Classical Greece
  AP English Language and Composition                    AP English Literature and Composition                    AP Physics C                                         The Holocaust*
  AP English Literature and Composition                 Around the World in 80 Days*                             Astronomy: Stars and the Cosmos                      The Vietnam War*
  AP Environmental Science*                              Basic Essay Writing                                      Bioethics Symposium*                                World Area Studies: Ancient and Modern
  AP French Language                                    Contemporary Irish Literature*                           Biotechnology                                            Civilizations
  AP Government & Politics: U.S.*                        Creative Writing for People Who Mean It*                 Chemistry II: Chemicals of Civilization              World Conflict, a United Nations Introduction*
  AP Physics B*                                          Cultural Identity Through Literature                     DNA Technology                                       World Religions
  AP Physics C                                           Folklore and Literature of Myth, Magic, and Ritual*      Environmental Chemistry
  AP Psychology                                          Ghoulies, Ghosties, and Long-Legged Beasties*            Environmental Science-The World Around Us*         Technology/Tech Ed.
  AP Spanish Language/Spanish V                          Hearts of Darkness: Meeting Ourselves in Literature      Epidemics: Ecology or Evolution                     Animation and Effects: Flash MX Basics*
  AP Statistics*                                         Heroes                                                   Genes and Disease*                                   AP Computer Science A*
  AP U.S. History*                                       Horror, Mystery and Science Fiction Literature*          Integrated Mechanical Physics with Logical          CAD
                                                         Introduction to English Language and Composition             Reasoning                                       Desktop Publishing: In an Information Age*
International Baccalaureate                              Introduction to English Literature and Composition       Introduction to Astronomy                            Digital Geography - More than a Jeopardy Category!
   IB Economics                                         Literacy Skills for the 21st Century                     Introduction to Biology                              Engineering Principles
   IB Information Technology in a Global Society        Mythology: Stories from Around the World*                Introduction to Chemistry*                           IB Information Technology in a Global Society
                                                        Poetry Writing*                                          Introduction to Environmental Science                Introduction to Computer Science*
                                                                                                                  Introduction to Physics B
Arts                                                    Poetry: Contemporary American Poets*                                                                         Introduction to Programming in Visual Basic*
                                                                                                                  Introduction to the Human Body
 American Popular Music                                 Preparing for College Essays                                                                                 Technology and Multimedia*
   Art and the Internet: Creating a Virtual Museum       Reading and Writing the Science Fiction Short Story     Meteorology: A Study of Atmospheric Interactions
                                                                                                                                                                       Visual Basic*
                                                                                                                  Nuclear Physics: Science, Technology & Society
      Exhibit                                           Screenwriting Fundamentals*                                                                                  Web Design and Internet Research*
                                                                                                                 Oceanography: A Virtual Semester at Sea
   Art History: Renaissance to Present*                 To Kill a Mockingbird                                                                                        Web Design : Artistry and Functionality*
   Caribbean Art History                                                                                          Physics for Inquiring Minds
                                                         Twentieth Century Women Authors
                                                                                                                  Preveterinary Medicine
 Creating Art History                                  Young Adult Literature                                                                                      * Multiple sections offered.
   History and Pop Music
   History of Photography*
                                                                                                                Social Studies                                       • Appropriate for both High School and Gifted
                                                       Life Skills/Health
 Music Composition and Arranging *
                                                                                                                  American Foreign Policy                              and Talented Middle School Students.
                                                        Career Awareness for the New Millennium*                 American Multiculturalism
 Music Listening and Critique*                         Employability Skills*
                                                                                                                                                                     1 AP is a registered trademark of the College
                                                                                                                  AP Economics                                         Board, which was not involved in the
                                                          Kindergarten Apprentice Teacher                         AP Government & Politics: U.S.*
Business                                                Parenting in the Twenty-First Century                    AP Psychology
                                                                                                                                                                       production of this product.
 Business and Personal Law*                              Perspectives in Health                                  AP U.S. History*
  Entrepreneurship: Starting Your Own Business*           Preparing for College Admissions and Financial Aid*     Constitutional Law*
  Entrepreneurs: Business Owners of the 3rd
     Millennium
                                                                                                                  Criminology
                                                       Math                                                       Current Issues in American Law and Justice

								
To top