micro processor by smbutt

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									Intel Core 2 Duo

®

Desktop Processor Architecture

CMPE 511 Computer Architecture
Caner AKSOY CmpE

Boğaziçi University December 2006

What’s next?
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History Intel Core 2 Duo Intel Core 2 Microarchitecture Intel Core 2 Models Architectural Features of Core 2 What is an instruction set? SSSE3 (x86) Execute Disable Bit Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution 14 Stage pipeline MacroFusion Micro-op Fusion What is L1 and L2? Intel® Advanced Smart Cache Intel® Smart Memory Access

Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost

History
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(List of Intel microprocessors)
The 4-bit processors 4004, 4040 The 8-bit processors 8008, 8080, 8085 The 16-bit processors: Origin of x86 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188, 80286 The 32-bit processors: Non x86 iAPX 432, 80960, 80860, XScale The 32-bit processors: The 80386 Range 80386DX, 80386SX, 80376, 80386SL, 80386EX The 32-bit processors: The 80486 Range 80486DX, 80486SX, 80486DX2, 80486SL, 80486DX4 The 32-bit processors: The Pentium (“I”) Pentium, Pentium MMX The 32-bit processors: P6/Pentium M Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III, PII and III Xeon Celeron(PIII), Pentium M, Celeron M, Intel Core, Dual Core Xeon LV The 32-bit processors: NetBurst microarchitecture Pentium 4, Xeon, Pentium 4 EE The 64-bit processors: IA-64 Itanium, Itanium 2 The 64-bit processors: EM64T-NetBurst Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition, Xeon The 64-bit processors: EM64T- Core microarchitecture Xeon, Intel Core 2

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Intel Core 2 Duo

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Intel Core 2 Microarchitecture
Woodcrest Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution Intel® Intelligent Power Capability Intel®

Server Optimized
Conroe

Advanced Smart Cache Intel® Smart Memory Access Intel®

Desktop Optimized

65nm
Merom

Advanced Digital Media Boost

Mobile Optimized

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Intel Core 2 models
 Allendale, Conroe
    
- 65 nm process technology

Desktop CPU Introduced on July 27, 2006 Number of Transistors 291 Million on 4 MB Models Number of Transistors 167 Million on 2 MB Models Variants
     Core Core Core Core Core 2 2 2 2 2 Duo Duo Duo Duo Duo E6700 E6600 E6400 E6300 E4200 2.67 2.40 2.13 1.86 1.60 GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz (4 (4 (2 (2 (2 MB MB MB MB MB L2, L2, L2, L2, L2, 1066 MHz FSB) 1066 MHz FSB) 1066 MHz FSB) 1066 MHz FSB) 800 MHz FSB)

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Intel Core 2 models
 Woodcrest

  
- 65 nm process technology

Server optimized CPU
Introduced on July 26, 2006 Same features as Conroe Variants

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Xeon Xeon Xeon Xeon Xeon Xeon Xeon

5160 - 3.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 80 W) 5150 - 2.66 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 65 W) 5140 - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 65 W) 5130 - 2.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, 65 W) 5120 - 1.86 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB, 65 W) 5110 - 1.60 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB, 65 W) 5148LV - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2,1333 MHz FSB,40 W)

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Intel Core 2 models
 Merom - 65 nm process technology
   Mobile CPU Introduced on July 27, 2006 Same features as Conroe

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Variants

     

Core Core Core Core Core Core

2 2 2 2 2 2

Duo Duo Duo Duo Duo Duo

T7600 T7400 T7200 T5600 T5500 T5200

-

2.33 2.16 2.00 1.83 1.66 1.60

GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz

(4 (4 (4 (2 (2 (2

MB MB MB MB MB MB

L2, L2, L2, L2, L2, L2,

667 667 667 667 667 533

MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz

FSB) FSB) FSB) FSB) FSB) FSB)
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Architectural Features of Core 2
         SSSE3 SIMD instructions Intel Virtualization Technology, multiple OS support LaGrande Technology, enhanced security hardware extensions Execute Disable Bit EIST (Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology) Intel Wide Dynamic Execution Intel Intelligent Power Capability Intel Advanced Smart Cache Intel Smart Memory Access

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Intel Advanced Digital Media Boost

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What is an instruction set?
 All instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute  Types:
   Arithmetic such as add and subtract Logic instructions such as and, or, and not Data instructions such as move, input, output, load, and store

 Part of the computer architecture  Distinguished from the microarchitecture  Different microarchitectures can share common instruction set while their internal designs differ
Fetch Decode Operand Fetch Execute Retire
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SSSE3 (x86)
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Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3
Intel's name for the SSE instruction set's fourth iteration Single Instruction Multiple Data instruction set A revision of SSE3 CPUs with SSSE3
     Xeon 5100 series Intel Core 2 Faster permutation of bytes Multiplying 16-bit fixed-point numbers with correct rounding Better word accumulation

 Development

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SSSE3 (x86)
 16 New instructions
   

Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3

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PSIGNB, PSIGNW, PSIGND  Packed Sign PABSB, PABSW, PABSD  Packed Absolute Value PALIGNR  Packed Align Right PSHUFB  Packed Shuffle Bytes PMULHRSW  Packed Multiply High with Round and Scale PMADDUBSW  Multiply and Add Packed Signed and Unsigned Bytes PHSUBW, PHSUBD  Packed Horizontal Subtract (Words or Doublewords) PHSUBSW  Packed Horizontal Subtract and Saturate Words PHADDW, PHADDD  Packed Horizontal Add (Words or Doublewords) PHADDSW  Packed Horizontal Add and Saturate Words 12 / 37

Execute Disable Bit
 Problem
 Buffer overflow attacks of malicious software

 Must be combined with a supporting operating system  Classifies areas in memory for protection  Disables code execution on an attack  Decreases the need for software patches and antivirus software
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Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution
L 2 C A C H E

Performance increases while energy consumption decreases

•Advantage
Wider execution Comprehensive Advancements Enabled in each core

Each core fetches, dispatches, executes and returns up to four full instructions simultaneously.
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Branch – Add – Mul – Load - Store

14 Stage pipeline
 Pentium D has 31 stage pipeline  AMD Athlon 64 has 12 stage pipeline  A question for the class:
 Why didn’t Intel increase the pipeline after a 31 stage experience with Pentium D?

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14 Stage pipeline
 Pentium D has 31 stage pipeline  AMD Athlon 64 has 12 stage pipeline  A question for the class:
 Why didn’t Intel increase the pipeline after a 31 stage experience with Pentium D?
Bubble of non-work I100 I99

………………

Jump!
I3 I2 I1

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MacroFusion
 If (myVariable == myConstant)
doThis(); Else doThat();
Compare instruction

Jump instructions

Compare

+

Jump

=

microOp

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Micro-op Fusion
Example: Load the contents of [mem] into a register (MOV EBX, [mem]) An ALU operation, ADD the two registers together (ADD EBX, EAX) Store the result back to memory (MOV [mem], EBX)  The micro-ops which are derived from the same macro-op are fused to reduce the number of micro-ops that need to be executed. Gaining from the number of instruction to be executed. Power consumption Better scheduling Reduces the number of micro-ops which are handled by the out-oforder logic.

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What is L1 and L2?
Level-1 and Level-2 caches The cache memories in a computer Much faster than RAM L1 is built on the microprocessor chi itself.  L2 is a seperate chip  L2 cache is much larger than L1 cache    
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Intel® Advanced Smart Cache
Decreased traffic

Higher cache hit rate Reduced bus traffic Lower latency to data

•Advantage
Increased traffic

L2 cache is shared equally Data stored in one place Optimizes cache resource Up to 100% utilization of L2 cache 20 / 37

Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access

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Intel® Smart Memory Access
 Why?
 Lost opportunities for out-of-order execution.

 What is the idea?
 Ignore the store-load dependecies  If there is a dependency, flash the load instruction

 How is it checked?
 Verify by checking all dispatched store addresses in the memory order buffer  There is a watchdog
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Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost

Lower 64 bit in one cycle, upper in the next
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Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost

128 bit instruction completed in one cycle
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Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost
 Improves performance when executing SSE instructions
 128 bit SIMD integer arithmetic  128 bit SIMD double precision floating point

 Accelerate a broad range of applications
    Video, speech, image processing Encryption Financial Engineering and scientific

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References
         [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_microprocessors [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SSSE3 [3] http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2748 [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_set [5] http://download.intel.com/technology/architecture/new_architecture_06.pdf [6] http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2748&p=3 [7] http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid44_gci212451,00.html [8] http://www.intel.com/cd/products/services/emea/tur/processors/287176.htm [9] http://techreport.com/reviews/2006q3/core2/index.x?pg=1

Any question


								
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