Lesson 1-Introduction and Security Trends

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					Lesson 1-Introduction and Security Trends
              Background



 Terrorists have targeted people and physical structures.
   – The average citizens are more likely to be the target of an
     attack on their computers than they are to be the direct victim
     of a terrorist attack.
              Background



 This presentation addresses the issues surrounding why
  people should be concerned about computer and network
  security.

 It also introduces a number of issues involved in securing
  computers and networks from a variety of threats utilizing
  different attacks.
              Objectives



Upon completion of this lesson, the students will be able to:
   – List and discuss the recent trends in computer security.

   – Describe simple steps to minimize the possibility of an attack
     on a system.

   – Describe the various types of threats that exist for computers
     and networks.

   – Discuss recent computer crimes that have been committed.
             Yesterday and Today



 Fifty years ago:
   – Few people had access to a computer system or a network

   – Securing these systems was easier.

   – Companies did not conduct business over the Internet.

 Today, companies rely on the Internet to operate and
  conduct business.
             The Security Problem



 Networks are used to transfer vast amounts of money in
  the form of bank transactions or credit card purchases.

 When money is transferred via networks, people try to take
  advantage of the environment to conduct fraud or theft.
             Comparisons



 Comparisons indicate that:
   – Average bank robbery amounts to $2,500.

   – Average bank fraud amounts to $25,000.

   – Average computer crime amounts to $500,000.

   – Computer crime loss amounts to $5 - $10 billion annually.
             The Security Problem



 There are various ways to attack computers and networks
  to take advantage of what has made shopping, banking,
  investment, and leisure pursuits a matter of “dragging and
  clicking” for many people.
   – Identity theft is common today.
             Security Incidents



 By examining some of the crimes that have been
  committed over the last dozen or so years, we can:
   – Understand the threats and the security issues that surround
     the computer systems and networks.
                F.B.I. Statistics



 Of all the computer crimes, only 1% are detected, and 7%
  of the detected crimes are reported.

 Jail sentences, which are usually short-term, amount to
  only 3%.

 A 75% increase per year has been reported in computer
  intrusions.

 Computer crime has increased to 36%.
              Security Incidents



 Electronic crime can take different forms.

 The two categories of electronic crimes are:
   – Crimes in which the computer is the target of the attack.

   – Incidents in which the computer is a means of perpetrating a
     criminal act.
             The Morris Worm (November 1988)



 Robert Morris, a graduate of Cornell University, released
  The Internet Worm (or the Morris Worm).
   – The worm infected 10 percent of the machines (approximately
     6,000) connected to the Internet at that time.

   – The virus caused an estimated $100 million in damage, though
     this number has been the subject of wide debate.
              Citibank and Vladamir Levin
              (June – October 1994)


 From June 1994 through October, Vladimir Levin, of
  St. Petersburg, made a number of bank transfers.
   – When he and his accomplices were caught, they had
     transferred an estimated $10 million.

   – Eventually all but about $400,000 was recovered.

   – Levin reportedly accomplished the break-ins by dialing into
     Citibank’s cash management system.
             Kevin Mitnick (February 1995)



 Kevin Mitnick’s computer activities occurred over a number
  of years from the 1980’s through 1990’s.
   – Mitnick admitted to having gained unauthorized access to a
     number of computer systems belonging to companies such as
     Motorola, Novell, Fujitsu, and Sun Microsystems.
              Omega Engineering
              Timothy Lloyd (July 1996)


 On July 30, 1996, a software “time bomb” at Omega
  Engineering deleted all design and production programs of
  the company. This severely damaged the small company
  forcing the layoff of 80 employees.

 The program was traced back to Timothy Lloyd who had
  left it in retaliation for his dismissal.
               Jester and the Worcester
               Airport (March 1997)


 In March 1997, airport services to the FAA control tower as
  well as emergency services at the Worcester Airport and
  the community of Rutland, Massachusetts, were cut off for
  six hours.

 This disruption occurred as a result of a series of
  commands sent by a teenage computer “hacker” who went
  by the name of “jester.”

 The individual gained unauthorized access to the “loop
  carrier system” operated by NYNEX.
             Solar Sunrise (February 1998)



 During a period of increased tensions between the United
  States and Iraq and subsequent military preparations, a
  series of computer intrusions occurred at a number of
  military installations in the United States.

 Over 500 domain name servers were compromised during
  the attacks.
              Solar Sunrise (February 1998)



 It was difficult to track the actual origin of the attacks. This
  was because the attackers made a number of “hops”
  between different systems, averaging eight systems before
  reaching the target.

 The attackers eventually turned out to be two teenagers
  from California and their mentor in Israel.
             Melissa Virus (March 1999)



 Melissa is the best known of the early macro type of virus
  that attaches itself to documents, which contain programs
  with a limited macro programming capability.

 The virus was written and released by David Smith.

 This virus infected about a million computers and caused an
  estimated $80 million in damages.
             Melissa Virus (March 1999)



 This virus clogged networks with the traffic and caused
  problems for e-mail servers worldwide.

 It attached itself to Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000
  documents.

 Whenever a file was opened, a macro caused it to infect the
  current host and also sent itself to the first fifty addresses
  in the individual’s address book.

 To avoid infection by Melissa, users should not open the
  attached file.
             Love Letter Worm (May 2000)



 The worm spread via e-mail with the subject line
  “ILOVEYOU.”

 The number of infected machines worldwide may have been
  as high as 45 million.

 Similar to the Melissa virus, the Love Letter Worm spread
  via attachment to e-mails. In this case, instead of utilizing
  macros, the attachments were VBScript programs.
             Code-Red Worm (2001)



 On July 19, 2001, over 350,000 computers connected to
  the Internet were infected by the Code-Red worm. The
  incident took only 14 hours to occur.

 Damages caused by the worm (including variations of the
  worm released on later dates) exceeded $2.5 billion.

 The vulnerability exploited by the Code-Red worm had been
  known for a month.
               Adil Yahya Zakaria
               Shakour (Aug 2001-May 2002)


 Shakour accessed several computers without authorization,
  including:
   – Eglin Air Force Base (where he defaced the web site)
   – Accenture (a Chicago-based management consulting and
     technology services company)
   – Sandia National Laboratories (a Department of Energy facility)
   – Cheaptaxforms.com

 At Cheaptaxforms.com, Shakour obtained credit card and
  personal information, which he used to purchase items
  worth over $7,000 for his own use.
              Slammer Worm (2003)



 The Slammer virus was released on Saturday, January 25,
  2003.

 It exploited a buffer-overflow vulnerability in computers
  running Microsoft's SQL Server or Microsoft SQL Server
  Desktop Engine.
   – This vulnerability was not new.

   – It had been discovered in July 2002.

   – Microsoft had released a patch for the vulnerability even
     before it was announced.
             Slammer Worm (2003)



 By the next day, the worm had infected at least 120,000
  hosts and caused network outages and disruption of airline
  flights, elections, and ATMs.
                Slammer Worm (2003)



 Slammer-infected hosts generated 1TB of worm-related
  traffic every second.
   – The worm doubled in the number of infected hosts every 8
     seconds.

 It took less than ten minutes to reach global proportions
  and infect 90 percent of the possible hosts it could infect.
             Threats to Security



 In a highly networked world, new threats have developed.

 There are a number of ways to break down the various
  threats.
              Breaking Down Threats



 To break down threats, users need to:
   – Categorize external threats versus internal threats.

   – Examine the various levels of sophistication of the attacks
     from “script kiddies” to “elite hackers.”

   – Examine the level of organization for the various threats from
     unstructured to highly structured threats.
             Viruses and Worms



 Employees in an organization may not follow certain
  practices or procedures because of which an organization
  may be exposed to viruses and worms.

 However, organizations generally do not have to worry
  about their employees writing or releasing viruses and
  worms.
             Viruses and Worms



Viruses and worms:

 Are expected to be the most common problem that an
  organization will face as thousands of them have been
  created.

 Are also generally non-discriminating threats that are
  released on the Internet and are not targeted at a specific
  organization.
             Hacking



 The act of deliberately accessing computer systems and
  networks without authorization is called “hacking”.

 The term may also be used to refer to the act of exceeding
  one’s authority in a system.

 Intruders are very patient as it takes persistence and
  determination to gain access to a system.
              Unstructured Threats



 Attacks by individuals or even small groups of attackers fall
  into the unstructured threat category.

 Attacks at this level are generally conducted over short
  periods of time (lasting at most a few months).

 They do not involve a large number of individuals, and have
  little financial backing.

 They do not include collusion with insiders.
             Intruders



 Intruders, or those who are attempting to conduct an
  intrusion, are of various types and have varying degrees of
  sophistication.
               Script Kiddies



 At the low end technically are script kiddies.

 They do not have the technical expertise to develop scripts
  or discover new vulnerabilities in software.

 They have just enough understanding of computer systems
  to be able to download and run scripts that others have
  developed.
             Script Kiddies



 Script kiddies are generally not as interested in attacking
  specific targets.

 Script kiddies look for any organization that may not have
  patched a newly discovered vulnerability for which they
  have located a script to exploit.

 At least 85 to 90% of the individuals conducting
  “unfriendly” activities on the Internet are probably
  accomplished by these individuals.
              Sophisticated Intruders



 These individuals are capable of writing scripts to exploit
  known vulnerabilities.

 They are more technically competent than script kiddies.

 They account for an estimated 8 to 12% of the individuals
  conducting intrusive activity on the Internet.
              Elite Hackers



 Elite hackers are highly technical individuals and are able
  to:
   – Write scripts that exploit vulnerabilities.

   – Discover new vulnerabilities.

 This group is the smallest accounting for only 1 to 2% of
  the individuals conducting intrusive activity.
            Insider Threats



Insiders:

 Are more dangerous than outside intruders.

 Have the access and knowledge necessary to cause
  immediate damage to an organization.
             Insider Threats



 Most security is designed to protect against outside
  intruders and thus lies at the boundary between the
  organization and the rest of the world.

 Besides employees, insiders also include a number of other
  individuals who have physical access to facilities.
              Criminal Organizations



 Criminal activity on the Internet at its most basic is not
  different than criminal activity in the physical world.

 A difference between criminal groups and the “average”
  hacker is the level of organization that criminal elements
  may employ in their attack.
           Structured Threats



Attacks by criminal organizations can fall into the
structured threat category, which is characterized by:
– Planning.

– Long period of time to conduct the activity.

– More financial backing.

– Corruption of or collusion with insiders.
             Terrorists and Information Warfare



 As nations become dependent on computer systems and
  networks, essential elements of the society might become a
  target.

 They might be attacked by organizations or nations
  determined to adversely affect another nation.
             Terrorists and Information Warfare



 Many nations today have developed to some extent the
  capability to conduct information warfare.

 Information warfare is warfare conducted against
  information and the information-processing equipment used
  by an adversary.
             Highly Structured Threats



 Highly structured threats are characterized by:
   – A long period of preparation (years is not uncommon).

   – Tremendous financial backing.

   – A large and organized group of attackers.

 These threats may not only include attempts to subvert
  insiders, but also include attempts to plant individuals
  inside potential targets before an attack.
               Highly Structured Threats



 In information warfare, military forces are certainly still a
  key target

 Other likely targets can be the various infrastructures that a
  nation relies on for its daily existence.
               Critical Infrastructure



 Critical infrastructures are those infrastructures whose loss
  would have a severe detrimental impact on a nation.

 Examples:
   – Water.

   – Electricity.

   – Oil and gas refineries and distribution.

   – Banking and finance.

   – Telecommunications.
              Information Warfare



 Many countries have already developed a capability to
  conduct information warfare.

 Terrorist organizations can also accomplish information
  warfare.

 Terrorist organizations are highly structured threats that:
   – Are willing to conduct long-term operations.

   – Have tremendous financial support.

   – Have a large and organized group of attackers.
             Security Trends



 The biggest change in security over the last 30 years has
  been the change in the computing environment.

 Large mainframes are replaced by highly interconnected
  networks of much smaller systems.

 Security has switched from a closed environment to one in
  which computer can be accessed from almost anywhere.
              Profile of Individuals



 The type of individual who attacks a computer system or a
  network has also evolved over the last 30 years.
   – The rise of non-affiliated intruders, including “script-kiddies,”
     has greatly increased the number of individuals who probe
     organizations looking for vulnerabilities to exploit.
               Important Trend



 Another trend that has occurred is: as the level of
  sophistication of attacks has increased, the level of
  knowledge necessary to exploit vulnerabilities has
  decreased.
             Security Studies



 One of the best-known security surveys is the joint survey
  conducted annually by the Computer Security Institute
  (CSI) and the FBI.
              Security Studies



 The number of organizations that have reported
  unauthorized use of their computer systems has been
  declining slowly (from 70% in 2000 to 56% in 2003).

 The number of organizations that have reported attacks
  from Internet connections has increased (from 59% in 2000
  to 78% in 2003).

 Organizations citing independent hackers as a likely source
  of attacks have also increased (from 77% in 2000 to 82%
  in 2003).
            Two Common Attacks



 The two most frequent types of attacks have remained
  constant with viruses and insider abuse of net access being
  the most common.
             A Steady Increase



 With the exception of Denial-of-Service attacks and telecom
  frauds, all categories had recorded a steady increase from
  2000 through 2002, but then took a sharp decline in 2003.
             A Decline in Loss



 The average loss as a result of theft of proprietary
  information hit a high of $6.57 million in 2002 but was only
  $2.70 million in 2003.

 Financial fraud plunged from $4.63 million in 2002 to $328
  thousand in 2003.
             Avenues of Attack



 When a computer system is attacked, it is either specifically
  targeted by the attacker, or it is an opportunistic target.
             Specific Target



 In the first case, the attacker chooses the target not
  because of the hardware or software the organization is
  running but for some other reason, such as a political
  reason.
             Target of Opportunity



 The second type of attack, an attack against a target of
  opportunity, is conducted against a site that has hardware
  or software that is vulnerable to a specific exploit.

 The attackers, in this case, are not targeting the
  organization. Instead, they have learned of a vulnerability
  and are looking for an organization with this vulnerability
  that they can exploit.
              Target of Opportunity



 Targeted attacks are more difficult and take more time than
  attacks on a target of opportunity.
   – The second type of attack relies on the fact that with any piece
     of widely distributed software, there will almost always be
     somebody who has not patched the system.
             The Steps in an Attack



 The steps an attacker takes in attempting to penetrate a
  targeted network are similar to the ones that a security
  consultant performing a penetration test would take.

 The attacker will need to gather as much information about
  the organization as possible.
              Perform a Ping Sweep



 The first step in the technical part of an attack is often to
  determine what target systems are available and active.

 This is often done with a ping sweep, which sends a “ping”
  (an ICMP echo request) to the target machine. If the
  machine responds, it is reachable.
             Perform a Port Scan



 The next step is to perform a port scan. This will help
  identify the ports that are open, which gives an indication
  of the services running on the target machine.
             Determine the Operating System



 After determining the services available, the attacker needs
  to determine the operating system running on the target
  machine and specific application programs.
             Sources of Information



 There are numerous web sites that provide information on
  vulnerabilities in specific application programs and
  operating systems.
              Sources of Information



 In addition to information about specific vulnerabilities,
  some sites may also provide tools that can be used to
  exploit vulnerabilities.

 An attacker can search for known vulnerabilities and tools
  that exploit them, download the information and tools, and
  then use them against a site.
             Administrative Mistake



 The attack may be successful if the administrator for the
  targeted system has not installed the correct patch.

 The attacker will move on to the next possible vulnerability
  if the patch has been installed.
              The General Process



 There are different ways in which a system can be
  attacked.
   – Gathering as much information as possible about the target
     (using both electronic and non-electronic means).

   – Gathering information about possible exploits based on the
     information about the system, and then systematically
     attempting to use each exploit.
             If It Does Not Work



 If the exploits do not work, other, less system-specific,
  attacks may be attempted.
             Minimizing Avenues of Attack



 Understanding the steps an attacker will take enables to
  limit the exposure of the system and minimize the avenues
  an attacker might possibly exploit.
             Minimizing Avenues of Attack



 The first step an administrator can take to minimize the
  possible attacks is to ensure that all patches for the
  operating system and the applications are installed.

 The second step an administrator can take is to limit the
  services running on a system.

 Another step that can be taken to minimize the possible
  avenues of attack is to provide as little information as
  possible on an organization and its computing resources.
              Types of Attacks



 There are a number of ways that a computer system or a
  network can be attacked.

 Attacks can result in one of a few general consequences:
   – A loss of confidentiality where information is disclosed to
     unauthorized individuals.

   – A loss of integrity where information is modified by
     unauthorized individuals.

   – A loss of availability where information or the systems
     processing it are not available for authorized users.

				
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