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Ch 6 Study Guide

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              Chapter #6: How Cells Acquire Energy?
   1. What are autotrophs?


   2. What are heterotrophs?



   3. What are the two stages of photosynthesis?
        a. _______________________________________
        b. _______________________________________

   4. Where in the chloroplast each of these stages occur?
        a. _____________________________________________________
        b. _____________________________________________________

   5. Write down the chemical equation of photosynthesis.




   6. What is the electromagnetic spectrum?



   7. What are photons?



   8. What are pigments? List the most important pigments discussed in class.



   9. Why do leaves appear green?



   10. How are the accessory pigments useful?



   11. What happens when the accessory pigments absorb photons?



   12. What is contained within a photosystem?


   13. What is the reaction center?



    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.
                                                                                                  2



   14. The two types of photosystems found in the thylakoid membrane are referred to
       as ___________________________ and ____________________________.


   15. What is P700?


   16. What is P680?


   17. How does P700 differ from P680? How are they similar to each other?



   18. What is cyclic electron flow?


            a. What does it involve?


            b. What does it generate?




   19. What is noncyclic electron flow or noncyclic photophosphorylation?


            a. Which photosystems are involved in this pathway?


            b. What three things does it produce?


            c. When light excites P700 electrons, what happens next?


            d. As electrons move from PSII to PSI, what happens to the H +?




            e. Draw the Z scheme as was described in class.




    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.
                                                                                                  3



   20. Explain the term chemiosmosis.



   21. What 2 products of the light reactions are used in the Calvin cycle to make
       sugar?



   22. How does carbon enter the Calvin cycle?


   23. What is carbon fixation?


   24. What is the role of NADPH?



   25. What is the role of ATP?




   26. What is RuBP?


   27. What is Rubisco?



   28. What is the first stable intermediate formed in the Calvin Cycle?


   29. How many PGAL are formed? How many PGAL are needed to form a molecule
       of glucose?


   30. Why is the glucose generated in the Calvin Cycle phosphorylated?



   31. Familiarize with the Calvin Cycle as it was described in class. Draw it in the space
       below.




    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.
                                                                                                  4


   32. What is cellular respiration?




   33. Name the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration:




   34. Write down the chemical equation of aerobic respiration.



   35. Explain alcoholic fermentation.



   36. Explain lactic acid fermentation.




   37. What are the roles of the coenzymes NADH and FADH2?



   38. What are the 3 steps of aerobic respiration?
         a. __________________________________________
         b. __________________________________________
         c. __________________________________________



   39. Glycolysis:
          a. What is glycolysis?




            b. Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?




            c. Is glycolysis a process that happens only during aerobic respiration?
               Explain.


    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.
                                                                                                  5


            d. What is pyruvate?



            e. Write down the basic equation of glycolysis.



            f.   How many net ATP molecules are produced in glycolysis?


            g. How many NADH are produced in glycolysis?


            h. How many FADH2 are produced in glycolysis?



   40. Preparatory reactions and the Krebs cycle:
          a. Where in the cell do the preparatory reactions and the Krebs cycle take
             place?


            b. Write down the equation of the preparatory reactions. (What occurs in
               the preparatory reactions?)



            c. What is acetyl-CoA?


            d. How many ATP, NADH, FADH2 and CO2 are produced in the preparatory
               reactions per pyruvate molecule? Per glucose molecule?



            e. Write down the equation of the Krebs cycle. (What occurs during the
               Krebs cycle?)




            f.   How many ATP, NADH, FADH2 and CO2 are produced in the Krebs cycle
                 per pyruvate molecule? Per glucose molecule?




    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.
                                                                                                  6


   41. Electron Transport Chain:
           a. Where does it occur?


            b. What is the net total gain of ATP?


            c. What is chemiosmosis?


            d. What is the role of O2?




   42. What is insulin?



   43. What is glucagon?



   44. What is glycogen? Where is it stored?



   45. When is glycogen used?



   46. What is the percentage of energy that our body stores as carbohydrate? What
       happens when we eat additional amounts of carbohydrates above this
       percentage?




   47. What are the products from the breakdown of amino acids?




   48. What is the percentage of energy that our body stores as protein?



   49. Explain the breakdown of triglycerides.




    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.
                                                                                                  7



   50. What is the percentage of energy that our body stores as fat?




    THIS IS ONLY A STUDY GUIDE. DO NOT RELY 100% ON THIS STUDY GUIDE FOR YOUR EXAM. YOU ARE
RESPONSIBLE OF READING THE TEXT, ATTENDING CLASS, AND TAKING NOTES. STUDY EVERY DAY. EVERYTHING
                    THAT IS DISCUSSED IN CLASS COULD POTENTIALLY BE ON THE EXAM.

								
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