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					           Katrina Smith – Q1221575
VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
               Assignment Three




                      -2-
                                       Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                            VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                           Assignment Three

Activity 1.1 – A Preamble About Looking at Art

1. I would have to agree with Mr Read, that art is not only that which is
   considered beautiful, Nick Zangwill states that aesthetics of art should not
   be considered just that which is beautiful, but any thing which can be
   interpreted or conceived in some way shape or form.

   The concept of the aesthetic is used to characterize a range of judgements and
   experiences---We judge that things are beautiful or ugly, or that they have or lack
   aesthetic value or aesthetic merit---The contemporary category of aesthetic judgements,
   as it is usually conceived, includes both verdictive judgements and substantive
   judgements. But 'aesthetic' is a term of art, and there is no right answer concerning how
   the word should be used.

   Zangwill, N., ‘THE CONCEPT OF THE AESTHETIC‟, European Journal of Philosophy, Mar98, Vol. 6, Issue 1,
   item no. 09668373, EbscoHost, Accessed [15/6/04] <http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3252228&db=rlh>



   As in the painting by Jacques Louis David, “Lictors bringing back to Brutus
   the bodies of his sons”, this painting might not be a beautiful image, but
   can still be interpreted, it still has aesthetic value, the image is mournful,
   devasting. It still evokes feeling and thought, therefore art is not only that
   which is beautiful.




   [Source of image: „Lictors bringing back to Brutus the bodies of his sons‟, Artist: Jacques Louis
   David, 1789, image from: Louvre Museum Database, located in Artcyclopedia.com]




2. When we look at art we are immediately affected emotionally or
   intellectually, as Gingell points out in the article mentioned below, which
   would then be considered as the most significant purpose of art. Suppose
   we look at an artwork for the first time, we first process how we feel, our
   reactions to the artwork which is uncontrollable, before we try to determine



                                                  -3-
                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

   the reason why we had that reaction. We cannot know why we reacted
   that way before we react.

     Plato, infamously, banished artists from the ideal Republic. He did this for four reasons.
     Firstly, artists lie about the nature of the Gods and heroes. In doing so they encourage
     impious or immoral behaviour. Secondly, as art copies the world of the senses, and as
     this world is itself a mere shadow of the ultimate Forms of reality, the arts take us away
     from, rather than towards, an understanding of reality. Thirdly, even within the sensuous
     world, artists depict what they do not understand. Thus, if we wish to understand shoes,
     we should go to a shoemaker not a painter. And if we wish to understand battles, we
     should consult a general and not an epic poet. Lastly, arts such as poetry and music
     appeal to our emotions rather than our intellects. They are thus doubly dangerous in
     that they bypass the end of life, which is understanding, and, at the same time, reinforce
     any dubious message that they happen to purvey (Jowett, 1970). ----- Art, according to
     Tolstoy, consists of the artist feeling an emotion, encapsulating this emotion in the
     artwork and thus stimulating the emotion in the audience.

     Gingell, J., ‘Plato‟s Ghost: How not to justify the arts‟, Westminster Studies in Education, Jul2000, Vol. 23,
     Issue 1, 01406728, Accessed [15/6/04] <http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3788521&db=tfh>




   In relation to Tolstoy‟s words Degas‟s drawing below, in my opinion,
   displays the beauty of the female figure, vulnerability and innocence of
   nakedness, and the sensuality of the woman at her bath tub. This shown
   through the softness of the tones Degas uses, and the soft colours and
   marks on the image, and the form of the woman is very slender and well
   proportioned, which portrays the sexuality of the female figure. This being
   a human weakness, that we fall victim to lust of the flesh.

   Edgar Degas
   1834-1917
   The tub
   1886
   Pastel on card




   [Source of image: „The Tub‟, 1886, Artist: Edgar Degas, image from: Musée d‟Orsay website, located in
   Artcyclopedia.com]

Activity 1.2 – In the Beginning


1. The Cro-Magnon statue of „Woman of Willendorf‟ which according Roszak, in honour of
   the majestic and powerful Mother Earth. The Cro-magnon people believed that they were



                                                       -4-
                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

    in the presence of a far greater power and something which they had no control over.
    This statue was a homage to this greater power, a divine power, which the people
    believed conceived them, the food they eat, changing the seasons, and the weather. In
    modern times we dismiss „Mother Earth‟ and do not consider the importance to worship
    Mother Earth (Gaia, as Roszak states is the modern term), to respect the lands and
    waters of the earth for future generations needs, but we give in to unconscious desires of
    technological developments, which eats up the Earth‟s resources. Modern society has
    lost the love respect, it has not anticipated the irreparable damage which the selfish
    developments have caused, or will in future. They should take note of the care taken by
    our anscestors to respect “Gaia”, she just might help us aswell!

    In the case of the anima mundi we are dealing with one of the oldest experiences of
    mankind, the spontaneous sense of dread and wonder primitive humans once felt in the
    presence of the Earth's majestic power. When they were no more than the first few
    representatives of a timid, scurrying new species in the world, these early humans must
    have greeted the immense creativity of nature with an awe that has since been lost to all
    but the poetic minority among us in the modern world. The Earth does go so powerfully
    and competently about her work, bringing forth the crops, ushering in the seasons,
    nurturing the many species that find their home in her vast body. She can' of course, also
    be a menacing giant; that too is remembered in myth and folklore. Many of the oldest
    rituals are acts of propitiation offered to a sometimes fierce and punishing divinity, an
    Earth who can be an angry mother as well as a bountiful one.

    One of the oldest and best-known depictions we have of the Mother Goddess is a lumpy
    little carving nicknamed by anthropologists the Venus of Willendorf. A blatantly sexual
    image, all breasts and buttocks, she was intended to embody female divinity as our
    hunting and gathering ancestors understood it. It is difficult to imagine that so primeval an
    image could outlast the culture of the hunting camp and the agrarian village, but so she
    did. Mother Earth is as universal a symbol as our race possesses, at home even in those
    societies that have moved on to more civilized ways……

    Ecopsychology suggests that we can read our transactions with the natural environment--
    the way we use or abuse the planet--as projections of unconscious needs and desires…..

    We have learned that human beings can create systems that do not understand human
    beings and will not serve their needs. And at exactly the same time, we have learned how
    easily these industrial systems can shred the environmental fabric on which all life
    depends, perhaps even without our realizing what irreparable harm we do.

    Roszak, Theodore, ‘Ecopsychology and the Anima Mundi‟, ReVision, Winter94, Vol. 16, Issue 3, 02756935,
    Accessed [15/6/04] <http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9608056466&db=rlh>



    In the two to two and a half million years of evolution of the hominoid species, a recognizable
    consciousness came into existence only in the last one to two hundred thousand years. Thus, the
    emergence of homo sapiens is a recent affair, first in the form of Neanderthal man and only in the
    last thirty-five to forty thousand years in the shape of their cousins, Cro-Magnon man (the sexism
    in the classifying term is obvious). It is only with the latter that some sort of structured future time
    sense, as evidenced in the form of religious relics and artistic renditions, appears .

    Mazlish, B., „Review Essays‟, History & Theory, May99, Vol. 38, Issue 2, 00182656, Accessed [15/6/04]
    <http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=1893989&db=rlh>




2. „The Epic of Gilgamesh‟ was created by the king of Uruk, „Gilgamesh‟. A compilation stories and poems with
    historical reference, and according to Linda Casselman, the Epic of Gilgamesh was one of the first written
    stories in human history. The stories include many of Gilgamesh‟s conquests, and others, such as some which
    are contained within the bible, the Old Testament, such as Noah and the Great Flood. The Epic of Gilgamesh
    was about his quest for the meaning of life, immortality. [As mentioned in the article below in italics and
    underlined.] The important questions it asks would have to be regarding immortality, and the meaning of life,



                                                     -5-
                                            Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                                 VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                                Assignment Three

   Gilgamesh questions why individuals time on earth in so brief, and that their bodies are so frail, why should the
   „Gods‟ be the only ones who have this gift of immortality, and even so humans are given the gift of life and living,
   and endure grief and loss? What is the meaning of life?




                               The Epic of Gilgamesh – by Linda Casselman
   In 1848-49 archaeologist Austin Henry Layland made an exciting discovery while excavating the ancient
   Mesopotamian city of Ninevah, now modern-day Iraq. He unearthed several clay tablets which revealed the
   world's oldest surviving written story - The Epic of Gilgamesh.

   Gilgamesh was indeed a renowned hero from ancient Mesopotamia. He was king of Uruk in around 2700 BCE
   and many stories were generated from his famous exploits. These stories were collected and with some creative
   embellishments for dramatic purposes and mythic devices galore, The Epic of Gilgamesh was created and has
   come down to us through the ages to teach us about the meaning of life.

   The Epic of Gilgamesh is written in Akkadian in cuneiform script on twelve fragmented clay tablets. It was written
   between 3000-2000 BCE in the early Bronze Age and the story of Gilgamesh finds us today as a combination of
   its various earlier versions and translations pieced together to give us a whole story.

   And briefly this is the story of the Hero Gilgamesh that we know today:

   Gilgamesh, who is 2/3 god and 1/3 human, is a restless king who treats his people badly. In an effort to tame
   him, the gods create the wildman Enkidu as his match. The two quarrel at first and then become close friends,
   like brothers. Together they journey to the forest and defeat the terrible Humbaba. And when Gilgamesh offends
   the goddess Ishtar by refusing to marry her, she unleashes the Bull of Heaven upon the earth. Enkidu wrestles
   the Bull and Gilgamesh kills it. Later, Enkidu has a terrible dream about death and the underworld and after
   relating this dream to Gilgamesh, Enkidu dies. Gilgamesh is overcome with grief for the loss of his dear friend
   and resolves to set out to defeat death, to find the answer to immortality.

   Gilgamesh experiences many trials on his journey through darkness then he meets Siduri, the wine-maker, by
   the sea who tells him that immortality is for the gods alone and that life and living is for humans; so rejoice in life.
   But Gilgamesh continues on his quest until he arrives in Dilmun and meets Utnapishtim and his wife, survivors
   of the Great Flood who are indeed immortal. Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh of a magic plant under the water that
   can bestow immortality. So Gilgamesh dives to find it. He recovers it and brings it back with him. Later, while
   Gilgamesh is resting a snake emerges and snatches the magical plant from Gilgamesh. The snake eats it,
   sheds its skin, and then disappears again. Gilgamesh has lost the power of immortality, stolen by the snake. So
   Gilgamesh returns home a mortal man and inscribes his tale on the walls of his great city.

   For a more detailed account of the Gilgamesh Epic please visit this Gilgamesh Summary.

   As you can see, The Epic of Gilgamesh contains many mythic themes and symbols to be decoded. And I am
   sure that you have noted many similarities to the Old Testament in this tale as well.

   Next time then, we will delve further into this mythical story to explore the meaning of "The Double" in Enkidu the
   wildman, Gilgamesh's quest for immortality among other themes, and the parallels of the Flood and the serpent
   with the Bible. We will discover the meaning of life according to this ancient tale...

   Casselman, L., 1999, “The Epic of Gilgamesh”, Suite 101.com, (online resource) Accessed on [18/6/04],
   <http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/mythology/21368>

3. The formal qualities and conventions of Egyptian art include the following:




                                                         -6-
                              Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                   VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                  Assignment Three

   MULTIPLE POINTS OF VIEW - Egyptian Art depicts the human body on a two-
    dimensional      surface,
    using different points of
    view to show each part
    of the body in its most
    complete form. For
    example, the shoulders
    are seen from the front.
    The torso and hips turn
    in three-quarter view so
    that the legs and arms
    can be seen in profile.
    The head is also shown
    in profile--to display
    simultaneously the back
    and the front, with
    protruding nose and
    lips--but the eye is
    drawn as if seen from     Stela of a Middle Kingdom official Abydos,
    the     front,    looking Dynasty 12, ca. 1954 B.C. Painted limestone,
    directly at the viewer.   41 x 19 5 /8 in. [The Metropolitan Museum of
    (www.metmuseum.org)       Art, sponsored by Yahoo.com, Acessed on
                              [19/6/04], <www.metmuseum.org>]



   SCALE – The difference in size of the objects or
    persons within Egyptian art indicates relative
    importance. Images of the king are often much
    larger than life, symbolize the ruler's
    superhuman powers. In Egyptian wall reliefs
    and paintings, wives and family members,
    servants and entertainers, animals, trees, and
    architectural details are usually
                                                   The wife of the deceased (a lady-in-waiting
    shown in smaller scale than the                named Roy) and her three daughters (all
    figures of the king, high official, or         chantresses of Amun); the little man is a priestly
    tomb owner. (www.metmuseum.org)                servant. Their sizes indicate their relative
                                                   importance. (Scene from tomb 75 at Western
                                                   Thebes).

                                                   IMAGE from website [The Metropolitan Museum
                                                   of Art, sponsored by Yahoo.com, Acessed on
                                                   (19/6/04)] <www.metmuseum.org>




   COLOUR – Egyptian art appear to use pure colours, both warm and cool, in
    creating jewellery and in painting reliefs, wooden figures and coffins, and details
    on stone sculpture. To the Egyptians, colour did not only have aesthetic appeal
    but also symbolic meaning. Blue and green were associated with water, the Nile,
    and vegetation. Yellow and gold stood for the sun and the sun god. Red and red-
    orange had complex meanings involving the desert, power, blood, and vitality.
    (www.metmuseum.org)




                                         -7-
                                  Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                       VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                      Assignment Three

                                                          Pectoral   of   Princess   Sithathoryunet
                                                          Lahun, Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret II,
                                                          ca. 1897-1797 B.C. Gold, carnelian,
                                                          feldspar, garnet, and turquoise; l. 3 1/4
                                                          in.

                                                          IMAGE from website [The Metropolitan
                                                          Museum of Art, sponsored by Yahoo.com,
                                                          Acessed           on          (19/6/04)]
                                                          <www.metmuseum.org>




                                                          Fragment of the head of a queen
                                                          Early Amarna Period, ca. 1350-
                                                          1340 B.C. Yellow jasper, h. 5 1/2 in.

                                                          IMAGE from website [The Metropolitan
                                                          Museum    of Art,    sponsored    by
                                                          Yahoo.com, Acessed on (19/6/04)]
                                                          <www.metmuseum.org>




References: Looking At Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2000-2004),
sponsored by Yahoo.com, Accessed on [19/6/04] <www.metmuseum.org>.




                                             -8-
                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

Activity 1.3 – The Greeks

1. The idealized proportions of the ancient Greek athletes can be seen in the
   archaic sculpture of a youthful athlete, „Kouros from Sounion‟, shown on
   right. According to Fleming, the torso is severely formal and close to the
   block of stone from which the sculpture was made, and that the build of
   this athlete was rectangular shown by the wide shoulders and the long
   arms attached to the sides of the rectangular framework, and the acutely
   defined muscular chest and abdomen, shown by the long vertical line from
   neck to navel on the chest and the diamond-like shape of the abdomen,
   defined by four straight lines. The physique of ancient Greek athlete would
   then have been described as an acutely defined muscular body, with a
   broad rectangular build. (Fleming, 1995, p42)

    The accepted physique for modern athletes vary a great deal depending
    on the sport played, as shown below. Strong and broad body build for
    football, light and swift for tennis, tall and flexible for basketball, and sleek
    and fast for swimming, also to my knowledge it was only men which were allowed to
    participate in sporting events, as women were not seen as intellectuals, only mothers and
    house wives, and it was forbidden for women to compete in sporting events, within Plato‟s
    ideals of the perfect society. There is indeed many women who are now some of the
    most elite athletes, such as Anna Kournikova below in the Tennis picture. Therefore the
    accepted anatomy of athletes has changed dramatically since ancient Grecian times.




                                  Basketball                                     Tennis




                            Swimming                                          Football




    Images: Top-most: Kouros from Sounion, Gavid Gill, Last updated September 2002, Accessed on [19/6/04],
    <www.swan.ac.uk/classics/staff/dg>.
    Basketball: The Sacramento Kings vs. Mavericks, Sacrament Bee Web Sites, Last updated [16/6/04], accessed
    on [19/6/04], <www.sacbee.com>
    Tennis: On Court pictures, Rodey‟s Anna Kournikova Page, Accessed on [9/6/04],
    <members.aol.com/rodey2001/onpics.html>
    Swimming: Craig Stevens, Australian Swimming Inc., Accessed on [19/6/04], www.swimming.org.au.
    Football: Simon Prestigiacomo-Brisbane Lions vs Collingwood round 3 2004, Official AFL Website of the
    Brisbane Lions Football club, last updated on [19/6/04], Accessed on [19/6/04], <lions.com.au>.

    Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, p.p. 42-44, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.



                                                      -9-
                                           Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                                VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                               Assignment Three

2. Fleming states that the Greeks attempt to interpret their dark ancient myths in
   contemporary terms is found in their sculpture (including their architectural sculptures
   such as the Parthenon), philosophy, poetry and drama. Therefore the relation between
   these mediums is the depictions of Greek mythology, which according to Fleming,
   displays their way of life. (Fleming, 1995)

    The Greeks way of life was based on the belief
    that there was a relationship between the visible
    and the invisible, between humanity and an ideal
    image and an ideal truth, and in the excerpt from
    the Grove Dictionary online, it tells us that
    because of these new beliefs from the new
    philosophies of idealism, influenced the content of
    art. An example: the sculpture above of „Kouros‟
    which contains the Greeks‟ ideal male figure, also
    seen in the image below of Zeus, the king of the
    Gods, also shown in Fleming. The Gods being of
    perfect physique, and intellect. The gods were
    portrayed in many forms or art, sculpture drama
    (as mentioned below in the extract from Grove art
    Dictionary), Philosophy, as the Gods were
    beginning and end of civilization and divine rulers
    of the Earth as the Greeks knew it, and so were
    worshipped and idolized. Greek architecture also
    depicted the Gods and ideal proportions and designs, „perfection‟. Shown in Fleming‟s
    Arts and Ideas, the Parthenon, which he explains is a shrine, an idealized dwelling to
    house the image of a deity.

    Around 500 BC the Greek concept of divinity changed fundamentally (Schefold with Jung, 1981). The static
    world picture, which conveyed faith in the divine order of the universe, was replaced by the dynamic world
    picture of tragedy and satire, in which history (both human and divine) developed in accordance with Fate.
    Painters and sculptors attempted to convey the spiritual meaning of the events they depicted and to explore the
    relationship between visible and invisible and between humanity and an ideal image and ideal truth. These
    philosophical themes inspired the sculptors of the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (c. 470–457
    BC) and of the pediment and frieze of the Parthenon, Athens (447–432 BC). In the same period satyric drama,
    which burlesqued the loves of the gods, is reflected in vase painting, as in the lewdly revelling satyrs on a wine-
    cooler signed Douris (490–480 BC). In the Late Classical period scenes of Dionysiac ecstasy, and of the power
    of Eros, emphasize how those forces that determine the behaviour of the gods also affect the activities of
    humanity.

    „Mythological painting and sculpture – classical antiquity', The Grove Dictionary of Art Online, (Oxford University
    Press, Accessed [19/6/04]) <http://www.groveart.com>.




    Image: „Zeus‟, Yahoo Search, accessed on [19/6/04]<images.search.yahoo.com>.

    Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, p.p. 42-44, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.


3. „Doryphorus‟ or Spear Bearer is similar to the „Parthenon‟ in that they were built according
   to a set of rules. Fleming (p.p.42-43) states that the sculptor attempted to formulate a
   „canon‟, a body of rules, for the proportions of the human figure. The Parthenon on the
   other hand, was also built on a set of strict rules, called the Doric Order, based on
   mathematical ratios, Fleming, (p.p.30-1, 1995). The Greek society was also built on a set
   of rules, set forth by Plato, „The Republic‟. He believed that perfect truth, beauty, and
   goodness can only exist in a world of forms and ideas, where everyone within the society
   would have to adhere to Plato‟s theory and way of life (Fleming, p.p.57-8, 1995). Even
   artists were criticised that their work was not suitable for the Republic as the content is
   only an imitation of the ideal forms, and are then far from the truth. That art should focus
   on the essential not the accidental, in other words more realistic (Fleming, 1995).




                                                       - 10 -
                                      Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                           VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                          Assignment Three




                                                                       Parthenon (Athens)



Images: „Spear Bearer‟, Yahoo Search, Accessed on [19/6/04], <images.search.yahoo.com>.
Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.
„Parthenon‟, Architecture, Accessed on [19/06/04], <www.mce.k12tn.net/ancient_greece/architecture.htm>




                                                - 11 -
                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

Activity 1.4



1. Pythagoras was a mathematician and philosopher from ancient athenian times.
   Unfortunately none of his writing survived, but his legacy lives on.The following are his
   contributions to the world of man:

    - functional significance of numbers in the objective world and in music

    - the incommensurability of the side and diagonal of a square

    - the Pythagorean theorem for right triangles

                      „Pythagoras‟. Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Accessed, [19/6/04],
                                                             <http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=63648>.




                                        Pythagoras (fl. 530 BCE.)

    It may be taken as certain that Pythagoras himself discovered the numerical ratios which
    determine the concordant intervals of the musical scale. Similar to musical intervals, in
    medicine there are opposites, such as the hot and the cold, the wet and the dry, and it is
    the business of the physician to produce a proper 'blend' of these in the human body. In a
    well-known passage of Plato's Phaedo (86 b) we are told by Simmias that the
    Pythagoreans held the body to be strung like an instrument to a certain pitch, hot and
    cold, wet and dry taking the place of high and low in music. Musical tuning and health are
    alike means arising from the application of Limit to the Unlimited. It was natural for
    Pythagoras to look for something of the same kind in the world at large. Briefly stated, the
    doctrine of Pythagoras was that all things are numbers. In certain fundamental cases, the
    early Pythagoreans represented numbers and explained their properties by means of dots
    arranged in certain 'figures' or patterns.

    „Pythagoras (fl. 530 BCE)‟, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, created 2001, Accessed [19/6/04],
    <www.utm.edu>




2. Plato believed that artists only create imitations or representations, specific things, which
   are only a substitution of the ideal forms, therefore their products are thrice removed from
   the truth. In other words art should not be accidental, but accent essential, not something
   that is short-lived but long lasting or permanent. Whereas Aristotle claimed that we should
   use art to represent men in forms better or worse than in real life, or as they are. For
   example, Homer‟s epic poetry, makes men better than they really are, this form of
   idealism is the highest form of art. Therefore Aristotle believed art should be
   exaggerations of the real, and Plato was highly against art being a mis-representation.

                 Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.



3. Fleming states that Greek drama was used to portray different aspects of humanity, and
   philosophy which was formulated to examine the physical world, such as Plato, Aristotle,
   Socrates and Pythagoras. These ideas of humanity, theories and ideals of the physical
   world relate to greek architecture and Sculpture in that they display similar ideals.
   Architecture during time, according to Fleming, was a representation of power,
   domination over the western world, that the Greeks were the leaders of humanity, and



                                                     - 12 -
                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

    Sculpture being the example of all these ideals of humanity, power, and perfection within
    the physical world.

    Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.




4. Realism vs. Idealism [Hellenistic vs. Hellenic]

    The Hellenistic society evolved from the beliefs of the
    Hellenic society in that artists no longer produced
    artwork with the unity of knowledge and abiding values
    which produced the poise of Hellenic figures, with the
    unemotional calm expressions on their facial
    expressions. Artwork was now involved in portraying
    real expressions and emotions, so that the viewers
    could interact with the artwork in relation to individual
    experiences. (Fleming, 1995)

    ART- Hellenic artists represented object as they
    appear to the physical eye, or as they appear to the
    mind‟s eye, Fleming (1995). Whereas the Hellenistic
    society represented nature as they saw it, in great
    detail, Fleming, (1995).

    PHILOSOPHY- Philosophy in the realism views the
    world in terms of immediate experience rather than the
    aspect of eternity.

    ARCHITECTURE- Building which were constructed in
    the Hellenistic times were built regardless of the
    harmony which may or may not have existed within
    the site, each building was an independent unit, and
    built with little concern for the relationship between it
    and other buildings. Each building had to stand as a
    monument to the human mind and, as such to rise
    above its material environment, rather than be bound
    by it, Fleming, (1995). Therefore the building in itself is
    „real‟ or „living‟ in the philosophy behind the
    construction.



    Images: „Zeus‟ and „Laocoon Group‟, Yahoo Search, accessed on
    [19/6/04]<images.search.yahoo.com>.




                                                    - 13 -
                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

Activity 1.5 – The Romans
1. Art as propaganda

    Trajan‟s relief‟s on his columns (as shown below), involved story telling, a process of
    visual narration. Fleming shows in his book, a section from one of the columns, showing
    Trajan addressing an assembly of troops. Trajan displays in these reliefs a keen interest
    in historical and current events of the time, which shows dedication to Rome and it‟s
    people, when the emperor puts his subjects first, the society should see him as a good
    man. (Fleming, 1995)

    Leader‟s of today, such as Saddam Hussein (although not in power anymore), used
    posters or painted images all over Iraq (Saddamarama [website]), but not to enhance a
    good image, but to produce fear in Iraqi people, in regards to the crimes he committed
    against his own people, Iraq as well as the rest of the world saw him as a very dangerous
    man, hence the war.




    „Trajan‟, Accessed on [19/06/04]<mirror.coolschool.k12.or.us/.../07/index.html>
    „Trajan‟s Columns‟, Roman Online Guide, Accessed on [19/06/04],
    <www.romaonlineguide.com/Pages/eng/rantica/sAWy10.htm>
    „Saddam‟, Saddamarama, Accessed on [19/06/04], www.pacifichistory.net/SADDAMFILE/saddam15.jpg

    Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.




2. Fleming states that the two ideas that charactierize Roman Culture from the Greek, is
   their „organization‟ and „utilitarianism‟.




            Organization – shown in their systematic world order, with unified religion, unified
             body of laws, and a unified civilization.




            Utilitarianism – The government of Rome was only interested in keeping the
             society happy, understanding human behaviour.




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                                      Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                           VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                          Assignment Three

The following are four surviving monuments from both Greece and Rome, which illustrate
two ideas from each culture:

Roman Culture

Organization

                                           Colosseum, Rome. A.D. 72-80. [188.98 m wide and 48.77m high]
                                           Roman architecture was known for it‟s organizational qualities.
                                           They were the first to group buildings on a common axis, compared
                                           to the Greek isolated perfection. The roman placed business and
                                           activities of a common nature together, for example the
                                           business/trade center. It was Roman architectural organization
                                           which invented the supermarket.




„Colosseum‟, M-Travel, Accessed on [19/06/04]
<www.m-travel.ru/italy/img/collosseum.jpg>




Utilitarianism



                                                                 Bridge of the Angels, (Pons Aelius), Rome A.
                                                                 D. 134. Maitaining luxury palaces was
                                                                 secondary to providing public baths and
                                                                 theatres, and other things for the public.
                                                                 Fleming, (1995).




„Bridge of angels image‟, Rome Italy Sanmarino, Accessed on [19/06/04]
<www.bluemoon.net/~rmarczyn/tryagain/TRIP2/sanmar.htm>




Greek Culture

Rationalism

                                                    Parthenon, Athens, 447- 432 B.C. Showing the strict rules
                                                    of the „doric order‟ on which it was built. The building was
                                                    to be isolated in perfection. In harmony with it‟s
                                                    surroundings. Fleming, (1995).

                                                    „Parthenon‟, Architecture, Accessed on [19/06/04],
                                                    <www.mce.k12tn.net/ancient_greece/architecture.htm>




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                                    VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                                   Assignment Three

           Humanism



                                                                    Temple of Olympian Zeus, 174 B.C.-A.D. 130,
                                                                    17.22m high. Greek Architecture in Relation to
                                                                    Humanism, is the humanized experience of space
                                                                    by organizingit so that it was neither too complex,
                                                                    nor to grand to be fully comprehended. Fleming,
                                                                    (1995).
Scale to
 man
                                                                    „Temple of Olympian Zeus‟, University of
                                                                    Wisconsin – River Falls – Experience Greece Tour,
                                                                    Accessed on [19/06/04],
                                                                    <www.uwrf.edu/greecetour/pictures_athens.htm>




     3. Roman portraiture served the private purpose of family portraits to be honoured with
        reverence and respect. For example, religious activities was very much a family affair, to
        honour the „pater familias‟, “the father of the family”, and ancestors. For this to occur there
        was a room in every house, with Roman Portrait sculptures. Also portraits of living family
        members go inside tombs of the lost. Sculptures which served a more public purpose was
        that of temple statues.




                                                                                          EXAMPLE ONLY!




             „Augustus‟, Bible History, Accessed on               „Portrait of a Matron (Vatican)‟, Roman
             [19/06/04], http://www.bible-                        Portraiture, Accessed on [19/06/04],
             history.com/images/rome                              <harpy.uccs.edu/roman/HTML/ports.html>




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                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

Activity 2.1 – Byzantine, Islamic, And Early Christian Influences

1. The factors leading up to the rift between Byzantium and the Latin West, began with as
   Christianity spread from Italy, into Spain, France and Britain, the first Christians were the
   lower working class, until gradually some were drawn from Patrician, and educated
   classes. Also accepting women and slaves into the Christian communities, the religion
   was becoming a threat to the Roman emperor, Dioceltian, who tried to suppress the
   Christian uprising in 303 A.D. Ten years later his successor, Constantine, who then made
   Christianity one of the official state religions, and also encouraged open worship by
   constructing churches, such as, St. Peter in the Vatican. (Fleming, 1995)

2. The authoritarian concerns of Justinian‟s government are that, Justinian who is a
   successor of the old Roman Emperors, claiming authority and „semi-divine‟ status, is
   threatened by the thought of change, and modern ideals. The following are two artworks –
   Byzantine mosaics – 1. Emperor Justinian and his courtiers c.547 – 2. Empress
   Theodora and Retinue c.547. [Photocopies from figures 5.21 & 5.22, Arts& Ideas,
   Fleming, 1995]

    Conventions of Byzantine art are the they are almost entirely concerned with religious
    expression. Byzantine art often was in the style of mosaics and frescoes. Which were
    executed reflected their function as static, symbolic images of the divine and the Absolute.
    (Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2004).

    The formal characteristics of Byzantine art is the rich colours, halos crowned above those
    considered to be holy, or divine, and the central focus and frontal facing of figures within
    the artwork. Fleming states that Justinian and Theodora were not present on the
    dedication of church, which is the occasion for the mosaics, (Fleming, 1995). Justinian
    sees himself as a ruler by divine right, and in not paying respects to the dedication of the
    church he has not acknowledged the greater power which gave him this right and fails to
    accommodate these new religious ideals of Christianity, by which everyone is subject to.

    "Byzantine Art.", Encyclopædia Britannica. (2004). Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
    Accessed on [19/06/04], <http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=18694>.




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3. One of the strongest influences on Early Christian design was the new idea of symbols,
   used to display abstract meanings, such as „salvation of the soul‟. The idea of immortality
   can be seen in biblical images or scenes of deliverance, such as Noah from the flood.
   Below is the image of the sculptural chair „Cathedra of Maximian‟ , found in Fleming‟s
   Arts & Ideas,1995, page 144 [Figure 5.26]. Three examples of Christian Symbolism are

                         The elegant Byzantine carving of the front panel – with it‟s complex
                          grapevine motif intertwined with birds and animals denoting the tree
                          of eternal life.
                         The Peacocks represent heaven
                         The chair itself is a symbol as the archbishop addresses his
                          congregation from it he is said be speaking ‘ex cathedra‟. A cathedra
                          may also be called a ‘sedes’ (the Latin word for „seat‟) from which
                          word is derived the noun „see’ which once meant the seat of a bishop
                          but now mean the territory of a bishop. Originally „sedes’ meant a
                          chair denoting a high position.


            Fleming, W., 1995, Arts and Ideas, 9th edn, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.




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                                          Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                               VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                              Assignment Three

    Activity 2.2 – The Romanesque Period

1. Monasteries according to Fleming were a refuge and sanctuary, where life was a prelude
   to the heavenly hereafter. After the fall of the West Roman empire, southern classical
   forms met and merged with those of the northern barbarian peoples. This union of
   reserved Roman civilization plus the exciting and bursting imagination from the north
   resulted in the Romanesque style. [Fleming, 1995]

2. The conventions of Romanesque art is the change in the view of Jesus, no longer the
   „Good Shepard‟ of the early Christian times, but a mighty king enthroned in the midst of
   his heavenly courtiers, sitting in judgement on the entire world, as shown in „Last
   Judgement‟ (figure 6.1, Arts & Ideas, Fleming, 1995). He is now seen as the Holy Trinity,
   God the father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

    Three characteristics of Romanesque art can be seen in the sculpture below of
    „Tympanum‟ (figure 6.7, Arts & Ideas), these being that Christ is depicted as the largest
    figure, „divine‟ or highest in the holy hierarchy under which everyone is subject to, as
    shown in the varied sizes of the other figures, the barefoot apostles, either side of Him,
    and the other figures which are smaller again those which are pagan, and those above
    following the arch are the sick. The halo shape around his head displays His awesome
    power and Divine self.

    [Figure 6.1- p.162] Last judgement, west tympanum, Autun Cathedral. C.1130-35

    [Figure 6.7- p.169] „Tympanum‟, Abbey Church of La Madeleine, Vézelay. C.1120-32.
    (Fleming, W., (1995), Arts & Ideas, (9th edn) Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth:Texas.)




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                     VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                    Assignment Three

3. The Bayeux Tapestries shows the stylistic influence of both Roman and
   Christian traditions. As shown below from fleming‟s „Arts & Ideas‟,
   page180-1 [Figure 6.20]. The Bayeux tapestries uses the visual narrative
   from the Roman style, and Christian images of the Westminster Abbey in
   London, and the monks praying, and ringing bells, also the hand of God.




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                       VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                      Assignment Three

Activity 2.3 – The Gothic Style

1. The architectural form of a Gothic Cathedral, is harmonious in it‟s
proportions, grand in size, the spatial composition maintains a close
relationship between the inner and outer aspects of it‟s structure. The spires
either side of the nave, support the building, logical and necessary
continuationof the vertical lines of the supporting buttresses below and fit the
expression of the Gothic spirit of aspiration. Either side of the broad nave
spreads outwards and are amply proportioned aisles fitted with stained-glass
windows, flooding colour throughout the church. The walls exist now to
provide framework for the windows. The iconography usually exists in the
sculpture and stained glass windows of a Gothic Cathedral. For example at
the Chartres Cathedral, the Tympanums above the Narthex doors show Christ
enthroned in heaven. And one of the stained glass windows featuring „Notre
dame de belle verrière‟, (Our lady of the beautiful window) Glorifying the Virgin
Mary. Fleming, (1995)




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                                    Katrina Smith – Q1221575
                         VIS 1011 - Foundation Studies in the History of Art
                                        Assignment Three

Activity 3.1 – The Renaisance
1. Individuality in Florentine Art

   Leonardo da Vinci – ‘Madonna of the Rocks’ [figure 9.28 – Arts & Ideas, Fleming]
   Leonardo was independent from other artists and their painting techniques, in that he
   used natural lighting instead of Botticelli‟s graceful linear approach, he also uses
   atmospheric perspective and sculpturesque modelling of Masaccio, says Fleming, 1995.




   Sandro Botticelli – ‘Adoration of the Magi’ [figure 9.24 – Arts & Ideas, Fleming]
   Sandro Botticelli is a painter of pageants like Benozzo Gozzoli, Sandro rose above the
   majority of his contemporaries. He became the most representative artist of humanistic
   thought that dominated the latter half of the century. [Fleming, 1995]




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     Paola Uccello – „Battle of San Romano’ [figure 9.22 – Arts & Ideas, Fleming]
     Fleming tells us that Uccello was a student of spatial science, that he was trying solve the
     problem of „linear perspective‟ – the formula for arranging lines on a 2-dimensional
     surface so that they converge at a vanishing point on the horizon and promote the illusion
     of recession in depth.




2.




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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Activity 1.5




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