Biol 12 Glucose Metabolism Worksheet 1 You should be able to: a. Cite the overall equation for aerobic respiration and relate the reactants and products to the three metabolic pathways of cellular respiration. b. Associate the structure of the mitochondria with the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain. c. Tell how many ATP are produced by each of the three pathways. d. Discuss the function of the Krebs cycle as a metabolic mill. Describe the process of anaerobic respiration, relating it to glycolysis and indicating its advantages and drawbacks. Review Questions: 1. The equation ADP + Pi ATP is energy (requiring or releasing) requiring 2. When cells require energy for synthetic reactions, they ”spend” ATP 1 2 3 4 3. In the pathway A B C D E, the letters stand for reactants and the numbers stand for enzymes . Each and every reaction in a cell requires an enzyme . If this pathway represented glycolysis, what molecule would E represent? Pyruvic acid The letter A in relation to number 1 is a substrate , and the letter C in relation to number 2 is a product . 4. The first pathway in glucose metabolism is glycolysis . The transition reaction leads to the next pathway, called the Kreb’s cycle or the citric acid cycle. 5. NAD carries electrons to the ETC where most of the ATP of cellular respiration is formed. 6. Which pathway in question 4 contributes the most electrons to the respiratory chain (the electron transport system)? Kreb’s 7. When NAD accepts electrons from a substrate (while accepting hydrogen ions), it is reduced . When NADH donates its electrons to the ETC, (and therefore looses its Hydrogen ions) it becomes oxidized LEO GER Biol 12 Glucose Metabolism Worksheet 2 8. The energy of oxidation released during the reactions of cellular respiration is used to form a maximum of how many molecules of ATP? 38 9. The oxygen we breathe in is carried by the blood to our cells, where it enters the mitochondria. There it serves as the final acceptor for electrons . 10. The carbon dioxide given off by cellular respiration comes primarily from which pathway? Citric acid cycle 11. In the diagram below, indicate the words energy required, energy released, breaking a bond, and creating a bond. Left Side ATP Right Side E required E released +P -P Creating a bond Breaking a bond ADP 12. Give the overall equation for aerobic cellular respiration. Indicate energy on the correct side. C6 H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 36-38 ATP 13. Label matrix, cristae, intermembrane space, inner membrane and outermembrane on the drawing of the mitochondria below. 14. Which of the above structures would you associate with the Kreb’s cycle? matrix b. Which of the above structures would you associate with the ETC? inner membrane c. Where does glycolysis take place? The cytosol. Biol 12 Glucose Metabolism Worksheet 3 Glucose I Pyruvic Acid CO 2 + Acetyl CoA Lactic Acid 15. Match I, II, III, in the diagram above with these terms: a. glycolysis I b. aerobic cellular respiration I , II c. fermentation I , III d. transition reaction. II 16. Considering II, what happens to NADH following this reaction? The NADH enters the ETC and donates it’s electrons (becomes oxidized). The Energy is used to drive chemiosmosis What happens to the CO2 ? We exhale it. What happens to the Acetyl CoA? The acetyl group enters Kreb’s cycle, the CoA is recycled 17. Considering III: In yeast, the product for this reaction is not lactic acid; it is ethanol and CO2 . What happens to NAD+ following this reaction? - it will be reused in another round of glycolysis. 18. Which of the molecules in this diagram have (has) six carbon atoms? glucose Which have (has) three carbon atoms? Pyruvic acid, + lactic acid Which have (has) two carbon atoms? Acetyl CoA 19. Match I, II, III, with these terms: oxygen not available III 6 ATP per glucose molecule II 2 ATP directly I 19. Glycolysis begins with glucose and ends with Pyruvate Biol 12 Glucose Metabolism Worksheet 4 19. The number of ATP produced in glycolysis is 2 The number of ATP produced by means of 2 NADH 6 Total 8 20. Fermentation is wasteful and harmful to the body. a. Why wasteful? Only 2 ATP per glucose (instead of 36-38) b. Why harmful? Lactic Acid is toxic c. Under what conditions does a cell carry on fermentation? When you run out of oxygen 21. The Krebs cycle begins and ends with Oxaloacetic acid (OAA) . Calculate the number of ATP produced per glucose molecule During the cycle 2 From 6 NADH 18 From 2 FADH2 4 Total 24 22. A total of 38 ATP are produced per glucose molecule. Account for all of the ATP produced a. as a result of glycolysis 8 b. as a result of Krebs cycle 24 c. as a result of Transition reaction 6 23. The respiratory chain (ETC) begins with NADH or FADH2 and ends with O2 + 2H2 H2O .
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