al Qaeda by 0PN7jN78


									    al Qaeda
a case study in ideological
                 BIG IDEA
   al-Qaeda is the single greatest terrorist
    threat to the U.S.
   al-Qaeda covers the spectrum of types
    of terrorism
      Ideological

      State-sponsored

      Narco terrorism

      National liberation
                 BIG IDEA
   al-Qaeda is especially threatening to
    the U.S. because it has become
      Without a country to attack

      Without a central location

      Loosely-knit group - bound by an idea
        al-Qaeda: Ideological
   ISLaM = submission to God
   MuSLiM = one who submits to God
   SaLaaM = peace

If you submit to God, you will achieve

 Some believe they must fight those that
  disrupt peace
You Say al-Qaeda, I Say al-Qaida
   al-Qaeda = “the base”

   al-Qaeda-al-Jihad = “the base of the

   The World Islamic Front for Jihad
    against the Jews and Crusaders
         al-Qaeda: Ideological
   Multinational, militant Islamist org.

   established by Osama bin Laden in 1988

   Current goal: to work with allied Islamist
    groups to overthrow corrupt regimes and
    evict Westerners and non-Muslims from
    Muslim countries in order to establish a
    pan-Islamic Caliphate
        al-Qaeda: Ideological
Goals and Objectives of Jihad
 Establishing the rule of God on earth

   Attaining martyrdom in the cause of

   Purification of the ranks of Islam from
    the elements of depravity           QuickTime™ an d a
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          al-Qaeda: Ideological
   February, 1998 - issued a fatwa,
    calling on Muslims to kill U.S.
    citizens - civilian/military - and
    their allies everywhere

                   9/11/01 - attacks on America
                    result in war in Afghanistan to
                    destroy al Qaeda’s bases and
                    overthrow the Taliban
           Age-old Ideology
   al-Qaeda’s ideology not new -
    justifications for jihad rooted in the
   Inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood

   al-Qaeda = most recent manifestation
         Origins of al-Qaeda
1980s: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
   inspire “mujahideen” to fight the jihad
   gather from all over to fight USSR b/c
    disrupting peace in Afghanistan
   young + religious
   fight “godless” communists
   defeat of communists + collapse of
   OBL = rising leader, parts ways
 Chronology: Snowball Effect
1988: OBL forms al-Q, looks for new jihads
1990: offers al-Q to defend Saudi Arabia
  from Saddam in Kuwait, rejected for U.S.

  U.S. presence in S.A. = MUST FIGHT U.S.
 Chronology: Snowball Effect
1991: OBL kicked out of S.A. - to Sudan
   al-Q‟s base of operations 1991-1996

   Teams up with Ayman al-Zawahiri

   Idea = evict U.S. from M.E.

   Search for nukes?

   Organize attacks
 Chronology: Snowball Effect
Feb. 1993: WTC bombed, 6 die, 1000+
Oct. 1993: Black Hawk down in Somalia,
 trained by al-Q, 18 servicemen dead
 Chronology: Snowball Effect
May 1996: OBL forced to leave Sudan
 Afghanistan - new base of operations
June 1996: U.S. military base
 in S.A. bombed,
 19 servicemen
 Chronology: Snowball Effect
Feb. 1998: OBL issues “fatwa” - kill U.S.
Aug. 1998: embassy bombings in Kenya,
 Tanzania, 220+ people killed, U.S.
    Chronology: Snowball Effect
Oct. 2000: USS Cole attacked, killing 17
Sept. 2001: Worst Day Ever, R.I.P. 3000+

    al-Q’s climax

   U.S. retaliated
   Disrupted al-Q
    Tactics, Strategies, and
Tactics: assassination, bombing,
 hijacking, kidnapping, suicide attacks,

Strategies: developing surrogates,
  alliances, seeking WMDs

Targets: prominent symbols of U.S.
 wealth and military dominance
        Ideologically Justified
“The undersigned, leaders of Islamic movements,
  are horrified by the events of 9/11 in the U.S.,
  which resulted in massive killing, destruction &
  attack on innocent lives. We express our
  deepest sympathies & sorrow. We condemn, in
  the strongest terms, the incidents, which are
  against all human & Islamic norms. This is
  grounded in the Noble Laws of Islam, which
  forbid all forms of attacks on innocents. God
  Almighty says in the Holy Quran: „No bearer of
  burdens can bear the burden of another‟ (Surah
  al-Isra 17:15).”
             Ideological Debate
   Salafi = “proper” religious adherence to
    strict moral code of Prophet Mohammed
      Implied other understandings are corrupt

     Most believe in non-violent means of
      supporting Islam
     Small radical fringe - violent means
           Ideological Debate
al-Qaeda: “America started the war…”

     Supporters of non-violent response to
      U.S. are corrupt, and thus not credible
     U.S. waging war against Islam,
      therefore “defensive jihad”
     Killing civilians allowed in current
         Ideological Debate
Justified Jihad?
   Offensive jihad - not widely accepted
   Defensive jihad - religious duty, just
    cause par excellance

Post 9/11
   al-Qaeda losing the ideological debate
   Attacks on WTC seen as offensive by
    Muslim community
        Ideological Debate
Post U.S. invasion of Iraq:
   Confluence of opinion
   Mainstream Islamic scholars, al-Qaeda
    united in call for defensive jihad
   Iraq = chaotic, breeding ground for
   al-Qaeda + Hezbollah
             U.S. Response
   Has largely been a “police” operation
   Capture and detain terrorists, rather
    than going after the source of terrorism
      Ideology??

   Are we giving OBL credibility?
   Will catching OBL make a difference?
             BIG IDEA
The U.S. response has recently come
 under question (CIA, Michael Scheuer)
 for supposed mistakes in the War on

More and more, invading Iraq seems to

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