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					  Body Fluids

Specimen Collections
         Sputum Collections
• Sputum: secretions from the lower
  respiratory tract
• Useful in determining specific types of
  respiratory disorders
• Patient may obtain sample by coughing, or
  by respiratory induction. ( RT uses a
  catheter to suction out secretions)
         Sputum Collections

• Some specimens require collection for up to
  3 days.
• Pts. Who present with TB symptoms hve to
  obtain specimens for 3 consecutive
  mornings .
• * for easier acquisition of sputum, it is
  advisable for pt’s to drink plenty of fluids
  throughout the day
             Sputum…cont
• All samples must be taken to the lab
  immediately… or refrigerated…
• Pt’s information, time of collection, etc
  must accompany specimen to the lab.
• Must be placed in biohazard bag for
  transport to lab.
• WEAR GLOVES!!!!
           Stool Specimens.
• All “rules” regarding Universal precautions
  should be observed when obtaining stool
  specimens.
• Pt may expell specimen in a “specipan”
  container…or
• Digital removal of specimen may be
  required.
            Stool Specimens
Specimen should be obtained with a tongue
  depressor, about the size of a half dollar.
  Placed in a sterile container. Secure lid
  tightly, Label with pt. Information, and time
  of collection..place in biohazard bag.
Lab request slip with test to be performed..
Most common tests are for: occult blood, ova
  and parasites..
Specimen Collections

 Body Fluid Collections
         Urine Specimens
• Urinalysis: most frequently ordered
  test
• 3 major areas of testing:
• Physical
• Chemical
• Microscopic
               Urinalysis
• Collected in plastic test tubes
• Pt’s name, date, time of collection on tube
• Tests should be performed within 2 hours of
  obtaining specimen. If not specimen should
  be refrigerated
                Urinalysis
• FYI
• 1st am urine is the most concentrated
• Random urine specimens (no
  preparation/nonscheduled)
• Midstream Catch: partial voiding before
  obtaining sample, about 3 oz. ( this clears
  sloughed off cells, bacteria, mucous, or
  other debris that could interfere with test
  accuracy)
        24 hour urine sample
• Large container with preservative added
• Must be refrigerated during the 24 hrs
  (usually in a bucket of ice)
• Should start with the 2nd voiding of the day
• Should end with the 1st voiding of the next
  am.
• Pt’s name, date, time collection began
        Pediatric urine sample
• Collection bags fit over child’s genitals and
  are secured with tape
• Can be done at home. Instruct parents to
  transfer urine from bag into clean dry
  container for transport to lab.
• Pt’s name, date, time of collection
             Catheterization
• 3 reasons for catheterization:
• To obtain a sterile urine sample for analysis
• To relieve urinary retention
• To instill medicine into the bladder, after
  the bladder is emptied
• For urine sample: Quick Cath, In & Out
  Cath
• For incontinence: Foley Catheter
 Catheterization
Catheter

                   Bladder




Collection
Bag
                Urinalysis
• Culture & Sensitivity:
  determines what be
  maintained throughout
  the procedure
  microorganism is present
  and what antibiotic will
  be effective in treatment
• Sterile Technique must
  be followed.
       Physical Characteristics
• color: pale yellow to red
• clarity: clear, cloudy, with exudate, etc.
• odor: none, slight, strong, foul
• specific gravity:
( indicates concentration of urine..values
   between 1.003-1.035 nml)
               Urinalysis
• Physical cont’
• Hematuria: blood content in urine: gives
  urine a rusty to red color
• Medications can cause change in color:
• Pyridium= orange
        Chemical Urinalysis
• Done to reveal abnormal substances in urine
• Reagent Strips: convenient, inexpensive
  diagnostic test
• Abnormal substances in urine include:
  glucose, albumin(protein), ketones
  (acetone), bilirubin, blood, nitrates,
  leukocytes.
• Can measure pH (nml= 5.0-7.0) and
  specific gravity as well
      Microscopic Urinalysis
• Done to detect
  specific
  abnormalities, ie:
  microbes, crystals,
  cells etc…see pg 587

				
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posted:11/17/2011
language:English
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