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					Fork Lift Truck Safety




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     The Law


       •Every employer shall ensure that any of
       his employees who supervises or
       manages the use of work equipment has
       received adequate training for purposes
       of health and safety, including training in
       the methods which may be adopted
       when using the work equipment, any
       risks which such use may entail and
       precautions to be taken.

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   OSHA Policies and Regulations
• Numerous policies that outline forklift
  operations including seat belts, brakes,
  turning radii, and many more




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          Supervision includes
•Making sure that operators are regularly
monitored and assessed – and additional
training is provided where it is needed.




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Forklift-related Topics
Operating instructions,
warnings, and precautions:
      You must read the
      owner’s manual!




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Components of a Forklift Truck*




*One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks
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    • Excessive speed at any time.
    • Cornering too quickly.
    • Failure to stop at junctions – including aisle ends etc.


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© 2010 FLTA
    • Carrying passengers – never allowed.
    • Not using a seat belt – company rules may include areas
      where belts are not required.
    • Travelling with arms or legs outside the profile
      of the truck.
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© 2010 FLTA
    • Lifting people on forks, pallets or other unstable platforms.
      There are rules for using cages!
    • Unauthorised use – only trained operators to use.
    • Failure to report near misses – factors that nearly caused an
      accident.
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© 2010 FLTA
    • Refuelling risks:
              – Smoking
              – Build up of fumes
    • If you are not sure - find out. Risks are a bit different for
      diesel, LPG and electric trucks.
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© 2010 FLTA
            PITS




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In the USA compared to Canada




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 Is this you!




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          HIGH ACCIDENT &
         MAINTENACE COSTS
Are usually results of :
• Safety rule violations
• Near misses
• Hot-Dogging
• Lack of inspections




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       General Requirements

• Modifications or additions to forklifts must
  be approved, in writing, by the
  manufacturer
• Name plates must reflect all front-end
  attachments
• Nameplates must be in place and legible



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    General Requirements (cont.)
• Truck shall not be used around flammable
  vapors or hazardous concentrations of metal
  dust unless they are designated as a DY, EE, or
  EX
• Attention should be paid to carbon monoxide
  (CO) levels in work areas where truck are
  operating


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              Load Center



Load center




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        MAXIMUM LOAD
• There will be several weights stenciled on
  the nameplate.
• The weights listed will be with the uprights
  vertical and the center of gravity of the
  load at various distances from the
  backrest.



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4350# with load center 24” from backrest




                            24                           4350




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                            Name Plate


                     Tire size

2490 cap when load center is 20”
from backrest                                     2190 cap when load center is 30”
                                                  from backrest

                    Capacity              Load Center
                                                                     Tire press




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            Important!
The higher the lift,
the lower the capacity




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        Movement of the stability triangle
        2. Truck is loaded or                                      1. Truck
           stopped quickly                                       stopped, no
                                                                     load
Stability Triangle




                                                         5. Truck is loaded and
     3. Truck is loaded on                   4. Truck is lifting a load with the
   right side or turning left             loaded on left mast titled back
                                            side and/or
                                           turning right

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Key points about the stability triangle
• If you get outside the stability triangle, the truck
  could turn over
• No quick stops or turns
• Keep load low
• Inch slowly when load is lifted for deposit
• Keep loads stable on forks so they don’t shift
• Creep when carrying containers of liquid
• Tilt back no more than necessary


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         SURVIVING A TIP-OVER
•   Don’t jump
•   Hold on to steering wheel tightly
•   Brace feet with wide stance
•   Lean away from the tip direction




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            REAR-END STEERING
• Due to rear-end steering,
  operators must slow
  down in order to watch
  the tail swing and the
  tips of the forks at the
  same time.
• You can’t do this if your
  driving too fast.


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          What’s wrong in this picture?
                                                  Load is way to
                                                  high


                                                                Load height is O.K. if
                                                                stopped to stack,
                                                                right?
Stopped too
fast!


Maybe should be
driving backwards



                          Driver not at the controls


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FORKS (CONT.)
                     • When a forklift is
                       not in use, the forks
                       must be grounded
                       and leveled.

                                             yes
         no




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FORKS (CONT.)
         • Under no circumstances
           should anyone be
           allowed under raised
           forks, whether loaded or
           empty.
         • This includes fingers &
           toes.

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          ELEVATION OF FORKS
• When traveling on level surfaces the forks
  should never be raised more than about 4”
  from the floor or ground.
• When on unlevel surfaces, the forks should
  not be raised any higher than necessary to
  clear the ground.



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             TRUCK INSPECTIONS
• Forklifts shall be examined before being placed
  in service
• Trucks must be inspected at the end of each shift
  when used around-the-clock
• Trucks used intermittently must be inspected at
  the beginning of each day that the truck is used
• Daily inspections shall be retained for 45 days
• Monthly inspections shall be retained for at least
  13 months.


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          INSPECTIONS (cont.)
The inspection must at least include the
  following :
A. Leaks (water, fuel, hydraulic
   fluid, etc.)
B. Tire damage and adequate
   inflation
C. Faulty operation of controls


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           INSPECTIONS (cont.)
D. Brake condition (service and emergency
   brakes)
E. Proper steering
F. Proper accessory operation (horn, lights,
   ignition switch, etc.)
G. Proper operation of lift/tilt mechanisms




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INSPECTIONS (cont.)

 H. Defects in forks
 I. Battery charging
 J. Fuel connections/gauges
 K. Battery plug connection (if it’s
    electric)



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                    Checking the oil

                          Operating range




                                                                 Add or Low



                                                         From low to full could
Be on a level                                            be 1 Qt. to 1 gallon.
surface to check                                         Put a little in and check
the oil. Like on                                         level. Keep doing that.
a concrete pad or                                        DO NOT OVERFILL
shop floor.                 full
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• Any maintenance problems should be
  brought to the attention of supervision so
  that appropriate repairs can be made.




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        INSPECTIONS (cont.)

• Forklifts in an unsafe
  condition should never be
  used.


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           DAMAGE TO FORKLIFT
• If the forklift is damaged in any way or
  develops any kind of mechanical problem
  while being used it must be immediately
  reported to your supervisor.
• Do not park a defective forklift without
  tagging it out & telling your supervisor.



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              USE OF HORN
• The horn should be used to warn pedestrians
  that you are approaching
• The horn should also be sounded upon
  entering a building or rounding a blind corner
• Sound the horn and look in direction of travel
  BEFORE backing



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             USE OF HORN (cont.)
• It is especially important to sound the horn when
  entering or leaving buildings where employees may
  be walking across the path of the forklift.
• Also, be especially careful when entering a building
  from outside as your eyes will not be adjusted to
  the lower light.
• Horns should never be used to startle fellow
  employees.



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         UNATTENDED FORKLIFTS
• The definition of an
  unattended forklift
  is:
  – when you are not
    within clear view of the
    truck, or
  – when you are more
    than twenty five feet
    (25) feet away from it.


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 UNATTENDED FORKLIFT (cont.)
So. . .If the forklift is unattended, you
  must
• shut down the engine
• fully ground the forks
• neutralized the controls
• set the emergency brake, and
• not parked on an incline (unless
  chocks are used)

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 UNATTENDED FORKLIFT (cont.)

• If you get off of the forklift but
  do not leave it unattended then
  you must
  – Lower the forks to the ground,
  – Neutralize the controls and
  – Set the emergency brake
  – Chock wheels if on an incline
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    UNDER NO
CIRCUMSTANCES. . .
                 • Should a forklift be
                   allowed to lift any
                   more than its rated
                   capacity.




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      STABILITY OF LOAD &
          TRAVELING
• Loads should be stable. Remember
  that shop floors have rough places
  and so does the yard.
• Loads should be balanced, secure
  and stable so there is no possibility
  of loosing the load during transit.



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               Attachments

• Specific
  operator training
• Weight of
  attachments
• Increased
  load center



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                       Walk Around
• Forklift properly disengaged
   – Forks down, key off, neutral gear, parking brake on
• Left/right side
   – Tire condition, tight lug nuts, no debris around axle, overhead guard is
     solid, no debris behind the mast
• Front
   – Forks in good shape, fork pins in place, backrest solid, mast & chains
     greased, hoses in good shape
• Rear
   – Counterbalance bolt is tight, radiator clear of debris




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                   In the Seat
• Non-moving checks
  – Gauges, lights, horn, back-up alarm, blinking
    warning light, operate the tilt & lift mechanism,
    check the parking brake
• Moving checks
  – Put on the seat belt, check the running brakes,
    check the steering
• Look for oil or water leaks on the floor

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            Operating a Lift Truck
• Only trained, authorized operators
• Immediately report forklift-related accidents
• Seat belts must always be worn
• No person should stand under elevated
  portion of lift truck
• Forklift controls operated only from
  driver’s seat
• Never block exits or emergency equipment
• Smoking is not permitted



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             Driving Indoors
• Internal combustion engines produce Carbon
  Monoxide (CO)
  – Gasoline powered-Not allowed to operate indoors
  – LP powered-Permitted indoors but IAQ-testing
    may be necessary to avoid CO toxicity




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    Carbon Monoxide (CO)   Poisoning-
           Symptoms & Effects
•   Confusion
•   Headache
•   Dizziness
•   Fatigue
•   Weakness
•   Toxicity can cause
     – Permanent brain damage
     – Personality changes
     – Memory changes
• Even low levels of CO can cause chest pains and heart attacks
  in persons with coronary artery disease.


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               Loading / Unloading
• Before raising a load, understand:
   – Approximate weight of the load
   – Location of the load’s center of gravity
• Inspect load for stability, projections,
  damaged pallets before lifting
• Restack unstable loads
• Never place weight on the back of
  a lift truck to increase its capacity
• Towing always done from rear towing pin



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                         Parking
•   Lower the forks
•   Set gear to neutral
•   Set the parking brake
•   Turn off the key




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         TRAVELING

• Keep the load
  against the
  backrest (mast) as
  much as possible.




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            TRAVELING (cont.)
• 10% grade is when a slope changes 10
  feet in height in a 100 feet of distance.
• When going up or down an incline of 10
  percent grade or more while loaded,
  keep the load uphill.
• In other words, go up the grade in
  forward and come down the grade in
  reverse.


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           RAILROAD TRACKS
• When crossing railroad tracks, the truck
  should cross the tracks diagonally (at an
  angle).
• No parking within 8 ft. of the center of the RR
  tracks




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      TRAVELING (cont.)
• Whether loaded or unloaded, do not
  run over any avoidable objects such
  as beam, pipe, loose items, etc. as
  tire damage and possible tipping may
  occur.
• Also, avoid any wet spots on shop
  floors as this will effect braking ability
  and steering control.

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       MANEUVERING
• When unable to
  see in front of you
  because of a large
  load, you should
  drive backwards or
  have a spotter.



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       PERSONNEL LIFTING
• Employees should never be allowed
  to be lifted on the forks unless the
  proper personnel basket is used.
• Safety platform must be firmly
  secured to the lifting carriage and/or
  forks.
• Means shall be provided whereby
  personnel on the platform can shut
  off power to the truck.

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RIDERS
       • Under no circumstances
         should anyone be on a
         forklift except the
         operator (unless a safe
         place is provided)
       • This is the operator’s
         responsibility


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OVERHEAD CLEARANCE
    • Always watch for overhead
      clearance such as piping,
      overhead doors, craneways,
      etc.
    • Never get any closer to an
      electrical line than 20 feet.



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TRAVELING
  • Travel should be smooth,
    slow, cautious and the
    operator must always
    look in the direction of
    travel before
        beginning to
        move.
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TRAVELING (cont.)
  • The mast should be tilted
    slightly back, when
    possible, while traveling
    with a load.




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TRAVELING (cont.)
• Forklifts must never be
  driven up to someone
  standing in front of a
  bench or other fixed
  object.




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OPERATING

  • Arms and legs should
    never be outside the
    confines of the forklift
    cab or operators
    position.



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OPERATING (cont.)
   • Never pass another forklift
     going in the same direction
     while in the shops.
   • Pedestrians always have
     the right of way.




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MANEUVERING & STACKING
              • Do not combine
                turning,
                raising/lowering
                forks and depositing
                load all at one time.
              • The procedure
                should be as follows:


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MANEUVERING &
 STACKING (cont.)
   1. Drive up to the place
     you intend to deposit or
     pick up load and stop.
   2. Raise or lower forks
     and tilt forward or back
     to deposit or pick up
     load.

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MANEUVERING &
 STACKING (cont.)
     3. Creep forward and deposit
       or pick up load.
     4. Adjust forks and tilt.
     5. Look to direction of travel.
     6. Slowly begin travel.



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        DAMAGE REPORTING
• While handling material, report any
  damage to the material immediately
  to your supervisor.
• The damaged material may take time
  to replace and the quicker the
  damage is reported, the quicker it can
  be fixed or re-ordered.


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  DAMAGE REPORTING (cont.)
• Report any damage to property
  immediately. This includes damage
  – To doors,
  – Buildings,
  – Structures,
  – The forktruck, or
  – Other equipment, etc.


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      HANDLING VESSELS
• Name plates on bottles & scrubbers - do
  not allow them to be damaged.
• Screwed fittings - do not allow the bottle
  to rest on these fittings or let the bottle
  roll over on these fittings
• Use caution so that flange faces are not
  damaged
• To accomplish this, the bottles may have
  to be suspended under the forks using
  chokers rather than sitting on the forks.


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HANDLING VESSELS (cont.)

            • It is the operator’s
              responsibility to figure
              out how to avoid
              damage to these
              vessels or any other
              load.



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        REFUELING
• During refueling the engine must be
  shut down.
• Forklift must be parked away from
  any hot work or heat producing
  operations.
• No smoking.
• If propane fuel is used, return empty
  tank to the proper place.

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                     Propane




Line up holes
with peg
                             Relief valve must
                             be pointed UP



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         WHEN PARKING
• When parking the forklift be sure it is
  not blocking
  – Aisles,
  – Fire extinguishers,
  – Electrical panels , or
  – Exit doors.



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        WHEN PARKING (cont.)
• Shut the engine down,
• Set the handbrake,
• Ground and level
  forks,
• Neutralize controls,
  and
• Chock wheels if on an
  incline.

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     MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING

• Do not “jump” off the forklift
• Use handrails and take your time
  (maintain 3-point contact at all times)
• If the anti-skid surfaces get worn down -
  anti-skid tape can be put on them.




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           FINALLY . . .
•   Take care of the machine
•   Don't overload
•   Report damage
•   Operate at a safe speed
•   Obey all the rules



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  OSHA Required Training

• “ Prior to permitting an employee to operate a
  powered industrial truck the employer must verify
  that the operator has had complete training.”

• 29 CFR 1910.178 requires that the training be:
   – A combination of classroom and hands-on
   – Retraining done every three years
   – An evaluation of an operators driving skills



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    Fork Lift operating environments
•   Pedestrians
•   Blind spots
•   Indoors/Outdoors
•   Narrow aisles
•   Building columns
•   Operate 24 hours per day
•   Turning radius

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       Fork Lift and Pedestrians
• Pedestrians contribute to accidents
• Pedestrians do no understand stopping
  distances
• Pedestrians tried to “beat” a lift truck




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Most Common Incidents
   • Tip over
   • Struck by
       – Lift
       – Load
   •   Elevated Employee
   •   Ran off dock
   •   Improper Maintenance
   •   Loss of Control




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        Always think where am I
           Where am I going
n Workplace-related        topics
– Surface conditions                     – Operating on ramps and
– Composition and                          sloped surfaces
  stability of loads                     – Potentially hazardous
                                           environmental conditions
– Load manipulation,
  stacking, unstacking                   – Operating in closed
                                           environments or other
– Pedestrian traffic                       areas where poor
– Narrow aisles and                        ventilation or maintenance
  restricted areas                         could cause carbon
                                           monoxide or diesel exhaust
– Operating in hazardous
                                           buildup
  (classified) locations

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                  Certification

• The employer shall certify that each
  operator has been trained and evaluated
  as required by the standard.
• Certification shall include:
  – Name of operator
  – Date of training
  – Date of evaluation
  – Identity of person(s) performing the training
    or evaluation


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                                    Quiz
1. If your forklift has a rearview mirror,
   looking behind you is not necessary.                             True or False
2. Name two of the three ways to detect
   a propane leak: ___________, ___________
3. Describe the four items that must be completed
   prior to driving your forklift into a trailer.
4. If a load blocks your vision, it is OK to raise
   the load while moving to see under it.                           True or False
5. Pre-operation inspections are done only
   because Marquis Alliance says we have to do them.                       T or F

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                           Quiz (cont.)
6. Attachments reduce capacity by increasing
   the load center and adding weight.                             True or False
7. Minimum PPE items required when refueling
   a propane tank are ___________, ____________.
8. The most important differences between a
   forklift and a car are weight and steering.                           T or F
9. Name at least one condition that when
   combined with turning sharply may cause a tipover.
10. Pedestrians have the right-of-way only
    while in designated pedestrian lanes.                         True or False


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Don’t let this be the end




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Description: worker safety