TERRORISM by 7s914o76



 Criminology 2009
     Definition of Terrorism:
• Premeditated, politically motivated
  violence perpetuated against
  noncombatant targets by subnational
  groups or clandestine agents, usually
  intended to influence an audience (Siegel,
     Contemporary Forms of
  – Use violence to frighten those in power & their
    supporters in order to REPLACE the existing
• POLITICAL Terrorism:
  – Directed at people or groups who oppose the
    terrorists’ political or religious ideology or whom the
    terrorists define as “outsiders”. Political terrorists do
    not want to REPLACE government but
    SHAPE it to fit their views.
     Contemporary Forms of
• NATIONALIST Terrorism:
  – Promotes the interest of a minority ethnic or religious group that
    believes it has been persecuted under majority rule and wishes
    to carve out its own independent homeland.

• CAUSE-BASED Terrorism:
  – Terrorism that espouses a particular social or religious cause
    and uses violence to attract followers to their standard. They
    do not want to set up their own homeland or government, rather,
    they want to impose their social and religious code on the world.
       Contemporary Forms of
   – Terrorism in responses to actions by governments or businesses that
     are seen as “environmentally threatening”

   – When a repressive government regime forces its citizens into
     obedience, oppresses minorities, and stifles political dissent (think
     Death Squads)

• CRIMINAL Terrorism:
   – When terrorists become involved in COMMON LAW crimes (drug
     dealing, kidnapping, pirating, etc.)
Type of Terrorism?
               •The War in Darfur is a
               conflict that is in the Darfur
               region of western Sudan.
               Unlike the Second Sudanese
               Civil War, the current lines of
               conflict are seen by some to
               be ethnic, rather than
               religious. However, a United
               Nations report states that the
               various tribes under attack
               by the Sudanese troops and
               Janjaweed (chiefly the Fur,
               Masalit and Zaghawa tribes)
               do not appear to have a
               distinct ethnicity from their
               attackers. There is
               controversy over whether or
               not the conflict involves a
    Type of Terrorism?

Earth Liberation Front burning of SUVs.
Type of Terrorism?
                 Mumbai, India
                 • The 2008 Mumbai attacks
                 were more than ten
                 coordinated shooting and
                 bombing attacks across
                 Mumbai, India's financial
                 capital and its largest city.
                 •Ajmal Amir Kasab, the only
                 attacker who was captured
                 alive, disclosed that the
                 attackers were members of
                 Lashkar-e-Taiba, the
                 Pakistan-based militant
                 organization, considered a
                 terrorist organization by
                 India, the United States, and
                 the United Kingdom, among
                 others. The Indian
                 Government said that the
                 attackers came from
                 Pakistan, and their
                 controllers were in Pakistan.
Type of Terrorism?

 U.S.-Mexican DRUG WAR
Type of Terrorism?
               •July 7, 2005

               •London bombings (also
               called the 7/7 bombings)
               were a series of coordinated
               suicide bomb attacks on
               London's public transport
               system during the morning
               rush hour. Carried out by
               British Muslims, the suicide
               bombings were motivated by
               Islamic extremism, and
               ostensibly Britain's
               involvement in the Iraq War
               and other conflicts.
Type of Terrorism?
            OK City Bombings
            •The Oklahoma City bombing occurred on
            Aprilハ19, 1995 which resulted in the
            destruction of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal
            Building, a government office complex in
            downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The
            attack claimed 168ハlives and left over 800ハ
            people injured. It was the largest terrorist
            attack on American soil in history before the
            September 11 attacks. It remains the
            deadliest act of domestic terrorism in
            American history.
            •Within days, McVeigh and Terry Nichols
            were both arrested for their roles in the
            bombing. Investigators determined that they
            were sympathizers of a militia movement and
            that their motive was to retaliate against the
            government's handling of the Waco and
            Ruby Ridge incidents (the bombing occurred
            on the anniversary of the Waco incident).
Type of Terrorism?

            September 11, 2001
   Responses to Terrorism:
 – Law that gives enforcement agencies a freer hand to
   investigate and apprehend suspected terrorists.
    • 1.Records searches. It expands the government's ability to
      look at records on an individual's activity being held by a
      third parties.
    • 2.Secret searches. It expands the government's ability to
      search private property without notice to the owner.
    • 3.Intelligence searches. It expands a narrow exception to the
      Fourth Amendment that had been created for the collection
      of foreign intelligence information
    • 4."Trap and trace" searches. It expands another Fourth
      Amendment exception for spying that collects "addressing"

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