TERRORISM Criminology 2009 Definition of Terrorism: • Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience (Siegel, 261) Contemporary Forms of TERRORISM: • REVOLUTIONARY Terrorism: – Use violence to frighten those in power & their supporters in order to REPLACE the existing government. • POLITICAL Terrorism: – Directed at people or groups who oppose the terrorists’ political or religious ideology or whom the terrorists define as “outsiders”. Political terrorists do not want to REPLACE government but SHAPE it to fit their views. Contemporary Forms of TERRORISM: • NATIONALIST Terrorism: – Promotes the interest of a minority ethnic or religious group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule and wishes to carve out its own independent homeland. • CAUSE-BASED Terrorism: – Terrorism that espouses a particular social or religious cause and uses violence to attract followers to their standard. They do not want to set up their own homeland or government, rather, they want to impose their social and religious code on the world. Contemporary Forms of TERRORISM: • ENVIRONMENTAL Terrorism: – Terrorism in responses to actions by governments or businesses that are seen as “environmentally threatening” • STATE SPONSORED Terrorism: – When a repressive government regime forces its citizens into obedience, oppresses minorities, and stifles political dissent (think Death Squads) • CRIMINAL Terrorism: – When terrorists become involved in COMMON LAW crimes (drug dealing, kidnapping, pirating, etc.) Type of Terrorism? DARFUR: •The War in Darfur is a conflict that is in the Darfur region of western Sudan. Unlike the Second Sudanese Civil War, the current lines of conflict are seen by some to be ethnic, rather than religious. However, a United Nations report states that the various tribes under attack by the Sudanese troops and Janjaweed (chiefly the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa tribes) do not appear to have a distinct ethnicity from their attackers. There is controversy over whether or not the conflict involves a genocide. Type of Terrorism? Earth Liberation Front burning of SUVs. Type of Terrorism? Mumbai, India • The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's financial capital and its largest city. •Ajmal Amir Kasab, the only attacker who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organization, considered a terrorist organization by India, the United States, and the United Kingdom, among others. The Indian Government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan. Type of Terrorism? U.S.-Mexican DRUG WAR Type of Terrorism? LONDON Bombings •July 7, 2005 •London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks on London's public transport system during the morning rush hour. Carried out by British Muslims, the suicide bombings were motivated by Islamic extremism, and ostensibly Britain's involvement in the Iraq War and other conflicts. Type of Terrorism? OK City Bombings •The Oklahoma City bombing occurred on Aprilﾊ19, 1995 which resulted in the destruction of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The attack claimed 168ﾊlives and left over 800ﾊ people injured. It was the largest terrorist attack on American soil in history before the September 11 attacks. It remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in American history. •Within days, McVeigh and Terry Nichols were both arrested for their roles in the bombing. Investigators determined that they were sympathizers of a militia movement and that their motive was to retaliate against the government's handling of the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents (the bombing occurred on the anniversary of the Waco incident). Type of Terrorism? September 11, 2001 Responses to Terrorism: • The U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT (USAPA): – Law that gives enforcement agencies a freer hand to investigate and apprehend suspected terrorists. • 1.Records searches. It expands the government's ability to look at records on an individual's activity being held by a third parties. • 2.Secret searches. It expands the government's ability to search private property without notice to the owner. • 3.Intelligence searches. It expands a narrow exception to the Fourth Amendment that had been created for the collection of foreign intelligence information • 4."Trap and trace" searches. It expands another Fourth Amendment exception for spying that collects "addressing"
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