Soc213(005) by Xu2V1z


									Soc213(005)              Social Deviance          Bogart           Test01B                   09/19/00

Part01: Text (Thio) Items: Old

Ch. 02: Traditional Theories

01. If you believe that deviant behavior has characteristics that distinguish it from conforming behavior, you
believe deviance is. A. intrinsically real. B. a biased concept. C. biologically determined D. a label.

02. According to Merton's goal-means gap theory, the only cultural value of importance in American society is.
A. religious faith. B. material success. C. family relationships. D. hard work.

03. According to Cohen's theory, the place in American society where lower-class boys experience the greatest
status frustration is A. home. B. school. C. delinquent subcultures. D. boys clubs. (p. 20)

04. According to Cloward and Ohlin, which subculture requires courage for risking injury or death in a gang
warfare? A. conformist subculture B. criminal subculture C. ritualist subculture D. conflict subculture (p. 31)

05. While Merton's theory emphasizes how individuals use deviant behavior to solve the problem of the goal-
means gap, Cohen's theory emphasizes how lower class boys work. A. together as a group to steal, thereby
solving the problem of a lack of money. B. as individuals to change the structure of society. C. together as a
group to solve the problem of status frustration. D. as individuals to solve the problem of status frustration.

06. Which of the following concepts constitutes the core of Sutherland's differential association theory?. A.
excess of criminal over anticriminal associations, B. excess of criminal over anticriminal personality traits, C.
numerous associations with criminals, D. strong criminal personality

07. Joe is a sociologist who is undertaking a study of drug use. He is interested in how drug addicts think of
themselves and experience the label of deviance. Joe is following a ______ theory of deviant behavior. A)
positivist B) humanist C) scientific D) historical (p. 24)

08. Burgess and Akers argued that before one becomes criminal, a process of ______ must occur where he or
she is rewarded for continuing deviant behavior. A. differential reinforcement, B. differential learning, C.
differential revulsion, D. differential rejection

09. According to control theories of deviance, the central question is A. what causes deviance. B. what causes
conformity. C. what causes criminality. D. what is the definition of deviance. (p. 38)

10. One criticism of control theory is that it A. can only explain adolescent deviance or juvenile delinquency.
B. can only explain white collar crime. C. can only locate rewards for deviance but not punishments to deter
deviance. D. cannot locate the role of bonding in deterring deviance. (p. 42)

Ch. 3: Modern Theories of Deviance
11. What phenomenologists call deviant reality refers to. A. the characteristics of deviance as shown by
objectively acquired data. B. the nature of deviant behavior as seen by positivists. C. the reality of deviance
being defined as such by the powerful. D. the subjective meaning that deviants impute to their own deviant

12. To phenomenologists, "constructs of the second degree". A. reflect the real meaning of deviance. B. are far
removed from the reality of deviant experience. C. reflect deviants' subjective views. D. are truly objective,
because they are free of emotional judgment.

13. One criticism of phenomenological theory is that it fails to see that. A. powerless people have very little free
will. B. everyone is free to commit deviant acts. C. the middle and upper classes have little control over their
behavior. D. the poor and powerless, despite problems, think deeply before committing deviant acts.
14. In Chambliss's view, many legal scholars and social scientists assume that the law. A. is imposed by the
power elite on the masses. B. favors the rich and the powerful. C. is the means used by the government to
oppress the citizenry. D. is based on the widespread consensus of citizens.

15. Quinney and other conflict theorists see something terribly wrong with existing society, and have called for.
A. a more extensive study of the sociology of deviance. B. more police and the stricter enforcement of the law.
C. political action. D. less deviant behavior.

16. Labeling theory interprets deviance as a(n) A. totally subjective experience. B. expression of human
animalistic tendencies. C. process of symbolic interactionism. D. outcome of conflict between powerful
groups. (p.46)

17. One negative criticism of labeling theory is that it A. is not a sociological theory. B. does not actually
explain the causes of deviance. C. is too deterministic a theory. D. emphasizes the causes of deviance too
much. (p. 50)

18. To phenomenologists, "constructs of the second degree" A. reflect the real meaning of deviance. B. reflect
deviants' subjective views. C. are far removed from the reality of deviant experience. D. are truly objective,
because they are free of emotional judgment. (p. 55)

19. According to Marxist theory, most crimes among the working classes are actually A. diabolical, evil
actions. B. the result of the exercise of free will. C. clear examples of secondary deviance. D. a means of
survival. (p. 66)

20. Feminist theorists argue that most theories of deviance A. stereotype women. B. are only about men. C.
call for the exploitation of women by men. D. are not related to gender. (p. 67)

Part02: Lecture Items -- Old

21. According to Durkheim, a society without crime is A. impossible, B. probably preindustrial, C. a society of
saints, D. is a society without inequality, E. possible but not probable.

22. According to Kingsley Davis, where the traditional monogamous family is strong, _____ will be vigorous.
A. crime prevention, B. crime awareness, C. prostitution, D. homosexuality, E. law enforcement.

23. Erikson: The _____ of the community become defined (and maintained) in the critical transactions between
(1) deviants, and (2) official agents of the community. A. values, B. norms, C. mores, D. boundaries, E. terms
of discourse

24. According to Kingsley Davis, the reasons why prostitution exists include all of the following EXCEPT. A.
individuals can trade sexuality for economic advantage. B. prostitution is impersonal sex. C. society allows great
sexual freedom. D. prostitution provides for erotic release. E. women are receptive anytime.
25. According to Erickson, the Puritans. A. had little deviance in their communities. B. had a high level of
deviance because they felt that they were God's community on Earth. C. were successful in their own minds in
keeping the devil at bay. D. tried to rehabilitate witches in the surrounding communities. E. were known for
their religious tolerance.

26. Faris and Dunham in their book, MENTAL DISORDERS IN URBAN AREAS, say that mental disorders
and especially schizophrenia are more common in: A. the suburban zones of an urbanized area; B. the highly

organized areas of the city; C. the "zone of transition"; D. residential and business areas located near the mental
institutions; E. Zone 4.

27. C. Wright Mills described the early Chicago sociologists in the phrase: A. human ecologists; B. social
pathologists; C. social empiricists; D. robber barons; E. deans of sociology.

28. According to Thomas and Znaniecki, social disorganization can be defined as a decline in the influence of
rules, and the stability of group institutions is the result of two opposing forces of:. A. competition and
collaboration., B. growth and decline. C. management and labor., D. disorganization and reorganization.

29. Park used this metaphor for what he saw as the most problematic elements of society in Chicago:, A. human
sewer, B. cesspool of the soul, C. scrap pile of humanity, D. God's darkest alley, E. human junk.

30. Thomas & Znaniecki were part of the _____ school. A. Early Chicago School B. Deconstructionist C. Neo-
Marxist D. Kulturkreise E. Sociobiological.

31. According to Durkheim, the secret to human contentment and happiness is based in A. social regulation, B.
sexual satisfaction, C. freedom from want, D. social intimacy, E. the ability to keep up with the Joneses.

32. The prime example of Merton's concept of anomie lies in the disjunction between A. the Latin and
Germanic cultural influences on America, B. Ango and Saxon roots of American language, C. pragmatic and
idealistic strains in American jurisprudence, D. the American dream and opportunity structure, E. different
orientations toward elitism and egalitarianism in American philosophical traditions

33. Cloward (& Ohlin) argued that Merton (in his Anomie model) erred in failing to pay adequate attention to
differential A. income, B. motivation, C. legitimate opportunities generally, D. illegitimate opportunities
generally, E. marginality.

34. According to Merton, what is the American open-class-ideology:. A. anyone can rise from any position to
the top, B. individuals stay in the same class as that of their parents, C. you must know someone to get to the
top, D. resort to any means necessary to achieve success, E. work hard and you will eventually be rewarded.

35. Cloward intends to consolidate two approaches: differential association and:. A. social disorganization, B.
functional theory, C. organic theory, D. anomie theory, E. deviant concept.

36. Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey presented a developmental theory to explain criminal behavior
which include all of the following key points EXCEPT. A. criminal behavior is learned. B. the specific direction
of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. C. criminal
behavior is inherited. D. a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation
of the law. E. learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.

37. Most unlike Cohen, Sykes and Matza argued that delinquents tend to A. oppose conventional middle class
culture, B. come from upwardly mobile families, C. share common American values, D. know how to engage in
delinquent acts without much learning, E. denigrate parental authority.

38. According to Sutherland and Cressey, the concept of "differential association" asks the question A. how are
criminals different from non-criminals?, B. what are the differences between white-collar crime and violent
crime?, C. in what way do criminals associate with non-criminals?, D. are all people basically criminal by
definition?, E. what is the difference between legal associations and illegal associations?

39. Sykes and Matza noted that while Cohen claimed that delinquents share values and norms contrary to those
of middle class culture, in actuality A. many deviants simply have no sense of values at all; B. delinquents
exhibit shame and guilt in much the same way as the rest of society; C. deviant behavior is inevitable, thus

prevention is preferable to the study of causation; D. it is class division which is the cause of participation in
deviant subcultures; E. the wealthy in society demonstrate just as much "deviance" as do those labeled as

40. Sutherland and Cressey presented a developmental theory to explain that criminal behavior as something
that is learned. Their theory is known as A. control theory. B. differential identification theory. C. criminal
learning theory. D. social disorganization theory. E. differential association theory.

Part03: New Text (Thio) Items

Ch. 02: Traditional Theories of Deviance

41. People who respond to the goal-means gap by lowering their aspirations so that they may more readily
achieve their goals are said to be _____. A. rebels B. retreatists C. innovators D. ritualists E. conformists (p. 19)

42. Cohen maintains that delinquent subcultures are a direct result of _____. A. retreatism B. criminal conflict
C. status frustration D. rebellion E. ritualism (p. 20)

43. The following strain theory is associated with which of the following theorists? (goal-means gap (r)
differential illegitimate opportunity (r) different deviant activities) A. Merton B. Glaser C. Cloward & Ohlin D.
Cohen E. Burgess (p. 22)

44. Which of the following is NOT one of Thio's criticisms of strain theory? A. U.S. society encourages lower-
class people to embrace high success goals. B. The development of strain theory was instrumental in advancing
the idea that society, rather than the individual, causes deviant behavior. C. People of all social classes tend to
engage in deviant behavior if they experience a significant gap between aspiration and opportunity. D. People
of lower classes are more likely than those of other classes to engage in deviant activities. E. Lower-class
people do not tend to hold the same level of success aspirations as do upper- and middle-class people. (pp. 22-

45. Sutherland's theory of differential association is rooted in the assumption that deviant behavior is _____. A.
learned B. retreatist C. legitimate D. repetitive E. innate (p. 23)

46. Which of the following concepts is NOT associated with Burgess & Akers' theory? A. operant behavior
theory B. operant conditioning theory C. learning theory D. differential reinforcement E. differential
identification (p. 25)

47. Control theorists approach the issue of deviant behavior by asking the following question: What causes
_____? A. identification B. labeling C. conformity D. deviance E. frustration (p. 26)

48. Attachment, commitment, involvement and moral belief are the cornerstones of Hirschi's explanation for
_____. A. innovation B. social learning C. ritualism D. social bond E. status frustration (p. 27)

49. According to Braithwaite, communitarian societies are marked by _____. A. strong individualism B.
reintegrative shaming C. weak social relationships D. stigmatization E. disintegrative shaming (p. 28)

50. Braithwaite's theory and the deterrence doctrine differ from Hirschi's theory in that they specifically focus on
_____. A. identification versus reinforcement B. social bond and self-control C. status frustration versus
differential illegitimate opportunity D. ritualism versus retreatism D. informal versus formal social controls (p.

Ch. 03: Modern Theories of Deviance

51. Traditional sociologists and modern sociologists disagree primarily on the issues of _____ and _____. A.
positivism; negativism B. theory; action C. dependence; independence D. causation; meaning E. hidden
deviance; overt deviance (p. 34)

52. Labeling theory is a version of _____. A. symbolic interactionism B. anomie C. the deterrence doctrine D.
exchange theory E. dramaturgical theory (p. 34)

53. Labeling theorists are primarily interested in analyzing the process of becoming a _____ deviant. A.
primary B. secondary C. sequential D. traditional E. legitimate (p. 36)

54. Which of the following terms does NOT belong? A. ethnomethodology B. sociology of everyday life C.
creative D. existential E. deterministic (p. 38)

55. The terms, phenomenological bracketing and phenomenological reduction, refer to _____.
A. positive consequences B. negative consequences C. situated meanings D. abstract meanings E. theoretic
independence (pp. 39-40)

56. Legal reality and social reality are concepts related to _____ theory. A. control B. power
C. phenomenological D. conflict E. labeling (pp. 43-45)

57. The term, organizational imperative, reflects the concept of _____. A. the exploitative nature of capitalism
B. women as victims C. a strong deviant motivation on behalf of the powerful in society D. law enforcers as
tools of power and privilege E. powerless deviants as highly sophisticated, free-thinking and choice-making
individuals (p. 44)

58. One of the objectives of Quinney's social reality theory is _____. A. an appeal for the development of a
revolutionary consciousness B. a streamlining of the legal system C. a thorough investigation of victimless
crimes D. a more positivistic approach to social crimes E. the feminization of poverty (p. 45)

59. According to Marxist theory, deviance is caused by creating _____. A. an ideology of crime B. an
organizational imperative C. a marginal surplus population D. a society of victims E. weaker social controls (p.

60. Which of the following statements is FALSE in relation to Thio's discussion of conflict theory? A. If social
equality were achieved, serious forms of deviance would disappear. B. Conflict theory is useful for
understanding how social inequality affects societal norms. C. Conflict theory is useful for understanding the
motivations behind the formulations of laws. D. Deviance is inevitable. E. Trivial deviances, such as loitering
and alcohol consumption, threaten powerful people's values. (p. 49)

Part 04: New Lecture Items

Lecture 1: Functional Theory

61. According to Durkheim, a society is best served if crime is: A. eliminated; B. minimized; C. optimized
(neither high nor low); D. cyclical; E. constant.

62. Durkheim's conception of crime as "normal" argued that crime is A. universal, B. functional, C. necessary or
intrinsic, D. all of the above, E. none of the above.

63. According to Davis, prostitution of various forms has been socially sanctioned in some societies and eras
because A. Patriarchal men were in charge, B. women's social status was particularly high (as reflected in the
worship of a goddess, C. because t hey were unfamiliar with the Judeo or Christian respect for women, D.

important social (familial, religious, economic) functions were served, E. these societies were in the early stages
of development.

64. The perspective of Davis would suggest that the strongest opponents of unrestricted indulgence in sex for the
fun of it by both sexes would be: A. the established churches; B. males; C. females; D. the organized crime
institutions running houses of pr ostitution; E. A and B in equal force.

65. Erikson most centrally focused on _____ in elaborating his functionalist argument about the social creation
and maintenance of deviance and crime. A. Puritain America, B. Southern slavery, C. the age of the "Robber
Barons", D. war profiteers during WW II, E. prostitutes and hustlers.

Lecture 02: Social Disorganization Theory

66. The early Social Disorganization theorists have also been identified as A. functionalists, B. anomie theorists,
C. symbolic interactionists, D. social pathologists, E. all of the above.

67. Thomas & Znaniecki focused on deviance in their study of: A. the Polish girls; B. Puritans; C. STREET
CORNER SOCIETY; D. Suicide; E. jazz musicians.

68. Park contended that patterns of deviance are especially associated with: A. ignorance; B. social change; C.
human greed and excess; D. religous diversity; E. unmarried males.

69. Faris and Dunham related mental disorder in particular and deviance generally to the ecological factor of:
A. population size; B. the demographic transition; C. cultural lag; D. urban zones; E. group dominance.

70. The classic description of the thoughts and prejudices of the Social Disorganization school was written by:
A. Kingsley Davis; B. Thomas & Znaniecki; C. C. Wright Mills; D. Robert Merton; E. Edwin Sutherland.

Lecture 3: Anomie Theory

71.. Durkheim saw the passions and impulses of humans as: A. self regulated; B. stimulated by urban
environments; C. helpful to society; D. variable across races; E. relatively boundless unless externally

72. Durkheim: _____ functions are really among the occupations which furnish the greatest number of suicides.
A. religious and spiritual, B. industrial and commercial, C. political and governmental, D. agricultural and
ranching, E. teaching and educational

73. In the category of _____ Merton places psychotics, autists, pariahs, outcasts, vagrants, vagabonds, tramps,
chronic drunks and drug addicts. A. conformists; B. innovators; C. ritualists; D. retreatists; E. rebels.

74. The bureaucratic emphasis on rules as an end in themselves would most aptly be described as: A.
innovation; B. conformity; C. ritualism; D. rebellion; E. retreatism.

75. Cloward's analysis of anomie theory adds what novel element to that of Durkheim and Merton? A. that a
person who does not have access to legitimate means to attain his goals will innovate illegitimate ones; B. that
the definition of anomie can be expa nded to include all class levels; C. offers an extension of their work to
explain drug use as well as suicide and crime; D. points out that there is differential opportunity structures in
illegal as well as legal means; E. it includes women as well as men .

Lecture 4: Differential Association Theory

76. Sutherland argues in his description of the development theory of criminal behavior, that the important
process in the development of this behavior is: A. that criminal behavior develops when it is so labeled; B. that
criminal behavior develops in r elationship to the individual's identification with his or her actions or behavior;
C. that criminal behavior is basically an inherent and ascribed condition; D. that criminal behavior is more
prevalent among the lower classes than the upper classes; E. that criminal behavior is learned.

77. The apparent reason why Glaser extends Sutherland's theory of differential association is that the theory: A.
overemphasizes the individual's choice-making ability; B. ignores the individual's choice-making ability; C.
ignores societal influence on the individual; D. is not supported by empirical data; E. is too confusing.

78. According to Cressey the trust violator sees his own behavior as: A. criminal; B. unjustified; C. his own
fault; D. inexplicable; E. none of the above.

79. Techniques of neutralization according to Sykes and Matza are: A. ways the deviant uses to maintain
dominance; B. rationalizations the individual uses to protect him/herself from blame; C. means of maintaining
a non-deviant or non-criminal status; D. ways a deviant uses to violate the laws of a society; E. techniques the
dominant society uses to control the subcultural groups in a society.

80. In contrast to Sutherland, Sykes and Matza suggest that: A. delinquent behavior is learned from friends and
family; B. individuals seek to rationalize or neutralize the guilt associated with committing crimes; C.
delinquent behavior results from inad equate socialization; D. criminal behavior is caused by associated guilt;
E. individuals who commit crimes generally do not accept society's values and therefore feel no guilt.


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