Recommendations by HC111116234618

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									         Report


            of


 Next Generation Network


Expert Committee (NGN-eCO)
                        CONTENTS

S.NO.                    TITLE                    PAGE
                                                   NO.
 1.     PREFACE                                     3-4
 2.     INTRODUCTION                                5-8

 3.     LICENSING ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT        9-21

 4.     INTERCONNECTION ISSUES IN NGN              22-70
        ENVIRONMENT
 5.     QoS   ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT            71-83

 6.     NGN AWARENESS BUILDING                     84-86

 7.     TIMING OF NGN TRANSITION                   87-89

 8.     OTHER ISSUES                               90-92

 9.     GIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS                   93-102

10.     ANNEXURE I- LIST OF NGN-eCO MEMBERS        103

11.     ANNEXURE II- LIST OF CORE GROUP MEMBERS   104-105

12.     ANNEXURE III- REPORT OF LICENSING CORE    106-136
        GROUP
13.     ANNEXURE IV- REPORT OF INTERCONNECTION    137-189
        CORE GROUP
14.     ANNEXURE V- REPORT OF QoS CORE GROUP      190-213

15.     ANNEXURE VI- LIST OF DRAFTING GROUP         214
        MEMBERS
16.     ANNEXURE VII- ITU-T Y.1541                 215
        RECOMMENDATIONS

17.     ABBREVIATIONS                              216




                             2
                                PREFACE


Telecom sector in India is growing at a rapid pace. In the recent
past, Indian Telecom Sector has witnessed steep growth in terms of
mobile subscribers.      India has already joined elite club of 200
million telephone subscribers in Feb. 2007. More than 7 million
wireless   subscribers    are   being   added   every   month.   This
tremendous growth in the mobile services is the result of regulatory
reform, innovative business practices and leveraging technological
developments. In order to ensure the growth of sector as well to
sustain the revenues , service providers are exploring new avenues
for revenue generation by introducing new services. Networks need
to be open and flexible to provide value added services and
contents easily.   It is in this context     NGN platform plays an
important role.


NGN facilitates launch of new services at affordable price. It is in
this perspective that a consultation paper was issued in January
2006 by TRAI to generate awareness on NGN and sought
comments of stakeholders. Based on the recommendations, an
NGN expert committee named NGN-eCO was constituted. NGN-
eCO in its first meeting desired certain issues to be analyzed in
depth. Accordingly three core groups were constituted to address
issues related to Licensing, Interconnection and QoS.            The
members in these groups have generously contributed and
participated in the discussions.


Globally different approaches have been taken by regulators with
regard to PSTN     & IP networks.       Since NGN combines both at
technical level, the regulations must be able to cater for co-
existence of legacy & newer generation networks. The key question
then is whether such a framework should be regarded as a choice
                            3
between two different regulatory approaches , a hybrid system or
an entirely new model.      Since   NGN is in evolving stage, a light
regulatory approach will be preferred. The licensing framework
should facilitate to create conducive environment for smooth
migration to NGN and its implementation. Efficient interconnection
is crucial in NGN environment. Interconnection is fundamentally
important because the telecom system must function seamlessly
and investment in one         part of the network create potential
benefits    across the networks. Users desire end-to-end services
within multiple networks.


Quality of Service is another challenge for rapid growing market
and fast changing technologies. The QoS in NGN is crucial due to
different type of users and service applications with different bearer
requirements. Present day customers are so sensitive that today
they talk about quality of experience (QoE) instead of QoS.


It is hoped that recommendations on Licensing, Interconnection
and QoS issues will create awareness among various stakeholders
particularly telecom service providers, network solution providers
and equipment vendors on NGN issues. It will form a basis to take
further action to facilitate smooth migration to Next Generation
Networks.
I am grateful to all the members of NGN-eCO for their valuable
contributions in bringing out the report.




                                           ( R.K. ARNOLD )
                                          SECRETARY , TRAI
                         CHAIRMAN – NGN EXPERT COMMITTEE




                               4
                                 CHAPTER 1

                                 INTRODUCTION

1.    Background

1.1   Next Generation Network (NGN) is a powerful platform to provide
      different services like Voice, Video and Data.              The increasing
      competition in telecom network and subscriber‟s desire to have
      new application based services has generated considerable interest
      amongst service providers to migrate to NGN environment. The
      NGN platform will enable the telecom providers to provide a new
      range of services. NGN will help to create opportunities for revenue
      enhancement.      Hence,    identifying       impediments     and   creating
      conducive environment will be necessary for smooth migration to
      NGN.


1.2   TRAI had issued a consultation paper on “Issues Pertaining to Next
      Generation Networks (NGN)” in January 2006 and subsequently
      the recommendations were sent to Government on 20th March
      2006.


1.3   During the Consultation process the stakeholders in general had
      expressed an urgent need for creation of a high-level cross-industry
      coordination committee for NGN consisting of representatives from
      Licensor,     Regulator,   TEC,       Service    Providers,    Vendors     &
      Academicians      to   examine    all   the     relevant   issues   so   that
      transition/migration from TDM networks to NGN is smooth and
      systematic.




                                        5
1.4   As a follow-up action to TRAI recommendations, a cross industry
      expert group was constituted by TRAI namely NGN-eCO (Next
      Generation Networks Expert Committee) on 20th June, 2006 to
      address various issues related to NGN.   Simultaneously another
      committee has been formed by the TEC to study & analyze various
      international developments pertaining to NGN so as to incorporate
      the same in Indian context and define interface requirements in a
      time bound manner.


1.5   Constitution of NGN-eCO.
1.5.1 NGN Expert Committee (NGN-eCO) has been constituted under the
      chairmanship of Secretary, TRAI by co-opting experts from DOT,
      TEC, C-DOT, Service Providers, Vendors and Academicians with
      following terms of reference:-


      a)    To study and suggest NGN awareness building program
      b)    Timetable for NGN migration in the country
      c)    To prepare background paper to be used for consultation on
            NGN issues.


      The list of NGN-eCO members is placed at Annexure-I.


1.5.2 The First meeting of NGN-eCO was held on 11th October 2006 at
      New Delhi. The committee identified three core areas for in-depth
      deliberations and decided to form three core groups on the
      following issues:
      a.   Licensing Issues
      b.   Interconnection Issues
      c.   QoS related issues.




                                       6
1.5.3 The members of NGN-eCO were requested to nominate suitable
      persons for these core groups. It was further resolved at the NGN-
      eCO meeting that the Core Groups would deliberate upon these
      specific issues and submit their reports within two months time in
      order to help NGN-eCO to formulate its final recommendations.


1.6   Constitution of Core Groups
1.6.1 On the basis of the nominations received from members of      NGN-
      eCO, three Core groups were constituted. The members of          the
      Core   groups   represent   Associations   of    Service   Providers,
      Associations of Equipment Manufactures, Licensor (Department of
      Telecom), Research organizations, Academic institutions etc. The
      list of core group members is attached at Annexure-II.


1.7   Reports of Core Groups
1.7.1 All the three core groups submitted their reports and presented
      their recommendations in the 2nd Meeting of NGN-eCO which was
      held on 12th June 2007 at New Delhi. The recommendations of all
      the three core groups were deliberated at length in the 2nd NGN-
      eCO meeting and efforts of the core groups were commended.
      Copies of the reports were circulated among the members with a
      view to get their feedback on the recommendations of three core
      groups. The reports of all the three core groups are attached at
      Annexure III, IV & V. The NGN expert committee also deliberated
      further course of action. A need was felt to constitute a drafting
      committee to prepare NGN Expert Committee report. Accordingly,
      a drafting committee was constituted.           The list of drafting
      committee members is attached at Annexure VI.        The draft report
      was circulated to NGN-eCO members on 1st August, 2007 with a




                                    7
        request    to submit their        comments on recommendations of NGN-
         eCO by 10th August 2007. After considering all the feedbacks, 3rd
         meeting of NGN-eCO was held on 24th August, 2007 in New Delhi.
         All the issues where concerns were raised by stakeholders were
         discussed at length in 3rd NGN-eCO meeting.                        Core group
         recommendations were suitably modified to accommodate concerns
         of stakeholders.


 1.8     Structure of the report
 1.8.1 The report has been structured in eight chapters. Chapters 2, 3
         and 4 deliberate on Licensing issues, Interconnection issues and
         QoS      issues   respectively.    Chapter     5     discusses     about    NGN
         awareness building measures. Chapter 6 deliberates on time frame
         for NGN implementation.           Chapters 7 discusses other issues of
         NGN like need and time to implement IPv6, Net neutrality,
         Synchronization requirement in NGN environment etc. Chapter 8
         has a gist of recommendations.


1.9      Conclusion
1.9.1    The NGN Expert Committee feels that detailed deliberations on
         NGN is necessary considering the complexities of issues related
         with     implementation     of    NGN.   The       deliberations   and     active
         involvement of industry has generated good awareness on NGN. It
         is hoped that the NGN-eCO report will form a basis to take further
         necessary action to create conducive environment for migration to
         NGN.




                                             8
                                CHAPTER 2

                 LICENSING ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT


2.0   Introduction:


2.1   In other words, NGN provides a single multi-service network which
      encompasses all the elements of existing telecommunication
      networks. The increasing competition in telecom and subscriber‟s
      desire to have new services has generated considerable interest in
      service providers to migrate to NGN environment. Next Generation
      Network (NGN) is a powerful platform to provide different services
      including Voice, Video and Data.


2.2   NGN is a platform, which can evolve in step-by-step manner to
      create, deploy, and manage innovative services. NGN enhances the
      service delivery capabilities of networks. It brings together the
      information, broadcasting and telecom worlds. It represents a shift
      away from centralized intelligence in the central switch of the
      network to intelligence in the various layers of the network like
      access, service, transport and control layers representing a
      quantum leap in the network intelligence and capabilities.


2.3   NGN is a technological advancement and therefore, many a time
      questions are raised whether regulatory interventions are really
      required to encourage migration to NGN especially when regulators
      are technology neutral.    The other view is that regulators have to
      create conducive environment       to   make available    value added
      services at affordable price to subscribers. Hence regulators need
      to facilitate process to migrate to NGN. It is in this perspective that
      the NGN-eCO analyzed important issues relating to licensing
      conditions.   Some of the issues related to the licensing policy over




                                     9
      lap with the interconnection and QOS issues. However, since
       licensing issues have to be dealt in licensing conditions of service
       providers,   they   have    been    dealt   separately.   The   detailed
       interconnection issues are dealt in Chapter-3 and QOS issues in
       Chapter-4 of this report.


2.4    There was complete agreement in NGN-eCO that regulator‟s role is
       only to identify likely impediments and ensure corrective action at
       appropriate point of time to develop an environment supportive for
       migration to NGN.     The members of NGN-eCO were unanimous
       that there is no need of regulatory intervention to encourage or
       promote migration of existing networks to NGN.            The decision
       regarding time of migration and level of migration be left to service
       providers based on their business model and their perception of
       demand related to NGN.


2.5    The different meetings of the NGN-eCO highlighted number of
       issues which required deliberations in NGN environment:-


       1.    Contents on Next Generation Networks
       2.    Encourage Virtual Network Operators.
       3.    Enforceable Service Level Agreement
       4.    Mandatory Interconnect Exchange.
       5.    Flexibility of Placement of Active Element in the Network
       6.    Mandatory Interconnection with Compatible TDM Network
       7.    Mandatory Interface Approval in NGN
       8.    Mandate Emergency Number Dialing
       9.    Authentication of Calling and Called Party Identification




                                      10
   2.6       Contents on Next Generation Networks
2.6.1    Analysis:

        The present licensing regime in India is largely service oriented like
        Basic Service Operators license, Cellular Mobile Service license,
        Internet Service Provider license, Infrastructure provider license
        etc. The UASL licensees can provide different services (Voice, Video
        and Data) under a single license.


        The members felt that the present networks like mobile networks,
        fixed networks, internet networks etc support specifically defined
        applications and lack flexibility to add new applications as and
        when they develop. Such restrictions reduce the probability of
        launching new value added applications. The basic advantage of
        NGN is in inherent flexibility to separate transport, control and
        service layers, encouraging easy and fast launching of new value
        added applications and contents.


        Most of the value added application providers and content
        providers depend on access providers.       The NGN-eCO felt that
        popularity of value added applications and contents will increase in
        near future.    While permitting access to network, it will be
        important to ensure that contents provided by content providers
        are regulated and acceptable level of quality of service is ensured.
        Such things are only possible if such value added application
        providers and content providers are regulated.


        The members of the NGN-eCO deliberated the clauses in existing
        licenses, which makes network provider responsible for the
        contents being carried on their network. The respective clauses in
        UASL license, CMTS license and ISP licenses are reproduced below:




                                      11
    UASL Clause No.40.3:


“The   LICENSEE     shall   take    necessary      measures   to    prevent
objectionable,   obscene,   unauthorized      or    any   other    content,
message or communications infringing copyright, intellectual
property etc., in any form, from being carried on his network,
consistent with the established laws of the country. Once specific
instances of such infringement are reported to the LICENSEE by
the enforcement agencies, the LICENSEE shall ensure that the
carriage of such material on his network is prevented immediately”.


CMTS Clause No.43.3


“The   LICENSEE     shall   take    necessary      measures   to    prevent
objectionable,   obscene,   unauthorized      or    any   other    content,
message or communications infringing copyright, intellectual
property etc., in any form, from being carried on his network,
consistent with the established laws of the country. Once specific
instances of such infringement are reported to the LICENSEE by
the enforcement agencies, the LICENSEE shall ensure that the
carriage of such material on his network is prevented immediately”.


ISP Clause No.1.12.9


“The   LICENSEE     shall   ensure     that     objectionable,     obscene,
unauthorized or any other content, message or communications
infringing copyright, intellectual property right and international
and domestic cyber laws, in any form or inconsistent with the laws
of India are not carried in his network, the ISP should take all
necessary measures to prevent it.        In particular, LICENSEE is
obliged to provide, without delay, all the tracing facilities of the
nuisance or malicious message or communications transported
through his equipment and network, to authorized officers of

                               12
Government of India/ State Government, when such information is
 required for investigations of crimes or in the interest of national
 security.   The license shall be governed by the provisions of the
 Information Technology (IT) Act 2000, as modified from time to
 time. Any damages arising out of default on the part of licensee in
 this respect shall be sole responsibility of the licensee”.


 From the above clauses, it is very clear that network provider is
 responsible for the contents carried on its network. Verification of
 the contents especially in respect to infringement of copyright,
 intellectual property rights, nature of objectionable content is very
 open and hence cannot be controlled in real time by network
 access provider. It was suggested that network provider should be
 responsible only if they are carrying content or providing services
 through unauthorized content/application providers. The liability
 of the network provider should be limited to the extent to notify the
 content/ service provider who has sent a specific content in case
 that is found to be objectionable or results in infringement of laid
 down conditions.


 Presence of such restrictive clauses, no doubt, decreases the
 probability of contents provided and limits the scope of NGN
 environment where emphasis would be to provide new applications
 and contents. Friendly environment needs to be created.         While
 recognizing the need of such prohibitive clauses to check the type
 of content and to ensure that copyrights are not infringed, perhaps
 it will be friendly if these responsibilities are given to content and
 application providers. Network providers‟ liability should be limited
 to identify and notify the source of content generation, if such
 content providers are authorised and block the same as and when
 it is so desired. In case, network providers are carrying contents
 from unauthorized sources, then they will be fully responsible and
 answerable for carrying such contents.

                                13
      2.6.2 Recommendations:
        “There may be a need to regulate contents in the context of
       NGN. Responsibility of network provider relating to content
       carried on the network be limited to identify the source of the
       content generation as long as it is provided by content
       providers”.


2.7    Encourage Virtual Network Operators
2.7.1 Analysis:
       The NGN has standardized interface between different layers. As
       such the biggest advantage of NGN is the inherent flexibility to
       launch value added services and contents. The capabilities of NGN
       can be utilized effectively only when entities having value added
       applications and contents are encouraged to use the existing
       networks to provide their services and applications. The concept of
       Mobile Virtual Private Network (MVPN) is well accepted in
       developed countries.    Similarly virtual operators need to be
       encouraged in different fields in India also so that innovative
       applications can reach to end users. The present licensing regime
       does not recognize the concept of virtual network operators.
       Suitable amendments to facilitate functioning of virtual network
       operators may be required in context of NGN.


2.7.2 Recommendations:


       “Bulk selling and virtual network operations in the context of
       NGN needs to be considered”.


       COAI does not agree to the above recommendation.




                                    14
2.8   Enforceable Service Level Agreement ( SLA )
2.8.1 Analysis:
      In IP networks, service providers enter into service level agreements
      with subscribers depending on the required quality of service and
      associated parameters which have direct bearing on price of such
      services.   While service providers must have full flexibility to
      provide different service level agreements to effectively meet
      subscribers‟ requirement, such         flexibility   must    be    available
      between operators also while having interconnection.              Here it is
      important to understand that concept of interconnection in IP
      networks is very different from conventional TDM networks.               In
      TDM networks circuit is switched and is dedicated to a particular
      subscriber/ application for full duration of call. Whereas in IP
      networks,      there   is     a   virtual   connection      and    basically
      interconnection depends on volume of packets carrying capacity,
      delays, packet loss etc.


      Since subscriber access cost is dependent on SLA, core group
      members felt that interconnection between operators must also
      have flexibility to have interconnection with different SLA between
      operators to    support subscriber      SLA    across networks. Though
      operators can mutually negotiate and workout SLA between them,
      some members expressed that three levels of SLA may be defined
      between operators.          While operators will have full freedom to
      mutually negotiate different SLA levels, operators will have to offer
      at least three SLAs for interconnection among them to ensure end
      to end QOS. This will be important in case of lack of agreement
      between service providers on SLA.




                                        15
        2.8.2 Recommendation:


         “Service providers will have full flexibility to have mutually
         agreed    SLAs    to    provide     end-to-end   QoS     for   various
         applications".


 2.9      Requirement of Mandatory Interconnect Exchange


 2.9.1 Analysis:
           The exchange of IP traffic between service providers providing IP
           based services is important.       NIXI was set up to exchange
           domestic IP traffic of ISPs within India. However, only a small
           percentage of domestic traffic is being exchanged at NIXI and
           therefore, there is a need to have dedicated interconnect
           exchange for exchanging IP based traffic in NGN environment.
           Some of the members were of the opinion that such exchange will
           not be effective unless it is mandated to all the service providers
           to peer at such point and exchange the traffic. NGN being IP
           based network will definitely require an effective Interconnect
           exchange point.      However, it will be premature to take final
           decision on interconnect exchanges and mandate connection to
           such exchanges. We may at the most recognise the need of such
           exchange in NGN environment and take appropriate decisions as
           and when felt necessary to ensure effective IP traffic exchange
           between service providers.


2.9.2    Recommendation:
          “There will be a need to have interconnect exchanges for
         exchange of IP traffic in NGN environment.             However, it is
         recommended that the modalities of functioning of such
         exchange may be decided at appropriate time”.




                                        16
2.10   Flexibility of Placement of Active Element in the Network.

2.10.1 Analysis:
       The members of NGN-eCO raised the issue that present licensing
       conditions mandate to put all the equipments of the network within
       the licensing area.   The migration to NGN and use of IP based
       network will reduce distance. The cost of the switching equipment
       will contribute much higher as compared to the transmission
       equipment.      In view of these technological developments the
       restriction on putting switching equipments within licensing area
       poses restrictions and need to be re-looked.        The use of high
       capacity switching equipment located at suitable central locations
       is likely to reduce CAPEX and OPEX to great extent.             Even
       utilization of same switch to feed different services in different
       licensing areas needs to be permitted for NGN environment. The
       concept of interconnection at SDCA level, SSA level is changing.
       NGN    networks    may     not    require interconnections at SDCA or
       SSA level at all, reducing complexities of the network and price of
       interconnection thereof. In view of this the request to permit use of
       common switching equipment for feeding the licensed area and
       interconnection based on requirement needs to be encouraged.

 2.10.2 Recommendation:


         “Present restrictions of setting up switching centers within
        the licensed area may be re-looked. Service          providers may
        be provided      flexibility     to   set up switching      centers
        and        transmission         centers   based    on requirement
        anywhere within India de-linking from licensed area concept
        and do interconnection at least at one point in each licensed
        area”.




                                        17
     2.11 Mandatory Interconnection with Compatible TDM Network

2.11.1   Analysis:
         The members of NGN-eCO deliberated the issue of mandatory
         interconnection with compatible TDM networks.        Members felt
         that NGN will be introduced by various service providers in
         different time frames and therefore, interconnection between
         NGN networks and traditional TDM networks needs to be
         ensured through licensing condition.     The issue of mandating
         such interconnection was discussed in detail. The time frame of
         NGN implementation by different service providers is likely to
         spread across years. Moreover, no service provider would like to
         discard the present TDM network while migrating to NGN.
         Hence, it will be necessary to interconnect NGN networks with
         traditional networks at least for the time being. The important
         issue is that what should be the maximum time limit of such
         mandate to interconnect with traditional TDM networks.       While
         there were   divergent views between the members on maximum
         time for which interconnection be mandated some felt this time
         should be around 8 years while others felt that such time limit
         may not be fixed at all and be left to the service providers
         themselves. The advantage and market drivers for NGN will
         ensure that such migrations are completed in around 10 years
         time.   The corrective action can be initiated at a later date to
         ensure that fair treatment is provided to all the service providers
         providing NGN platform and those providing service using TDM
         networks.




                                     18
       2.11.2   Recommendation:
         “Mandatory interconnection between telecom networks will
         continue. However, all NGN service providers will ensure
         interconnection to all existing telecom service providers by
         putting suitable equipments for providing interconnection to
         existing service providers”.


2.12     Mandatory Interface Approval in NGN.

2.12.1   Analysis:
         The interworking between the networks is very important to
         transparently    offer   services   across    the     networks.   While
         Standardisation for NGN is being done to great extent by various
         International standards bodies, certain issues have been left to
         vendors while implementing NGN solutions. The issues relating to
         inter-operability have created serious problems during Intelligent
         Network (IN) implementation in India and therefore, there is a
         need to be extra cautious while migration to NGN is taking place.
         In this regard core group suggests that TEC may identify
         specifications, which needs further Standardisation, and come up
         with country specific
         NGN Standardisation. The interface approval is mandated for all
         operators   migrating     to   NGN      to   ensure    inter-operability
         subsequently.

2.12.2 Recommendation:
         “A committee may be formed under the aegis of Telecom
         Engineering Center ( TEC ) to work out country specific NGN
         standards and develop interface approval               mechanism for
         NGN    equipments        to    ensure    smooth       inter-operability
         subsequently”.




                                        19
2.13   Mandate Emergency Number Dialing
2.13.1 Analysis:
       The increasing popularity of IP telephony demands that all service
       providers providing Internet telephony within country should
       ensure emergency number dialing from their networks. Number of
       alternatives are possible to implement such emergency number
       dialing like using location based services, dialing area code along
       with (emergency number) translation of emergency number dialed
       to appropriate number in the city etc. All alternatives have certain
       advantage   but    suffer    some   disadvantages. Therefore, though
       emergency number dialing needs to be ensured by all service
       providers, mandating specific scheme is not felt necessary. Service
       providers can workout appropriate solution in their network to
       ensure that IP telephony customers are able to dial emergency
       number with ease as and when required.


2.13.2 Recommendation:
       “Emergency number dialing from IP telephony subscribers be
       mandated, however, methodologies of such implementation be
       left to service providers”.

2.14   Authentication of Calling and Called Party       Identification.

2.14.1 Analysis:
       NGN-eCO considered likely possibility of authentication of calling
       and called party identification in NGN environment. The identity
       theft and spoofing need to be checked which necessitates such
       authentication.    Almost all members of the core group were
       unanimous that provision of such authentication be mandated on
       all   service   providers.      However,   methodologies   of   such
       implementation be left to service providers.




                                      20
2.14.2 Recommendation:


       “Authentication of calling and called party identification be
      mandated, however, its implementation be left to individual
      service providers”.




                                 21
                                                Chapter 3

                  INTERCONNECTION ISSUES IN NGN

3.1   ARCHITECTURE

3.1.1 Interconnection Architecture

      The inter-operator scenarios in NGN environment is shown in
      figure 1.


      The IP-IP networks may be interconnected with

      i)     SIP based NGN/IMS networks
      ii)    ToIP network (Telephony over IP) inter-working on SIP-
             I/Q1912.5
      iii)   H.323/SIP VoIP international networks

      Peering with traditional PSTN/PLMN networks based on ISUP may
      be interconnected via Media Gateway for IP to TDM or TDM to IP
      conversion and the Signalling Gateway for SS7 transport over IP.


               Local Operator TDM Media Gateway            LEA
               TDM Network Link



                                                                          Media Gateway     TDM Int’l Operator
                                                                                                  TDM Network
                                                                                                  TDM Network
               Local Operator    IP  Session Border                                         Link
               NGN Network             Controller
                                Link
                                                             NGN
                                                           Operators
                                                           IP/MPLS
                                                            Networks
               NLD Operator TDM Media Gateway
               TDM Network Link                                                              IP
                                                                           Session Border          NGN Network
                                                                               Controller   Link



               NLD Operator      IP Session Border         ASP       IE
               NGN Network      Link  Controller
                                                             India        International


             Figure 1: Interconnection architecture of inter-operator in NGN scenario




                                                      22
      As shown in figure 1, NGN networks are interconnected by Session
      Border Controller (SBC), which is located at the administrative
      boundary of a network for enforcing policy on multimedia sessions.
      Session policy may be defined to manage security, service level
      agreements, network device resources, network bandwidth, inter-
      working and protocol interoperability between networks.


      SBC can perform a number of functions such as:
              Network Security
              Denial of Service attacks and overload control
              Network Address Translation and Firewall Traversal
              Lawful Interception
              Quality of Service (QoS) management
              Protocol Translation
              Call accounting

      The MGW (Media Gateway) shown in Figure 1 will be controlled by
      a softswitch deployed by the PSTN/PLMN operator in NGN. SGW
      (Signalling Gateway) can be integrated into the MGW or can also be
      a stand alone device.

3.2   Interfaces

3.2.1 Network – Network Interface

                                     Table-1

          Type of Network         Signalling Interface       Bearer Interface

          Circuit-based           ISUP                       TDM
          Network

          IP-based Network        SIP-I, SIP-T, Ipv4, IPv6   Ethernet, TDM




                                         23
3.2.2   PHYSICAL INTERFACES

        The Session Border Controller SBC provides IP interface(s) towards
        other NGN networks. The physical interfaces consist of:

             Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.

             10/100 Base-T Fast Ethernet interface(s).

             SBC provides redundant signalling and media control sub-
              systems, each with redundant network interfaces. Sub-
              systems of the SBC communicate to one another over any of
              the available IP interfaces.



3.2.2.1 Recommendations

        NGN-eCO recommends that two NGN operators are to be
        interconnected     through    Session   Border    Controller    (SBC),
        having support for different physical interfaces.              All the
        interfaces should be provided with adequate redundancy with
        no single point of failure for that device.

        The Session Border Controller (SBC) may be a standalone
        separate device or SBC functionalities may be achieved
        through softswitch.

        NGN and traditional PSTN/PLMN are to be interconnected
        through Media Gateway and Signalling Gateway.

        The interconnection between two NGN networks of different
        operators need to be tested as per the standards defined by
        TEC or any other standard independent agency nominated by
        the Licensor/TRAI.

        TEC is to prepare Interface Requirement (IR) for connectivity
        between two NGN networks.




                                       24
3.2.3 Signalling Interfaces

        The network model for which the signalling interfaces have been
        defined is assumed be an all IP next generation network (NGN)
        where the control point in the network could be:


          Softswitch
          IMS (IP Multi-media Service) core


        Figure 2 gives the high-level network model diagram. This model
        will be basis on which the signalling interfaces will be defined.
        Operator X is the all IP operator having an IMS or Softswitch
        control point. The document will describe the following signalling
        interfaces:

        1. Operator X to SIP based IMS network (Operator Type 1)

        2. Operator X to ToIP network (Operator Type 2)                      1   - (PSTN
            emulation)

        3. Operator X to SIP / H.323 VOIP network (Operator Type 3)

        4. Operator X to traditional PSTN/PLMN (Operator Type 4)




   1
     TOIP is Telephony over IP network where the end point are the traditional POTS deployed over IP
access points and controlled from a Softswitch. Definition of a ToIP network with example and figure is
given under Interface 2 section.
                                                  25
                    Figure 2: Network Model

3.2.3.1   INTERFACE 1

          Refer to figure 3. Interface 1 defines as the interface between
          the Operator X to SIP based IMS network. The protocol to be
          supported is as per Table-2 below:

                                      TABLE-2

          S. No.       Protocol           ITU-T/IETF     Title
                                            RFC No.
            1             SIP            IETF RFC        Session Initiation Protocol
                                         3261

                    Figure A: Interface 1 network model




                                    26
                   Figure 3: Interface 1 network model
Interface Usage: The SIP interface defined herewith will be used to
interface to SIP based IMS networks. The SIP interface must be
supported by all operators – basic, mobile, NLD and ILD operators.


Examples


PSTN to SIP network: Consider operator 1 which is a legacy PSTN
that is to interwork with operator 2, who is assumed to be an all IP
IMS network. The call from a subscriber in operator 1 will trigger a
ISUP signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will terminate on
a softswitch in the operator 1 network (we assume that operator 1
owns a softswitch based NGN for break-out/in calls).


SIP Network to PSTN: Consider an IP telephone in operator 2
network that initiates a call towards the POT subscriber in the
legacy operator 1 network. The CSCF in operator 2 network will
initiate a SIP signalling for call control towards the softswitch in
operator 1 network. The softswitch will now initiate ISUP signalling
towards the PSTN switch where the POT subscriber is parented to.
If the signalling is successful, the media between the POTS and IP
subscriber is set up via a trunk media gateway. The SIP signalling
interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per RFC defined in
the Table-2.


SIP to SIP IMS network: The SIP signalling interface between
operator 1 and 2 must be as per RFC defined in the Table-2.


SIP network < -- >H.323: an interworking between a SIP based
IMS network and H.323 and is achieved via SBC or an intermediate
node (like a softswitch) that does the H.323 < -- > SIP signalling
interworking. Such an intermediate device or SBC would have to


                             27
      support the SIP signalling towards the Service Provider network as
      per RFC defined in the Table-2.

3.2.3.2. INTERFACE 2

      Refer to Figure 4. Interface 2 defines the interface between the
      Operator X to TOIP network.
      The protocols to be supported are


                                    Table-3

       S. No.   Protocol    ITU-T/IETF RFC No. Title
         1.       BICC      ITU-T                  Bearer     Independent
                            Recommendation         Call Control.
                            Q.1901
         2.       SIP-I     ITU-T                  Inter   working    between
                            Recommendation         Session Initiation Protocol
                            Q.1912.5               (SIP)     and       Bearer
                                                   Independent Call Control
                                                   Protocol or ISDN User
                                                   Part.




                  Figure 4: Interface 2 network model



                                    28
Interface Usage: The SIP I and BICC interface defined herewith
will used to interface between ToIP networks. The SIP interface
must be support by all operators – basic, mobile, NLD and ILD
operators.
ToIP network: a ToIP network is defined as one in which the
subscribers use the POTS or „black phone‟. These subscribers are
terminated on to the legacy PSTN or an access gateway on the
common twisted pair copper line. The traffic from the subscribers,
who are terminated on the PSTN switch, will be carried on the IP
network from the trunk media gateway. The traffic from the
subscribers who are terminated on the access gateway will be
carried on to the IP network from the access media gateway. The
control function in a ToIP network is provided by a softswitch that
controls the trunk and access media gateway on the H.248 media
gateway control protocol. Signalling between the PSTN switch and
the softswitch will be on ISUP.


Example
Consider operator 1 with TOIP network that is to interwork with
operator 2 who is also assumed to have TOIP network. The
originating and terminating subscribers are POTS subscribers who
are either parented to a PSTN switch or an access media gateway.
Assume a call from operator 1 to operator 2 wherein both the
originating and terminating subscribers are parented to a PSTN
switch. The call from a subscriber in operator 1 will trigger an ISUP
signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will terminate on a
softswitch in the operator 1 network. The softswitch in operator 1
network will now initiate a SIP I or BICC signalling towards the
softswitch in the operator 2 network. After number analysis, the
softswitch in operator 2 will identify the destination PSTN switch
and will initiate ISUP signalling towards the PSTN switch. On
successful signalling, the call is set up. The media of the call will be
via a trunk media gateway. Similarly a call can be between two
                               29
     subscribers terminated on access media gateways or can be
     between a subscriber on PSTN         and   a   subscriber   on   access
     media gateway. Irrespective of the network position of the POTS
     subscriber, the SIP I and BICC signalling used between the soft
     switches will be as described in the Table-3.


3.2.3.3 INTERFACE 3

     Refer to Figure 5. Interface 3 defines as the interface between the
     Operator X to SIP/ H.323 VoIP network. The SIP / H.323 network
     inter-working is required when Operator X hands over traffic to
     international VOIP carriers.
     The protocols to be supported are:


                               TABLE-4
      S. No.       Protocol         ITU-T/IETF       Title
                                      RFC No.
         1            SIP           IETF RFC         Session Initiation Protocol
                                    3261
         2     H.323 & SIP (for
                 ILD service
                  provider)




                    Figure 5: Interface 3 network model

                                    30
Interface Usage: The SIP and H.323 interface defined herewith will
used to interface to SIP and H.323 based networks. The SIP
interface must be support by all operators – basic, mobile, NLD and
ILD operators while the H.323 is relevant to ILD operators.

Example


PSTN to SIP/H.323 network: Consider operator 1 which is a
legacy PSTN that is to interwork with operator 2, who is assumed
to be an all IP network. The call from a subscriber in operator 1 will
trigger a ISUP signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will
terminate on a softswitch in the operator 1 network (we assume
that operator 1 owns a softswitch based NGN for break-out/in
calls). The softswitch will initiate a SIP call control signalling
towards the operator 2‟s SIP server or a H.323 signalling towards
operator 2‟s gatekeeper. If the signalling is successful, the media
between the POTS and IP subscriber is set up via a trunk media
gateway. The SIP / H.323 signalling interface between operator 1
and 2 must be as per RFC defined in the Table-4.

SIP/H.323 network to PSTN: Consider an IP telephone in
operator 2 network that initiates a call towards the POT subscriber
in the legacy operator 1 network. The SIP server or the H.323
gatekeeper in operator 2 network will initiate a SIP or H.323
signalling for call control towards the softswitch in operator 1
network. The softswitch will now initiate ISUP signalling towards
the PSTN switch where the POT subscriber is parented to. If the
signalling is successful, the media between the POTS and IP
subscriber is set up via a trunk media gateway. The SIP / H.323
signalling interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per RFC
defined in the Table-4.




                              31
       SIP to SIP or H.323 to H.323 network: The SIP / H.323
       signalling interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per RFCs
       defined in the Table-4.


       SIP network < -- >H.323: an interworking between a SIP based IMS
       network and H.323 is achieved via SBC or an intermediate node
       (like a softswitch) that does the H.323 < -- > SIP signalling
       interworking. Such an intermediate device or SBC would have to
       support the SIP signalling towards the Service Providers network as
       per RFC defined in the Table-4.

3.2.3.4 INTERFACE 4

       Refer to Figure 6. Interface 4 defines as the interface between the
       Operator X to traditional PSTN. The protocols to be supported are:



                                 Table-5

    S. No.    Protocol    ITU-T/IETF RFC No.      Title
                                                  Framework Architecture for
      1.      SIGTRAN        IETF RFC 2719
                                                  Signalling Transport
                                                  Signalling system 7 (SS7)
      2.       M3UA          IETF RFC 3332.       Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3)
                                                  User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
                                                  Stream control transport
      3.        SCTP             RFC 2960         protocol - for transport of
                                                  SIGTRAN




                                    32
       Figure 6: Interface 4 network model

Interface Usage: The SIGTRAN / M3UA interface defined herewith
will used to interface between SIP based IP and legacy PSTN. The
SIGTRAN / M3UA interface must be support by all operators –
basic, mobile, NLD and ILD operators.


Examples


PSTN < -- >ToIP: Consider operator 1 which is a legacy PSTN that
is to interconnect with operator 2, who is assumed to be a ToIP
network. The call from a subscriber in operator 1 will trigger an
ISUP signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will terminate on
a signalling gateway (SGW). The SGW will act as IP based STP and
transport the ISUP via SIGTRAN/M3UA to the softswitch in the
operator 2 network. The softswitch will complete the call towards
the ToIP subscriber. If the signalling is successful, the media
between the POTS subscriber in operator 1 and ToIP subscriber in
operator 2 is set up via a trunk media gateway. The SIGTRAN /
M3UA signalling interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per
RFC defined in the Table-5.

                              33
        PSTN < -- >SIP / H.323: Here Operator 2 is a SIP / H.323
        network. Consider an IP telephone in operator 2 network that
        initiates a call towards the POT subscriber in the legacy operator 1
        network. The SIP server or the H.323 gatekeeper in operator 2
        network will initiate a SIP or H.323 signalling for call control
        towards the softswitch / MGCF (media gateway control function as
        defined by TISPAN) in operator 2 network. The softswitch / MGCF
        will now initiate SIGTRAN / M3UA signalling towards the SGW of
        operator 2. The SGW will extract the ISUP signalling and transport
        it to the destination PSTN switch on which the POT subscriber is
        parented to. If the signalling is successful, the media between the
        POTS and IP subscriber is set up via a trunk media gateway. The
        SIGTRAN / M3UA signalling interface between operator 1 and 2
        must be as per RFC defined in the Table-5.


3.2.4   Application Network Interface

        The protocols to be supported from the NGN control plane to the
        application servers are:


                                       Table-6

        S. No.              Protocol         ITU-T/IETF   Title
                                               RFC No.
              1                SIP          IETF RFC      Session Initiation
                                            3261          Protocol

3.2.5   Summary Of Interfaces
        Having defined the signalling interfaces, the following table gives
        the signalling interface inter-working matrix that is to be
        supported:




                                       34
                               Table-7: Inter-working matrix

               From/To            SIP    SIP-T/I         H.323    PSTN/ISDN/PLMN

                   SIP             X           X          X                X

                 SIP-T/I           X           X          X                X

                 H.323             X           X          X                X

          PSTN/ISDN/PLMN           X           X          X                X



3.2.6. Recommendations

            NGN-eCO       recommends     that      following      standards      based
            signalling protocols are expected to                 be used in       Next
            Generation Network (NGN):
         i).     SIGTRAN - between PSTN/PLMN and IP networks
        ii).     H.248     - between Media Gateway and Media Gateway
                 Controller
       iii).     SIP, SIP-T/SIP-I - between two IP networks &                  between
                 PSTN/PLMN and IP networks
       iv).      H.323/SIP-T/SIP-I - for international Connectivity
        v).For delivery of content (voice/data/video etc.), RTP/RTCP
                         protocol is to be used.

           TEC        needs        to      prepare            National         Generic
           Requirements/Standards         for      the    signalling     protocols   ,
           interfaces and also examine Interoperability issues.



3.3.     Points of Interconnection

3.3.1 Interconnect Exchange (IE)


         The basic concept of the Interconnect Exchange is to enable
         different operators to interconnect to a common point, to exchange
         mutual traffic efficiently.


                                          35
Role of Interconnect Exchange
   Inter-Carrier Billing

    Presently Inter-Carrier Billing is generally a major issue of
    dispute between various Service Providers and is likely to
    escalate unless corrective steps are in place at this stage itself.
    If Interconnect Exchange is having the Role of Inter-Carrier
    Billing Clearing House as well, a solution of a major problem
    area could be available. The inter-operator charging could be a
    function of a) Grade of service, b) Content, and c) network
    elements being used while carrying the traffic upto the
    Interconnect exchange.

   Intelligent Network Services

    Intelligent Network Services in a multi-operator multi-service
    scenario   could    be   provided   through   the   combination     of
    Interconnect   Exchange     cum     Inter-Carrier   Billing   Clearing
    House.

   Number Portability

    Number Portability issue could also be addressed for a multi-
    operator   multi-service    scenario     through    the   centralised
    Database available with Interconnect Exchange cum Inter-
    Carrier Billing Clearing House

   Carrier Selection

    Carrier-Selection could also be implemented with reduced
    incremental costs.

   Simplification in Network Architecture, Reduction in POI,
    Simplification in settlement of Interconnect Usage Charges,
    Abolition/ Steep reduction of Port Charges, Reduction in waiting
    period for Interconnection capacities.

Problems of existing Interconnection Regime

The existing arrangement of bilateral interconnection in a multi-
operator, multi-services environment suffers from following:
                              36
       High interconnection cost and port charges
       Asymmetric interconnection agreements and court cases due
        to ambiguities and non level playing field.
       Delay in provisioning of interconnection due to capacity
        constraints
       Sub- optimal utilization of resources
       Inefficient handling of calls
       High       operational     cost         for   managing   inter-operator
        settlements
       Inter carrier billing
       Complexity in settlement of interconnect usage charges
       Sharing of Intelligent Network Platform
       Implementation of Number Portability
       Implementation of carrier selection
       increase of CAPEX and OPEX making operation unviable




           ILDO           ILDO              ILDO          ILDO
               1            2                   3          4

                                                                 NLDO 1
BSO 1

BSO
                           Interconnect                           NLDO 2
 2
                           Exchange
BSO
                                                                  NLDO 3
 3

BSO                                                                NLDO
 4                                                                   4
        CEL 1             CEL 2            CEL 3        CEL 4



                              Inter Carrier
                             Billing Clearing
                                   House




                   Figure 7: Interconnect Exchange

                                     37
3.3.2. LOCATION OF POINTS OF INTERCONNECTION


    Currently private operators (Mobile and Basic) peer among
    themselves at mutually agreed POIs. Peering with BSNL takes place
    at defined LDCA location for mobile operators and SDCAs for the
    basic telephone operators. At areas where the private operators are
    unable to peer among themselves, the BSNL/ NLDOs network is
    used for transit.

    At present, both the peering partners must have TDM based
    switches at the POI locations. With implementation of MPLS
    network, the concept of cost of carriage with respect to distance
    would lose its relevance. NGN with its separation of control and
    media functions and distributed architecture eliminates this
    restriction. The following methodology is proposed for NGN
    environment.

    i). The UASL operator may be allowed to have the option of either
    centralized control point in its network controlling the distributed
    media gateways or SBCs within the service area. There should be
    no restriction on having at least one control points in a particular
    service area (Circle/Geographical Location). The UASL operator
    should be allowed to share control points between its service areas
    without    violating   any   license   condition   including   Lawful
    Interception (LI).

    ii). The NLD operator may be allowed to have centralized control
    point for the entire country with an option of having at least two
    locations for geographical redundancy. The operator should be
    allowed to place media gateways and/or SBCs anywhere in the
    country, wherever POIs are desired.




                                   38
   iii). The ILD operator should be allowed to have centralized control
   point for the entire ILD traffic. He may be allowed to place media
   gateways / SBCs both within India only. He should be allowed to
   backhaul signalling links from outside India to the control points.



   The ILD operators should also be allowed to switch hubbing traffic
   using the NGN network. The ILD operator must ensure LI for ILD
   operation.

   iv). Integrated operators may be allowed to share control points and
   IP/MPLS infrastructure for various licenses held by them including
   UASL, NLD, ILD and ISP licenses.

   v). The requirement of a Signalling point code should be restricted
   to the control point (Softswitch/ Signalling Gateway) only. This
   would also help save the scarce point codes.

   vi). An Interconnect Exchange is proposed for interconnection
   between different operators in NGN environment as shown in
   Figure 8.



                            Media Gateway




     TDM                    Media Gateway
INTERCONNECT                                                Operator - 1
  EXCHANGE


                           Media Gateway
   IP BASED                                                 Operator - 2
INTERCONNECT
 EXCHANGE
                     IP     Session Border
                              Controller
                    Link
                                                            Operator - 3

                     IP     Session Border
                    Link      Controller



                     IP    Session Border
                    Link     Controller

                                   39
                  Figure 8: Interconnect Exchange Model
    One or more Interconnect Exchanges can be established at Circle/
    Zonal level depending on the traffic requirements, at the locations
    where most of the operators have their MSCs/ MGCs as POIs .

    The advantage of this model is that it makes network planning
    more efficient. Every operator is aware of the physical location at
    which he would have to provide the POI enabling transmission
    network roll-out in a more planned way.


    The architecture for Interconnection in NGN should be comparable
    or more rugged than the current PSTN/ISDN/PLMN service since
    the NGN is projected as replacement of PSTN/ISDN/PLMN over a
    period of time. Consequently, one of the key objectives of the
    architecture would be to have service restored with minimum
    downtime in case of failure in the interconnect. It implies that a
    resilient multiple node architecture has to be used along with the
    IP protocols and networking technologies specially configured to
    meet the stringent requirement.

    The interconnection in NGN environment should operate at 2
    logical layers – the signalling layer and the Media layer. In order to
    minimize the cost and complexity in the interconnect, L2
    connectivity may be preferred over L3 interconnects with Logical
    VLANs/VPNs.

    The Interconnect in NGN environment would provide a secure, low
    latency   environment    in   which    the   quality   of   wholesale
    interconnects is guaranteed between all operators.


3.3.3. NETWORK MODIFICATION/ UPGRADATION

    The current TDM based PSTN/PLMN follows a hierarchical
    topology. Local exchanges/MSCs terminate on transit exchanges
    which then get aggregated on gateway exchanges. Each local and

                                  40
       transit exchange in the network requires a signalling point code
       through which the exchanges are accessed on SS7 signalling for
       call set-up, routing and tear down. This existing network
       architecture   requires   significant   modifications/upgradation    to
       comply with the recommended approach as shown below.




            Figure 9: Network upgradation for NGN environment


       These modifications include

i).    Introduction of Media Gateways for interconnection with TDM
       networks.

ii).   Introduction of SBCs for interconnection with IP based NGNs.



       It is essential that for next 3-4 years the existing interconnects
       regime   should    continue    in   parallel   with   IE.   Since   the
       interconnection using IE will bring a lot of advantages its use must
       be promoted over the conventional regime.             To achieve this
       objective, after a period of one year,      if an operator makes an
       request to other operator for interconnection at IE the operator
       must be mandated to do so by licensor / directive of TRAI.


                                      41
3.3.4       Recommendations

            NGN-eCO recommends that

           The NGN Interconnect Exchange (NGN IE) should be
            facilitated.

           TRAI/ Licensor may work out details for establishment, of
            NGN IE.

           In the initial stage, interconnectivity through IE should
            not be mandated and per to peer interconnections should
            be permitted. However, if an operator desires to have
            interconnection with another operator through IE it should
            not be denied.

        
3.4.    Security
3.4.1 Centralised Lawful Interception


        Countries, all over the world are grappling with the threat of
        terrorism, illegal financial transactions, and narcotics trafficking
        etc. by the illegal use of the telecom and data networks.

        With the rapid development of technologies in the field of
        communication there is an urgent need to develop a centralised
        Lawful Interception solution to provide useful inputs to the
        national security agencies for multiple networks, viz. wireline,
        wireless and IP.

        The centralised Lawful Interception system should be based on
        state-of-art technologies using latest computational approaches
        such    as    artificial   intelligence   technique,   grid   surveillance,
        encryption/decryption, mining of data bases etc.




                                          42
       LEA 1                                                   Landline Landline
                                 Centralised                                       Landline
                                   Lawful
       LEA 2                    Interception                   Mobile   Mobile
                                                                                     Mobile
                                   System
       LEA 3                                                   Broadband
                                                                       Broadband
                                                                                Broadband

                 Fig 10: Centralised Lawful Interception System Architecture

        The    centralised   Lawful   Interception    system    must     provide
      transparent interception by extracting intelligence from internet
      and telecom networks effectively and securely and make them
      available to security agencies to prevent unlawful activities and
      terrorism, at the same time the privacy of the citizens should be
      provided as per law.



      The work of preparation of generic technical specifications and
      validation processes for interfaces for the centralised Lawful
      Interception system can be taken up by TEC. Provisioning and
      monitoring of targets should be done from centralised Lawful
      Interception system as warranted by LEAs without the intervention
      of service providers. The telecom or internet service providers must
      provide interface including encryption keys for call content and call
      related information of the targets to LIM over dedicated links. In
      case of data service, all target related information such as e-mail,
      instant message, VoIP, fax, HTTP browsing in a standards format
      as per the generic requirement of TEC.


3.4.1.1 Recommendation

      NGN-eCO recommends that the centralised Lawful Monitoring
      System (CMS)should be under the Government agency, say
      VTM cell of DoT and having connectivity with all service
      providers, LEAs and VTMs of DoT. Provisioning of targets as
      warranted by Law Enforcing Agencies (LEAs ) should be done
                                      43
        from CMS by DoT (VTM) without the intervention of service
        providers. TEC to prepare Generic Interface Specification for
        CMS.

3.4.2   Actions Related to Security Issues
3.4.2.1 Analysis:


        The members raised security issues related to NGN platforms like
        DNS attack, SPAM, Virus, Identity theft, spoofing etc. Though all
        the members were unanimous that certain action needs to be
        taken to reduce the possibility of such disruptive attack in NGN
        network, no clear understanding emerged as to what regulatory
        interventions can be taken in this regard.


        The success of NGN largely depends in ensuring that such platform
        is free from common attacks on IP platforms. Number of solutions
        is being recommended by various vendors time to time and the
        issue is being deliberated by various international forums also. As
        of now, no clear cut answer is visible in this direction. Ensuring
        security of NGN networks is important but there doesn‟t seem to be
        any clear action line. As such it is premature to recommend any
        specific action at this stage.

3.4.2.2 Recommendation:
        “NGN-eCO      acknowledged       that   security   is   of   paramount
        importance to any network. Therefore, TEC may be asked to
        work on various aspects of security for the country keeping in
        view the global trends”.




                                         44
3.5.     Numbering Scheme

3.5.1. Numbering

         Numbering is the Public User Identities by which a subscriber is
         identified in the Network. In PSTN and PLMN this is a TEL URI
         (User Resource Identifier) in E.164 format. But by the introduction
         of VoIP we can think of another URI i.e. SIP URI. In case of VoIP
         calls the TEL URI or SIP URI will be converted to IP address via
         DNS (Domain Name System). SIP URI can be in service provider
         domain or self-provided domain. Some of the examples of SIP URIs
         are as follows:

         sip: 911125368781@<dummy>               > E.164 format only
         sip: 911125368781@opr1.in               > E.164 + service provider
         domain
         sip: abc@opr2.in                  > Name + service provider domain

         E.164 NUMbering (ENUM) as RFC 3761 is the mapping of
         Telephone numbers to uniform Resource Identifiers(URIs) using the
         Domain Name System(DNS). ENUM enable convergence between
         the PSTN and IP.

         Benefits of ENUM:

                ENUM is using the DNS thus saving the capital expenditure.
                Ultimate solution in number portability.
                Provisioning is only by the destination administrative
                 domain.
                Enables convergence.

3.5.2.        Current Numbering Scheme                    For    The     Indian
             Telecommunication Network
             The last few years have seen tremendous growth all around and
             particularly in the field of cellular mobile services. In some of the
             countries, these services have already exceeded the traditional

                                          45
basic services. In India too, the cellular mobile services have seen
an exponential growth.

The National Numbering Plan released in 2003 was required to
meet the challenges of multi-operator, multi-service environment
and is flexible enough to allow for scalability for next 30 years
without making any change in its basic structure.

The main objectives of the year 2003 numbering plan were:
   To plan in conformity with relevant and applicable ITU
    standards to the extent possible.
   To meet the challenges of the changing telecom environment.
   To reserve numbering capacity to meet the undefined future
    needs.
   To support effective competition by fair access to numbering
    resources.
   To meet subscriber needs for a meaningful and user-friendly
    scheme.
   To standardise number length wherever practical.
   To keep the changes in the existing scheme to the minimum.
   Only the decimal character set 0-9 has been used for all
    number allocations. Letters and other non-decimal characters
    shall not form part of the National (Significant) Number
    [N(S)N].
   Dialling procedure as per ITU Recommendation E.164 has
    been followed.
   The   Short   Distance   Charging   Area (SDCA) based linked
    numbering scheme with 10-digit N(S)N has been followed. This
    expands the existing numbering capacity to ten times

Some of the salient features of the National Numbering Plan
are as follows:
    It is a Short Distance Charging Area (SDCA) based linked
     numbering scheme.


                             46
    N(S)N is 10-digit for both the basic as well as cellular mobile
     services.
    The Subscriber Number (SN) for basic services will be of 6, 7
     or 8 digits depending upon the length of SDCA code.
    Basic to cellular mobile service calls shall use prefix „0‟ only
     if Point of Interconnect (POI) is not available in the same
     Long Distance Charging Area (LDCA) from where the call is
     originated.
    Basic services shall be accessed by cellular mobile using „0‟.
    Levels 0, 1, 7, 8 and 9 are not used as first digit for telephone
     exchange codes in basic services.
    All the service providers shall use „100‟, „101‟ and „102‟ for
     Police, Fire and Ambulance services respectively.
    „107X‟ has been defined for emergency information services
     like earthquake, floods, air and train accident etc.
    Intelligent Network service access code is „18XX‟.
    Certain level „1‟ codes are earmarked for all service providers
     to offer various subscriber related services, as per their
     choice, within their network.

Drawbacks of the National Numbering Plan, 2003:


    SDCA based numbering was implemented at the time when
     large switches were not available and all the operators had to
     deploy small switches in the SDCAs, which led to a
     traditional hierarchical numbering and routing. This SDCA
     level switch deployment resulted in increased CAPEX and
     OPEX to the operators. With the technological developments
     in the recent past and the inability of these small switches to
     cater to the new telecom requirements, the SDCA based
     numbering is losing its relevance and therefore, NNP, 2003
     requires a change where the numbering has to be circle
     based.

                             47
             NNP, 2003 was planned with a scalability for the next 30
              years but is on the verge of exhaustion due to the on going
              increase of the subscriber base and will not be able to
              address the increase in the number of operators and the
              subscribers in the NGN regime. The numbering digits need to
              be increased to 12 digits to address this growing need of
              numbers after doing detailed analysis.
             The NNP, 2003 is not able to address the provisioning of new
              services in the converged environment.
             Going forward, in NGN regime, each device would require a
              unique numbering which cannot be done through the
              existing NNP, 2003.



    In view of the above, there is a need for a new numbering scheme
    to address all the above issues



3.5.3. NUMBERING SCHEME

    The numbering scheme in NGN should be same as being used in
    the Indian Telecommunication Network. Presently following levels
    are being used:

    1 – For Emergency, IN and Special Services
    2 – Used for BSNL/MTNL Land line Subscribers
    3 – Used for Reliance Land line Subscribers
    4 – Used for Bharti Land line Subscribers
    5 – Used for Tata Tele Services
    6 – Used for Tata Tele Services
    7 – Unused
    8 – Unused
    9       –Used   for   all   Mobile    GSM/CDMA     Subscribers/Regional
    Subscriber (95)


                                         48
0 – Used for NLD Access Code
00 – Used for ILD Access Code

NGN-eCO examined following two options

Option I: Using the same numbering scheme as per NNP 2003:

A.   It is proposed that the same numbering scheme as per NNP
     2003 should be used in NGN as well. For the network and
     end user, it does not make any difference in the numbering
     scheme. The softswitch and SIP server will be responsible for
     the routing of calls based on the E.164 number. All the SIP
     subscribers will be assigned by a E.164 number. The SIP
     server functionality of softswitch will create a database for all
     such SIP subscribers in which the IP address allocation vis-
     à-vis E.164 number be stored. The routing of call from PSTN
     to SIP subscriber will be done based on this database table.
     The biggest advantage of this approach is to keep the same
     numbering scheme as the existing one. The end users will
     not be confused with the introduction of new technology
     for   carrying   voice   in   the   network.   This   option   is
     recommended by group for NGN numbering constituted
            in TEC.

B.     Using Level 7 and Level 8 for NGN which are not in use
     currently.

     It was deliberated that the Levels 7 & 8 can be used for all
     the VoIP subscriber. So, the complete 10 digit Number
     (excluding NLD/ILD Access Code) for the VoIP subscriber
     would be as follows:

     (Area Code: 2 to 4 Digits) + ( VoIP Code: 1 Digit) + (Carrier
     Identification Code: 1 Digit) + (Subscriber Number:4 to 6
     Digits)




                              49
       Advantage: Simplicity.

       Disadvantage: The end user may be confused with the new
       levels for carrying the same voice.

       The level 7 and 8 need to be reserved for mobile network
       which is growing at much faster pace than wireline network.



Option II: By using the DNS concept (Popular concept for IP
switching)

Each    operator   needs    internal   ENUM   DNS   which   support
numbering and routing and it sits in common backbone of that
operator. Using this type of concept the operator can use their
existing numbering scheme along with the existing Carrier
Identification Code which is as follows:

(Area Code: 2to 4 Digits) + (Carrier Identification Code: 1 Digit) +
(Subscriber Number:5 to 7 Digits)



But in the above option we need all the PSTN and IP switch should
terminate on common IP backbone of that operator where the DNS
is connected. The DNS derive the routable address of the
destination and terminate the call. Also by using the Global DNS
the Routing and switching is possible in multi-operator, multi-
service network scenario.



The basic idea of ENUM DNS was to allow the end-user to opt-in
with their existing phone number on the PSTN or carry the same
number to other region or to other operator. Also it provides the
other end-user with the capability to look up contact number of the
end-user want to link on the ENUM DNS.




                                50
        Resolve to URL using a Domain Name System (DNS) – based
        architecture. By placing telephone numbers into the DNS, ENUM
        can    facilitate interoperability   for a wide range of applications
        including voice over IP (VOIP) video and instant messaging.      For
        calls handles purely within the IP network, SIP uses DNS and IP
        routing to forward the requests.

        For calls from IP to PSTN, the destination‟s telephone number can
        be represented as a SIP URI. For these calls, the gateway strips
        out the telephone number and uses it to initiate the call using ISUP
        signaling

        Disadvantage:
        1. High investment in ENUM servers.
        2. The signalling messages may be required to carry to Global
        ENUM server



                                   ENUM        DNS server
                                    DNS         lookup
                                             Operator
                                             A.network
                                IP Network
                                Operator A
                                                      SIP
               SIP                                   Server
              Server                                   2
                1                                              Sip:5555@o
 Sip:5555@o
                                                                  prA.in
    prA.in


                                               Sip:4444@o         Sip:5555@o
Sip:2222@o     Sip:3333@o                                            prA.in
   prA.in         prA.in                          prA.in
                                  RTP

        Figure 11




                                        51
3.5.4.   RECOMMENDATION
         NGN-eCO recommends that “National Numbering Plan needs
         to be modified to include NGN. TEC to study and give
         detailed recommendations” .


3.6.     Routing

3.6.1.   IP ROUTING

         The Next Generation Network (NGN) will be a single network
         that carries all telecommunications services. All voice, data, and
         multimedia traffic within an operator‟s core network is carried
         as packets on IP/MPLS backbone with appropriate quality and
         class of service. The core will be a fully resilient in terms of
         failure protection and recovery and should adhere to the levels
         of service characterized in ITU-T Rec Y 1541.

         The Core architecture will use well known IP protocols like
         OSPF, BGP etc. for routing updates and MPLS for traffic
         engineering. The Routing procedures and configuration for
         handing over the IP traffic from one operator to another operator
         will depend upon how the two operators are interconnected.
         Besides IP connectivity and routing protocols between two
         operators, NGN will require special provisioning to enable voice
         and video to pass smoothly from one network to another. There
         will be issues related to Firewall traversal, NAT, Security, SLAs,
         translation of protocols in two networks (interoperability), and
         lawful interception of calls. To handle these issues devices like
         Session Border Controllers (SBC) will be required at borders,
         between two NGN operators. The design of the network shall be
         capable of detecting the insufficient bandwidth or failure of
         connectivity between two operators and shall be able to
         reconnect the signalling and media link through alternate
         routes. The network devices like routers and switches in the

                                    52
     core and border networks shall support IPV4 as well as IPV6
     protocols for easy migration to IPV6 in future.

Packet Compression - The most critical requirements of good voice
quality in an IP environment include:
   Delay-End-to-end (mouth-to-ear) delay must not exceed 150 ms.

   Delay variation (jitter)-Jitter must not add delay beyond what is
    left in the delay budget.

   Packet loss-This factor depends on codec, sample size and how
    traffic gets dropped. Packet loss for telephony should never
    exceed 0.1 percent.

Depending on the compression method being used, delay, jitter, and
packet loss have variable effects on voice quality. As a general rule,
higher compression ratio (resulting in lower per-call bandwidth use)
means greater impact on voice quality, if any of the basic
requirements are not met. This fact should be kept in mind while
implementing packet compression techniques and routing of traffic
between two service provider‟s high bandwidth network using a low
bandwidth link. Following Figure-12 illustrates the connectivity and
routing of two NGN operators, where both have agreed to carry the
others‟ traffic.




                                 53
                                                              NGN OPERATOR 1



                                                                     Softswitch
                                                        SBC



                           PE Router/Aggregator
                                                    V


                                                              Media Gateway


                             INTERNET
  PSTN


                             PE Router/Aggregator
                                                                  PSTN
                             V
      Media Gateway


                                 SBC




         Softswitch




                 NGN OPERATOR 2



 Figure 12


In case of IP based network and in multi-operator scenario as the
Interconnection architecture suggested interconnection of the NGN
network at the IP layer. Such interconnects support not only the
traditional telephony (PSTN) network and emerging IP networks but
also bring the concept of DNS and ENUM DNS as a network
component. By the introduction of DNS in the NGN Interconnect
scenario the service provider will be benefited and in future this is
the ultimate solution in number portability.

In the NGN Interconnection architecture, the Interconnect Exchange
approach is proposed for the interconnection between different NGN
operators and between legacy & NGN operator. Thus in this type of
Architecture the introduction of new component in the network i.e.
GOLBAL ENUM DNS is quite easy. This GLOBAL ENUM DNS will
resolve the existing number to SIP URI. Now the SIP server of
operator A send query to ENUM DNS server to lookup Operator B
                           54
    network for the routing and termination of call.

     In IP based network the SIP session establishment with the help of
     GLOBAL ENUM DNS is as follows:


                                             ENUM
               Query for the Tel. no.         DNS   Interconnect
                  to sip address                    Provider N/W

                                       Sip:
                 IP Network        4444@oprB.i                      IP Network
                 Operator A             n                           Operator B

                                             ENUM
                   SIP                        DNS                   SIP
                  server                                           server
 Tel:+911126                   DNS server
   598585                        lookup
                                Operator
                               B.network
                                        Sip:3333@o                          Sip:4444@o
Sip:2222@o          Sip:3333@o
                                           prB.in                              prB.in
   prA.in              prA.in   RTP

      Figure 13


 3.6.2. ENUM

      The basic ideas of Global ENUM are as follows:

            Number Portability: It enables the originating administrative
         domain to do an all call query to find the destination network.

            Saving OPEX : Provisioning is done only by the destination
         administrative domain for the E.164 numbers this domain is
         hosting.

            Enables Convergence: Enables all multimedia services for
         E.164 numbers for all sessions on IP end-to-end.

 3.6.3. Recommendation

      NGN-eCO recommends that Session Border Controllers (SBC)
      functionality as described in para 3.1        should    be used        at

                                        55
       borders,      between      two        NGN   operators.        Calling   party
       identification must be mandatory for routing the call in NGN
       networks.


3.7.   Interconnect Usage Charges
3.7.1. INTERCONNECT CHARGING

       Present concept of charging in PSTN/PLMN is based on distance
       and time-duration of call. In NGN scenario charging will be based
       on the bandwidth usage, application usage, quality of service,
       number of network elements used, amount of actual content of
       information exchanged during a call session, time-of-day, etc.

       NGN Networks may require many more feature for charging as
       given below

          Charging based on call duration, bearer capability, time and type
       of day etc.

          Charging based QoS, bandwidth, application etc.

          Chargeable party (calling, called or third party).

          Charging of supplementary and value added services.


       Generation of CDR (Call Data Records), subscriber billing, trunk
       billing and automatic backup and format conversion functions
       should be possible.


       Standard interfaces and protocols will be required for sending
       relevant information to billing centre. In a NGN environment, it is
       important to specify an Interconnection Usage Charges (IUC)
       regime     which   gives    greater    certainty   to   the    Inter-operator
       settlements     and     facilitates    interconnection agreements.




                                         56
Presently, in India, we have adopted the cost based IUC which
include origination, carriage and termination charges. However,
there can be four models for IUC in the NGN based networks.
These are: 1. Calling Party Network Pays, 2. Bill and Keep, 3.
Based on Quality of service, 4. Bulk billing. The exercise to
determine IUCs involves an assessment of the various cost items
attributable to the different network elements involved in setting up
of a call in NGN environment. Every effort needs to be made to
accurately assess the network element costs based on the inputs to
be provided by various operators. The important issue is to identify
the Network elements involved in completion of the carriage of all
long distance call from its origin to destination in a Multi-Operator
environment.



Methodology for calculation of Interconnection Usage Charges
a) Current IUC Scenario- TDM based networks:

Framework of the IUC regime has already been established by TRAI
in its IUC Regulation. As detailed therein, IUC has to be
determined based on minutes of usage for various Unbundled
Network Elements and the cost of these elements. The IUCs for
Origination, Transit and Termination are based on the principles of
element based charging i.e. one operator charging the other for the
resources consumed for carriage of its calls in terms of minutes of
use (MOU).

The total Interconnection Usage Charges for carriage of a call in a
multi operator environment are to be shared for Origination,
Transit and Termination on the basis of work done in each segment
for the carriage of the call.




                                57
b) Moving towards NGN:

Migration to NGN would substantially affect the network costs and
the relationship between the cost of carrying traffic and distance
over which traffic is carried. The similarities between NGNs and the
Internet have raised the question of whether the move to NGN will
bring the “death of distance” in interconnection charges. Where
internet charges are typically independent of the distance over
which data is conveyed, under NGNs the distance related network
costs   may    become   much       smaller.   Therefore,   cost   based
interconnection charges would help in bringing the correct
regulatory framework in facilitating faster deployment of NGNs in
the market.


Four main basis for Interconnect charges in NGN regime:

A. Calling Party‟s Network Pays (CPNP):

CPNP- the network that initiates the call pays for the call, usually
based on the duration of the call; generally, the party that receives
(terminates) the call pays nothing. In IP based networks, instead of
duration of the call, the charging can be based on the number of
packets transferred. This can either take the form of Element
Based Charging (EBC) or Capacity Based Charging (CBC). Both
systems constitute cost-based systems.

Limitations:

 Under EBC the interconnection rates depend on the number of
network elements. Implementation of EBC (or CBC) for IP networks
would cause transaction costs (e.g. for determining IP points of
interconnection).
 Termination Monopoly




                              58
B. Bill and Keep

 With this regime there are no charges for termination. Basically,
 Bill & Keep is a kind of barter exchange where network operator A
 on his network terminates traffic coming from network B and vice
 versa. As traffic flows may balance out in both directions so that
 there are no payment flows, the price for A of getting his traffic
 terminated in B’s network consists of A providing network
 capacities for terminating traffic coming from B. In that sense,
 interconnection services are not provided for free.



 With Bill & Keep, transaction costs can be reduced and there is no
 termination monopoly problem under Bill & Keep. Without
 payments for termination services the problem of arbitrage is
 avoided.

 Limitations:

     As every other system Bill & Keep also has its shortcomings.
 In Bill and Keep, the Service providers have an incentive to hand
 over their traffic into another network for termination as early as
 possible. To counter this problem, it may be reasonable to make
 requirements with regard to the minimum number and location of
 interconnection points for Bill & Keep to be applicable for a specific
 network operator.


 C. Based on Quality of Service
   If two providers want to compensate one another for carrying
   their respective delay-sensitive traffic at a preferred Quality of
   Service, each will want to verify that the other has in fact done
   what it committed to do.


   In the case of QoS, this would seem to imply measurements of (1)
   the amount of traffic of each class of service exchanged in each
   direction between the providers; and (2) metrics of the quality of

                               59
 service actually provided. Measuring the QoS is much more
 complex, both at a technical level and at a business level.

Limitations:
  Commitments between providers would be primarily in terms
     of the mean and variance of delay. First, it is important to
     remember that this measurement activity implies a degree of
     cooperation   between    network   operators    who   are   direct
     competitors for the same end-user customers. Each operator
     will be sensitive about revealing the internal performance
     characteristics of its networks to a competitor. Neither would
     want the other to reveal any limitations in its network to
     prospective customers.

  Second, there might be concerns that the measurement
     servers – operated within one‟s own network, for the benefit of
     a competitor – might turn into an operational nightmare, or
     perhaps a security exposure, within the perimeter of one‟s own
     network.


D.   Bulk Basis (can also be termed as „Interconnect Hotel‟)
     The legacy interconnection charge regime i.e. Per minute basis
     would certainly complicate the smooth settlement of claims.
     The reason being, NGN products will be based on capacity,
     quality of service and class of service. Since the aggregation
     of traffic would take place at the common node, it is all the
     way   necessary    to    mandate     charging    of   applicable
     Interconnection charges for NGNs on bulk usage basis rather
     than per minute basis prevalent currently. Under the NGN,
     total network costs and carriage would become much smaller
     relative to traffic volumes and thus average network costs
     associated with each traffic unit decrease. Charging of
     interconnect charges on bulk basis will establish a clear level

                              60
playing field among the operators and facilitate in saving legal
costs and time from unwanted litigations.



Presently the operators in India offer a number of products for
voice telephony (including data over voice lines and broadband
data). These services are carried on a number of platforms,
involving separate networks and a number of different
communication nodes. In this setup, network sharing across
services is limited. Therefore, there is an absolute necessity to
set up a circle/geographical level integrated NGN exchange
where traffic from all services get merged on payment of
applicable cost based interconnection charges.



With the proposed Interconnect Exchange setup, traffic from
the customer would be carried over to the multi-service access
node (Common Node), co-located with main distribution frame
of the operator and then directed to a central network node.
Thus, under the proposed common node, traffic originated by
customers would not only share the local network segment,
but would be aggregated at the local node using a common
transmission protocol and from there routed towards a
common multi service network.



The biggest advantage of the setting up of Common Node
(Interconnect Exchange) is that it supports many different
access   technologies   and   allows   services   using   different
technologies to be carried on the same lines. During the
interim period of migration of PSTN to IP, media gateways can
be a part of the Exchange for conversion of PSTN traffic to IP.
This Interconnect Exchange would act as a „Billing & Clearing
House‟ for incoming and outgoing traffic. The inter-operator

                         61
    charging could be a function of a) Grade of service, b) Content,
    and c) network elements being used while carrying the traffic
    upto the Interconnect exchange.


Components of IUC
At present the IUC depends on the following components and
would continue to be a part of NGN regime also. However, by the
time NGN gets implemented in India, these components would
substantially decrease:
     ADC- Nil
     Carriage cost- due to implementation of all IP network at
      core, the cost of carriage would reduce dramatically and
      distance based carriage will not have any relevance.
     Termination – based on the class of service, content and
      quality of service, this component should be negotiable
      between operators
     New cost element need to be introduced to cater to the Capex
      and Opex required for the Interconnect Exchange- Each
      operator would pay some pre-determined amount which can
      be a function of the class of service, content and/or Quality
      of service being provided by the operator.


Issues and challenges – for IUC Billing and Accounting in NGN


     Inter-operator settlement issues- content and quality based
      pricing, usage based or bulk billing.
     In an NGN world, the network service provider will not
      necessarily be the application service provider.
     The network provider will have only limited visibility into
      third party applications running over its network.




                              62
         The application provider may have extensive visibility into
          the application that it provides, but only limited visibility into
          the use of network resources.
         Usage-based billing will be possible only to the extent that
          the usage can be rigorously and unambiguously measured.
         How will providers and customers ensure that service
          commitments are met? Whose statistics will govern?
         Competitive providers are reluctant to share statistics about
          their respective networks with one another, and peering
          agreements typically restrict the ability of the providers to
          disclose information about one another„s networks to third
          parties.      Can   sufficient   information    be   disclosed   to
          customers?
         How will responsibility be allocated if a customer‟s traffic
          fails to achieve its committed service level specification?
          Traffic data can legitimately be interpreted in more than one
          way.       Will it be possible to administer payments and
          penalties rigorously and fairly?
         How can providers prevent fraud? How can they distinguish
          between fraud and legitimate use?

3.7.2. Recommendations

     The NGN-eCO recommends that In the short-term, existing
     billing mechanisms may continue as it is in PSTN/PLMN for
     inter-operator/inter-carrier    reconciliation      and     subscriber
     billing, which requires generation of CDR/IPDR records. In the
     long term, interconnect billing may be based on various other
     parameters such as        bandwidth used, requiring alternative
     record keeping mechanisms which would depend on the
     methodology adopted for Inter Carrier settlement.




                                    63
3.8.   Traffic Measurement / Accounting / Monitoring

3.8.1. Traffic Measurement


       Routers and switches in IP networks are the key elements which
       provide the vital statistics to facilitate   value-added applications
       such as network management, traffic engineering and planning,
       usage-based billing and Service Level Agreement (SLA) verification.
       The IP network should be able to deliver:


         Network availability: This variable can also be thought of as
          service availability

         QoS: The network elements or nodes must be able to provide a
          reliable QoS to assure an adequate level for the applications

         Predictable performance: Without predictable performance, it
          will be impossible for a service provider to plan and implement a
          service on a network wide basis

         Security: A fundamental consideration in ensuring stable
          operation Traffic measurement involves traffic data interception,
          collection, storage, and analysis as the major activities to
          generate the meaningful reports.


   Traffic data for measurement can be acquired, intercepted, or
   collected in any of the following ways.

         SNMP - Using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) to
          access traffic counters or other readings from SNMP enabled
          devices. The information collected this way can facilitate the
          capacity planning but does very little to characterize traffic
          applications, essential for understanding how well the network
          supports the business. For more granular understanding of
          bandwidth usage other methods of data collection must be
          used.
                                      64
     Sniffing - Looking at incoming/outgoing network packets that
     pass through a network card of a server (so called “packet
     sniffing”). Copy of the traffic can also be collected through port
     mirroring (SPAN) in manageable Ethernet switches or through
     in-line network taps. Traffic data received this way in a large
     network requires a large server to process the information and
     deliver the required results.

     Flow Based Traffic Accounting – This process involves network
     devices like routers and switches in a IP/MPLS network which
     export the traffic flows and provide the valuable information
     about network users, applications usage, timing, and traffic
     direction on the network. This method has become industry
     standard for accounting and analysis of IP traffic and also to
     identify various attacks on the network.      The proposed IETF
     standards to provide Flow based traffic accounting are called IP
     Flow Information Export (IPFIX) and Packet Sampling (PSAMP).
     A large number of third party applications (Commercial &
     freeware) are available utilizing these techniques to provide the
     traffic statistics graphically or in tabular format or both.
     Essentially a Network traffic monitoring solution should be
     capable of providing following information.

   Time-based view of application usage over the network: This
    information is used to plan, understand new services, and
    allocate network and application resources to responsively meet
    customer demands.

   IP Address based utilization of network and application
    resources: This information may then be utilized to efficiently
    plan and allocate access, backbone and application resources as
    well as to detect and resolve potential security and policy
    violations.



                                 65
       Capture data over a long period of time producing the opportunity
        to track and anticipate network growth and plan upgrades to
        increase the number of routing devices, ports, or higher-
        bandwidth interfaces. Captured data should include details such
        as IP addresses, packet and byte counts, timestamps, type-of
        service and application ports, etc.). Service providers may
        utilize the information for billing based on time-of-day, bandwidth
        usage, application usage, quality of service, etc.

       Identifies and classifies DDOS attacks, viruses and worms in
        real-time.



3.8.1.1.   Flow-based Traffic Measurements


           To measure the traffic between two interconnecting services
           providers, the flow based traffic accounting is configured at
           border routers to generate the flows and send them to
           reporting servers working as Flow collectors. The Flow
           collector has the job of assembling and understanding the
           exported flows and combining or aggregating them to produce
           the valuable reports used for traffic and security analysis. A
           flow is defined by at least seven unique keys as


            Source IP address
            Destination IP address
            Source TCP/UDP port
            Destination TCP/UDP port
            Layer3 protocol type
            Type of Service field (DSCP)
            Input logical interface (ifIndex)




                                      66
          Some implementations of may also add the following fields to
          the exported flows.


           Flow timestamps, useful to calculate the packets and bytes
            per second
           Next hop IP address including BGP routing Autonomous
            System (AS) number
           Subnet mask to calculate prefixes
           TCP flags to examine TCP handshakes


         Expired flows are exported to Flow Collector using UDP
         datagrams.      The selection of a reporting and analysis tool
         utilizing the data in exported flows is important which depends
         on various factors like

           Main objective of Measurement – Security, Accounting &
            Billing, Traffic Analysis including application and user
            monitoring

           Operating Software for the server (e.g. Windows, Linux or
            other variant of Unix OS)

           Size and complexity of the network


3.8.2.   Deployment


         Once the objective and the reporting software are decided, the
         sizing and number of servers are determined. Some reporting
         systems require two-tier architecture where collectors are
         deployed near key points in the network which collect and
         aggregate the traffic from various network devices and forward
         the aggregated data to main reporting server as shown in the
         figure below



                                    67
     Figure 14

3.8.3. VoIP traffic measurement


       Traffic measurements play an important role in regulating the
       QoS of the network and SLA between operators. Apart from the
       measurements performed in the IP network at router nodes,
       certain measurements can be performed at the control and media
       gateway nodes.


     These measurements give traffic details and statistics of RTP traffic
     and aid in regulating the QoS of the network and the QoS as
     experienced by the subscriber. Also, measurement based VoIP
     quality management is a function that provides the ability to select
     the best path through the network based on quality measurement
     on active RTP voice channels. Monitoring is an important feature
     used to improve and evaluate the QoS. By using the statistics the
     QoS configuration can be fine-tuned. Counters are used for the
     purpose of performance monitoring.

                                   68
         The      ITU     specification    defines   the     following      performance
         measurement:

               Transfer Delay            IPTD          (intrusive)
               Delay Variation           IPDV          (intrusive)
               Loss Ratio IPLR           (intrusive or non-intrusive)
               Error Ratio               IPER          (intrusive or non-intrusive)
               Discard Ratio             IPDR          (non-intrusive)

3.8.4. MONITORING OF VOICE


             Measurements can be made intrusively (with test packets) or non-
             intrusively using performance statistics from traffic. For further
             details see ITU specification (M.2301 - Performance objectives and
             procedures     for   provisioning    and    maintenance        of   IP-based
             networks)

3.8.5.       INTRUSIVE PERFORMANCE MONITORING

             INTRUSIVE      PERFORMANCE           MONITORING          CAN    BE    MADE
             THROUGH THE USE OF TEST CALLS. TEST CALLS WILL USE
             RTCP TO PROVIDE PERFORMANCE STATISTICS.

3.8.6. NON-INTRUSIVE PERFORMANCE MONITORING


             The following performance indicators for VoIP are produced per
             egress IP interface and ingress IP interface:

              Limited RTP performance indicators

              Full-fledge RTP performance indicators




                                             69
3.8.7. Monitoring of Jitter


       The main reason for jitter is due to queuing. If abnormal jitter
       occurs the source of the delay variation has to be identified. A
       notification may be initiated. Per channel statistics for jitter
       buffer for test calls will identify delays in the network.


3.8.8. Monitoring of LSPs



       Performance statistics per LSP are:

       Outgoing segment:

        No. of octets sent on segment

        No. of packets sent on segment

        No. of packets discarded due to error *

        No. of packets discarded due to other reason then errors **

          Incoming segment:

        No. of octets sent on segment

        No. of packets sent on segment

        No. of packets discarded due to error *

        No. of packets discarded due to other reason then errors **
       *possible error reasons: Ipv4 header check-sum errors, wrong IP
       version filed, too small Ipv4 header size.
       **possible reasons can be to free up buffer space, unknown MPLS
       label, and MPLS TTL expires.


     3.8.9. Recommendations
             NGN-eCO recommends that service provider must have
             mechanism for traffic measurement to cover VoIP
             traffic measurement, voice intrusive & non-intrusive
             performance measurements etc.
                                     70
                                CHAPTER 4


                  QoS ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT


4.    Introduction:

      Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to
      provide telecommunication services and able to make use of multiple
      broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which
      service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-
      related technologies. It enables unfettered access for users to
      networks and to competing service providers and/or services of their
      choice. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent
      and ubiquitous provision of services to users.”

                                                          ---- ITU-T Y.2001

      The concept of an NGN has been introduced to take into
      consideration   the   realities     in   telecommunication   industry,
      characterized by factors such as: competition among operators due
      to ongoing deregulation of markets, explosion of digital traffic e.g.
      increasing use of “the Internet”, increasing demand of new
      multimedia services, increasing demand of general mobility,
      convergence of networks and services etc. Next Generation Network
      (NGN) is a very powerful platform to provide different services like
      Voice, Video and Data. Thus, growing market, increasing demand
      and powerful platform has provided sufficient reasons to service
      providers to migrate to NGN Environment.

4.1   A major goal of NGN is to facilitate convergence of networks and
      services. NGN is a concept for defining and deploying networks,
      which due to their formal separation into different layers and use




                                     71
      of open interfaces offer service providers and operators a platform,
      which can evolve   in a step-by-step manner to create, deploy, and
      manage innovative services.

4.2   NGN is a Packet based network. Hence,      Quality of Service (QoS)
      in the context of NGN is a complex issue and international
      standards are still evolving. There was complete agreement in Core
      Group that fixing the framework for QoS      at the very beginning
      stage will help the service providers / vendors to      Deploy and
      engineer their networks to meet the overall QoS objectives.

4.3   QoS to be truly useful and practical enough, it must be meaningful
      from following 4 viewpoints:



         Customer’s                                  QoS Offered
            QoS                                          By
        requirements                                  provider




            QoS                                          QoS
         perceived                                   achieved by
        by customer                                    provider

4.4   QoS may require control of a range of features such as latency,
      packet loss, jitter, bandwidth but beyond a basic minimum, QoS
      is meaningful to a user only if it exists on an end-to-end basis
      i.e. across the networks.      Also, QoS must cover not just the
      transmission quality but also parameters like reliability, fault



                                     72
       tolerance, service availability, security, call set-up, scalability,
       service provisioning, service restoration, etc. Further, to achieve

       QoS, requires co-operation between many different elements. One
       poorly performing network segment could impair the QoS.

4.5    NGN permits separation of transport, control and service &
       application layers, providing greater flexibility to launch value
       added services. A common IP backbone is maintained permitting
       effective utilization of the backbone while maintaining better
       Quality of Service (QoS) and flexibility to support various
       applications.

4.6.   Network Centric Parameters

       Analysis:

             Following major points were taken into consideration by NGN
             e-CO group:

             4.6.1 A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based
                   network able to provide Telecommunication Services to
                   users and able to make use of multiple broadband,
                   QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which
                   service-related   functions    are   independent   of   the
                   underlying transport-related technologies.

             4.6.2 The basic definition of QoS (Quality of Service) is given
                   by the ITU-T in Rec. No. E.800 as "the collective effect
                   of service performance, which determines the degree of
                   satisfaction of a user of a service". Expanding on the
                   E.800 QoS concept, ITU-T Rec. G.1000 breaks down
                   service performance (or service quality) into functional
                   components and links it to network performance.
                   Network Performance (as per ITU-T Rec. No. I. 350) is
                   measured in       terms   of   parameters    which      are



                                     73
                  meaningful to the network provider and are used for
                  the purpose of system design, configuration, operation
                  and maintenance. Network Performance (NP) is defined
                  independently       of    terminal      performance        and    user
                  actions.

       4.6.3 Most importantly, the end-to-end QoS must certainly
                  capture the experience of the user – so aptly described
                  by the term QoE (Quality of Experience).                     QoE is
                  defined as the overall acceptability of an application or
                  service, as perceived subjectively by the end-user.
                  Quality of Experience includes the complete end-to-end
                  system effects       (client,     terminal,    network,     services
                  infrastructure,     etc).    Overall     acceptability      may       be
                  influenced by user expectations and context. Figure
                  given below illustrates how the concepts of QoS, NP
                  and QoE are applied in the Next Generation Network
                  (NGN) environment.




CN :   Core Network ; SP : Service Platform;      AN : Access Network:; CPN :Customer
       Premise Network

General    reference         configuration      for    NGN     QoS,    NP    and    QoE
(Source :ITU-T)


       4.6.4 A typical user is not concerned with how a particular
                  application    is    supported.        However,      the    user      is
                  interested in comparing the same service offered by

                                       74
     different quality in terms of various ranges. Thus, for
     successful delivery of quality to the end-user - across
     NGN - there should be classes of Application QoS that
     are mapped into specific Network QoS classes. These
     Application   QoS       should    operate   across   network
     domains and including terminal characteristics to
     negotiate / communicate the requested application
     quality that will be perceived by the end-user (i.e.
     "mouth-to-ear").

4.6.5 QoS Parameters are service specific. For example, call
     set-up delay, call completion rate and speech quality
     are some of the parameters for real-time voice service
     whereas     for IPTV service , Jitter and the channel
     change time could be important parameters.

4.6.6 Group members opined that IP Network QoS Classes
     definitions and Network Performance objectives defined
     in ITU T Y.1541 recommendation should be taken as a
     standard for deciding the QoS parameters of applicable
     services in NGN network centric issues in Indian
     context.    Parameters defined in ITU T Y.1541 are
     attached in Annexure-VII.

4.6.7 There are QoS classes       other than those defined in
     ITU-T Y.1541,       like ETSI TS 123 107 for UMTS.
     Mapping/harmonisation            of   different   technology
     specifications / QoS classes is needed to be able to
     manage end-to-end QoS in NGN.

4.6.8 NGN-eCO is of the opinion that for deciding any
     parameter related to QoS for a particular service under
     NGN, available ITU T recommendations for that
     particular service should be considered as far as
     possible.

                        75
      4.6.9 Various equipment manufacturers were also called for
           giving their inputs on QoS issues especially on facility
           and feasibility of measuring QoS parameters in their
           equipments.

4.7   Customer Centric Parameters:
      Analysis:
      4.7.1 NGN-eCO         has   identified      that     customer      centric
           parameters are Service Activation Time, Service De-
           activation Time, Service, Restoration Time, Clarity of
           Tariff Plans, Ease of switching between plans, Ease of
           getting Billing information, Ease of Bill payments, Ease
           of     getting    refunds,        Network     Availability,   Billing
           Accuracy, Security of customer information, Grievance
           Redressal, Access to senior executives/ officers, Round
           the clock availability of customer care, Fault Repair
           Service, Redressal of Excess Metering Cases, Service
           availability etc.

      4.7.2 NGN-eCO has noted that there are already existing
           regulations for Basic Services, Mobile Services and
           Broadband Services. Parameters like Service Activation
           Time, Service De-activation Time, Service Restoration
           Time, Clarity of Tariff Plans, Ease of switching between
           plans, Ease of getting billing information etc. are
           already     defined         for   these     services   in     various
           regulations/direction of TRAI. NGN will also offer
           basically these services and also new services. Hence,
           parameters from the existing regulations may be made
           applicable.




                                  76
     4.7.3 TRAI      has    issued   the    regulation    on    “Telecom
             Consumers Protection and Redressal of Grievances
             Regulations, 2007”. Many of the points mentioned for
             customer centric issues are already there in the above
             regulations.

4.8 Definitions of some of the important QoS parameters/
   issues in NGN scenario:

     4.8.1    Network QoS Classes: Network QoS class creates a
             specific combination of bounds on the performance
             values. Various existing defined network QoS classes
             in ITU –T in Y.1541 are give below:

     QoS class      Application (Example)
     0              Real-time, Jitter,     Sensitive,    High   Interaction
                    (VoIP, VTC)
     1              Real-time, Jitter,     Sensitive,    High   Interaction
                    (VoIP, VTC)
     2              Transaction data, highly interactive (Signalling)
     3              Transaction data, Interactive
     4              Low Loss Only (Short transactions, bulk data,
                    Video streaming)
     5              Traditional Applications of default IP Networks


     4.8.2 Latency: Latency or IP Packet Transfer Delay (IPTD) is
             the time between the occurrence of two corresponding
             IP packet reference events.

     4.8.3 Jitter: Jitter or IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) is the
             variation in IP packet transfer delay.

     4.8.4 Packet Error: Packet Error or IP Packet Error Ratio
             (IPER) is the ratio of total errored IP packets outcomes
             to the total of successful IP packet transfer outcomes
             plus errored IP packet outcomes in a population of
             interest.
                               77
4.8.5 Packet Loss: Packet Loss or IP Packet Loss Ratio
     (IPLR) is the ratio of total lost IP Packets outcomes to
     total transmitted IP packets in a population of interest.

4.8.6 Toll Quality: The voice quality resulting from the use
     of a nominal 4-kHz telephone channel.

4.8.7 Call Completion Rate: It is the ratio of established
     calls     to call attempts during time consistent busy
     hour (TCBH).

4.8.8 Availability of Network: Measure of the degree to
     which network is operable and not in a state of failure
     or outage at any point of time for all users.

4.8.9 Customer premises equipment (CPE): Terminal and
     associated equipment and inside wiring located at a
     subscriber's premises and connected with a carrier's
     communication channel (s) at the demarcation point.

4.8.10       Core      Network:     The    centralized    part   of   a
     network, characterized by a high level of traffic
     aggregation, high capacity links and a relatively small
     number of nodes.

4.8.11 Access        Network:     The   access   network      provides
         connectivity between the end-user and the transport
         core-network. The access network may be wireless or
         wireline,    and    it   can     be   based     on   different
         transmission media e.g. copper wires, cable TV and
         fibre optic or wireless. The access network is
         connected to network nodes at the edge of the core
         network.

4.8.12 Customer Network: The wiring and associated
         equipment inside the customer premises is generally
         known as customer premises network.

                            78
        TEC is in the process of developing generic requirements for
        NGN and related measurements for various quality of service
        parameters which are required to ensure QoS in NGN
        environment in multi-operator scenario. TEC may also play
        its      role   in   standardizing   testing   and   measurement
        procedures at network interfaces for ensuring quality of
        service across the networks in multi-operator scenario.

 4.9.   RECOMMENDATIONS


4.9.1   In view of the deliberations, it is concluded that       objective
        was to identify the parameters to be taken into account for
        QoS of NGN network. Values of these parameters may be
        decided through separate consultation paper. NGN-eCO
        recommends as below:

4.9.2. Network Centric Parameters: NGN-eCO recommends the
        following parameters which need to be defined for end-to-end
        QoS in NGN scenario.

4.9.2.1.Network QoS Classes: Various network QoS classes to be
        defined for service offered through NGN network. For
        example, in ITU T Y.1541, QoS Class 0 is recommended
        for Real time, jitter sensitive, high interaction services (VoIP
        etc.).

4.9.2.2.Latency : IP Packet Transfer Delay (IPTD) for real time/ non
        real time       voice, data,     video and streaming multimedia
        services. This should be defined for various classes of service
        separately.

4.9.2.3.Jitter: IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) for real time/ non
        real time       voice, data,     video and streaming multimedia
        services. This should be defined for various classes of service
        separately.


                                    79
4.9.2.4.Packet Error: IP Packet Error Ratio (IPER) for real time/ non
        real time     voice, data,      video and streaming multimedia
        services. This should be defined for various classes of service
        separately.

4.9.2.5.Packet Loss: IP Packet Loss Ratio (IPLR) for real time/ non
        real time voice, data,          video and streaming multimedia
        services. This should be defined for various classes of
        service separately.

4.9.2.6.In case of         VoIP,   toll quality and non toll quality
        parameters shall be defined.         Customers should be made
        aware of the difference in Quality and tariff between the two
        services, by service providers.

4.9.2.7.Interconnection congestion limit should be specified. Some
        percentage level should be defined for bandwidth utilization.

4.9.2.8.Call Completion rate within network and across networks
        (inter network).

4.9.2.9. QoS End to End - Across Networks: Since multiple
        network operators are involved in providing access to a
        service in a multi-operator scenario, the overall QoS is a
        function of QoS offered by the individual segments. Hence,
        apportionment of impairment objectives among operators
        and number of operators that could be allowed in a
        particular scenario also needs to be worked out.




                                   80
                                                                 Provider C
     Provider A
            Regional                                        Metro
                           Transit           Transit
              Transit      Segment A2        Segment B2      Transit
              Segment A1                                     Segment C1
                                    Regional

                                    Transit
                                                                           Access
              Access                Segment B1
                                                                           Segment C
              Segment A
                                Provider B
              UNI                                                          UNI

 User Segment A                                                User Segment C


 Figure 1/Y.1542 – Example topology for impairment allocation
         (Source ITU-T)


4.9.3.   Customer Centric QoS Parameters:
4.9.3.1. Customer centric parameters such as Service Activation
         Time, Service De-activation Time,                Service, Restoration
         Time, Ease of switching between tariff plans, Ease of getting
         refunds, Network Availability, Service availability etc. may
         be taken from the existing regulations for different services.
         Some new parameters such as Guaranteed Bandwidth,
         Bandwidth on demand and Throughput i.e. effective data
         transfer rate measured in bits per second need to be
         specified particularly in NGN scenario.

4.9.3.2. For parameters like Clarity of Tariff Plans, Ease of getting
         billing information, billing and metering accuracy and
         billing complaint handling had been defined in regulation
         Code of Practice for Metering and Billing Accuracy. Same
         may be amended suitably for services in NGN environment.

4.9.3.3. For parameters like Grievance Redressal, Access to
         senior executives/ officers, Round the clock availability
         of customer care, Fault Repair Service etc, TRAI had
         already issued a a regulation on “Telecom Consumers
         Protection and Redressal of Grievances Regulations, 2007”.


                               81
        Customer Grievances parameters/ procedures defined in
        this regulation may also be made applicable for NGN
        services.

4.9.3.4. Some new services to be provided through NGN for which
        service specific parameters may not be available in existing
        regulations, for such services specific QoS parameters will
        have to be defined in future.

4.9.4. QoS Measurements:
4.9.4.1.In a multi-operator scenario, the end-to-end efficiency
      depends on the cooperation of all the operators involved who
      would establish mutual Service Level Agreements (SLA)        in
      order for the service to be rendered. To offer differentiated
      services and provide value to customers, service providers
      define SLAs for various Classes of Service (CoSs). These
      agreements may contain a set of QoS matrix for each CoS.

4.9.4.2.For an end-to-end QoS measurement, spanning across
      several inter-connected service providers (Inter-Domain QoS
      or IDQ), there must be consistency in the measurement of
      performance attributes and therefore,    the key elements of
      consistency of performance measurement namely, the (i)
      objectives (i.e. which attributes are to be measured?)
      (ii) time-scales (i.e. what time-scales are attributes measured
      over?) and (iii) techniques (i.e. how are the attributes
      measured?) need to be defined.

4.9.4.3.A measurement and audit mechanism required to monitor
      the delivery of QoS in a multi-operator scenario on an end-
      to-end basis shall have to be established.




                              82
4.9.5. Regulation/policy and Standardization
4.9.5.1 TRAI shall initiate a consultation process on „QoS in NGN‟,
       involving   all   stakeholders.   Based   on   the   outcome   of
       consultation process, QoS parameters and the benchmarks
       thereof     will be prescribed at an appropriate time after
       gaining reasonable experience in NGN.




                                83
                               CHAPTER 5

                     NGN AWARENESS        BUILDING

5.0   NGN Awareness Building

5.1   NGN development in India is in its nascent stage. As of now no
      service provider has declared his plans to migrate to NGN in India,
      in contrast to firm commitments for migration to NGN in UK and
      Japan. While NGN is technological advancement, the flexibility to
      move to NGN will have to be with the service provider and initiative
      have to come from them. It is in this background that awareness
      building of NGN becomes important.


5.2   TRAI had issued a consultation paper on “Issues Pertaining to Next
      Generation Networks (NGN)” in January 2006 and subsequently
      the recommendations were sent to Government on 20th March
      2006.       During the Consultation process the stakeholders in
      general had expressed an urgent need for creation of a high-level
      cross-industry coordination committee for NGN consisting of
      representatives from Licensor, Regulator, DOT, TEC, Service
      Providers, Vendors & Academicians to examine all the relevant
      issues so that transition/migration from TDM networks to NGN
      is smooth and systematic. As a follow-up action, a cross industry
      expert group has been constituted by TRAI namely NGN-eCO (Next
      Generation Networks Expert Committee) on 20th June, 2006 to
      deliberate on various issues related to NGN.


5.3   Simultaneously, TEC has already created a National Focus Group
      on Next Generation Networks [NFG-NGN] to bring out white papers
      on the various standards related aspects of the NGN technologies.
      These white papers shall eventually lead to the finalisation of
      National Standards for NGN.       TEC is also in the process of
      publishing a “Compendium on NGN – Release I” consisting of study
      papers on NGN related topics for the benefit of various stakeholders
                                    84
      in India. TEC is also in the process of formulating a plan to set up
      integrated NGN labs for testing NGN technologies for benefiting all
      stakeholders. Another committee has also been formed by the TEC
      to study & analyze various international developments pertaining to
      NGN so as to incorporate the same in Indian context and define
      interface requirements in a time bound manner.


5.4   Meanwhile, recognizing the importance of the awareness about NGN
      and its smooth induction, the Department of Telecommunication
      [DoT)   has recently approved constitution of a high level steering
      committee for promoting the activities of National Focus Group on
      Next Generation Networks ( NFG-NGN) .


5.5   It is also felt that there is a need to have frequent interaction with
      industry   on    various   issues    relating   to   migration    and
      implementation of NGN in India.          In this regard organizing
      interactive workshops/seminars on NGN by agencies like TRAI,
      TEC, AUSPI, COAI will be useful to service providers and
      stakeholders.   This will facilitate the stakeholders to understand
      various issues relating to migration to NGN and take informed
      decision regarding their future plans and firm up migration process.


5.6   To add to NGN awareness building measures being taken,        TRAI is
      considering to conduct a national workshop on NGN Awareness
      with active participation of industry and stakeholders. This
      workshop is proposed in later part of 2007. This will be a forum
      where ideas, opinion will be exchanged amongst service providers,
      regulator, equipment manufacturers, academicians, policy maker
      etc.




                                     85
5.7   To summarize , we can say that all the government agencies
      like DoT , TRAI , TEC etc , industry supporting agencies like
      COAI , AUSPI , ISPAI , CII , FICCI , ASSOCHAM etc and the
      service providers themselves should make every possible effort
      to create awareness about NGN .




                                 86
                                  CHAPTER 6

                      TIMING OF NGN TRANSITION



6.0   Timing of NGN transition


6.1   NGN is technological advancement and therefore, migration to NGN
      should be perused by service providers as per their plan and
      convenience. However, important issue is to ensure co-existence of
      NGN and Non-NGN networks together and facilitate those service
      providers who want to migrate to NGN. In this regard it will be
      pertinent to identify impediments and facilitate interested service
      providers in their attempt to migrate to NGN.


6.2   The National Focus Group on NGN, created by TEC, will also help
      to create national level awareness amongst the stakeholders. It will
      help to muster public private partnership across different service
      providers for smooth induction of NGN in India benefiting all
      stakeholders.


6.3   Though   many     service   providers   are   building   NGN   enabled
      backbone and both class 4 and class 5 soft switches are being
      installed, there is no specific claim by any service provider
      regarding their total migration to NGN.         Service providers are
      seriously concerned with huge migration cost in access network
      due to very low penetration of Broadband and therefore, not certain
      of remunerative business model requiring high front end CAPEX.
      Under these circumstances it is very difficult to predict a time line
      or target date for total migration to NGN.




                                     87
6.4   One of the major concerns for migration to NGN is capital
      expenditure. Though there may be gradual phasing out of circuit
      switched      networks   and   the   introduction   of   packet   based
      equipment, the additional expenditure in the migration plans are
      inevitable.


6.5   Even in the developed world, still no clear cut target has been fixed
      for total migration. A rough time frame for OECD (Organisation for
      Economic Co-operation and Development) countries has been
      earmarked as 2012 for fixed and 2020 for mobile infrastructure. A
      lot of NGN transition has place in countries like China, Japan,
      Korea, U.K., Denmark, Netherlands etc. The main support for NGN
      transition in these countries was very high penetration of
      broadband.      Because of availability of ready made end users,
      different operators were tempted for NGN migration despite the
      high cost of transition because of availability of business models.


6.6   Presently no clear cut roll out plans by different service providers
      have been spelt out. While there will be no specific time limit to
      those who are not interested in migration to NGN, a time frame
      needs to be fixed    to redress the impediments so that interested
      service providers can migrate to NGN.               The NGN can be
      implemented in stages in any service providers‟ network:
      i) Implementation in core network.
      ii) Replacement of existing TDM switches to IP based switches or
      Soft switches .
      iii) End-to-end IP based network.



6.7   NGN-eCO has asked the various service providers about their
      business plans for NGN transition. But everyone has expressed its
      inability to fix any specific time frame. The setting up of IP based



                                      88
      network within service providers‟ licensed area is matter of a pure
      internal planning and therefore, can easily be undertaken as and
      when required by different service providers. The issue which
      requires deliberation is interconnections among NGN and non-NGN
      networks. No specific time frame can be prescribed in absence of
      any   publicly      announced   migration   plan   of   telecom     service
      providers.    It is expected that need of interconnection with NGN
      network      will   be felt very soon and therefore, impediments in
      migration to NGN needs to be redressed immediately.               It is felt
      necessary to make it amply clear that redressal of impediments in
      no way puts any obligations on service providers to migrate to NGN
      network. The flexibility of migration to NGN networks will totally
      rests with service providers depending on their perception and
      business model.



6.8   In summary we may say that there is no time frame prescribed
      for migration to NGN.           However, impediments restricting
      migration to NGN needs to be redressed in a time bound
      manner to facilitate those service providers who want to
      migrate to NGN.




                                      89
                                   CHAPTER 7

                              Other Issues of NGN



7.0   Identification of issues

7.1   Apart from Licensing issues, Interconnection issues , QoS related
      issues, NGN awareness building and Timing of NGN transition ,
      there are some other issues identified in terms of reference of NGN
      Expert Committee (NGN-eCO) which need to be deliberated. These
      are:

            Need and Time to Implement IPv6

            Net Neutrality

            Synchronization Requirement in NGN Networks


7.2   Need and Time to Implement IPv6
7.2.1 Analysis:
      Core Group identifies the need of large IP address in NGN
      environment.    Such large IP address requirements will not be
      possible without implementation of IPv6.      Therefore, there was
      general consensus that industry should move to IPv6.         Some
      members wanted timeframe to be specified for implementation of
      IPv6 by all the service providers.


      IPv6 is backwards compatible with IPv4. Moreover, implementation
      of IPv6 in their network is a decision, which is to be taken by
      service providers. TRAI in its recommendation dated 9th January
      2006 on IPv6 have already expressed the need to migrate to IPv6.
      Government of India has also indicated broad plans for migration
      to IPv6. Apparently no additional intervention is required at this
      stage considering future migration to NGN.




                                      90
 7.2.2 Recommendation:


         “IPv6 implementation will be desirable for migration to NGN.
         However the need and time to migrate to IPv6 be left to
         service providers”.


7.3     Net Neutrality

7.3.1   Analysis:
        The concept of net neutrality was also deliberated by NGN-eCO as
        NGN platform will provide lot of new contents and value added
        applications.    Some of the members of NGN-eCO felt that since
        service level agreements are being enforced through licensing
        conditions, the issue of net neutrality will also be redressed.
        However,     other   members    felt     that     development   of   popular
        applications and services may create complication in provision of
        services if net neutrality is not maintained.



        In India up till now no case has come to our knowledge where
        popular     application   are   either    blocked     or   deteriorated   in
        performance by any of service providers. Certain issues have been
        raised by service providers of US and the matter is under their
        active consideration. In view of this though it is important to note
        the importance of net neutrality no mandate seems to be necessary
        at this stage.

7.3.2   Recommendation:
        “NGN-eCO acknowledges the importance of net neutrality in
        NGN     environment,       however        feels     that   no   regulatory
        intervention is required at this stage”.




                                        91
7.4     Synchronization Requirement in NGN Networks
7.4.1   Analysis:
        All the service provider networks are sensitive to network
        synchronization. At present, network synchronization is being
        achieved by different service providers in different manner. There
        is no well-defined policy to ensure proper synchronization.      A
        detailed study in this regard needs to be undertaken so that
        synchronization did not pose any limitations while migrating to
        NGN platform.


        Synchronization of the networks of the various service providers is
        essential to ensure quality of service especially time sensitive
        services. The problems have been noticed quite often in various
        networks. A committee may be set up to study this issue in detail
        (may be under TEC) and suggest methodologies how network
        synchronization can be ensured. All the service providers should
        be mandated to comply with such guidelines issued by DOT on the
        basis of recommendation of committee.


7.4.2 Recommendation:
         “A committee under the aegis of           Telecom Engineering
        Center (TEC) be constituted to study requirement of network
        synchronization       and   suggest     methodologies     of    its
        implementation by various service providers across the
        networks.    Based on its    recommendations, DOT may issue
        directions which shall be compulsorily implemented by all
        service providers”.




                                     92
                                CHAPTER 8

                        Gist of Recommendations

1. LICENSING ISSUES


 i)    Contents on Next Generation Networks

       “There may be a need to regulate contents in the context of
       NGN. Responsibility of network provider relating to content
       carried on the network be limited to identify the source of the
       content generation as long as it is provided by content
       providers”.


 ii)   Encourage Virtual Network Operators


       “Bulk selling and virtual network operations in the context of
       NGN needs to be considered”.


 iii) Enforceable Service Level Agreement ( SLA )


       “Service providers should have full flexibility to have mutually
       agreed   SLAs    to   provide    end-to-end   QoS     for   various
       applications".


 iv)   Requirement of Mandatory Interconnect Exchange


       “There will be need to have interconnect exchanges for
       exchange of IP traffic in NGN environment.          However, it is
       recommended that the modalities of functioning of such
       exchange may be decided at appropriate time”.




                                   93
    v)     Flexibility of Placement of Active Element in the Network.

         “Present restrictions of setting up switching centers within the
         licensed area may be re-looked.        Service    providers may be
         provided   flexibility   to    set up switching      centers    and
         transmission      centers      based    on requirement anywhere
         within India de-linking from licensed area concept and do
         interconnection at least at one point in each licensed area”.


 vi) Mandatory Interconnection with Compatible TDM Network

         “Mandatory interconnection between telecom networks should
         continue. However, all NGN service providers should ensure
         interconnection to all existing telecom service providers by
         putting suitable equipments for providing interconnection to
         existing service providers”.

 vii) Mandatory Interface Approval in NGN

         “A committee may be formed under the aegis of Telecom
         Engineering Center ( TEC ) to work out country specific NGN
         standards and develop interface approval            mechanism for
         NGN     equipments       to   ensure    smooth     inter-operability
         subsequently”.


viii)    Mandate Emergency Number Dialing


         “Emergency number dialing from IP telephony subscribers be
         mandated, however, methodologies of such implementation be
         left to service providers”.




                                        94
       ix)      Authentication of Calling and Called Party Identification


             “Authentication of calling and called party identification be
             mandated, however, its implementation be left to individual
             service providers”.


2. INTERCONNECTION ISSUES



   i)        Interfaces:

         “Two NGN operators are to be interconnected through Session
         Border Controller (SBC), having support for different physical
         interfaces. All the interfaces should be provided with adequate
         redundancy with no single point of failure for that device.

         The Session Border Controller (SBC) may be a standalone
         separate device or SBC functionalities may be achieved
         through softswitch.

         NGN and traditional PSTN/PLMN are to be interconnected
         through Media Gateway and Signalling Gateway.

         The interconnection between two NGN networks of different
         operators need to be tested as per the standards defined by
         TEC or any other standard independent agency nominated by
         the Licensor/TRAI.

         TEC is to prepare Interface Requirement (IR) for connectivity
         between two NGN networks”.
 ii)     “The      following   standards    based   signalling   protocols   are
         expected to be used in Next Generation Network (NGN):
         a) SIGTRAN - between PSTN/PLMN and IP networks
         b) H.248          - between Media Gateway and Media Gateway
               Controller


         c) SIP, SIP-T/SIP-I - between two IP networks &               between
                  PSTN/PLMN and IP networks
                                           95
         d) H.323/SIP-T/SIP-I - for international Connectivity
    e) For delivery of content (voice/data/video etc.), RTP/RTCP
          protocol is to be used.

    TEC         needs       to      prepare        National    Generic
    Requirements/Standards for the signalling protocols interfaces
    and also examine Interoperability issues”.

iii) Security


    a)    Centralised Lawful Monitoring


          “The Centralised Lawful Monitoring System (CMS)should
          be under the Government agency, say VTM cell of DoT
          and having connectivity with all service providers, LEAs
          and VTMs of DoT. Provisioning of targets as warranted
          by Law Enforcing Agencies (LEAs ) should be done
          from CMS by DoT (VTM) without the intervention of
          service providers. TEC to prepare Generic Interface
          Specification for CMS”.


    b)    Security Issues


          “NGN-eCO acknowledged that security is of paramount
          importance to any network. Therefore, TEC            may be
          asked    to work on various aspects of security for the
          country keeping in view the global trends”.


iv) Numbering Scheme

    “National     Numbering Plan        needs to be modified to include
    NGN. TEC to study and give detailed recommendations” .




                                   96
  v) Routing
     “Session Border Controllers (SBC) functionality as described
     in para 3.1      should      be used          at borders, between two NGN
     operators. Calling party identification must be mandatory for
     routing the call in NGN networks”.


 vi) Interconnect Usage Charges

     “In the short-term, existing billing mechanisms may continue
     as   it   is    in   PSTN/PLMN          for     inter-operator/inter-carrier
     reconciliation       and      subscriber          billing,    which      requires
     generation      of    CDR/IPDR          records.        In   the   long    term,
     interconnect billing may be based on various other parameters
     such as     bandwidth used, requiring alternative record keeping
     mechanisms which would depend on the methodology adopted
     for Inter Carrier settlement”.



 vii) Traffic Measurement/Accounting/Monitoring


     “Service       provider     must        have      mechanism        for    traffic
     measurement          to   cover   VoIP        traffic   measurement,       voice
     intrusive & non-intrusive performance measurements etc”.


3. QOS ISSUES


 i) a) Network Centric Parameters: NGN recommends the following
     parameters which need to be defined for end-to-end QoS in NGN
     scenario.




                                        97
b) Network QoS Classes: Various network QoS classes to be defined
 for service offered through NGN network. For example, in ITU T
 Y.1541, QoS Class 0 is recommended for Real time, jitter sensitive,
 high interaction services (VoIP etc.).

 c) Latency : IP Packet Transfer Delay (IPTD) for real time/ non real
 time voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services. This
 should be defined for various classes of service separately.

 d) Jitter: IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) for real time/ non real
 time voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services. This
 should be defined for various classes of service separately.

 e) Packet Error: IP Packet Error Ratio (IPER) for real time/ non
 real time voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services.
 This should be defined for various classes of service separately.

 f) Packet Loss: IP Packet Loss Ratio (IPLR) for real time/ non real
 time voice, data,   video and streaming multimedia services. This
 should be defined for various classes of service separately.

 g) In case of VoIP, toll quality and non toll quality parameters
 shall be defined.      Customers should be made aware of the
 difference in Quality and tariff between the two services, by service
 providers.   Interconnection congestion limit should be specified.
 Some percentage level should be defined for bandwidth utilization.
 Call Completion rate within network and across networks (inter
 network).

 h) QoS End to End - Across Networks: Since multiple network
 operators are involved in providing access to a service in a multi-
 operator scenario, the overall QoS is a function of QoS offered by
 the individual segments. Hence, apportionment of impairment
 objectives among operators and number of operators that could be
 allowed in a particular scenario also needs to be worked out.




                                98
                                                                       Provider C
          Provider A
                 Regional                                       Metro
                                Transit            Transit
                   Transit      Segment A2         Segment B2    Transit
                   Segment A1                                    Segment C1
                                          Regional

                                           Transit
                                                                                 Access
                   Access                  Segment B1
                                                                                 Segment C
                   Segment A
                                      Provider B
                   UNI                                                           UNI

      User Segment A                                                 User Segment C


      Figure 1/Y.1542 – Example topology for impairment allocation
              (Source ITU-T)


ii)   Customer Centric QoS Parameters:


       Customer centric parameters such as Service Activation Time,
       Service De-activation Time,        Service, Restoration Time, Ease of
       switching between tariff plans, Ease of getting refunds, Network
       Availability, Service availability etc. may be taken from the
       existing regulations for different services. Some new parameters
       such as Guaranteed Bandwidth, Bandwidth                  on     demand and
       Throughput i.e. effective data transfer rate measured in bits per
       second need to be specified particularly in NGN scenario.



       For parameters like Clarity of Tariff Plans, Ease of getting billing
       information, billing and metering accuracy and billing complaint
       handling had been defined in regulation Code of Practice for
       Metering and Billing Accuracy. Same may be amended suitably
       for services in NGN environment.




                                     99
  For parameters like Grievance Redressal, Access to senior
   executives/ officers, Round the clock availability of customer
   care, Fault Repair Service etc, TRAI had already issued a a
   regulation on “Telecom Consumers Protection and          Redressal of
   Grievances Regulations, 2007”.



   Customer Grievances parameters/ procedures defined in this
   regulation may also be made applicable for NGN services. Some
   new services to be provided through NGN for which              service
   specific parameters may not be available in existing regulations, for
   such services specific QoS parameters will have to be defined in
   future.


iii) QoS Measurements:


   In a multi-operator scenario, the end-to-end efficiency depends on
   the cooperation of all the operators involved who would establish
   mutual Service Level Agreements (SLA) in order for the service to
   be rendered. To offer differentiated services and provide value to
   customers, service providers define SLAs for various Classes of
   Service (CoSs). These agreements may contain a set of QoS matrix
   for each CoS.

   For an end-to-end QoS measurement, spanning across several
   inter connected service providers (Inter-Domain QoS or IDQ), there
   must be consistency in the measurement of performance attributes
   and therefore, the key elements of consistency of performance
   measurement namely, the (i) objectives       (i.e.   which attributes
   are   to   be   measured?) (ii) time-scales (i.e. what time-scales are
   attributes measured over?) and (iii) techniques (i.e. how are the
   attributes measured?) need to be defined.




                                 100
     A measurement and audit mechanism required to monitor the
      delivery of QoS in a multi-operator scenario on an end-to-end basis
      shall have to be established.



4.    NGN AWARENESS BUILDING

      To summarize, we can say that all the government agencies
      like DoT, TRAI, TEC etc, industry supporting agencies like
      COAI, AUSPI, ISPAI, CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM etc and the service
      providers themselves should make every possible effort to
      create awareness about NGN .


5.    TIMING OF NGN TRANSITION

      In summary we may say that there is no time frame prescribed
      for migration to NGN.           However, impediments restricting
      migration to NGN needs to be redressed in a time bound
      manner say approximately 2 years from now to facilitate those
      service providers who want to migrate to NGN.


6.    OTHER ISSUES OF NGN


i)    Need and Time to Implement IPv6



      “IPv6 implementation will be desirable for migration to NGN.
      However the need and time to migrate to IPv6 be left to
      service providers”.




                                      101
       ii)      Net Neutrality



         “NGN-eCO acknowledges the importance of net neutrality in
         NGN         environment,      however   feels   that   no    regulatory
         intervention is required at this stage”.



iii)     Synchronization Requirement in NGN Networks

             “A committee under aegis of         Telecom Engineering Center
             (TEC)   be   constituted    to   study   requirement    of   network
             synchronization     and      suggest     methodologies       of   its
             implementation by various service providers across the
             networks.    Based on the recommendation of TEC, DOT may
             issue directions which shall be compulsorily implemented by
             all service providers”.




                                          102
                                                           ANNEXURE I


                      LIST OF NGN-eCO MEMBERS


Sl. No.     Organisation                         Name
  1.      TRAI             Mr. R.K. Arnold – Chairman
  2.      TRAI             Mr. S.K. Gupta, Advisor (CN)- Convener
  3.      TRAI.            Mr. Sudhir Gupta, Advisor (MN)
  4.      TRAI             Mr. M.C. Chaube, Advisor (QoS)
  5       TRAI             Mr. Lav Gupta Pr. Advisor ( FN )
  6       DOT              DDG(VAS) / Shri A.S. Verma, Director (VAS-II)
  7       TEC              Mr. Vipin Kumar DDG ( S )
  8       BSNL             Mr A N J Aradhya DDG (BB)
  9       MTNL             Mr. A.K. Pathak, GM (SW&P)
 10.      C-DOT            Ms. Alpana Sethi
 11       IIT-K            Dr. A.K. Chaturvedi
  12      IIM-A            Dr. Rekha Jain
  13      FICCI            Dr. B.K. Syngal
  14      ISPAI            Mr. D.P. Vaidya, VP
  15      ISPAI            Col. R.S. Perhar, Secretary
  16      TEMA             Mr. P. Balaji President
  17      COAI             Mr. T.V. Ramachandran
  18      COAI             Mr. Ashok Juneja
  19      COAI             Mr. Naresh Gupta
  20      COAI             Mr. Anil Tandan
  21      AUSPI            Dr. Rakesh Mehrotra
  22      AUSPI            Mr. Muthusamy Chandran
  23      AUSPI            Mr. Surendra Nath
  24      TEKELEC          Mr. Munish Seth
  25      ERICSSON         Mr. Jagdeep Walia
  26      NOKIA            Mr. J.P. Garg
  27      SIEMENS          Mr. Sanjay Verma
  28      CII              Mr. Vinod Deshmukh
 29.      ASSOCHAM         Mr. C.S. Rao
 30.      IIT-D            Prof. Surendra Prasad




                                    103
                                                          ANNEXURE II



                  LIST OF CORE GROUP MEMBERS

Core Group on Licensing Issues –
Mr. S.K. Gupta, Advisor (CN) – Convener.

SL.NO.   Name & Organisation
   1     Col. R.S. Perhar, ISPAI
   2     Dr. Rekha Jain, IIM-Ahmedabad
   3     Mr. Naresh Gupta / Ms. Anaji Hans. COAI
   4     Mr. Muthusamy Chandran – AUSPI
   5     Mr. B.K. Syngal, FICCI
   6     Mr. Jagdeep Walia, Ericsson
   7     Mr. Arun Golas, TEC
   8     Mr. Mr. Rajiv Goel, MTNL
   9     Dr. Anoop Singh, IIT-Kanpur
  10     Mr. B.B. Anand, Assocham
  11     Mr.A .S. Verma, DOT




Core Group on Qos Issues –
Mr. M C Chaube Advisor (QoS) – Convener.

SL.NO.   Name & Organisation
   1     Mr. Rajesh Chharia/ Dr. Ajay Kumar Data, ISPAI
   2     Dr. Rekha Jain, IIM-A.
   3     Mr. Anil Tandan/ Mr. Satyan Nayar. COAI
   4     Mr. Kausik Sengupta/ Mr. Harish Kapoor – AUSPI
   5     Mr. I S Sastry, TEC
   6     Ms. Alpna Sethi, C-DoT
   7     Mr. C K Bhatia, MTNL
   8     Mr. Parag Kar, ASSOCHAM
   9     Mr. A S Verma, DoT
  10     Mr. Rakesh Malik/ Mr. Vivek Vasishtha, TEMA




                                 104
Core Group on Interconnection Issues –
Mr. Lav Gupta, Pr. Advisor (FN) – Convener.

Sl.No.                   Name                  Organization
1.       Sh. Vipin Kumar                      TEC
2.       Sh. Asit Kadyan                      TEC
3.       Sh. Ashutosh Pandey                  TEC
4.       Mr. P.P. Upadhyay                    TEC
5.       Sh. M.K. Gupta                       C-DOT
6.       Sh. J.N. Mandal                      C-DOT
7.       Ms. Alpana Sethi                     C-DOT
8.       Sh. Rakesh Mehrotra                  TTSL
9.       Sh. Harish Kapoor                    TTSL
10.      Ms. Ritu Mathur                      TTSL
11.      Sh. Vivek Jhamb                      Hutch
12.      Sh. Ujwal Kapoor                     Bharti
13.      Ms. Kanupriya Bharadwaj              Bharti
14.      Sh. Susheel Narayan                  Ericsson
15.      Sh. Sanjay Verma                     Siemens
16.      Sh. Brijesh Jain                     ISPAI
17.      Sh. B.K. Syngal                      FICCI




                                105
                       ANNEXURE III




      Report

         of

Licensing Core Group




         106
                       CONTENTS


S.NO.                   TITLE                    PAGE
                                                  NO.
        PREFACE                                   108
 1.     INTRODUCTION                             109-111

 2.     LICENSING ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT       112

 3.     RECOMMENDATIONS                           131

 4.     ANNEXURE 1- LIST OF NGN-eCO MEMBERS       135

 5.     ANNEXURE 2- LIST OF CORE GROUP MEMBERS     136




                           107
                           PREFACE


      Indian Telecom Sector has witnessed steep growth in terms
of mobile subscribers. India has already joined elite club of 100
million wireless subscribers in May 2006. Approximately 7 million
wireless subscribers are being added every month.       While such
growths are welcomed, it is associated with reducing Average
Revenue Per Unit (ARPU) for service providers. Service providers
want fast growth and also like their ARPU‟s to increase.       This
requires provision of new value added services and contents to
subscribers. Networks need to be flexible to provide value added
services and contents easily. It is in this area NGN platform play
an important role.


      NGN is a technological development and regulators being
technologically neutral, have no direct role to play. Since NGN also
facilitates launch of new services at affordable price, regulators
have to ensure appropriate environment to facilitate availability of
new value added services. It is in this perspective a consultation
paper was issued on 9th January 2006 by TRAI to generate
awareness on NGN and seek comments of stakeholders.


      An NGN expert committee was constituted based on the
feedback of stakeholders. NGN-eCo in its first meeting desired
certain issues to be analyzed in depth. Licensing issues were one of
the identified areas to constitute licensing core group.        The
members have generously contributed and participated in the
discussions.   I hope that recommendations of the licensing core
group will form a basis to take further action to facilitate smooth
migration to Next Generation Networks.

                                              (S.K.GUPTA)
                                            ADVISOR (CN)
                        CONVENER – CORE GROUP (LICENSING)


                             108
                                CHAPTER I

                              INTRODUCTION

1.    Background

1.1   In India the present licensing regime, which is service specific, does
      not allow an operator to take full advantage of the technology.
      While there has been some migration to NGN technologies in the
      core network, the access network is still traditional and likely to
      take time to migrate.


1.2   TRAI had issued a consultation paper on “Issues Pertaining to Next
      Generation Networks (NGN)” in January 2006 and subsequently
      the recommendations were sent to Government on 20th March
      2006.


1.3   During the Consultation process the stakeholders in general had
      expressed an urgent need for creation of a high-level cross-industry
      coordination committee for NGN consisting of representatives from
      Licensor, Regulator, DOT, TEC, Service Providers, Vendors &
      Academician    to    examine    all    the    relevant   issues   so   that
      transition/migration from TDM networks to NGN is smooth and
      systematic.


1.4   As   a   follow-up   action    to     our    consultation   process    and
      recommendations, a cross industry expert group has been
      constituted by TRAI namely NGN-eCO (Next Generation Networks
      Expert Committee) to handle the various issues related to NGN.
      Simultaneously another committee has been formed by the TEC to
      study & analyze various international developments pertaining to
      NGN so as to incorporate the same in Indian context and develop
      interface requirements in a time bound manner.




                                     109
 1.5 Constitution of NGN-eCO.
1.5.1 NGN Expert Committee (NGN-eCO) has been constituted under
      Secretary, TRAI by co-opting experts from DOT, TEC, C-DOT,
      Service Providers, Vendor and Academician to study the following
      issues:


      d)    NGN awareness building program
      e)    Timetable for NGN migration in the country
      f)    Background    paper      to    be   used   for   consultation   on
            Interconnection and QoS issues.


      The list of NGN-eCO members is placed at Annexure-1.


1.5.2 The First meeting of NGN-eCO was held on 11th October 2006 at
      New Delhi. To give focused attention to agenda of NGN-eCO, it was
      resolved at first meeting to form three Core Groups to deliberate
      upon specific issues namely:


      a.   Licensing Issues
      b.   Interconnection Issues
      c.   QoS related issues.


1.5.3 The members of NGN-eCO were requested to nominate suitable
      persons for these core groups.


1.6   Constitution of Core Groups


1.6.1 On the basis of the nominations received from members of NGN-
      eCO, three Core groups have been constituted. The members of
      the Core group represent Service Provider associations, Equipment




                                     110
     Manufacture‟s associations, Licensor (Department of Telecom),
     Research organizations, academic institutions etc. The list of core
     group members is attached at Annexure-2. The conveners of these
     core groups are mentioned below.

      Core Group (Licensing) - Mr. S.K. Gupta, Advisor (CN) - Convener

     Core Group (Interconnection) - Advisor (FN) – Convener.

     Core Group (Quality of Service) –Mr M.C. Chaube, Advisor (QoS) –
     Convener

1.6.2 It was further resolved at the NGN-eCO meeting that the Core
     Groups would deliberate upon these specific issues and submit the
     reports within two months time. The reports thus submitted will
     help NGN-eCO to formulate the final recommendations.


1.6.3 The meetings of Core Group (Licensing) were held on 19.12.2006
     & 18.1.2007. Members of the committee deliberated on the
     licensing issues in great detail. The pertinent issues on licensing
     are being discussed in subsequent chapters.




                                  111
                                 CHAPTER II


                 LICENSING ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT


2.    Introduction:


      Next Generation Network (NGN) is a powerful platform to provide
      different services like Voice, Video and Data.        The increasing
      competition in telecom network and subscribers desire to have new
      application based services has generated considerable interest in
      service providers to migrate to NGN Environment.


2.1   NGN is a concept for defining and deploying networks, which due
      to their formal separation into different layers and planes and use
      of open interfaces offer service providers and operators a platform,
      which can evolve is step-by-step manner to create, deploy, and
      manage innovative services.


2.2   NGN is a technological development and therefore, many a time
      questions are raised whether regulatory interventions are really
      required to encourage migration to NGN especially when regulators
      are technology neutral. The other view is that regulators have to
      create conducive environment to make available value added
      services at affordable price to subscribers. Hence regulators need
      to facilitate process to migrate to NGN. It is in this prospective that
      the core group analyzed important issues relations to licensing
      conditions.


2.3   There was complete agreement in Core Group that regulators role
      is only to identify likely impediments and ensure corrective action
      at appropriate point of time to develop an environment supportive
      for migration to NGN.         The members of Core Group were
      unanimous that there is no need of regulatory intervention to
      encourage or promote migration of existing networks to NGNs. The
                                 112
      decision regarding time of migration and level of migration is left to
      service providers based on their business model and their
      perception of demand related to NGN.


2.4   NGN permits separation of transport control and service &
      application layers, providing greater flexibility to launch value
      added services. A common IP backbone is maintained permitting
      effective utilization of the backbone while maintaining better
      Quality of Service (QoS) and flexibility to support various
      applications. The different meetings of the Core Group highlighted
      number    of    issues   which   required   deliberations   in    NGN
      environment:-


      1.    Service Neutral Licensing Regime
      2.    Availability of Access Network to Launch New Valued Added
            Services.
      3.    Encourage Virtual Network Operators.
      4.    Enforceable Service Level Agreement
      5.    Need and Time to Implement IPv6.
      6.    Mandatory Interconnect Exchange.
      7.    Flexibility of Placement of Active Element in the Network
      8.    Numbering Plan in New Environment
      9.    Mandatory Interconnection with Compatible TDM Network
      10.   Synchronization Requirement in NGN Networks
      11.   Mandatory Interface Approval in NGN
      12.   Centralized Monitoring for Lawful Interception
      13.   Mandate Emergency Number Dialing
      14.   Authentication of Calling and Called Party Identification
      15.   Net Neutrality
      16.   Actions Related to Security Issues.




                                    113
2.5      Service Neutral Licensing Regime

  i.     Analysis:

       The present licensing regime in India is largely service oriented like
       Basic Service Operators license, Cellular Mobile Service license,
       Internet Service Provider license, Infrastructure provider license
       etc. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has taken steps
       in 2005 and recommended bringing more and more services under
       UASL.   The UASL licensees can provide different services (Voice,
       Video and Data).     TRAI recommendations on Unified Licensing
       Regime in 2005 advocates for unified licensing, class licensing and
       licensing through authorization.


       The core group members felt that the present rigid networks like
       mobile networks, fixed networks, internet networks etc support
       specifically defined applications and lack flexibility to add new
       applications as and when they develop. Such restrictions reduce
       the probability of launching new value added applications.        The
       basic advantage of NGN is inherent flexibility to separate transport,
       control and service layers, encouraging easy and fast launching of
       new value added services and contents.


       Most of the value added service providers and content providers
       depend on access providers and therefore, they lack flexibility to
       provide these services to subscribers. The core group felt the need
       is to ensure network availability to these content and value added
       service providers.    While permitting access of network, it is
       important to ensure that service and content provided by content
       providers are regulated and acceptable level of quality of service is
       ensured. Such things are only possible if such value added service
       providers and content providers are licensed. This indicates a need



                                     114
      to migrate from present licensing regime and may require new
      license for content providers and value added service providers.


2.5.2 Recommendation:
       In view of above deliberations Core Group recommends that
      “There may be need to introduce new licenses for content
      provider and value added service providers. TRAI has already
      recommended introduction of class licenses and Authorization
      in its recommendations on Unified licensing regime 2005. The
      new requirement needs to be looked into in this background”.

2.6   Availability of Access Network to Launch New Valued            Added
      Services.

2.6.1 Analysis:
      The members of the core group deliberated the issue to open the
      network to provide various value added services and contents
      using existing network.     Points were raised regarding prohibitive
      clauses in existing licenses, which makes network provider
      responsible for the contents being carried on their network. The
      respective clauses in UASL license, CMTS license and ISP licenses
      are reproduced below:


      UASL Clause No.40.3 :


      “ The LICENSEE shall take necessary measures to prevent
      objectionable,   obscene,   unauthorized   or   any   other   content,
      message or communications infringing copyright, intellectual
      property etc., in any form, from being carried on his network,
      consistent with the established laws of the country. Once specific
      instances of such infringement are reported to the LICENSEE by
      the enforcement agencies, the LICENSEE shall ensure that the
      carriage of such material on his network is prevented immediately”.

                                    115
    CMTS Clause No.43.3


“The   LICENSEE     shall    take   necessary      measures   to    prevent
objectionable,   obscene,    unauthorized     or    any   other    content,
message or communications infringing copyright, intellectual
property etc., in any form, from being carried on his network,
consistent with the established laws of the country. Once specific
instances of such infringement are reported to the LICENSEE by
the enforcement agencies, the LICENSEE shall ensure that the
carriage of such material on his network is prevented immediately”.


ISP Clause No.1.12.9


“The   LICENSEE      shall   ensure    that     objectionable,     obscene,
unauthorized or any other content, message or communications
infringing copyright, intellectual property right and international
and domestic cyber laws, in any form or inconsistent with the laws
of India are not carried in his network, the ISP should take all
necessary measures to prevent it.        In particular, LICENSEE is
obliged to provide, without delay, all the tracing facilities of the
nuisance or malicious message or communications transported
through his equipment and network, to authorized officers of
Government of India/ State Government, when such information is
required for investigations of crimes or in the interest of national
security.   The license shall be governed by the provisions of the
Information Technology (IT) Act 2000, as modified from time to
time. Any damages arising out of default on the part of licensee in
this respect shall be sole responsibility of the licensee”.




From the above clauses, it is very clear that network provider is
responsible for the contents carried on the network. Verification of
                             116
   the contents especially in respect to infringement of copyright,
     intellectual property rights, nature of objectionable content is very


     open and hence cannot be accessed in real time manner.            They
     suggest that network provider should be responsible only if they
     are carrying content or providing services through unauthorized or
     unlicensed content/ service providers. The liability of the network
     provider should be limited to the extent to notify the content/
     service provider who has sent a specific content in case that is
     found to be objectionable or results in infringement of laid down
     conditions. The restrictive clause in all the licenses has attracted a
     lot of comments.


     Presence of such restrictive clauses, no doubt, decreases the
     probability of content providers and limits the scope of NGN
     environment where emphasis would be to provide new services and
     contents. Friendly licensing regime needs to be created.          While
     recognizing the need of such prohibitive clauses to check the type
     of content and to ensure that copyrights are not infringed, perhaps
     it will be friendly if these responsibilities are shifted to content and
     service providers. Network providers‟ liability should be limited to
     identify and notify the source of content generation, if such content
     providers are licensed. In case, network providers are carrying
     contents from sources not licensed, then they will be fully
     responsible and answerable for carrying such contents.


     From the above prospective there is a need to look into the existing
     licensing   regime   and   recommend      suitable   modifications   to
     encourage the provision of new services and contents.




2.6.2 Recommendations:
                                    117
      The Core Group feels that “Responsibility of network provider
       relating to content carried on the network be limited to
       identify the source of the content generation as long as it is
       licensed content provider. Content/ Service providers shall be
       responsible to ensure compliance on various aspects like type
         of   content,   non-infringement   of    copyright,   intellectual
       property rights etc”.


2.7    Encourage Virtual Network Operators
2.7.1 Analysis:
       The NGN has standardized interface between different layers. As
       such the biggest advantage of NGN is the inherent flexibility to
       launch value added services and contents. The capabilities of NGN
       can be utilized effectively only when entities having value added
       applications and contents are encouraged to use the existing
       networks to provide their services and applications. The concept of
       Mobile Virtual Private Network (MVPN) is well accepted in
       developed countries.    Similarly virtual operators need to be
       encouraged in different fields in India also so that innovative
       applications can reach to end customers.


       The present regime of licensing does not recognize the concept of
       virtual network operators. The suggestions to encourage network
       provider, service provider and content provider‟s licenses can be
       leveraged in encouraging virtual network operators.        Suitable
       amendments to facilitate functioning of virtual network operators
       have to be done through regulatory intervention.




2.7.2 Recommendations:

                                   118
      The core group recommends “Suitable modifications in licensing
       conditions to permit bulk selling and encourage virtual
       operators to provide different value added services and
       content”.


2.8     Enforceable Service Level Agreement
2.8.1 Analysis:
       The core group members felt the need to introduce enforceable
       service level agreement concept. The service level agreements are
       important to ensure quality of service, delivery of applications
          across the networks to end-users.               Generally service level
       agreements are entered between two operators mutually.                       The
       breach of service level agreements and consequential actions
       depends on mutually agreed terms and conditions. The core group
       members felt that in NGN environment, minimum service levels
       should be mandated with provision of penalty clauses for breach.


       The monitoring and implementation of service level agreements
       across the network though desirable but will be very difficult task.
       Moreover such agreements are between the operators and have
       commercial implications. Therefore, monitoring such service level
       agreements may neither be desirable nor useful to end customers.
       Instead some important parameters for different service levels like
       Bronze, Silver, Gold may be defined.             The end-to-end service is
       provided using well defined minimum parameters for a subscriber
       of particular service level.


       Issues have also been raised as to how to control flow of packets
       between     the   subscribers    having    different      service   levels   i.e.
       originator have Gold Service level while destination Subscriber has
       Bronze Service level. Since NGN is an IP based network and flow in
       IP network is destination based, the treatment of the packet should
       be done based on the service level of the destination. This may not
       ensure    good    quality   of   service   for     time    sensitive    service
                                        119
      applications, however, it will be easy to implement and broadly
       acceptable to the industry.


2.8.2 Recommendation:
       The Core Group feels that “Three basic levels of quality of
       service    say   Gold,   Silver   and   Bronze   with   well   defined
       parameters be mandated through licensing conditions so that
       these service levels are available across the networks”.


2.9    Need and Time to Implement IPv6
2.9.1 Analysis:
       Core Group identifies the need of large IP address in NGN
       environment.     Such large IP address requirements will not be
       possible without implementation of IPv6.         Therefore, there was
       general consensus that industry should move to IPv6.             Some
       members wanted timeframe to be specified for implementation of
       IPv6 by all the service providers.


       IPv6 is backwards compatible with IPv4. Moreover, implementation
       of IPv6 in their network is a decision, which is to be taken by
       service providers. TRAI in its recommendation dated 9th January
       2006 on IPv6 have already expressed the need to migrate to IPv6.
       Government of India has also indicated broad plans for migration
       to IPv6. Apparently no additional intervention is required at this
       stage considering future migration to NGN.




2.9.2 Recommendation:
       The Core Group is of the opinion that “IPv6 implementation will
       be desirable for migration to NGN. However the need and time
       to migrate to IPv6 be left to service providers”.
                                    120
2.10 Requirement of Mandatory Interconnect Exchange
2.10.1 Analysis:
     The exchange of IP traffic between service providers providing IP
     based service is important. NIXI was set up to exchange domestic
     IP traffic within India.    However, only a small percentage of
     domestic traffic is being exchanged at NIXI and therefore, there is a
     need to have dedicated interconnect exchange for exchanging IP
     based traffic in NGN environment.      Some of the members of the
     core group were of the opinion that such exchange will not be
     effective unless it is mandated to all the service providers to peer at
     such point and exchange the traffic.


       NGN being IP based network will definitely require an effective
     Interconnect exchange point. However, it will be premature to take
     final decision on interconnect exchanges and mandate connection
     to such exchanges. We may at the most recommend the need of
     such exchange in NGN environment and take appropriate decisions
     as and when felt necessary to ensure IP traffic exchange between
     service providers.


2.10.2 Recommendation:
     The Core Group feels “The need to have interconnect exchanges
     for exchange of IP traffic in NGN environment. However, it is
     recommended that the modalities of functioning of such
     exchange may be decided at appropriate time”.




2.11 Flexibility of Placement of Active Element in the Network.

2.11.1 Analysis:
     The members of the core group raised the issue that present
     licensing conditions mandates to put all the equipments of the
     network within the licensing area. The migration to NGN and use
                                 121
   of IP based network will reduce the concept of distance. The cost of
     the switching equipment will contribute much higher as compared
     to the transmission equipment.              In view of these technological
     developments the restriction on putting switching equipments
     within licensing area poses restrictions and need to be re-looked.
     The use of high capacity switching equipment located at suitable
     central locations is likely to reduce CAPEX and OPEX to great
     extent. Even utilization of same switch to feed different services in
     different   licensing       areas   needs       to   be   permitted    for    NGN
     environment.


     The requirement of setting up switching centers and interconnect
     points is likely to get drastically changed in NGN environment. The
     effective utilization of IP backbone will reduce distance. This will
     encourage utilization of same switch for provision of service in
     different licensing areas. The concept of interconnection at SDCA
     level, SSA level is changing. NGN networks may not require
     interconnections at SDCA or SSA level at all, reducing complexities
     of the network and price of interconnection thereof. In view of this
     the request to permit use of common switching equipment for
     feeding     the     licensed   area       and    interconnection      based    on
     requirement needs to be encouraged.

2.11.2 Recommendation:
     The core group recommends “Present restrictions of setting up
     switching centers within the licensed area may be re-looked.
     Service providers may be provided flexibility to set up
     switching         centers    and    transmission          centers     based    on
     requirement anywhere within India de-linking from licensed
     area concept and do interconnection at least at one point in
     each licensed area”.


2.12 Numbering Plan in New Environment


                                         122
   2.12.1 Analysis :
     The DOT has set a target of providing 250 million telephones by
     2007 and 500 million telephones by 2010.                  IP telephony is
     becoming popular day by day and likely to change Voice Telephony
     scenario in India. The increasing acceptability of IP telephony and
     migration to NGN will boost penetration of telephones requiring
     much more addressable numbers than expected by 2010.                 The
     present numbering scheme can just support around 500 million
     telephones, the way allocation of numbers is done presently.


     In NGN environment the IP devices used for IP telephony will also
     require dedicated number. As per the reports available with TRAI
     approximately 200 million minutes of international calls using IP
     telephony are being made. Industrial sources put this figure much
       higher. TRAI does not have any number of IP telephony users.
     However, such users are going to be sufficiently large and will
     require large numbering space to identify IP telephony subscribers.


     Considering the popularity of IP telephony and large number of IP
     telephony users, the numbering plan needs to be reviewed to
     ensure availability of sufficient numbering block to cater for all IP
     telephony subscribers.


2.12.2 Recommendation:
    The core group recommends that “A committee be formed to look
     in   detail,   the   availability    of   numbers   for    IP   telephony
     subscribers in existing numbering plan and suggest suitable
     modifications, if any, required so that sufficient numbers are
     available to IP telephony subscribers”.


2.13 Mandatory Interconnection with Compatible TDM Network

2.13.1 Analysis:



                                    123
  The members of the core group deliberated the issue of mandatory
    interconnection with compatible TDM networks. Members felt that
    NGN will be introduced by various service providers in different
    time frames and therefore, interconnection between NGN networks
    and traditional TDM networks needs to be ensured through
    licensing   condition.       While     detailed     deliberations   on
    interconnections are being done by different core groups, the
    issues of mandating such interconnect was discussed by this
    group.


    The time frame of NGN implementation by different service
    providers is likely to spread across years.       Moreover, no service
    provider will like to discard the present TDM network while
    migrating to NGN. Hence, it will be necessary to interconnect NGN
    networks with traditional networks at least for time being.         The
    important issue is that what should be the maximum time limit of
    such mandate to interconnect with traditional TDM networks.
    While there were divergent views between the members on
    maximum time for which interconnection be mandated some felt
    this time should be around 8 years while others felt that such time
    may be up to the life of switching equipment installed now. The
    advantage and market drivers for NGN will ensure that such
    migrations are completed in around 10 year‟s time. The corrective
    action can be initiated at later date to ensure that fair treatment is
    provided to all the service providers both providing NGN platform
    and those providing service using TDM networks.




2.13.2 Recommendation:
    The core group recommends “Mandatory interconnection with
    compatible TDM networks by all NGN service providers for
    minimum period of 10 years counted from the date of such
    notification”.
                                  124
2.14 Synchronization Requirement in NGN Networks
2.14.1 Analysis:
       All the service provider networks are sensitive to network
       synchronization. At present, network synchronization is being
       achieved by different service providers in different manner. There
       is no well-defined policy to ensure proper synchronization.             A
       detailed study in this regard needs to be undertaken so that
       synchronization did not pose any limitations while migrating to
       NGN platform.


       Synchronization of the networks of the various service providers is
       essential to ensure quality of service especially time sensitive
       services. The problems have been noticed quite often in various
       networks. A committee may be set up to study this issue in detail
       (may be under TEC) and suggest methodologies how network
       synchronization can be ensured. All the service providers should
        be mandated to comply with such guidelines issued by DOT on
       the basis of recommendation of committee.


2.14.2 Recommendation:
       The core group recommends that “A committee under aegis of
       Telecom Engineering Center (TEC) be constituted to study
       requirement     of      network       synchronization     and      suggest
       methodologies    of     its   implementation      by    various    service
       providers across the networks. Based on the recommendation
       of TEC, DOT may issue directions which shall be compulsorily
       implemented by all service providers”.


2.15   Mandatory Interface Approval in NGN.

2.15.1 Analysis:
       The inter working between the networks is very important to
       transparently   offer     services     across   the    networks.     While

                                       125
   Standardisation for NGN is being done to great extent by various
     International standards bodies, certain issues have been left to
     vendors while implementing NGN solutions. The issues relating to
     inter-operability   have    created       serious   problems     during    IN
     implementation in India and therefore, there is a need to be extra
     cautious while migration to NGN is taking place.


     In this regard core group suggests that TEC may identify
     specifications, which needs further Standardisation, and come up
     with country specific NGN Standardisation. The interface approval
     is mandated for all operators migrating to NGN to ensure inter-
     operability subsequently.

2.15.2       Recommendation:
     “The core group recommends that a committee may be formed
     under the aegis of Telecom Engineering Center to work out
     country specific NGN standards and develop interface approval
          mechanism for NGN equipments to ensure smooth inter-
     operability subsequently”.

2.16 Centralized Monitoring for Lawful Interception

2.16.1 Analysis:
     The monitoring requirements for lawful interception are likely to be
     stringent in NGN environment. The higher levels of encryption, use
     of    various   coding   schemes     to    avoid    identity   theft   require
     sophisticated state of act monitoring equipments.                Considering
     divergent requirements, it is necessary that a state of art
     centralized monitoring station is set up having connectivity with
     various service providers. The data traffic links, required to be
     monitored can be mirrored to this centralized monitoring station
     which may take necessary action further.              Presence of multiple
     agencies with no proper monitoring facilities is creating serious
     problems to facilitate lawful interception.


                                    126
   2.16.2 Recommendation:
     “DOT may consider setting up centralized monitoring station
     for lawful interception having connectivity with all service
     providers so that monitoring from various networks can be
     done effectively”.


2.17 Mandate Emergency Number Dialing
2.17.1 Analysis:
     The increasing popularity of IP telephony demands that all service
     providers providing Internet telephony within country should
     ensure emergency number dialing from their networks. Number of
     alternatives are possible to implement such emergency number
     dialing like using location based services, dialing area code along
     with emergency number dialing, translation of emergency number
     dialed to appropriate number in the city etc. All alternatives have
     certain advantage but suffer some disadvantages.          Therefore,
     though emergency number dialing needs to be ensured by all
     service providers, mandating specific scheme is not felt necessary.
     Service providers can workout appropriate solution in their
     network to ensure that IP telephony customers are able to dial
     emergency number with ease as and when required.


2.17.2 Recommendation:
     The core group feels that “Emergency number dialing from IP
     telephony subscribers be mandated, however, methodologies of
     such implementation be left to service providers”.




2.18 Authentication of Calling and Called Party      Identification.
2.18.1 Analysis:
     Core group considered likely possibility of authentication of calling
     and called party identification in NGN environment. The identity
     theft and spoofing needs to be checked which necessitates such
                                  127
   authentication.       Almost all members of the core group were
     unanimous that provision of such authentication be mandated on
     all   service     providers.       However,        methodologies    of   such
     implementation be left to service providers.
2.18.2      Recommendation:
     The core group recommends that “Authentication of calling and
     called    party     identification       be    mandated,      however,      its
     implementation be left to individual service providers”.

2.19 Net Neutrality

2.19.1 Analysis:
     The concept of net neutrality was also deliberated by the core
     group as NGN platform will provide lot of new contents and value
     added applications. Some of the members of the core group felt
     that since service level agreements are being enforced through
     licensing conditions, the issue of net neutrality will also be
     redressed.       However, other members felt that development of
     popular applications and services may create complication in
     provision of services if net neutrality is not maintained.



     In India up till now no case has come to our knowledge where
     popular    application     are    either      blocked   or   deteriorated   in
     performance by any of service providers. Certain issues have been
     raised by service providers of US and the matter is under their
     active consideration. In view of this though it is important to note
     the importance of net neutrality no mandate seems to be necessary
     at this stage.

2.19.2 Recommendation:
     “Core group acknowledges the importance of net neutrality in
     NGN      environment,          however     feels     that    no    regulatory
     intervention is required at this stage”.

2.20 Actions Related to Security Issues
                                 128
   2.20.1 Analysis:
       The members of the core group raised security issues related to
       NGN platforms like DNS attack, SPAM, Virus, Identity theft,
       spoofing etc.      Though all the members were unanimous that
       certain action needs to be taken to reduce the possibility of such
       disruptive attack in NGN network, no clear understanding emerged
       as to what regulatory interventions can be taken in this regard.The
       success of NGN largely depends in ensuring that such platform is
       free from common attacks on IP platforms. Number of solutions is
       being recommended by various vendors time to time and the issue
       is being deliberated by various international forums also. As of
       now, no clear cut answer is visible in this direction.            Ensuring
       security of NGN networks is important but there doesn‟t seem to be
       any clear action line. As such it is premature to recommend any
       specific action at this stage.

2.20.2 Recommendation:
       “The core group acknowledged the importance of various
       security issues related to NGN implementation however, felt it
       premature     to    initiate   any     action   at    this   stage.    The
       developments world over may be watched and suitable action
       be initiated at appropriate time to safeguard the interest of
       NGN operators in India”.




2.21   Conclusion

       The licensing core group on NGN has identified various licensing
       issues to create conducive atmosphere for migration to NGN.
       Service   providers/operators          are   keenly    monitoring     these
       developments. ITU have also initiated discussion on NGN and
       valuable feedback is likely to come.



                                        129
A very timely initiative by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India is a
  welcome move. It is hoped that regulator and licensor will take
  action on identified issues in time bound manner.

  We need to encourage interactive platforms like NGN-eCo, licensing
  core group where licensors, regulator and industry come together
  and thread bare discuss various issues.
  A continuous interaction will help to shape industry and will have
  far reaching implications.




                               130
                                   CHAPTER III


                            RECOMMDATIONS

3.1   Service Neutral Licensing Regime


      There may be need to introduce new licenses for content provider
      and value added service providers. TRAI has already recommended
      introduction    of   class    licenses   and   Authorization    in   its
      recommendations on Unified licensing regime 2005.              The new
      requirement needs to be looked into in this background.

3.2   Availability of Access Network to Launch New Valued Added
      Services.

      Responsibility of network provider relating to content carried on
      the network be limited to identify the source of the content
      generation as long as it is licensed content provider. Content/
      Service providers shall be responsible to ensure compliance on
      various aspects like type of content, non-infringement of copyright,
      intellectual property rights etc.

3.3   Encourage Virtual Network Operators.

      Suitable modifications in licensing conditions to permit bulk selling
      and encourage virtual operators to provide different value added
      services and content.

3.4   Enforceable Service Level Agreement

      Three basic levels of quality of service say Gold, Silver and Bronze
      with well defined parameters be mandated through licensing
      conditions so that these service levels are available across the
      networks.




                                      131
3.5   Need and Time to Implement IPv-6

      IPv6 implementation will be desirable for migration to NGN.
      However the need and time to migrate to IPv6 be left to service
      providers

3.6   Mandatory Interconnect Exchange

      The need to have interconnect exchange for exchange of IP traffic in
      NGN environment. However, it is recommended that the modalities
      of functioning of such exchange may be decided at appropriate
      time.

3.7   Flexibility of Placement of Active Element in the Network

      Present restrictions of setting up switching centers within the
      licensed area may be re-looked. Service providers may be provided
      flexibility to set up switching centers and transmission centers
      based on requirement anywhere within India de-linking from
      licensed area concept and do interconnection at least at one point
      in each licensed area

3.8   Numbering Plan in New Environment

      A committee be formed to look in detail, the availability of numbers
      for IP telephony subscribers in existing numbering plan and
      suggest suitable modifications, if any, required so that sufficient
      numbers are available to IP telephony subscribers.

3.9   Mandatory Interconnection with Compatible TDM Network

      Mandatory interconnection with compatible TDM networks by all
      NGN service providers for minimum period of 10 years counted
      from the date of such notification.




3.10 Synchronization Requirement in NGN Networks
                              132
     A committee under aegis of Telecom Engineering Center (TEC) be
     constituted to study requirement of network synchronization and
     suggest methodologies of its implementation by various service
     providers across the networks. Based on the recommendation of
     TEC, DOT may issue directions which shall be compulsorily
     implemented by all service providers.

3.11 Mandatory Interface Approval in NGN

     The core group recommends that a committee may be formed
     under the aegis of Telecom Engineering Center to work out country
     specific NGN standards and develop interface approval mechanism
     for   NGN    equipments    to     ensure   smooth   inter-operability
     subsequently


3.12 Centralized Monitoring for Lawful Interception

     DOT may consider setting up centralized monitoring station for
     lawful interception having connectivity with all service providers so
     that monitoring from various networks can be done effectively.

3.13 Mandate Emergency Number Dialing

     Emergency number dialing from IP telephony subscribers be
     mandated, however, methodologies of such implementation be left
     to service providers.


3.14 Authentication of Calling and Called Party Identification

     Authentication of calling and called party identification be
     mandated, however, its implementation be left to individual service
     providers




3.15 Net Neutrality


                                     133
   Core group acknowledges the importance of net neutrality in NGN
     environment, however feels that no regulatory intervention is
     required at this stage.

3.16 Actions Related to Security Issues.

     The core group acknowledged the importance of various security
     issues related to NGN implementation however, felt it premature to
     initiate any action at this stage. The developments world over may
     be watched and suitable action be initiated at appropriate time to
     safeguard the interest of NGN operators in India.




                                  134
                                                           ANNEXURE 1


                      LIST OF NGN-eCO MEMBERS




Sl. No.     Organisation                           Name
  1.      TRAI             Mr. R.K. Arnold – Chairman
  2.      TRAI             Mr. S.K. Gupta, Advisor (CN)- Convener
  3.      TRAI.            Mr. Sudhir Gupta, Advisor (MN)
  4.      TRAI             Mr. M.C. Chaube, Advisor (QoS)
                           Shri N. Parameswaran, DDG(VAS)/
  5       DOT
                           Shri A.S. Verma, Director (VAS-II)
  6       BSNL             Mr. Lav Gupta, DDG (BB)
  7       MTNL             Mr. A.K. Pathak, GM (SW&P)
  8       C-DOT            Ms. Alpana Sethi
  9       IIT-K            Dr. A.K. Chaturvedi
 10.      IIM-A            Dr. Rekha Jain
 11       FICCI            Dr. B.K. Syngal
  12      ISPAI            Shri. D.P. Vaidya, VP
  13      ISPAI            Col. R.S. Perhar, Secretary
  14      TEMA             Mr. P. Balaji President
  15      COAI             Mr. T.V. Ramachandran
  16      COAI             Mr. Ashok Juneja
  17      COAI             Mr. Naresh Gupta
  18      COAI             Mr. Anil Tandan
  19      AUSPI            Dr. Rakesh Mehrotra
  20      AUSPI            Mr. Muthusamy Chandran
  21      AUSPI            Mr. Surendra Nath
  22      TEKELEC          Mr. Munish Seth
  23      ERICSSON         Mr. Jagdeep Walia
  24      NOKIA            Mr. J.P. Garg
  25      SIEMENS          Mr. Sanjay Verma
  26      CII              Mr. Vinod Deshmukh
  27      ASSOCHAM         Shri. C.S. Rao
 28       IIT-D            Prof. Surendra Prasad
 29.      TEC              Shri. Ashwani Kumar




                                    135
                                             ANNEXURE 2



         LIST OF CORE GROUP MEMBERS

Licensing Issues –
 Mr. S.K. Gupta, Advisor (CN) – Convener.

SL.NO.    Name & Organisation
  1       Col. R.S. Perhar, ISPAI
  2       Dr. Rekha Jain, IIM-Ahmedabad
  3       Mr. Naresh Gupta / Ms. Anaji Hans. COAI
  4       Mr. Muthusamy Chandran – AUSPI
  5       Mr. B.K. Syngal, FICCI
  6       Mr. Jagdeep Walia, Ericsson
  7       Mr. Arun Golas, TEC
  8       Mr. Mr. Rajiv Goel, MTNL
  9       Dr. Anoop Singh, IIT-Kanpur
  10      Mr. B.B. Anand, Assocham
  11      Mr.A .S. Verma, DOT




                       136
                        ANNEXURE IV




         Report


            of


Interconnection Core Group




            137
                          CONTENTS



 Sl..No.                    Title               Page No.

           Preface                                139

1.         Introduction                           141

2.         Architecture                           143

3.         Interfaces                             145

4.         Points Of Interconnection              156

5.         Security                               163

6.         Numbering Scheme                       165

7.         Routing                               172

8.         Interconnect Usage Charges            176

9.         Traffic Measurement / Accounting /    183
           Monitoring

10.        Annexure: List of Members of NGN-     189
           eCO Group on Interconnection




                              138
                                   PREFACE


       A new paradigm has emerged with the packet switching networks
called Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the traditional circuit-
switched environment, such as the fixed-line telephone network, the
circuit is reserved throughout the telephone networks for each call.
Resources are reserved when the call is established, and kept so until the
calling and called parties hang up. In the next generation networks
(NGN), a fixed circuit is not reserved to enable the efficient use of
resources. The efficiency gain results from the flexibility in allocating
resources in the NGN, and from the fact that the reserved fixed-line
circuits are not used to their full capacity in the circuit-switched
environment. Next Generation Network is generally known and
understood as “a network which is a packet-based network able to
provide telecommunication services and able to make use of multiple
broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-
related functions are independent from underlying transport-related
technologies. It enables unfettered access for users to networks and to
competing service providers and/or services of their choice. It also
supports generalized mobility which allows consistent and ubiquitous
provision of services to users.”


      In this context, efficient interconnection is crucial to the effective
implementation of all public policies for competitive opportunities in
telecom and introduction of new innovative services by the telecom
service providers. Interconnection has been an issue of consideration
since the beginning of the opening of the telecom sector. Interconnection
is fundamentally important because the telecom system must function
seamlessly and investment in one part of the network creates potential
benefits across the networks. Users desire end-to-end services from one
network to other communication network.


       In this global move towards Next Generation Network (NGN)
deployment the need for effective interconnection is very important as the
world over trend is towards more open architecture. Network security
aspect of the NGN also constitutes a major area of interest. In case of
traditional telecommunication, network security aspects were generally
regarded as the responsibility of the management system, while this


                                    139
    approach will still be applicable to the NGN network, it is generally
accepted that the use of IT infrastructure in the NGN leads to additional
security challenges that may require further measures to combat.


       NGN-eCO identified interconnection as one of the critical issues in
its first meeting and a workgroup on NGN eCO Interconnection was
exclusively constituted to deliberate upon the issues arising in migration
to NGN particularly interconnection related. The members of the group
have generously contributed and participated in the discussion held on
the subject.


      We hope that recommendations so made will create awareness
among various stakeholders particularly telecom service providers,
network solution providers and equipment vendors on the issues of
interconnection in next generation network environment.           These
recommendations will also work as a cornerstone for the consultation
paper proposed to be issued by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
on “Next Generation Network (NGN) - Interconnection Issues.”




                                                      (M.C. Chaube)
                                                        Advisor (FN)
                            Convenor- Core Group on Interconnection




                                   140
                                    Chapter I

                            INTRODUCTION
1.1    The need for interconnection in Next Generation Networks (NGN) is
very important as the world over trend is towards more open and
fragmented architecture. The benefits of open architecture are; best of
breed products, performance, resilience, quality, capacity and efficiency
in inter-working.


1.2   The issue of Interconnection in NGN is an agreement on the logical
and physical interfaces between various networks. The interconnecting
interfaces may be packet-based or TDM interfaces. Packet-based
interfaces have advantages over TDM and can dramatically increase the
value of the NGN by providing effective and secure mechanism for
seamless control and management of network services.


1.3   A crucial feature of NGN architecture is the separation of the main
functional levels. NGN strategy of implementation typically is based on a
horizontal platform that means separation of service, transport and
control layers. The service, transport and control layers thus be
technically and commercially separated and provided by different market
players. Therefore, it has to be ensured that interconnection is possible
at all functional levels in a reasonable manner in order to ensure overall
service interoperability.


1.4   Another critical aspect in NGN is to the adoption of standard
interfaces/protocols and centralized database for user‟s data and service
profiles. Hence the interoperability of services such as Voice, Video,
Instant Messaging, Presence Management, Directory and Payments etc.
may be provided at service level.


1.5   There might be different interconnection and inter working
requirements for different service providers. For example, interconnection
between two network service providers will require different interfaces
and agreements than an interconnection between a network service
                                 141
provider (e.g. BSO, ISP) and an application service provider (e.g., email or
content provider).


1.6     The interconnection of different access and core networks raises
some issues such as:


  Security, both at User to Network Interface (UNI) and Network-
      Network Interface (NNI);
  Monitoring [of Service Level Agreements (SLAs), Lawful Intercept,
      etc.];
  Privacy of network topology and user information;
  Interoperability issues due to a wide variety of protocol variants,
      network topologies, and media codecs.
  Quality of Service (QoS) issues.




                                      142
                                                   Chapter II

                                             Architecture

2.1 Interconnection Architecture

The inter-operator scenarios in NGN environment is shown in figure 1.

The IP-IP networks may be interconnected with
     ii)      SIP based NGN/IMS networks
     ii)      ToIP network (Telephony over IP) inter-working on SIP-
              I/Q1912.5
     iii)     H.323/SIP VoIP international networks


Peering with traditional PSTN/PLMN networks based on ISUP may be
interconnected via Media Gateway for IP to TDM or TDM to IP conversion
and the Signalling Gateway for SS7 transport over IP.


                Local Operator TDM Media Gateway               LEA
                TDM Network Link



                                                                                               TDM Int’l Operator
                                                                              Media Gateway          TDM Network
                Local Operator    IP    Session Border                                         Link
                NGN Network               Controller
                                 Link
                                                                 NGN
                                                               Operators
                                                               IP/MPLS
                                                                Networks
                NLD Operator TDM Media Gateway
                TDM Network Link                                                                IP
                                                                              Session Border          NGN Network
                                                                                  Controller   Link



                NLD Operator      IP Session Border            ASP       IE
                NGN Network      Link  Controller
                                                                 India        International


              Figure 1: Interconnection architecture of inter-operator in NGN scenario

As shown in figure 1, NGN networks are interconnected by Session
Border Controller (SBC), which is located at the administrative boundary
of a network for enforcing policy on multimedia sessions. Session policy
may be defined to manage security, service level agreements, network
device      resources,       network            bandwidth,           inter-working     and      protocol
interoperability between networks.

                                                         143
SBC can perform a number of functions such as:
      Network Security
      Denial of Service attacks and overload control
      Network Address Translation and Firewall Traversal
      Lawful Interception
      Quality of Service (QoS) management
      Protocol Translation
      Call accounting

The MGW (Media Gateway) shown in Figure 1 will be controlled by a
softswitch deployed by the PSTN/PLMN operator in NGN.          SGW
(Signalling Gateway) can be integrated into the MGW or can also be a
stand alone device.




                                    144
                                 Chapter III
                                Interfaces

3.1 Network – Network Interface

                                   Table-1

  Type of Network        Signalling Interface       Bearer Interface

  Circuit-based          ISUP                       TDM
  Network

  IP-based Network       SIP-I, SIP-T, Ipv4, IPv6   Ethernet, TDM


3.2 PHYSICAL INTERFACES

The Session Border Controller SBC provides IP interface(s) towards other
NGN networks. The physical interfaces consist of:

   Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
   10/100 Base-T Fast Ethernet interface(s).
   SBC provides redundant signalling and media control sub-systems,
    each with redundant network interfaces. Sub-systems of the SBC
    communicate to one another over any of the available IP interfaces.


3.2.1       Recommendations
The core group recommends that two NGN operators are to be
interconnected through Session Border Controller (SBC), having
support for different physical interfaces. All the interfaces should
be provided with 1+1 redundancy with no single point of failure for
that device.

The Session Border Controller (SBC) may be a standalone separate
device or SBC functionalities may be achieved through softswitch.

NGN and traditional PSTN/PLMN are to be interconnected through
Media Gateway and Signalling Gateway.




                                     145
The     interconnection            between        two     NGN      networks         of     different
operators need to be tested as per the standards defined by TEC or
any     other       standard        independent           agency        nominated          by     the
Licensor/TRAI.

TEC is to prepare Interface Requirement (IR) for connectivity
between two NGN networks.
3.3 Signalling Interfaces

The network model for which the signalling interfaces have been defined
is assumed be an all IP next generation network (NGN) where the control
point in the network could be:

          Softswitch
          IMS (IP Multi-media Service) core

Figure 2 gives the high-level network model diagram. This model will be
basis on which the signalling interfaces will be defined. Operator X is the
all IP operator having an IMS or Softswitch control point. The document
will describe the following signalling interfaces:

        1 Operator X to SIP based IMS network (Operator Type 1)
        2 Operator X to ToIP network (Operator Type 2)                       2   - (PSTN
          emulation)
        3 Operator X to SIP / H.323 VOIP network (Operator Type 3)
        4 Operator X to traditional PSTN/PLMN (Operator Type 4)




   2
     TOIP is Telephony over IP network where the end point are the traditional POTS deployed over IP
access points and controlled from a Softswitch. Definition of a ToIP network with example and figure is
given under Interface 2 section.
                                                 146
                      Figure 2: Network Model

3.3.1 INTERFACE 1

Refer to figure 3. Interface 1 defines as the interface between the
Operator X to SIP based IMS network. The protocol to be supported is as
per Table-2 below:

                                 TABLE-2

S. No.       Protocol            ITU-T/IETF     Title
                                   RFC No.
  1             SIP             IETF RFC        Session Initiation Protocol
                                3261



                      Figure A: Interface 1 network model




                                     147
                     Figure 3: Interface 1 network model
Interface Usage: The SIP interface defined herewith will be used to
interface to SIP based IMS networks. The SIP interface must be
supported by all operators – basic, mobile, NLD and ILD operators.


Examples


PSTN to SIP network: Consider operator 1 which is a legacy PSTN that
is to interwork with operator 2, who is assumed to be an all IP IMS
network. The call from a subscriber in operator 1 will trigger a ISUP
signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will terminate on a softswitch
in the operator 1 network (we assume that operator 1 owns a softswitch
based NGN for break-out/in calls).
SIP Network to PSTN: Consider an IP telephone in operator 2 network
that initiates a call towards the POT subscriber in the legacy operator 1
network. The CSCF in operator 2 network will initiate a SIP signalling for
call control towards the softswitch in operator 1 network. The softswitch
will now initiate ISUP signalling towards the PSTN switch where the POT
subscriber is parented to. If the signalling is successful, the media
between the POTS and IP subscriber is set up via a trunk media gateway.
The SIP signalling interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per
RFC defined in the Table-2.
SIP to SIP IMS network: The SIP signalling interface between operator 1
and 2 must be as per RFC defined in the Table-2.
SIP network < -- >H.323: an interworking between a SIP based IMS
network and H.323 and is achieved via SBC or an intermediate node (like
a softswitch) that does the H.323 < -- > SIP signalling interworking. Such
an intermediate device or SBC would have to support the SIP signalling
towards the Service Provider network as per RFC defined in the Table-2.




                                     148
3.3.2 INTERFACE 2
Refer to Figure 4. Interface 2 defines the interface between the Operator
X to TOIP network.
The protocols to be supported are


                               Table-3

 S. No.     Protocol     ITU-T/IETF RFC No. Title
   3.         BICC       ITU-T                   Bearer     Independent
                         Recommendation          Call Control.
                         Q.1901
   4.         SIP-I      ITU-T                   Inter   working    between
                         Recommendation          Session Initiation Protocol
                         Q.1912.5                (SIP)     and       Bearer
                                                 Independent Call Control
                                                 Protocol or ISDN User
                                                 Part.




                  Figure 4: Interface 2 network model




                                    149
Interface Usage: The SIP I and BICC interface defined herewith will used
to interface between ToIP networks. The SIP interface must be support by
all operators – basic, mobile, NLD and ILD operators.
ToIP network: a ToIP network is defined as one in which the subscribers
use the POTS or „black phone‟. These subscribers are terminated on to
the legacy PSTN or an access gateway on the common twisted pair copper
line. The traffic from the subscribers, who are terminated on the PSTN
switch, will be carried on the IP network from the trunk media gateway.
The traffic from the subscribers who are terminated on the access
gateway will be carried on to the IP network from the access media
gateway. The control function in a ToIP network is provided by a
softswitch that controls the trunk and access media gateway on the
H.248 media gateway control protocol. Signalling between the PSTN
switch and the softswitch will be on ISUP.


Example
Consider operator 1 with TOIP network that is to interwork with operator
2 who is also assumed to have TOIP network. The originating and
terminating subscribers are POTS subscribers who are either parented to
a PSTN switch or an access media gateway. Assume a call from operator
1 to operator 2 wherein both the originating and terminating subscribers
are parented to a PSTN switch. The call from a subscriber in operator 1
will trigger an ISUP signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will
terminate on a softswitch in the operator 1 network. The softswitch in
operator 1 network will now initiate a SIP I or BICC signalling towards
the softswitch in the operator 2 network. After number analysis, the
softswitch in operator 2 will identify the destination PSTN switch and will
initiate ISUP signalling towards the PSTN switch. On successful
signalling, the call is set up. The media of the call will be via a trunk
media gateway. Similarly a call can be between two subscribers
terminated on access media gateways or can be between a subscriber on
PSTN and a subscriber on access media gateway. Irrespective of the


                                   150
network position of the POTS subscriber, the SIP I and BICC signalling
used between the soft switches will be as described in the Table-3.


3.3.3 INTERFACE 3

Refer to Figure 5. Interface 3 defines as the interface between the
Operator X to SIP/ H.323 VoIP network. The SIP / H.323 network inter-
working is required when Operator X hands over traffic to international
VOIP carriers.
The protocols to be supported are:


                                TABLE-4
    S.           Protocol       ITU-T/IETF     Title
    No.                           RFC No.
       1           SIP          IETF RFC       Session Initiation Protocol
                                3261
       2     H.323 & SIP (for
               ILD service
                provider)




                     Figure 5: Interface 3 network model

Interface Usage: The SIP and H.323 interface defined herewith will used
to interface to SIP and H.323 based networks. The SIP interface must be
support by all operators – basic, mobile, NLD and ILD operators while the
H.323 is relevant to ILD operators.
                                      151
Example
PSTN to SIP/H.323 network: Consider operator 1 which is a legacy
PSTN that is to interwork with operator 2, who is assumed to be an all IP
network. The call from a subscriber in operator 1 will trigger a ISUP
signalling from the legacy PSTN switch that will terminate on a softswitch
in the operator 1 network (we assume that operator 1 owns a softswitch
based NGN for break-out/in calls). The softswitch will initiate a SIP call
control signalling towards the operator 2‟s SIP server or a H.323
signalling towards operator 2‟s gatekeeper. If the signalling is successful,
the media between the POTS and IP subscriber is set up via a trunk
media gateway. The SIP / H.323 signalling interface between operator 1
and 2 must be as per RFC defined in the Table-4.


SIP/H.323 network to PSTN: Consider an IP telephone in operator 2
network that initiates a call towards the POT subscriber in the legacy
operator 1 network. The SIP server or the H.323 gatekeeper in operator 2
network will initiate a SIP or H.323 signalling for call control towards the
softswitch in operator 1 network. The softswitch will now initiate ISUP
signalling towards the PSTN switch where the POT subscriber is parented
to. If the signalling is successful, the media between the POTS and IP
subscriber is set up via a trunk media gateway. The SIP / H.323
signalling interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per RFC defined
in the Table-4.


SIP to SIP or H.323 to H.323 network: The SIP / H.323 signalling
interface between operator 1 and 2 must be as per RFCs defined in the
Table-4.
SIP network < -- >H.323: an interworking between a SIP based IMS
network and H.323 is achieved via SBC or an intermediate node (like a
softswitch) that does the H.323 < -- > SIP signalling interworking. Such



                                    152
      an intermediate device or SBC would have to support the SIP
 signalling towards the Service Providers network as per RFC defined in
 the Table-4.




 3.3.4 INTERFACE 4

 Refer to Figure 6. Interface 4 defines as the interface between the
 Operator X to traditional PSTN. The protocols to be supported are:

                               Table-5

S. No.   Protocol   ITU-T/IETF RFC No.    Title
                                          Framework Architecture for
 4.      SIGTRAN      IETF RFC 2719
                                          Signalling Transport
                                          Signalling system 7 (SS7)
 5.       M3UA        IETF RFC 3332.      Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3)
                                          User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
                                          Stream control transport
 6.       SCTP           RFC 2960         protocol - for transport of
                                          SIGTRAN




                     Figure 6: Interface 4 network model

 Interface Usage: The SIGTRAN / M3UA interface defined herewith will
 used to interface between SIP based IP and legacy PSTN. The SIGTRAN /


                                  153
    M3UA interface must be support by all operators – basic, mobile,
NLD and ILD operators.
Examples
PSTN < -- >ToIP: Consider operator 1 which is a legacy PSTN that is to
interwork with operator 2, who is assumed to be a ToIP network. The call
from a subscriber in operator 1 will trigger an ISUP signalling from the
legacy PSTN switch that will terminate on a signalling gateway (SGW).
The SGW will act as IP based STP and transport the ISUP via
SIGTRAN/M3UA to the softswitch in the operator 2 network. The
softswitch will complete the call towards the ToIP subscriber. If the
signalling is successful, the media between the POTS subscriber in
operator 1 and ToIP subscriber in operator 2 is set up via a trunk media
gateway. The SIGTRAN / M3UA signalling interface between operator 1
and 2 must be as per RFC defined in the Table-5.
PSTN < -- >SIP / H.323: Here Operator 2 is a SIP / H.323 network.
Consider an IP telephone in operator 2 network that initiates a call
towards the POT subscriber in the legacy operator 1 network. The SIP
server or the H.323 gatekeeper in operator 2 network will initiate a SIP or
H.323 signalling for call control towards the softswitch / MGCF (media
gateway control function as defined by TISPAN) in operator 2 network.
The softswitch / MGCF will now initiate SIGTRAN / M3UA signalling
towards the SGW of operator 2. The SGW will extract the ISUP signalling
and transport it to the destination PSTN switch on which the POT
subscriber is parented to. If the signalling is successful, the media
between the POTS and IP subscriber is set up via a trunk media gateway.
The SIGTRAN / M3UA signalling interface between operator 1 and 2
must be as per RFC defined in the Table-5.


3.4 Application Network Interface
The protocols to be supported from the NGN control plane to the
application servers are:


                                 Table-6

                                   154
  S. No.                  Protocol          ITU-T/IETF   Title
                                              RFC No.
            1               SIP            IETF RFC      Session Initiation
                                           3261          Protocol




3.5 SUMMARY OF INTERFACES
Having defined the signalling interfaces, the following table gives the
signalling interface inter-working matrix that is to be supported:


                        Table-7: Inter-working matrix

        From/To              SIP     SIP-T/I    H.323    PSTN/ISDN/PLMN

                 SIP         X         X          X              X

             SIP-T/I         X         X          X              X

                H.323        X         X          X              X

   PSTN/ISDN/PLMN            X         X          X              X



3.6 Recommendations

The core group recommends that following standards based signalling
protocols must be supported by Next Generation Network (NGN):

      i)         SIGTRAN - between PSTN/PLMN and IP networks
      ii)        H.248 - between Media Gateway and Media Gateway
                 Controller
      iii)       SIP, SIP-T/SIP-I - between two IP networks & between
                 PSTN/PLMN and IP networks
      iv)        H.323/SIP-T/SIP-I - for international Connectivity
      v)         For delivery of content (voice/data/video etc.),
                 RTP/RTCP protocol is to be used.


   TEC need to prepare Generic Requirements/Standards for the
   signalling protocols to be used.

                                        155
                                 Chapter IV
                        Points of Interconnection
4.1 Interconnect Exchange (IE)
The basic concept of the Interconnect Exchange is to enable different
operators to interconnect to a common point, to exchange mutual traffic
efficiently.

Role of Interconnect Exchange
      Inter-Carrier Billing

       Presently Inter-Carrier Billing is generally a major issue of dispute
       between various Service Providers and is likely to escalate unless
       corrective steps are in place at this stage itself. If Interconnect
       Exchange is having the Role of Inter-Carrier Billing Clearing House
       as well, a solution of a major problem area could be available. The
       inter-operator charging could be a function of a) Grade of service,
       b) Content, and c) network elements being used while carrying the
       traffic upto the Interconnect exchange.

      Intelligent Network Services

       Intelligent Network Services in a multi-operator multi-service
       scenario   could       be   provided     through      the   combination     of
       Interconnect Exchange cum Inter-Carrier Billing Clearing House.

      Number Portability

       Number Portability issue could also be addressed for a multi-
       operator multi-service scenario through the centralised Database
       available with Interconnect Exchange cum Inter-Carrier Billing
       Clearing House

      Carrier Selection

       Carrier-Selection      could   also     be   implemented     with   reduced
       incremental costs.

      Simplification    in    Network       Architecture,    Reduction    in    POI,
       Simplification in settlement of Interconnect Usage Charges,
       Abolition/ Steep reduction of Port Charges, Reduction in waiting
       period for Interconnection capacities
                                         156
Problems of existing Interconnection Regime
The existing arrangement of bilateral interconnection in a multi-operator,
multi-services environment suffers from following:
      High interconnection cost and port charges
      Asymmetric interconnection agreements and court cases due to
       ambiguities and non level playing field.
      Delay in provisioning of interconnection due to capacity constraints
      Sub- optimal utilization of resources
      Inefficient handling of calls
      High operational cost for managing inter-operator settlements
      Inter carrier billing
      Complexity in settlement of interconnect usage charges
      Sharing of Intelligent Network Platform
      Implementation of Number Portability
      Implementation of carrier selection
      increase of CAPEX and OPEX making operation unviable

                     ILDO         ILDO              ILDO     ILDO
                       1            2                   3     4

                                                                    NLDO 1
          BSO 1

          BSO
                                   Interconnect                     NLDO 2
           2
                                   Exchange
          BSO
                                                                    NLDO 3
           3

          BSO                                                       NLDO
           4                                                          4
                   CEL 1         CEL 2             CEL 3    CEL 4



                                      Inter Carrier
                                     Billing Clearing
                                           House




                     Figure 7: Interconnect Exchange



4.2    LOCATION OF POINTS OF INTERCONNECTION
Currently private operators (Mobile and Basic) peer among themselves at
mutually agreed POIs. Peering with BSNL takes place at defined LDCA
location for mobile operators and SDCAs for the basic telephone
operators. At areas where the private operators are unable to peer among

                                    157
themselves, the BSNL/ NLDOs network is used for transit.

At present, both the peering partners must have TDM based switches at
the POI locations. With implementation of MPLS network, the concept of
cost of carriage with respect to distance would lose its relevance. NGN
with its separation of control and media functions and distributed
architecture eliminates this restriction. The following methodology is
proposed for NGN environment.

i). The UASL operator may be allowed to have the option of          either
centralized control point in its network controlling the distributed media
gateways or SBCs within the service area. There should be no restriction
on having at least one control points in a particular service area
(Circle/Geographical Location). The UASL operator should be allowed to
share control points between its service areas without violating any
license condition including Lawful Interception (LI).

ii). The NLD operator may be allowed to have centralized control point for
the entire country with an option of having at least two locations for
geographical redundancy. The operator should be allowed to place media
gateways and/or SBCs anywhere in the country, wherever POIs are
desired.

iii). The ILD operator should be allowed to have centralized control point
for the entire ILD traffic. He may be allowed to place media gateways /
SBCs both within India only. He should be allowed to backhaul signalling
links from outside India to the control points. The ILD operators should
also be allowed to switch hubbing traffic using the NGN network. The ILD
operator must ensure LI for ILD operation.

iv). Integrated operators may be allowed to share control points and
IP/MPLS infrastructure for various licenses held by them including
UASL, NLD, ILD and ISP licenses

v). The requirement of a Signalling point code should be restricted to the
control point (Softswitch/ Signalling Gateway) only. This would also help
save the scarce point codes.
                                    158
vi). An Interconnect Exchange is proposed for interconnection between
different operators in NGN environment as shown in Figure 8.

                               Media Gateway




       TDM
                               Media Gateway                    Operator - 1
  INTERCONNECT
    EXCHANGE


                              Media Gateway
     IP BASED                                                   Operator - 2
  INTERCONNECT
   EXCHANGE
                        IP     Session Border
                                 Controller
                       Link
                                                                Operator - 3

                        IP     Session Border
                       Link      Controller



                        IP    Session Border
                       Link     Controller


                     Figure 8: Interconnect Exchange Model

One or more Interconnect Exchanges can be established at Circle/ Zonal
level depending on the traffic requirements, at the locations where most
of the operators have their MSCs/ MGCs as POIs .

The advantage of this model is that it makes network planning more
efficient. Every operator is aware of the physical location at which he
would have to provide the POI enabling transmission network roll-out in
a more planned way.

The architecture for Interconnection in NGN should be comparable or
more rugged than the current PSTN/ISDN/PLMN service since the NGN
is projected as replacement of PSTN/ISDN/PLMN over a period of time.
Consequently, one of the key objectives of the architecture would be to
have service restored with minimum downtime in case of failure in the
interconnect. It implies that a resilient multiple node architecture has to



                                            159
      be used along with the IP protocols and networking technologies
specially configured to meet the stringent requirement.

The interconnection in NGN environment should operate at 2 logical
layers – the signalling layer and the Media layer. In order to minimize the
cost and complexity in the interconnect, L2 connectivity may be preferred
over L3 interconnects with Logical VLANs/VPNs.

The Interconnect in NGN environment would provide a secure, low
latency environment in which the quality of wholesale interconnects is
guaranteed between all operators.


4.3    NETWORK MODIFICATION/ UPGRADATION
The current TDM based PSTN/PLMN follows a hierarchical topology.
Local exchanges/MSCs terminate on transit exchanges which then get
aggregated on gateway exchanges. Each local and transit exchange in the
network requires a signalling point code through which the exchanges
are accessed on SS7 signalling for call set-up, routing and tear down.
This      existing   network      architecture     requires     significant
modifications/upgradation to comply with the recommended approach as
shown below.




             Figure 9: Network upgradation for NGN environment




                                    160
These modifications include

i).     Introduction of Media Gateways for interconnection with TDM
       networks.
ii).   Introduction of SBCs for interconnection with IP based NGNs.


It is essential that for next 3-4 years the existing interconnect regime
should continue in parallel with IE. Since the interconnection using IE
will bring a lot of advantages its use must be promoted over the
conventional regime. To achieve this objective, after a period of one year,
if an operator makes an request to other operator for interconnection at
IE the operator must be mandated to do so by licensor / directive of
TRAI.


4.4 Recommendations

The core group recommends that The NGN Interconnect Exchange
(NGN IE) should be facilitated/ established with joint efforts,
coordination and responsibility of service providers, regulator and
the government, thus enabling the system to run efficiently.

TRAI/     Licensor   may      work   out   details   for   establishment,
management & operation of NGN IE after consultation with all
stakeholders.

Alternatively this is to be build, managed and operated by
independent agency (i.e independent of Operators, equipment
manufacturers etc.).

The initial cost of the project is to be shared by all stake holders.

It is envisaged that after a few years of operation (say 3rd year
onwards, depending on the volume of operations), the agency
operating the NGN IE will become financially self-sustaining and all
surplus income will be used to meet the objectives of Interconnect
Exchange in India.

                                     161
In the initial stage interconnectivity through IE should not be
mandated but if an operator desires to have interconnection with
another operator through IE it should not be denied (mandated by
licensor/ TRAI).




                              162
                                   Chapter V
                                 Security

5.1 Centralised Lawful Interception

Countries, all over the world are grappling with the threat of terrorism,
illegal financial transactions, and narcotics trafficking etc. by the illegal
use of the telecom and data networks.

With the rapid development of technologies in the field of communication
there is an urgent need to develop a centralised Lawful Interception
solution to provide useful inputs to the national security agencies for
multiple networks, viz. wireline, wireless and IP.

The centralised Lawful Interception system should be based on state-of-
art technologies using latest computational approaches such as artificial
intelligence technique, grid surveillance, encryption/decryption, mining
of data bases etc.



        LEA 1                                                  Landline Landline
                                 Centralised                                       Landline
                                   Lawful
        LEA 2                   Interception                   Mobile   Mobile
                                                                                     Mobile
                                   System
        LEA 3                                                  Broadband
                                                                       Broadband
                                                                                Broadband

                 Fig 10: Centralised Lawful Interception System Architecture

The centralised Lawful Interception system must provide transparent
interception by extracting intelligence from internet and telecom
networks effectively and securely and make them available to security
agencies to prevent unlawful activities and terrorism, at the same time
the privacy of the citizens should be provided as per law.

The work of preparation of generic technical specifications and validation
processes for interfaces for the centralised Lawful Interception system
can be taken up by TEC.



                                     163
Provisioning and monitoring of targets should be done from centralised
Lawful   Interception   system   as    warranted   by   LEAs   without   the
intervention of service providers. The telecom or internet service
providers must provide interface including encryption keys for call
content and call related information of the targets to LIM over dedicated
links. In case of data service, all target related information such as e-
mail, instant message, VoIP, fax, HTTP browsing in a standards format as
per the generic requirement of TEC.



5.2 Recommendation

The core group recommends that the centralised Lawful Monitoring
System (CMS)should be under the Government agency, say VTM cell
of DoT and having connectivity with all service providers, LEAs and
VTMs of DoT. Provisioning of targets as warranted by LEAs should be
done from CMS by DoT (VTM) without the intervention of service
providers. TEC to prepare Generic Interface Specification for CMS.




                                      164
                             Chapter VI
                         Numbering Scheme

6.1 Numbering

Numbering is the Public User Identities by which a subscriber is
identified in the Network. In PSTN and PLMN this is a TEL URI (User
Resource Identifier) in E.164 format. But by the introduction of VoIP we
can think of another URI i.e. SIP URI. In case of VoIP calls the TEL URI or
SIP URI will be converted to IP address via DNS (Domain Name System).
SIP URI can be in service provider domain or self-provided domain. Some
of the examples of SIP URIs are as follows:

sip: 911125368781@<dummy>            > E.164 format only
sip: 911125368781@opr1.in            > E.164 + service provider domain
sip: abc@opr2.in               > Name + service provider domain

E.164 NUMbering (ENUM) as RFC 3761 is the mapping of Telephone
numbers to uniform Resource Identifiers(URIs) using the Domain Name
System(DNS). ENUM enable convergence between the PSTN and IP.
Benefits of ENUM:
      ENUM is using the DNS thus saving the capital expenditure.
      Ultimate solution in number portability.
      Provisioning is only by the destination administrative domain.
      Enables convergence.

6.2    CURRENT  NUMBERING    SCHEME                FOR     THE      INDIAN
       TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK

The last few years have seen tremendous growth all around and
particularly in the field of cellular mobile services.     In some of the
countries, these services have already exceeded the traditional basic
services. In India too, the cellular mobile services have seen a exponential
growth.

The National Numbering Plan released in 2003 was required to meet the
challenges of multi-operator, multi-service environment and is flexible
enough to allow for scalability for next 30 years without any change in its
basic structure.


                                    165
      The main objectives of the year 2003 numbering plan were:
       To plan in conformity with relevant and applicable ITU standards
        to the extent possible.

       To meet the challenges of the changing telecom environment.

       To reserve numbering capacity to meet the undefined future needs.

       To support effective competition by fair access to numbering
        resources.

       To meet subscriber needs for a meaningful and user-friendly
        scheme.

       To standardise number length wherever practical.

       To keep the changes in the existing scheme to the minimum.

       Only the decimal character set 0-9 has been used for all number
        allocations. Letters and other non-decimal characters shall not
        form part of the National (Significant) Number [N(S)N].

       Dialling procedure as per ITU Recommendation E.164 has been
        followed.

       The Short Distance Charging Area (SDCA) based linked numbering
        scheme with 10-digit N(S)N has been followed. This expands the
        existing numbering capacity to ten times
Some of the salient features of the National Numbering Plan are as
follows:
       It is a Short Distance Charging Area (SDCA) based linked
        numbering scheme.

       N(S)N is 10-digit for both the basic as well as cellular mobile
        services.

       The Subscriber Number (SN) for basic services will be of 6, 7 or 8
        digits depending upon the length of SDCA code.

       Basic to cellular mobile service calls shall use prefix „0‟ only if Point
        of Interconnect (POI) is not available in the same Long Distance
        Charging Area (LDCA) from where the call is originated.

       Basic services shall be accessed by cellular mobile using „0‟.

       Levels 0, 1, 7, 8 and 9 are not used as first digit for telephone
        exchange codes in basic services.

                                       166
     All the service providers shall use „100‟, „101‟ and „102‟ for Police,
      Fire and Ambulance services respectively.

     „107X‟ has been defined for emergency information services like
      earthquake, floods, air and train accident etc.

     Intelligent Network service access code is „18XX‟.

     Certain level „1‟ codes are earmarked for all service providers to
      offer various subscriber related services, as per their choice, within
      their network.
Drawbacks of the National Numbering Plan, 2003:
     SDCA based numbering was implemented at the time when large
      switches were not available and all the operators had to deploy
      small switches in the SDCAs, which led to a traditional hierarchical
      numbering and routing. This SDCA level switch deployment
      resulted in increased CAPEX and OPEX to the operators. With the
      technological developments in the recent past and the inability of
      these small switches to cater to the new telecom requirements, the
      SDCA based numbering is losing its relevance and therefore,
      NNP,2003 requires a change where the numbering has to be circle
      based.

     NNP, 2003 was planned with a scalability for the next 30 years but
      is on the verge of exhaustion due to the on going increase of the
      subscriber base and will not be able to address the increase in the
      number of operators and the subscribers in the NGN regime. The
      numbering digits need to be increased to 12 digits to address this
      growing need of numbers after doing detailed analysis.

     The NNP, 2003 is not able to address the provisioning of new
      services in the converged environment.

     Going forward, in NGN regime, each device would require a unique
      numbering which cannot be done through the existing NNP, 2003.


In view of the above, there is a need for a new numbering scheme to
address all the above issues.




                                    167
6.3     NUMBERING SCHEME
The numbering scheme in NGN should be same as being used in the
Indian Telecommunication Network. Presently following levels are being
used:

1 – For Emergency, IN and Special Services
2 – Used for BSNL/MTNL Land line Subscribers
3 – Used for Reliance Land line Subscribers
4 – Used for Bharti Land line Subscribers
5 – Used for Tata Tele Services
6 – Used for Tata Tele Services
7 – Unused
8 – Unused
9 – Used for all Mobile GSM/CDMA Subscribers/Regional Subscriber
(95)
0 – Used for NLD Access Code
00 – Used for ILD Access Code
Option I: Using the same numbering scheme as per NNP 2003:
It is proposed that the same numbering scheme as per NNP 2003 should
be used in NGN as well. For the network and end user, it does not make
any difference in the numbering scheme. The softswitch and SIP server
will be responsible for the routing of calls based on the E.164 number. All
the SIP subscribers will be assigned by a E.164 number. The SIP server
functionality of softswitch will create a database for all such SIP
subscribers in which the IP address allocation vis-à-vis E.164 number be
stored. The routing of call from PSTN to SIP subscriber will be done
based on this database table. The biggest advantage of this approach is
to keep the same numbering scheme as the existing one. The end users
will not be confused with the introduction of new technology for carrying
voice in the network.

This option is recommended by group for NGN numbering constituted in
TEC. Core Group examined following two options:-

Option II: Using Level 7 and Level 8 for NGN which are not in use
currently.
It was deliberated that the Levels 7 & 8 can be used for all the VoIP
subscriber. So, the complete 10 digit Number (excluding NLD/ILD Access
Code) for the VoIP subscriber would be as follows:
                                   168
(Area Code: 2 to 4 Digits) + ( VoIP Code: 1 Digit) + (Carrier Identification
Code: 1 Digit) + (Subscriber Number:4 to 6 Digits)

Advantage: Simplicity.

Disadvantage: The end user may be confused with the new levels for
carrying the same voice.

The level 7 and 8 need to be reserved for mobile network which is growing
at much faster pace than wirline network.

Option III: By using the DNS concept (Popular concept for IP
switching)

Each operator needs internal ENUM DNS which support numbering and
routing and it sits in common backbone of that operator. Using this type
of concept the operator can use their existing numbering scheme along
with the existing Carrier Identification Code which is as follows:

(Area Code: 2to 4 Digits) + (Carrier Identification Code: 1 Digit) +
(Subscriber Number:5 to 7 Digits)

But in the above option we need all the PSTN and IP switch should
terminate on common IP backbone of that operator where the DNS is
connected. The DNS derive the routable address of the destination and
terminate the call. Also by using the Global DNS the Routing and
switching is possible in multi-operator, multi-service network scenario.

The basic idea of ENUM DNS was to allow the end-user to opt-in with
their existing phone number on the PSTN or carry the same number to
other region or to other operator. Also it provides the other end-user with
the capability to look up contact number of the end-user want to link on
the ENUM DNS.

Resolve to URL using a Domain Name System (DNS) – based architecture.
By placing telephone numbers into the DNS, ENUM can facilitate
interoperability for a wide range of applications including voice over IP
(VOIP) video and instant messaging.     For calls handles purely within the
IP network, SIP uses DNS and IP routing to forward the requests.
                                  169
 For calls from IP to PSTN, the destination‟s telephone number can be
 represented as a SIP URI.    For these calls, the gateway strips out the
 telephone number and uses it to initiate the call using ISUP signalling

                                     ENUM      DNS server
                                      DNS
                                                lookup

                                  IP Network   Operator
                                  Operator A   A.network
                                                        SIP
                 SIP                                   Server
                Server                                   2
                  1                                               Sip:5555@o
 Sip:5555@o
                                                                     prA.in
    prA.in


                                                 Sip:4444@o          Sip:5555@o
Sip:2222@o         Sip:3333@o                                           prA.in
   prA.in             prA.in                        prA.in
                                    RTP

       Figure 11


 Disadvantage: 1. High investment in ENUM servers.
               2. The signalling messages may be required to carry to
                  Global ENUM server
 6.4   RECOMMENDATION
 THE CORE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT THE NUMBERING SCHEME
 IN NGN SHOULD BE SAME AS BEING USED IN THE INDIAN
 TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK. ALTERNATIVELY ENUM MAY BE
 CONSIDERED      ONLY    AFTER    LOOKING      AT   ALL   ASPECTS     WITH
 RELATION TO NATIONAL/ NETWORK SECURITY. TEC IS TO LOOK INTO
 ALL SUCH ISSUES AND RECOMMEND TO LICENSOR.

                                    170
One of the following options may be finalised by DoT:

Option I:

It is proposed that the existing NNP 2003 numbering scheme should
be used in NGN as well. For the network and end user, it does not
make any difference in the numbering scheme. The softswitch and
SIP server will be responsible for the routing of calls based on the
E.164 number. All the SIP subscribers will be assigned        E.164
number. The SIP server/ softswitch will create a database for all
such SIP subscribers in which the IP address allocation vis-à-vis
E.164 number be stored. The routing of call from PSTN to SIP
subscriber will be done based on this database table. The main
advantage of this approach is to keep the same numbering scheme
as the existing one. The end users will not be affected with the
introduction of new technology for carrying voice in the network.

Depending on the growth in terms of number of subscriber‟s foe
NGN, review of National Numbering Plan 2003 could be taken up.

Option II:
By using the DNS concept (Popular concept for IP switching)

EACH OPERATOR WILL USE INTERNAL ENUM DNS WHICH SUPPORT
NUMBERING AND ROUTING AND IT SITS IN COMMON BACKBONE OF
THAT OPERATOR. USING THIS TYPE OF CONCEPT THE OPERATOR
CAN USE THEIR EXISTING NUMBERING SCHEME ALONG WITH THE
EXISTING CARRIER IDENTIFICATION CODE.

Option III:
Licensor/DOT may be asked to review NNP 2003 to increase the
length of mobile numbers from 10 digits to 11 digits and continue
with existing TDM based landline numbers length as 10 digits. This
will be a simple answer to resolve all the present and envisaged
future problems. NGN and Mobiles subscribers shall share 11 digit
number resource.


                                171
                                  Chapter VII
                                   Routing

7.1       IP ROUTING
The Next Generation Network (NGN) will be a single network that carries
all telecommunications services. All voice, data, and multimedia traffic
within an operator‟s core network is carried as packets on IP/MPLS
backbone with appropriate quality and class of service. The core will be a
fully resilient in terms of failure protection and recovery and should
adhere to the levels of service characterized in ITU-T Rec Y 1541.

The Core architecture will use well known IP protocols like OSPF, BGP
etc. for routing updates and MPLS for traffic engineering. The Routing
procedures and configuration for handing over the IP traffic from one
operator to another operator will depend upon how the two operators are
interconnected. Besides IP connectivity and routing protocols between
two operators, NGN will require special provisioning to enable voice and
video to pass smoothly from one network to another. There will be issues
related to Firewall traversal, NAT, Security, SLAs, translation of protocols
in two networks (interoperability), and lawful interception of calls. To
handle these issues devices like Session Border Controllers (SBC) will be
required at borders, between two NGN operators. The design of the
network shall be capable of detecting the insufficient bandwidth or failure
of connectivity between two operators and shall be able to reconnect the
signalling and media link through alternate routes. The network devices
like routers and switches in the core and border networks shall support
IPV4 as well as IPV6 protocols for easy migration to IPV6 in future.

Packet Compression - The most critical requirements of good voice
quality in an IP environment include:

         Delay-End-to-end (mouth-to-ear) delay must not exceed 150 ms.
         Delay variation (jitter)-Jitter must not add delay beyond what is
          left in the delay budget.
         Packet loss-This factor depends on codec, sample size and how
          traffic gets dropped. Packet loss for telephony should never
          exceed 0.1 percent.
                                      172
Depending on the compression method being used, delay, jitter, and
packet loss have variable effects on voice quality. As a general rule,
higher compression ratio (resulting in lower per-call bandwidth use)
means greater impact on voice quality, if any of the basic requirements
are not met. This fact should be kept in mind while implementing packet
compression techniques and routing of traffic between two service
provider‟s high bandwidth network using a low bandwidth link.
Following Figure-12 illustrates the connectivity and routing of two NGN
operators, where both have agreed to carry the others‟ traffic.


                                                                 NGN OPERATOR 1



                                                                        Softswitch
                                                           SBC



                              PE Router/Aggregator
                                                       V


                                                                 Media Gateway


                                INTERNET
     PSTN


                                PE Router/Aggregator
                                                                     PSTN
                                V
        Media Gateway


                                    SBC




            Softswitch




                    NGN OPERATOR 2




Figure 12




                                            173
 In case of IP based network and in multi-operator scenario as the
 Interconnection architecture suggested interconnection of the NGN
 network at the IP layer. Such interconnects support not only the
 traditional telephony (PSTN) network and emerging IP networks but also
 bring the concept of DNS and ENUM DNS as a network component. By
 the introduction of DNS in the NGN Interconnect scenario the service
 provider will be benefited and in future this is the ultimate solution in
 number portability.

 In the NGN Interconnection architecture, the Interconnect Exchange
 approach is proposed for the interconnection between different NGN
 operators and between legacy & NGN operator. Thus in this type of
 Architecture the introduction of new component in the network i.e.
 GOLBAL ENUM DNS is quite easy. This GLOBAL ENUM DNS will resolve
 the existing number to SIP URI. Now the SIP server of operator A send
 query to ENUM DNS server to lookup Operator B network for the routing
 and termination of call.

 In IP based network the SIP session establishment with the help of
 GLOBAL ENUM DNS is as follows:


                                              ENUM
               Query for the Tel. no.          DNS   Interconnect
                  to sip address                     Provider N/W

                                       Sip:
                 IP Network        4444@oprB.i                       IP Network
                 Operator A             n                            Operator B

                                              ENUM
                   SIP                         DNS                   SIP
                  server                                            server
 Tel:+911126                   DNS server
   598585                        lookup
                                Operator
                               B.network
                                        Sip:3333@o                           Sip:4444@o
Sip:2222@o          Sip:3333@o
                                           prB.in                               prB.in
   prA.in              prA.in   RTP
                                        174
       Figure 13

7.2 ENUM
The basic ideas of Global ENUM are as follows:
       Number Portability: It enables the originating administrative
        domain to do an all call query to find the destination network.
       Saving OPEX : Provisioning is done only by the destination
        administrative domain for the E.164 numbers this domain is
        hosting.
       Enables Convergence: Enables all multimedia services for E.164
        numbers for all sessions on IP end-to-end
7.3 Recommendation
Core group recommends that Session Border Controllers (SBC)
functionality as described in para 3.1 should be used at borders,
between two NGN operators. Calling party identification must be
mandatory for routing the call in NGN networks.




                                   175
                             Chapter VIII
                    Interconnect Usage Charges

8.1     INTERCONNECT CHARGING

Present concept of charging in PSTN/PLMN is based on distance and
time-duration of call. In NGN scenario charging will be based on the
bandwidth usage, application usage, quality of service, number of
network elements used, amount of actual content of information
exchanged during a call session, time-of-day, etc.

NGN Networks may require many more feature for charging as given
below

     Charging based on call duration, bearer capability, time and type of
      day etc.
     Charging based QoS, bandwidth, application etc.
     Chargeable party (calling, called or third party).
     Charging of supplementary and value added services.


Generation of CDR (Call Data Records), subscriber billing, trunk billing
and automatic backup and format conversion functions should be
possible.



Standard interfaces and protocols will be required for sending relevant
information to billing centre.



In a NGN environment, it is important to specify an Interconnection
Usage Charges (IUC) regime which gives greater certainty to the Inter-
operator    settlements   and    facilitates   interconnection   agreements.
Presently, in India, we have adopted the cost based IUC which include
origination, carriage and termination charges. However, there can be four
models for IUC in the NGN based networks. These are : 1. Calling Party
Network Pays, 2. Bill and Keep, 3. Based on Quality of service, 4. Bulk
billing. The exercise to determine IUCs involves an assessment of the
various cost items attributable to the different network elements involved
in setting up of a call in NGN environment. Every effort needs to be made
                                     176
to accurately assess the network element costs based on the inputs to be
provided by various operators. The important issue is to identify the
Network elements involved in completion of the carriage of all long
distance call from its origin to destination in a Multi-Operator
environment.

Methodology for calculation of Interconnection Usage Charges
a) Current IUC Scenario- TDM based networks:
Framework of the IUC regime has already been established by TRAI in its
IUC Regulation. As detailed therein, IUC has to be determined based on
minutes of usage for various Unbundled Network Elements and the cost
of these elements. The IUCs for Origination, Transit and Termination are
based on the principles of element based charging i.e. one operator
charging the other for the resources consumed for carriage of its calls in
terms of minutes of use (MOU).

The total Interconnection Usage Charges for carriage of a call in a multi
operator environment are to be shared for Origination, Transit and
Termination on the basis of work done in each segment for the carriage of
the call.

b) Moving towards NGN:
Migration to NGN would substantially affect the network costs and the
relationship between the cost of carrying traffic and distance over which
traffic is carried. The similarities between NGNs and the Internet have
raised the question of whether the move to NGN will bring the “death of
distance” in interconnection charges. Where internet charges are typically
independent of the distance over which data is conveyed, under NGNs
the distance related network costs may become much smaller. Therefore,
cost based interconnection charges would help in bringing the correct
regulatory framework in facilitating faster deployment of NGNs in the
market.




                                   177
Four main basis for Interconnect charges in NGN regime:

A. Calling Party‟s Network Pays (CPNP):
CPNP- the network that initiates the call pays for the call, usually based
on the duration of the call; generally, the party that receives (terminates)
the call pays nothing. In IP based networks, instead of duration of the
call, the charging can be based on the number of packets transferred.
This can either take the form of Element Based Charging (EBC) or
Capacity Based Charging (CBC). Both systems constitute cost-based
systems.

Limitations:
    Under EBC the interconnection rates depend on the number of
     network elements. Implementation of EBC (or CBC) for IP networks
     would cause transaction costs (e.g. for determining IP points of
     interconnection).

    Termination Monopoly
B. Bill and Keep
With this regime there are no charges for termination. Basically, Bill &
Keep is a kind of barter exchange where network operator A on his
network terminates traffic coming from network B and vice versa. As
traffic flows may balance out in both directions so that there are no
payment flows, the price for A of getting his traffic terminated in B’s
network consists of A providing network capacities for terminating traffic
coming from B. In that sense, interconnection services are not provided
for free.

With Bill & Keep, transaction costs can be reduced and there is no
termination monopoly problem under Bill & Keep. Without payments for
termination services the problem of arbitrage is avoided.




                                    178
Limitations:
    As every other system Bill & Keep also has its shortcomings. In Bill
      and Keep, the Service providers have an incentive to hand over
      their traffic into another network for termination as early as
      possible. To counter this problem, it may be reasonable to make
      requirements with regard to the minimum number and location of
      interconnection points for Bill & Keep to be applicable for a specific
      network operator.

C. Based on Quality of Service

If two providers want to compensate one another for carrying their
respective delay-sensitive traffic at a preferred Quality of Service, each
will want to verify that the other has in fact done what it committed to
do.


In the case of QoS, this would seem to imply measurements of (1) the
amount of traffic of each class of service exchanged in each direction
between the providers; and (2) metrics of the quality of service actually
provided. Measuring the QoS is much more complex, both at a technical
level and at a business level.

Limitations:

    Commitments between providers would be primarily in terms of the
      mean and variance of delay. First, it is important to remember that
      this measurement activity implies a degree of cooperation between
      network operators who are direct competitors for the same end-
      user customers. Each operator will be sensitive about revealing the
      internal   performance     characteristics   of   its   networks   to   a
      competitor. Neither would want the other to reveal any limitations
      in its network to prospective customers.




                                     179
    Second, there might be concerns that the measurement servers –
      operated within one‟s own network, for the benefit of a competitor –
      might turn into an operational nightmare, or perhaps a security
      exposure, within the perimeter of one‟s own network.

D. Bulk Basis (can also be termed as „Interconnect Hotel‟)
The legacy interconnection charge regime i.e. Per minute basis would
certainly complicate the smooth settlement of claims. The reason being,
NGN products will be based on capacity, quality of service and class of
service. Since the aggregation of traffic would take place at the common
node, it is all the way necessary to mandate charging of applicable
Interconnection charges for NGNs on bulk usage basis rather than per
minute basis prevalent currently. Under the NGN, total network costs
and carriage would become much smaller relative to traffic volumes and
thus average network costs associated with each traffic unit decrease.
Charging of interconnect charges on bulk basis will establish a clear level
playing field among the operators and facilitate in saving legal costs and
time from unwanted litigations.

Presently the operators in India offer a number of products for voice
telephony (including data over voice lines and broadband data). These
services are carried on a number of platforms, involving separate
networks and a number of different communication nodes. In this setup,
network sharing across services is limited. Therefore, there is an absolute
necessity to set up a circle/geographical level integrated NGN exchange
where traffic from all services get merged on payment of applicable cost
based interconnection charges.

With the proposed Interconnect Exchange setup, traffic from the
customer would be carried over to the multi-service access node
(Common Node), co-located with main distribution frame of the operator
and then directed to a central network node. Thus, under the proposed
common node, traffic originated by customers would not only share the
local network segment, but would be aggregated at the local node using a
                                   180
common transmission protocol and from there routed towards a common
multi service network.

The biggest advantage of the setting up of Common Node (Interconnect
Exchange) is that it supports many different access technologies and
allows services using different technologies to be carried on the same
lines. During the interim period of migration of PSTN to IP, media
gateways can be a part of the Exchange for conversion of PSTN traffic to
IP.

This Interconnect Exchange would act as a „ Billing & Clearing House‟ for
incoming and outgoing traffic. The inter-operator charging could be a
function of a) Grade of service, b) Content , and c) network elements
being used while carrying the traffic upto the Interconnect exchange.


Components of IUC
At present the IUC depends on the following components and would
continue to be a part of NGN regime also. However, by the time NGN gets
implemented in India, these components would substantially decrease :
  ADC- Nil

  Carriage cost- due to implementation of all IP network at core, the
   cost of carriage would reduce dramatically and distance based
   carriage will not have any relevance.

  Termination – based on the class of service, content and quality of
   service, this component should be negotiable between operators

  New cost element need to be introduced to cater to the Capex and
   Opex required for the Interconnect Exchange- Each operator would
   pay some pre-determined amount which can be a function of the
   class of service, content and/or Quality of service being provided by
   the operator.

Issues and challenges – for IUC Billing and Accounting in NGN

  Inter-operator settlement issues- content and quality based pricing,
   usage based or bulk billing.



                                   181
 In an NGN world, the network service provider will not necessarily be
  the application service provider.

 The network provider will have only limited visibility into third party
  applications running over its network.

 The application provider may have extensive visibility into the
  application that it provides, but only limited visibility into the use of
  network resources.

 Usage-based billing will be possible only to the extent that the usage
  can be rigorously and unambiguously measured.

 How will providers and customers ensure that service commitments
  are met? Whose statistics will govern?

 Competitive providers are reluctant to share statistics about their
  respective networks with one another, and peering agreements
  typically restrict the ability of the providers to disclose information
  about one another„s networks to third parties.           Can sufficient
  information be disclosed to customers?

 How will responsibility be allocated if a customer‟s traffic fails to
  achieve its committed service level specification? Traffic data can
  legitimately be interpreted in more than one way. Will it be possible
  to administer payments and penalties rigorously and fairly?

 How can providers prevent fraud? How can they distinguish between
  fraud and legitimate use?



8.2 Recommendations
The   core   group    recommends    that     NGN   network    must    provide
mechanisms to allow service providers to generate revenue. In the
short-term, existing billing mechanisms may continue as it is in
PSTN/PLMN      for    inter-operator/inter-carrier     reconciliation    and
subscriber billing, which requires generation of CDR/IPDR records.
In the long term, interconnect billing may be based on the
bandwidth     used,   requiring    simpler    alternative    record   keeping
mechanisms.


                                     182
                                 Chapter IX
       Traffic Measurement / Accounting / Monitoring

9.1 Traffic Measurement

Routers and switches in IP networks are the key elements which provide
the vital statistics to facilitate value-added applications such as network
management, traffic engineering and planning, usage-based billing and
Service Level Agreement (SLA) verification. The IP network should be able
to deliver:

  Network availability: This variable can also be thought of as service
   availability
  QoS: The network elements or nodes must be able to provide a
   reliable QoS to assure an adequate level for the applications
  Predictable performance: Without predictable performance, it will be
   impossible for a service provider to plan and implement a service on a
   network wide basis
  Security: A fundamental consideration in ensuring stable operation

Traffic measurement involves traffic data interception, collection, storage,
and analysis as the major activities to generate the meaningful reports.


Traffic data for measurement can be acquired, intercepted, or collected in
any of the following ways.

      SNMP - Using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) to
       access traffic counters or other readings from SNMP enabled
       devices. The information collected this way can facilitate the
       capacity planning but does very little to characterize traffic
       applications, essential for understanding how well the network
       supports the business. For more granular understanding of
       bandwidth usage other methods of data collection must be used.
      Sniffing - Looking at incoming/outgoing network packets that pass
       through a network card of a server (so called “packet sniffing”).
       Copy of the traffic can also be collected through port mirroring
       (SPAN) in manageable Ethernet switches or through in-line
       network taps. Traffic data received this way in a large network
       requires a large server to process the information and deliver the
       required results.



                                    183
      Flow Based Traffic Accounting – This process involves network
       devices like routers and switches in a IP/MPLS network which
       export the traffic flows and provide the valuable information about
       network users, applications usage, timing, and traffic direction on
       the network. This method has become industry standard for
       accounting and analysis of IP traffic and also to identify various
       attacks on the network. The proposed IETF standards to provide
       Flow based traffic accounting are called IP Flow Information Export
       (IPFIX) and Packet Sampling (PSAMP).


   A large number of third party applications (Commercial & freeware)
   are available utilizing these techniques to provide the traffic statistics
   graphically or in tabular format or both. Essentially a Network traffic
   monitoring       solution    should     be    capable   of    providing   following
   information.

      Time-based view of application usage over the network: This
       information is used to plan, understand new services, and allocate
       network and application resources to responsively meet customer
       demands.
      IP Address based utilization of network and application
       resources: This information may then be utilized to efficiently plan
       and allocate access, backbone and application resources as well as
       to detect and resolve potential security and policy violations.
      Capture data over a long period of time producing the opportunity
       to track and anticipate network growth and plan upgrades to
       increase the number of routing devices, ports, or higher-
       bandwidth interfaces. Captured data should include details such
       as IP addresses, packet and byte counts, timestamps, type-of-
       service and application ports, etc.). Service providers may utilize
       the information for billing based on time-of-day, bandwidth usage,
       application usage, quality of service, etc.
      Identifies and classifies DDOS attacks, viruses and worms in real-
       time.

9.1.1 Flow-based Traffic Measurements
To measure the traffic between two interconnecting services providers,
the flow based traffic accounting is configured at border routers to
generate the flows and send them to reporting servers working as Flow
collectors.   The     Flow     collector   has    the   job     of   assembling   and
understanding the exported flows and combining or aggregating them to

                                           184
produce the valuable reports used for traffic and security analysis. A flow
is defined by at least seven unique keys as

      Source IP address
      Destination IP address
      Source TCP/UDP port
      Destination TCP/UDP port
      Layer3 protocol type
      Type of Service field (DSCP)
      Input logical interface (ifIndex)


Some implementations of may also add the following fields to the
exported flows.

      Flow timestamps, useful to calculate the packets and bytes per
       second
      Next hop IP address including BGP routing Autonomous System
       (AS) number
      Subnet mask to calculate prefixes
      TCP flags to examine TCP handshakes
Expired flows are exported to Flow Collector using UDP datagrams. The
selection of a reporting and analysis tool utilizing the data in exported
flows is important which depends on various factors like

      Main objective of Measurement – Security, Accounting & Billing,
       Traffic Analysis including application and user monitoring
      Operating Software for the server (e.g. Windows, Linux or other
       variant of Unix OS)
      Size and complexity of the network

9.2 Deployment
Once the objective and the reporting software are decided, the sizing and
number of servers are determined. Some reporting systems require two-
tier architecture where collectors are deployed near key points in the
network which collect and aggregate the traffic from various network
devices and forward the aggregated data to main reporting server as
shown in the figure below.



                                      185
      Figure 14

9.3 VoIP traffic measurement
Traffic measurements play an important role in regulating the QoS of the
network and SLA between operators. Apart from the measurements
performed in the IP network at router nodes, certain measurements can
be performed at the control and media gateway nodes.


These measurements give traffic details and statistics of RTP traffic and
aid in regulating the QoS of the network and the QoS as experienced by
the subscriber. Also, measurement based VoIP quality management is a
function that provides the ability to select the best path through the
network based on quality measurement on active RTP voice channels.
Monitoring is an important feature used to improve and evaluate the
QoS. By using the statistics the QoS configuration can be fine-tuned.
Counters are used for the purpose of performance monitoring.

                                  186
The ITU specification defines the following performance measurement:
      Transfer Delay IPTD         (intrusive)
      Delay Variation IPDV        (intrusive)
      Loss Ratio      IPLR        (intrusive or non-intrusive)
      Error Ratio     IPER        (intrusive or non-intrusive)
      Discard Ratio IPDR          (non-intrusive)

9.4 MONITORING OF VOICE

Measurements can be made intrusively (with test packets) or non-
intrusively using performance statistics from traffic. For further details
see ITU specification (M.2301 - Performance objectives and procedures
for provisioning and maintenance of IP-based networks)

9.5 INTRUSIVE PERFORMANCE MONITORING
Intrusive performance monitoring can be made through the use of test
calls. Test calls will use rtcp to provide performance statistics.

9.6 NON-INTRUSIVE PERFORMANCE MONITORING
The following performance indicators for VoIP are produced per egress IP
interface and ingress IP interface:
      Limited RTP performance indicators
      Full-fledge RTP performance indicators

9.7 Monitoring of Jitter

The main reason for jitter is due to queuing. If abnormal jitter occurs the
source of the delay variation has to be identified. A notification may be
initiated. Per channel statistics for jitter buffer for test calls will identify
delays in the network.


9.8 Monitoring of LSPs
Performance statistics per LSP are:
Outgoing segment:
                                      187
        No. of octets sent on segment
     No. of packets sent on segment
     No. of packets discarded due to error *



     No. of packets discarded due to other reason then errors **
      Incoming segment:
     No. of octets sent on segment
     No. of packets sent on segment
     No. of packets discarded due to error *
     No. of packets discarded due to other reason then errors **
*possible error reasons: Ipv4 header check-sum errors, wrong IP version
filed, too small Ipv4 header size.
**possible reasons can be to free up buffer space, unknown MPLS label,
and MPLS TTL expires.

9.9 Recommendations

Core group recommends that service provider must have mechanism
for traffic measurement to cover VoIP traffic measurement, voice
intrusive & non-intrusive performance measurements etc.




                                   188
                                                    ANNEXURE (a)




Sl.No.                      Name          Organization

1.       Sh. M.C. Chaube, Convenor       TRAI
2.       Sh. Arvind Kumar                TRAI
3.       Sh. Vipin Kumar                 TEC
4.       Sh. Asit Kadyan                 TEC
5.       Sh. Ashutosh Pandey             TEC
6.       Mr. P.P. Upadhyay               TEC
7.       Sh. M.K. Gupta                  C-DOT
8.       Sh. J.N. Mandal                 C-DOT
9.       Ms. Alpana Sethi                C-DOT
10.      Sh. Rakesh Mehrotra             TTSL
11.      Sh. Harish Kapoor               TTSL
12.      Ms. Ritu Mathur                 TTSL
13.      Sh. Vivek Jhamb                 Hutch
14.      Sh. Ujwal Kapoor                Bharti
15.      Ms. Kanupriya Bharadwaj         Bharti
16.      Sh. Susheel Narayan             Ericsson
17.      Sh. Sanjay Verma                Siemens
18.      Sh. Brijesh Jain                ISPAI
19.      Sh. B. Syngal                   FICCI




                                   189
                         ANNEXURE V




       Report

          of

QoS Core Group ( QOS )




          190
                      CONTENTS

 S.                 TITLE                    PAGE
NO.                                           NO.
      PREFACE                                192
1.    INTRODUCTION                           195
2.    QoS ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT          198

3.    RECOMMENDATIONS                        207

4     ANNEXURE-(i) - LIST OF CORE GROUP      211
      MEMBERS
5     ANNEXURE-(ii) List of NGN –eCO (QoS)   212
      Members

6     ANNEXURE (iii)- ITU-T Y.1541           213
      Recommendations for QoS




                            191
                               PREFACE

Telecom sector in India is growing at a rapid pace. With technology
also changing too fast the demand of customer for new services is
also increasing, especially in wireless and broadband sector. The
service providers are exploring new avenues for revenue generation
by introducing new services. For such rapid growing market and
changing technologies there are so many challenges to provide the
quality service to customer from existing many service specific
systems. The service providers can not ignore the market forces
and new services coming in the market like broadband, wi-fi, IPTV,
multimedia services, IP Packet based service like Class 4 (transit)
services, Class 5 (Local) services etc. To cope up with this situation,
it requires that network should be flexible to provide the new
services and contents with Quality of Service that satisfies user of a
Service.


In the packet-switched networks generally called Next Generation
Network (NGN), a fixed circuit is not reserved to enable the efficient
use of resources. The efficiency gain results from the flexibility in
allocating resources in the packet switching domain, and from the
fact that the reserved fixed-line circuits are not used to their full
capacity in the circuit-switched environment.             For example, in a
traditional phone call between two people the two persons are not
speaking and listening to each other all the time, but mostly one is
speaking and the other is listening. Similarly, an interactive game
application    does   not    require       the     exchange   of     continuous
bidirectional packet flow at a certain bit rate, but rather an
exchange of various amounts of data with pauses-in-between.
Service applications are also different in tolerating packet delays.
Some are delay-sensitive and require a steady flow of packets, such
as traditional   telephone calls or video calls; some other services
can   tolerate   packet     delays     –     for   example,   file    transfers.
Furthermore,     some       service        applications   cannot       tolerate

                                192
transmission errors. For example, file transfer is error-sensitive,
and if all the packets cannot be correctly received, the entire file
may be useless to the recipient.          Lost or incorrectly received
packets need to be retransmitted for such applications.               Some
other applications can tolerate minor transmission errors and
retransmission may not even be feasible due to the time delay
resulting   from   that   such    as   voice   calls/   video   streaming.
Bandwidth       requirements     can    also   vary     between      service
applications. Real time video streaming requires a certain amount
of bandwidth and file transfer benefits from larger bit rates but a
voice conversation does not gain from having double the amount of
resources in the networks. While NGN can take advantage of
unused bearer periods they need to be able to correctly determine
when a particular application service (e.g. a call) needs resources
as well as the quality and amount of resources. The QoS concept
is created to do that and it is defined in such a way that various
types of users and service applications with different bearer
requirements can be supported in Next Generation Networks.


NGN   is    a   technological    development     and    regulators    being
technologically neutral, have no direct role to play. However, with
implementation of new platforms the quality of service (QoS)
becomes a new challenge. ITU definition for QoS is “the collective
effect of service performance, which determines the degree of
satisfaction of a user of a service".     Therefore, deciding the QoS
parameters in the evolving phase of technology will help both the
service providers as well as customers.


An NGN eCO (QoS) expert committee was constituted to deliberate
the QoS issues. NGN-eCO in its various meetings identified and
deliberated on certain issues to be analysed in depth to protect the
interest of consumer and define the Quality of Service parameters

                                 193
to achieve same. The members have generously contributed and
participated in the discussions.


We hope that the recommendations of the QoS core group of NGN
will facilitate the development of the end to end Quality of Service
parameters from the very beginning, provide the right direction to
decide the QoS benchmarks and will also create awareness among
stakeholders about various quality of service issues and challenges
in Next Generation Network environment.



                                                   (M C Chaube)
                                                 ADVISOR (QoS)
                                   CONVENER – CORE GROUP (QoS)




                             194
                              CHAPTER I
                            INTRODUCTION
1.     Background
     1.1   Trend in telecommunications are now at the edge of shifting
           towards one backbone multi service network instead of
           multiple single service networks. Migration from existing
           circuit switched (PSTN), mobile networks etc. and data
           network from single service networks to multi service
           network – Next Generation Network has become a reality.

     1.2   Service providers are going to adopt the convergent voice,
           video and data services. Implementation of Class 4 (transit)
           and Class 5 (local) services over packet network has started
           to offer multimedia services. Broadband penetration will also
           boost the need for next generation network implementation.

     1.3   TRAI had issued a consultation paper on “Issues Pertaining
           to Next Generation Networks (NGN)” in January 2006 and
           subsequently the recommendations were sent to Government
           on 20th March 2006.

     1.4   During the Consultation process the stakeholders in general
           had expressed an urgent need for the creation of a high-level
           cross-industry coordination committee for NGN consisting of
           representatives from Licensor, Regulator, DOT, TEC, Service
           Providers, Vendors & Academicia to examine all the relevant
           issues so that transition/migration from TDM networks to
           NGN is smooth and systematic.

      1.5 As a follow-up action to the consultation process and
           recommendations, a cross industry expert group has been
           constituted by TRAI namely NGN-eCO (Next Generation
           Networks Expert Committee) to handle the various issues
           related to NGN. Simultaneously another committee has been
           formed by the TEC to study & analyze various international
           developments pertaining to NGN so as to incorporate the

                                 195
      same in Indian context and develop interface requirements
      in a time bound manner.

1.6 Constitution of NGN-eCO.

      1.6.1 NGN      Expert    Commiittee    (NGN-eCO)   has   been
              constituted by co-opting experts from DOT, TEC, C-
              DOT, Service Providers, Vendor and Academicia to
              study the following issues :

          a) NGN awareness building programme
          b) Timetable for NGN migration in the country
          c) Background paper to be used for consultation on
             Interconnection and QoS issues.


      1.6.2 The First meeting of NGN-eCO was held on 11th
            October 2006 at New Delhi. To give focused attention
            to agenda of NGN-eCO, it was resolved at first meeting
            to form three Core Groups to deliberate up on specific
            issues namely:
              a.   Licensing Issues
              b.   Interconnection Issues
              c.   QoS related issues.


      1.6.3 The members of NGN-eCO were requested to nominate
            suitable persons for these core groups.


1.7   Constitution of Core Groups
      1.7.1        On the basis of the nominations received from
      members of NGN-eCO, three Core groups have been
      constituted.     The members of the Core group represent
      Service Provider associations, Equipment Manufacture‟s
      associations, Licensor (Department of Telecom), Research
      organizations academic institutions etc.     The list of core
      group members on Quality of Service is attached at
      Annexure-(i).




                               196
1.7.2        It was further resolved at the NGN-eCO meeting
that the Core Groups would deliberate upon these specific
issues and submit the reports within two months time. The
reports thus submitted will help NGN-eCO to formulate the
final recommendations.


1.7.3        The meetings of Core Group (QoS) were held on
19.12.2006     18.1.2007,    14.02.2007,   26.03.2007    and
22.05.2007. Members of the committee deliberated on the
QoS related issues in great detail. The various issues on QoS
are being discussed in subsequent chapters.




                       197
                                   CHAPTER II


                     QoS ISSUES IN NGN ENVIRONMENT


3.   Introduction:
     Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to
     provide telecommunication services and able to make use of multiple
     broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-
     related functions are independent from underlying transport-related
     technologies. It enables unfettered access for users to networks and to
     competing service providers and/or services of their choice. It supports
     generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of
     services to users.”

                                                             ---- ITU-T Y.2001


     The concept of an NGN has been introduced to take into
     consideration     the   realities     in   telecommunication     industry,
     characterized by factors such as: competition among operators due
     to ongoing deregulation of markets, explosion of digital traffic e.g.
     increasing use of “the Internet”, increasing demand of new
     multimedia services, increasing demand of general mobility,
     convergence of networks and services etc. Next Generation Network
     (NGN) is a very powerful platform to provide different services like
     Voice, Video and Data. Thus, growing market, increasing demand
     and powerful platform has provided sufficient reasons to service
     providers to migrate to NGN Environment.



     2.1    A major goal of NGN is to facilitate convergence of networks
            and services. NGN is a concept for defining and deploying
            networks, which due to their formal separation into different
            layers and use of open interfaces offer service providers and



                                     198
      operators a platform, which can evolve         in a step-by-step
      manner to create, deploy, and manage innovative services.

2.2   NGN is a Packet based network. Hence,         Quality of Service
      (QoS) in the context of NGN is a complex issue and
      international standards are still evolving. There was complete
      agreement in Core Group that fixing the framework for QoS
      at the very beginning stage will help the service providers /
      vendors to Deploy and engineer their networks to meet the
      overall QoS objectives.

2.3   QoS to be truly useful and practical enough, it must be
      meaningful from following 4 viewpoints:



   Customer’s                                     QoS Offered
      QoS                                             By
  requirements                                     provider




      QoS                                             QoS
   perceived                                      achieved by
  by customer                                       provider

2.4   QoS may require control of a range of features such as
      latency, packet loss, jitter, bandwidth but beyond a basic
      minimum, QoS is meaningful to a user only if it exists on
      an end-to-end basis i.e. across the networks. Also, QoS
      must cover not just the transmission quality but also
      parameters    like   reliability,   fault   tolerance,   service
      availability, security, call set-up, scalability, service
      provisioning, service restoration, etc. Further, to achieve
                                199
      QoS, requires co-operation between many different elements.
      One poorly performing network segment could impair the
      QoS.

2.5   NGN permits separation of transport, control and service &
      application layers, providing greater flexibility to launch
      value added services. A common IP backbone is maintained
      permitting      effective   utilization   of   the   backbone    while
      maintaining better Quality of Service (QoS) and flexibility to
      support various applications.

      The different meetings of the Core Group highlighted number
      of QoS related issues which required deliberations in NGN
      environment. Core group felt that QoS related issues can be
      divided into two parts viz.        network related and customer
      related. Two sub-groups were formed as below:



         1. Sub Group on the Network Related Parameters.
         2. Sub Group on the Customer related Parameters.


      List of Subgroups members is given in           Annexure-(ii).


2.5   Network Centric Parameters
      Analysis:
      Following major points are taken into consideration by NGN e-CO
      group:

      2.5.1 A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based
               network able to provide Telecommunication Services to
               users and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-
               enabled transport technologies and in which service-related
               functions are independent of the underlying transport-related
               technologies.




                                  200
       2.5.2 The basic definition of QoS (Quality of Service) is given by
               the ITU-T       in Rec. No. E.800 as "the collective effect of
               service performance, which determines the degree of
               satisfaction of a user of a service". Expanding on the E.800
               QoS concept, ITU-T Rec. G.1000 breaks down service
               performance (or service quality) into functional components
               and links it to network performance. Network Performance
               (as per ITU-T Rec. No. I. 350) is measured in terms of
               parameters which are meaningful to the network provider
               and     are    used      for    the   purpose      of   system      design,
               configuration,        operation       and     maintenance.        Network
               Performance (NP) is defined independently of terminal
               performance and user actions.

       2.5.3 Most importantly, the end-to-end QoS must certainly capture
               the experience of the user – so aptly described by the term
               QoE (Quality of Experience). QoE is defined as the overall
               acceptability of an application or service, as perceived
               subjectively by the end-user. Quality of Experience includes
               the complete end-to-end system effects (client, terminal,
               network, services infrastructure, etc). Overall acceptability
               may be influenced by user expectations and context. Figure
               given below illustrates how the concepts of QoS, NP and
               QoE are applied in the Next Generation Network (NGN)
               environment.




CN :   Core Network ; SP : Service Platform;   AN : Access Network:; CPN :Customer Premise
       Network

                                       201
General reference configuration for NGN QoS, NP and QoE (Source : ITU-T)


  2.5.4 A typical user is not concerned with how a particular
        application is supported. However, the user is interested in
        comparing the same service offered by different quality in
        terms of various ranges. Thus, for successful delivery of
        quality to the end-user - across NGN - there should be
        classes of Application QoS that are mapped into specific
        Network QoS classes. These Application QoS should
        operate across network domains and including terminal
        characteristics to negotiate / communicate the requested
        application quality that will be perceived by the end-user (i.e.
        "mouth-to-ear").

  2.5.5 QoS Parameters are service specific. For example, call set-
        up delay, call completion rate and speech quality are some
        of the parameters for real-time voice service whereas for
        IPTV service , Jitter and the channel change time could be
        important parameters.

  2.5.6 Group members opined that IP Network QoS Classes
        definitions and Network Performance objectives defined in
        ITU T Y.1541 recommendation should be taken as a
        standard for deciding the QoS parameters of applicable
        services in NGN network centric issues in Indian context.
        Parameters defined in ITU T Y.1541 are attached in
        Annexure-C.

  2.5.7 There are QoS classes other than those defined in ITU-T
        Y.1541,        like    ETSI   TS    123    107    for   UMTS.
        Mapping/harmonisation of different technology specifications
        / QoS classes is needed to be able to manage end-to-end
        QoS in NGN.

  2.5.8 Group is of the opinion that for deciding any parameter
        related to QoS for a particular service under NGN, available



                              202
            ITU T recommendations for that particular service should be
            considered as far as possible.

      2.5.9 Various equipment manufacturers were also called for giving
            their inputs on QoS issues especially on facility and
            feasibility of measuring QoS parameters in their equipments.


2.6   Customer Centric Parameters:
      Analysis:
      2.6.1 Subgroup has identified that customer centric parameters
            are Service Activation Time, Service De-activation Time,
            Service, Restoration Time, Clarity of Tariff Plans, Ease of
            switching between plans, Ease of getting Billing information,
            Ease of Bill payments, Ease of getting refunds, Network
            Availability,   Billing    Accuracy,     Security   of    customer
            information,    Grievance     Redressal,     Access      to   senior
            executives/ officers, Round the clock availability of customer
            care, Fault Repair Service, Redressal of Excess Metering
            Cases, Service availability etc.

      2.6.2 The committee has noted that there are already existing
            regulations for     Basic    Services,    Mobile    Services    and
            Broadband Services. Parameters like Service Activation
            Time, Service De-activation Time, Service Restoration Time,
            Clarity of Tariff Plans, Ease of switching between plans,
            Ease of getting Billing information etc. are already defined for
            these service in various regulations/direction of TRAI. NGN
            will also offer basically these services and also new services.
            Hence, parameters from the existing regulations may be
            made applicable.

      2.6.3 TRAI has issued the regulation on “Telecom Consumers
            Protection and Redressal of Grievances Regulations, 2007”.
            Many of the points mentioned for customer centric issues are
            already there in the above regulations.



                                 203
         2.6.4 The committee discussed and noted that security related
               issues are being dealt by the TRAI eCo Group on
               Interconnection.


2.7 Definitions of some of the important QoS parameters/ issues in NGN
   scenario:

         2.7.1 Network QoS Classes: Network QoS class creates a
               specific combination of bounds on the performance values.
               Various existing defined network QoS classes in ITU –T in
               Y.1541 are give below:

          QoS class    Application (Example)
          0            Real-time, Jitter, Sensitive, High Interaction (VoIP,
                       VTC)
          1            Real-time, Jitter, Sensitive, High Interaction (VoIP,
                       VTC)
          2            Transaction data, highly interactive (Signalling)
          3            Transaction data, Interactive
          4            Low Loss Only (Short transactions, bulk data, Video
                       streaming)
          5            Traditional Applications of default IP Networks


         2.7.2 Latency: Latency or IP Packet Transfer Delay (IPTD) is the
               time between the occurrence of two corresponding IP packet
               reference events.

         2.7.3 Jitter: Jitter or IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) is the
               variation in IP packet transfer delay.

         2.7.4 Packet Error: Packet Error or IP Packet Error Ratio (IPER)
               is the ratio of total errored IP packets outcomes to the total of
               successful IP packet transfer outcomes plus errored IP
               packet outcomes in a population of interest.




                                   204
2.7.5 Packet Loss: Packet Loss or IP Packet Loss Ratio (IPLR) is
      the ratio of total lost IP Packets outcomes to total transmitted
      IP packets in a population of interest.

2.7.6 Toll Quality: The voice quality resulting from the use of a
      nominal 4-kHz telephone channel.

2.7.7 Call Completion Rate: It is the ratio of established calls to
      call attempts during time consistent busy hour (TCBH).

2.7.8 Availability of Network: Measure of the degree to which
      network is operable and not in a state of failure or outage at
      any point of time for all users.
2.7.9 Customer premises equipment (CPE): Terminal and
      associated equipment and inside wiring located at a
      subscriber's premises and connected with a carrier's
      communication channel (s) at the demarcation point.

2.7.10 Core   Network:    The   centralized     part of   a   network,
      characterized by a high level of traffic aggregation, high
      capacity links and a relatively small number of nodes.

2.7.11        Access Network: The access network provides
      connectivity between the end-user and the transport core-
      network. The access network may be wireless or wireline,
      and it can be based on different transmission media e.g.
      copper wires, cable TV and fibre optic or wireless. The
      access network is connected to network nodes at the edge of
      the core network.

2.7.12        Customer Network: The wiring and associated
      equipment inside the customer premises is generally
      known as customer premises network.



TEC is in the process of developing generic requirements for NGN
and related measurements for various quality of service parameters
which are required to ensure QoS in NGN environment in multi-

                          205
operator scenario. TEC may also play its role in standardizing testing and
        measurement procedures at network interfaces for ensuring quality
        of service across the networks in multi-operator scenario.




                                 206
                                CHAPTER-III

                            RECOMMENDATIONS


3.0     In view of the deliberations in preceding Chapter, core group
        concluded that objective of core group is to identify the parameters
        to be taken into account for QoS of NGN network. Values of these
        parameters may be decided through separate consultation paper.
        Core group recommends as below:

3.1     Network Centric Parameters: Group recommends the following
        parameters which need to be defined for end-to-end QoS in NGN
        scenario:

3.1.1   Network QoS Classes: Various network QoS classes               to be
        defined for service offered through NGN network. For example, in
        ITU T Y.1541, QoS Class 0 is recommended for Real time, jitter
        sensitive, high interaction services (VoIP etc.).

3.1.2   Latency : IP Packet Transfer Delay (IPTD) for real time/ non real
        time voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services. This
        should be defined for various classes of service separately.

3.1.3   Jitter: IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) for real time/ non real time
        voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services. This should
        be defined for various classes of service separately.

3.1.4   Packet Error: IP Packet Error Ratio (IPER) for real time/ non real
        time voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services. This
        should be defined for various classes of service separately.

3.1.5   Packet Loss: IP Packet Loss Ratio (IPLR) for real time/ non real
        time voice, data, video and streaming multimedia services. This
        should be defined for various classes of service separately.

3.1.6   In case of VoIP, toll quality and non toll quality parameters
        shall be defined.      Customers should be made aware of the
        difference in Quality and tariff between the two services, by service
        providers.


                                   207
3.1.7     Interconnection congestion limit should be specified. Some
          percentage level should be defined for bandwidth utilization.

3.1.8     Call Completion rate within network and across networks (inter
          network).

3.1.9     QoS End to End - Across Networks: Since multiple network
          operators are involved in providing access to a service in a multi-
          operator scenario, the overall QoS is a function of QoS offered by
          the individual segments. Hence, apportionment of impairment
          objectives among operators and number of operators that could be
          allowed in a particular scenario also needs to be worked out.



                                                                       Provider C
          Provider A
                 Regional                                         Metro
                                  Transit            Transit
                   Transit        Segment A2         Segment B2    Transit
                   Segment A1                                      Segment C1
                                          Regional

                                           Transit
                                                                                Access
                   Access                  Segment B1
                                                                                Segment C
                   Segment A
                                        Provider B
                   UNI                                                          UNI

      User Segment A                                                User Segment C


 Figure 1/Y.1542 – Example topology for impairment allocation
           (Source ITU-T)


3.2       Customer Centric QoS Parameters:
3.2.1     Customer centric parameters such as Service Activation Time,
          Service De-activation Time,    Service, Restoration Time, Ease of
          switching between tariff plans, Ease of getting refunds, Network
          Availability, Service availability etc. may be taken from the existing
          regulations for different services. Some new parameters such as
          Guaranteed Bandwidth, Bandwidth on demand and Throughput i.e.
          effective data transfer rate measured in bits per second need to be
          specified particularly in NGN scenario.
                                     208
3.2.2   For parameters like Clarity of Tariff Plans, Ease of getting billing
        information, billing and metering accuracy and billing complaint
        handling had been defined in regulation Code of Practice for
        Metering and Billing Accuracy. Same may be amended suitably for
        services in NGN environment.

3.2.3   For parameters like Grievance Redressal, Access to senior
        executives/ officers, Round the clock availability of customer
        care, Fault Repair Service etc, TRAI had already issued a a
        regulation on “Telecom Consumers Protection and Redressal of
        Grievances Regulations, 2007”. Customer Grievances parameters/
        procedures defined in this regulation may also be made applicable
        for NGN services.

3.2.4   Some new services to be provided through NGN for which service
        specific parameters may not be available in existing regulations, for
        such services specific QoS parameters will have to be defined in
        future.

3.3     QoS Measurements:

3.3.1   In a multi-operator scenario, the end-to-end efficiency depends on
        the cooperation of all the operators involved who would establish
        mutual Service Level Agreements (SLA) in order for the service to
        be rendered. To offer differentiated services and provide value to
        customers, service providers define SLAs for various Classes of
        Service (CoSs). These agreements may contain a set of QoS
        matrix for each CoS.

3.3.2   For an end-to-end QoS measurement, spanning across several
        inter-connected service providers (Inter-Domain QoS or IDQ), there
        must be consistency in the measurement of performance attributes
        and therefore,   the key elements of consistency of performance
        measurement namely, the (i) objectives (i.e. which attributes are to
        be measured?) (ii) time-scales (i.e. what time-scales are attributes



                                 209
        measured over?) and (iii) techniques (i.e. how are the attributes
        measured?) need to be defined.

3.3.3   A measurement and audit mechanism required to monitor the
        delivery of QoS in a multi-operator scenario on an end-to-end basis
        shall have to be established.

3.4     Regulation/policy and Standardization

3.4.1   TRAI shall initiate a consultation process on „QoS in NGN‟,
        involving all stakeholders. Based on the outcome of consultation
        process,   QoS    parameters     recommended    above    and   the
        benchmarks may be established.




                                  210
                                                              ANNEXURE-(i)

                     LIST OF CORE GROUP MEMBERS



Sl. No.     Organisation                           Name
                           Shri N. Parameswaran, DDG(VAS)/
  1       DOT
                           Shri A.S. Verma, Director (VAS-II)
  2       BSNL             Mr. Lav Gupta, DDG (BB)
  3       MTNL             Mr. A.K. Pathak, GM (SW&P)
  4       C-DOT            Ms. Alpna Sethi
  5       IIT-K            Dr. A.K. Chaturvedi
  6       IIM-A            Dr. Rekha Jain, Professor
  7       FICCI            Dr. B.K. Syngal
  8       ISPAI            Shri. D.P. Vaidya, VP
  9       ISPAI            Col. R.S. Perhar, Secretary
  10      TEMA             Mr. P. Balaji President
  11      COAI             Mr. T.V. Ramachandran
  12      COAI             Mr. Ashok Juneja
  13      COAI             Mr. Naresh Gupta
  14      COAI             Mr. Anil Tandan
  15      AUSPI            Dr. Rakesh Mehrotra
  16      AUSPI            Mr. Muthusamy Chandran
  17      AUSPI            Mr. Surendra Nath
  18      TEKELEC          Mr. Munish Seth
  19      ERICSSON         Mr. Jagdeep Walia
  20      NOKIA            Mr. J.P. Garg
  21      SIEMENS          Mr. Sanjay Verma
  22      CII              Mr. Vinod Deshmukh,
  23      ASSOCHAM         Shri. C.S. Rao, Chairman
  24      IIT-D            Prof. Surendra Prasad , Director
  25      TEC              Shri. Ashwani Kumar




                                    211
                                            ANNEXURE-(ii)

      LIST OF NGN-eCO (QoS) MEMBERS

 QoS Issues – Mr. M C Chaube, Advisor (QoS) – Convener.

 SL.NO.   Name & Organisation
   1      Mr. Rajesh Chharia/ Dr. Ajay Kumar Data, ISPAI
   2      Dr. Rekha Jain, IIM-A.
   3      Mr. Anil Tandan/ Mr. Satyan Nayar. COAI
   4      Mr. Kausik Sengupta/ Mr. Harish Kapoor – AUSPI
   5      Mr. I S Sastry, TEC
   6      Ms. Alpna Sethi, C-DoT
   7      Mr. C K Bhatia, MTNL
   8      Mr. Parag Kar, ASSOCHAM
   9      Mr. A S Verma, DoT
   10     Mr. Rakesh Malik/ Mr. Vivek Vasishtha, TEMA

  Co-opted Members

 SL.NO.   Name & Organisation
   1      Mr. Manish Gupta , Reliance Communications
   2      Mr. Shaji Abraham, QoS, TRAI
   3      Mr. Kulin Sanghvi, Idea
   4      Mr. Rohit Sethi
   5      Mr. Sushil K
   6      Ms. Ritu Mathur, Tata Teleservices Ltd.


Sub Group for Network Related Parameters:

 SL.NO.   Name & Organisation
 1        Mr. I S Sastry, TEC, Co-ordinator
 2        Mr. Kausik Sengupta, Reliance Communications
 3        Mr. Rohit Sethi, C-DoT
 4        Mr. Harish Kapoor, Tata Teleservices Ltd.
 5        Mr. Parag Kar, Qualcomm
 6        Mr. Sushil K Nema, Reliance Communications
 7        Ms. Alpna Sethi, C DoT

Sub Group for Consumer Related Parameters:

 SL.NO.   Name & Organisation
 1        Mr. A S Verma, DoT Co-ordinator
 2        Mr. Kulin Sanghvi, Idea Cellular
 3        Mr. Harish Kapoor, Tata Teleservices Ltd.
 4        Mr. Manish Gupta, Reliance Communications
 5        Mr. Shaji Abraham, Deputy Advisor( QoS), TRAI
 6        Ms. Ritu Mathur, Tata Teleservices Ltd.
                       212
                                                                                                                 Annexure-(iii)

                                 ITU-T Y.1541 Recommendations

QoS levels defined by the ITU-T and service types and features required
by applications
 QoS                      Application                         Node mechanisms                     Network techniques

           Real-time, jitter-sensitive, high            Separate queue with
                                                                                                 Constrained routing and
   0       interaction (voip, video                     preferential servicing,
                                                                                                 distance
           teleconferencing)                            traffic grooming
           Real-time, jitter-sensitive, high            Separate queue with
                                                                                                 Less constrained routing
   1       interactive (voip, video                     preferential servicing,
                                                                                                 and distance
           teleconferencing)                            traffic grooming
           Transaction data, highly interactive         Separate queue, drop                     Constrained routing and
   2
           (e.g. signaling)                             priority                                 distance
                                                        Separate queue, drop                     Less Constrained routing
   3       Transaction data, interactive
                                                        priority                                 and distance
           Low loss only (short transactions,           Long queue, drop priority
   4                                                                                             Any route/path
           bulk data, video streaming)
           Traditional applications of default IP       Separate queue
   5                                                                                             Any route/path
           networks                                     (lowest priority)


ITU-T defines QoS parameters corresponding to application requirement.

IP packet transfer delay (IPTD)
IP packet delay variation (IPDV)
IP packet loss ratio (IPLR)
IP packet error ratio (IPER)
Spurious IP packet rate (SIPR)

                                        Class 0     Class 1         Class 2          Class 3        Class 4         Class 5
   Network      Nature of Network                                                                                    Un-
 Performance      Performance                                                                                      specified
  Parameter         Objective
    IPTD        Upper bound on the
                                        100ms       400 ms          100ms            400ms            1s              U
                   mean IPTD
    IPDV        Upper bound on the
                     -3                 50ms        50 ms             U                U               U              U
                 1-10 quantile of
                  IPTD minus the
                  minimum IPTD
    IPLR        Upper bound on the
                   packet loss          1*10 -3     1*10 -3         1*10
                                                                           -3
                                                                                     1*10
                                                                                            -3
                                                                                                     1*10
                                                                                                            -3
                                                                                                                      U
                   probability
                                                                                -4
    IPER           Upper bound                                        1*10                                            U




                                                              213
                                                     ANNEXURE VI


List of Drafting Committee Members of NGN-eCO


Sl.No.                   Name                  Organization
1.       Mr. S.K.Gupta , Advisor ( CN )      TRAI
2.       Mr. Lav Gupta , Pr Advisor (FN )    TRAI
3.       Mr. M.C.Chaube , Advisor ( QoS )    TRAI
4.       Dr. Rakesh Mehrotra                 AUSPI
5.       Mr.   Muthaswamy Chandran           Reliance
6.       Mr.   Jagdeep Walia                 Ericsson
                                             Communications-
7.       Mr.   Vipan Kumar, DDG(S)           TEC
8.       Mr.   Sanjay Verma                  Nokia Siemens
9.       Mr.   Brajesh Jain                  ISPAI
10.      Mr.   A N J Aradhya , DDG ( B/B )   BSNL
11.      Mr.   J N Mandal                    CDOT
12.      Mr.   D B Sehgal                    COAI
13.      Mr.   B K Syngal                    FICCI




                                   214
                                                                                                                 Annexure-VII

                                 ITU-T Y.1541 Recommendations

QoS levels defined by the ITU-T and service types and features required
by applications
 QoS                      Application                         Node mechanisms                     Network techniques

           Real-time, jitter-sensitive, high            Separate queue with
                                                                                                 Constrained routing and
   0       interaction (voip, video                     preferential servicing,
                                                                                                 distance
           teleconferencing)                            traffic grooming
           Real-time, jitter-sensitive, high            Separate queue with
                                                                                                 Less constrained routing
   1       interactive (voip, video                     preferential servicing,
                                                                                                 and distance
           teleconferencing)                            traffic grooming
           Transaction data, highly interactive         Separate queue, drop                     Constrained routing and
   2
           (e.g. signaling)                             priority                                 distance
                                                        Separate queue, drop                     Less Constrained routing
   3       Transaction data, interactive
                                                        priority                                 and distance
           Low loss only (short transactions,           Long queue, drop priority
   4                                                                                             Any route/path
           bulk data, video streaming)
           Traditional applications of default IP       Separate queue
   5                                                                                             Any route/path
           networks                                     (lowest priority)


ITU-T defines QoS parameters corresponding to application requirement.

IP packet transfer delay (IPTD)
IP packet delay variation (IPDV)
IP packet loss ratio (IPLR)
IP packet error ratio (IPER)
Spurious IP packet rate (SIPR)

                                        Class 0     Class 1         Class 2          Class 3        Class 4         Class 5
   Network      Nature of Network                                                                                    Un-
 Performance      Performance                                                                                      specified
  Parameter         Objective
    IPTD        Upper bound on the
                                        100ms       400 ms          100ms            400ms            1s              U
                   mean IPTD
    IPDV        Upper bound on the
                     -3                 50ms        50 ms             U                U               U              U
                 1-10 quantile of
                  IPTD minus the
                  minimum IPTD
    IPLR        Upper bound on the
                   packet loss          1*10 -3     1*10 -3         1*10
                                                                           -3
                                                                                     1*10
                                                                                            -3
                                                                                                     1*10
                                                                                                            -3
                                                                                                                      U
                   probability
                                                                                -4
    IPER           Upper bound                                        1*10                                            U




                                                              215
                    ABBREVIATIONS

AGW     Access media Gateway
BSO     Basic Service Operator
C-DOT   Center for Development Of Telematics
CMTS    Cellular Mobile Telecom Service
COAI    Cellular Operators Association Of India
DoT     Department of Telecommunication
IETF    Internet Engineering Task Force
IN      Intelligent Network
IP      Internet Protocol
ISDN    Integrated Services Digital Network
ISP     Internet Service Provider
ITU     International Telecommunication Union
ITU-T   ITU Telecommunication Sector
IUA     ISDN User Adaptation Layer
LEA     Law Enforcing Agencies
M2PA    MTP2- User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer
M2UA    Message Transfer Part User Adaptation Layer 2
M3UA    Message Transfer Part User Adaptation Layer 3
MGW     Media Gateway
MIPv4   Mobile Internet Protocol version 4
MIPv6   Mobile Internet Protocol version 6
NGN     Next Generation Network
NNI     Network-Network Interface
PSTN    Public Switched Telephone Network
RFC     Request For Comments
RTCP    Real Time Control Protocol
RTP     Real Time Protocol
SCCP    Signalling Connection Control Part
SCN     Switched Circuit Network
SCTP    Stream Control Transport Protocol
SDP     Session Description Protocol
SGW     Signalling Gateway
SIP     Session Initiation Protocol
SLA     Service Level Agreement
SS7     Common Channel Signalling No.7
SUA      SCCP User Adaptation
TDM     Time Division Multiplex
TEC     Telecommunication Engineering Centre
TMG     Trunk Media Gateway
TRAI    Telecom Regulatory authority of India
TTSL    Tata Tele Services Limited
UDP     User Datagram Protocol
V5UA    V 5.2 User Adaptation Layer Protocol




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