OMICEN VVAF VietnamSurvey PhaseI Report 2007 by t53BVB

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									Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
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                                                                                                            Table of content

                          ................................................................................................................................... ..............................................4
                           OPENING..............................................................................................................................................................7
                          EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... ...................... 8
                                 PROJECT OVERVIEW ..............................................................................................................................................8
                                 BENEFITS OF PROJECT ........................................................................................................................................... 9
                                 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM......................................................................................................................................... 9
                                PROJECT BUDGET & EXPENDITURE ..............................................................................................................10
                                 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................................................................10
                           PART I PROJECT BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................. 15
                                   I. OBJECTIVES, REQUIREMENTS, TASKS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT ................................................................... 15
                                                                                                                   1.1. Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 15
                                                                                                                 1.2. Requirements .....................................................................................................................................16
                                                                                                                 1.3. Tasks ..................................................................................................................................................16
                                                                                                                 1.4. Locations............................................................................................................................................ 17
                                                                                                                 1.5. Milestones ..........................................................................................................................................17
                                                                                                                1.6. Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................... 18
                                                                                                                1.7 Implementing chains........................................................................................................................... 19
                                                                                                                1.8 Significance of the project....................................................................................................................20
                                    II. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS ....................................................................................................................................22
                                                                                                          2.1. Technology Centre for Bomb and Mine Disposal (BOMICEN) ........................................................ 22
                                                                                                            2.2. Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF).............................................................................22
                                                                                                              2.3. Project consulting and coordinating agencies ...................................................................................23
                                     III. HUMAN RESOURCES, EQUIPMENT AND FINANCE.................................................................................................24
                                                                                                               3.1. Project organizational chart............................................................................................................... 24
                                                                                                              3.2 Organization of human resources........................................................................................................ 24
                                                                                                                3.3. Equipment ..........................................................................................................................................28
                                                                                                                 3.4 Budget ................................................................................................................................................29
                           PART II PROJECT METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................30
                               I. MAJOR ACTIVITIES IN SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION .................................................................................................. 30
                             II. COMMUNE SAMPLING FRAME AND SAMPLE..........................................................................................................30
                                                                                                           2.1 Sampling Rationales in Vietnam and in Other Countries.................................................................... 30
                                                                                                            2.2 The Results of EOC by BOMICEN.......................................................................................................30
                                                                                                              2.3 Drawing the Sample............................................................................................................................ 32
                                                                                                               2.4 Sampling Stages.................................................................................................................................. 32
                                    III STAFF TRAINING............................................................................................................................................42
                                                                                                                3.1 Provincial Team Leaders and Supervisor Training............................................................................42
                                                                                                                3.2 Data Collection Staff Training............................................................................................................42
                                     IV. COMMUNE SURVEY.......................................................................................................................................43
                                                                                                              4.1 Commune Leader Interview................................................................................................................. 45
                                                                                                               4.2 Key Informant Interview......................................................................................................................45
                                                                                                              4.3 Commune Mapping Exercise............................................................................................................... 46
                                                                                                               4.4 Visual Inspection................................................................................................................................. 47
                                                                                                               4.5 Selection of Location for Clearance.....................................................................................................47
                                    V TECHNICAL VERIFICATION ................................................................................................................................. 48
                                                                                                                5.1 Activities carried out........................................................................................................................... 48
                                                                                                              5.2 The Standard Verification Report Module.......................................................................................... 49
                                     VI. PROJECT MORNITORING & QUALITY ASSURANCE.............................................................................................. 50
                                                                                                                 6.1. Testing and review............................................................................................................................ 50
                                                                                                                 6.2. Field editing...................................................................................................................................... 51
                                                                                                                 6.3. Field staff supervision....................................................................................................................... 51
                                                                                                                  6.4. Technical verification........................................................................................................................51
                                      VII DATA ENTRY, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING........................................................................................................52
                                                                                                                7.1 IMSMA and Data Entry.......................................................................................................................52
                                                                                                                  7.2 Geographic Data................................................................................................................................53
     The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
                                                                          Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
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                                                                7.3 Database and Mapping Products Created..........................................................................................53
                                                                7.4 Data Analysis and Reporting.............................................................................................................. 55
                                                                7.5 Chain of Reporting.............................................................................................................................. 56
PART III PROJECT RESULTS .................................................................................................... .................. 57
  I. THREE PROVINCES:............................................................................................................................ ...............57
                                                               1.1 Geographic Location, Population and Socio-economic Position:.......................................................57
                                                                1.2 Historical Bombardment..................................................................................................................... 57
       II. STATUS OF LANDMINE/UXO CONTAMINATION IN THE THREE PROVINCES.........................59
                                                               2.1. Affected districts and communes......................................................................................................... 59
                                                               2.2. Types of UXO/landmine .................................................................................................................... 68
     III. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT.............................................................................................................. ... 68
                                                               3.1. Landmine/UXO Victims.......................................................................................................................68
                                                                3.2. Accidents and Consequences............................................................................................................. 72
                                                              3.3. Causes to the landmine/UXO accidents.............................................................................................. 74
                                                                3.4. Blocked Access to Resources...............................................................................................................74
        IV. COMMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS.........................................................................................................................78
                                                                4.1 Comments............................................................................................................................................ 78
                                                                 4.2 Impact Assessment...............................................................................................................................82
                                                               4.3. Landmine/UXO impacts...................................................................................................................... 85
        V. COMMUNITY RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION...........................................................................................................86
                                                              5.1. Community Response and Adaptation.................................................................................................87
                                                              5.2. Factors Relevant to Community Adaptability..................................................................................... 88
                                                              5.3. Determinants of Contemporary Risks................................................................................................. 90
  PART IV RESPONSE TO THE LANDMINE/UXO CONTAMINATION..................................................93
    I. TECHNICAL RESPONSE................................................................................................................. .........93
                                                                 1.1. Cleared Area prior to the Project:......................................................................................................93
                                                                1.2. Technical Response during the Project...............................................................................................94
    II. WAR SCRAP METAL COLLECTION..................................................................................................... 95
    III. MINE RISK EDUCATION..................................................................................................... ................. 95
     IV. LANDMINE/UXO VICTIMS ASSISTANCE .........................................................................................96
  PART V RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION ............................................................................ 96
      I. MINE AWARNESS EDUCATION AND MINE VICTIM ASSISTANCE................................................96
    II. MINE/UXO CLEARANCE....................................................................................................... ................ 97
                                                                   2.1. Strategy design:.................................................................................................................................97
                                                                2.2. Clearance Strategy in the 3 provinces................................................................................................ 98
CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................................... 101
.............................................................................................................................................................................101
APPENDICES................................................................................................................... ................................102
APPENDIX 1: LIST OF SURVEYED COMMUNES....................................................................................102
    APPENDIX 2: MAPS - BOMB AND MINE AREAS AT PROVINCIAL, DISTRICT AND COMMUNE
 LEVELS ............................................................................................................................................................111
       I. HA TINH PROVINCE ..................................................................................................................................... 111
         II. QUANG BINH PROVINCE.............................................................................................................................. 123
      III QUANG TRI PROVINCE.................................................................................................................................. 131
     The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
                                                                          Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
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                                                                LIST OF TABLES
 TABLE 1. HAZARD DENSITY........................................................................................................................11
 TABLE 2. BOMBED AND MINED AREA BY PROVINCE AND BY CONFIRMATION STATUS....... 11
TABLE 3. IMPACT CLASSIFICATION............................................................................................... .......... 12
TABLE 4. VICTIMS OF LANDMINE AND UXO ACCIDENTS................................................................. 13
TABLE 5. MEAN VICTIMS PER YEAR PER PERIOD AND OUTCOME............................................... 13
TABLE 6. DATA COLLECTION STAFF DIVISION.................................................................................... 27
TABLE 7. TECHNICAL VERIFICATION TEAMS...................................................................................... 27
 TABLE 8. EQUIPMENT................................................................................................................................... 28
TABLE 9. SUSPECTED COMMUNITIES...................................................................................................... 31
TABLE 10. STAGES.......................................................................................................................................... 32
 TABLE 11. COMMUNES IN THE DISTRICTS IN WHICH WORK WAS TO BEGIN EARLY............ 32
TABLE 12. COMMUNES WITH INCOMPLETE INFORMATION........................................................... 32
TABLE 13. ENSURING THAT EVERY DISTRICT BE REPRESENTED................................................. 33
TABLE 14. WEIGHTED PROBABILITY SAMPLE WITHIN EACH PROVINCE..................................33
TABLE 15. COMMUNES SELECTED BY PROVINCE AND DISTRICT................................................. 34
 TABLE 16. ADHERENCE TO ORIGINAL SURVEY................................................................................... 36
TABLE 17. UN-WEIGHTED AND WEIGHTED SAMPLES........................................................................39
 TABLE 18. COMMUNES BY CONTAMINATION RATING...................................................................... 39
 TABLE 19. HAZARD DENSITY ACCORDING TO COMMUNES AND POPULATION....................... 62
TABLE 20. HAZARD DENSITY BY PROVINCE......................................................................................... .62
TABLE 21. HIGH HAZARD DENSITY...........................................................................................................62
 TABLE 22. SETTLEMENT TYPE AND LEVEL OF HAZARD DENSITY................................................63
TABLE 23. NUMBER OF SURVEYED COMMUNES BY POPULATION AND HAZARD.................... 63
 TABLE 24. STATISTICS FOR AREAS, STATUS AND SURFACE BY PROVINCE............................... 64
 TABLE 25. TYPICAL PORTION CONTAMINATED LAND IN TOTAL COMMUNE AREA.............. 65
  TABLE 26. STATISTICS FOR CONTAMINATED AREA BY DISTRICT AND PROVINCE................67
TABLE 27. VICTIMS OF LANDMINE AND UXO ACCIDENTS............................................................... 69
       TABLE 28. RECENT VICTIMS OF LANDMINE/UXO ACCIDENTS BY AGE, GENDER, AND
OUTCOME......................................................................................................................................................... 70
  TABLE 29. RECENT VICTIMS OF LANDMINE/UXO ACCIDENTS BY MILITARY AND CIVILIAN
 STATUS...............................................................................................................................................................72
TABLE 30. RECENT VICTIMS OF LANDMINE/UXO ACCIDENTS PER CAPITA BY ECOLOGICAL
REGION.............................................................................................................................................................. 72
 TABLE 31. VICTIM ACTIVITIES AT THE TIME OF RECENT ACCIDENTS.......................................73
 TABLE 32. FATALITY RATES OF RECENT ACCIDENTS BY GENDER AND AGE........................... 73
     TABLE 33. FATALITY RATES OF RECENT ACCIDENTS BY ETHNICITY AND ECOLOGICAL
ZONE......................................................................................................................... .......................................... 73
    TABLE 34. VICTIM ACTIVITIES AT THE TIME OF RECENT ACCIDENTS IN MOUNTAINOUS
 AREAS........................................................................................................................ .........................................74
 TABLE 35. VICTIM ACTIVITIES AT THE TIME OF ACCIDENTS........................................................ 74
      The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
                                                                           Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
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TABLE 36. AFFECTED COMMUNES BY PROJECT TYPE...................................................................... 75
  TABLE 37. DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AFFECTED IN PREVIOUS FIVE YEARS, BY NUMBER
 OF DIFFERENT TYPES...................................................................................................................................77
        TABLE 38. PERCENTAGE OF COMMUNES IN WHICH KEY INFORMANTS REPORTED
PROBLEMS WITH UXO OR LANDMINES.................................................................................................. 77
TABLE 39. TYPE OF IMPACT.........................................................................................................................79
 TABLE 40. HEALTH RISKS............................................................................................................................80
 TABLE 41. IMPACT ON WATER.................................................................................................... ................80
TABLE 42. OBSTACLES TO CONSTRUCTION.......................................................................................... 80
TABLE 43. IMPACT WEIGHTS USING FIRST SCORING METHOD..................................................... 82
 TABLE 44. IMPACT CATEGORY...................................................................................................................85
 TABLE 45. POPULATION BY IMPACT CATEGORY................................................................................ 85
                      TABLE 46. MEAN VICTIMS PER YEAR PER PERIOD AND OUTCOME............................................. 87
                      TABLE 47. MEAN VICTIMS PER YEAR PER PERIOD AND REGION.................................................. 87
                      TABLE 48. COMMUNAL WELFARE AND LEARNING RATES.............................................................. 88
                         TABLE 49. MEAN PROBABILITY OF A COMMUNE TO SUFFER AT LEAST ONE VICTIM IN A
                      FIVE-YEAR PERIOD.................................................................................................................. ......................92
                       TABLE 50. STATISTICS OF CLEARED AREA UNTIL NOVEMBER 2004.............................................93
                            The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
                                                                                                 Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4
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                                                                                                                                                                                              LIST OF FIGURES
                     FIGURE 1 PROJECT ORGANISATIONAL CHART................................................................................... 24
                     FIGURE 2. COMMUNES PROPOSED FOR SURVEY PHASE 1................................................................35
                        FIGURE 3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SAMPLE BY STAGES AND THE CORRESPONDENCE TO
                     THE PLAN ARE DISPLAYED IN THE FOLLOWING GRAPH.................................................................37
                      FIGURE 4. PWEIGHTS USED IN STATA SURVEY ESTIMATION......................................................... 38
                     FIGURE 5. COMMUNES BY LEVEL OF CONTAMINATION.................................................................. 41
                      FIGURE 6. MAJOR STEPS IN SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION.................................................................44
                     FIGURE 7. POPULATION SIZE DISTRIBUTION........................................................................................64
                     FIGURE 8. BMA (CONFIRMED & SUSPECTED) SIZE DISTRIBUTION............................................... 66
                     FIGURE 9. VICTIMS DIED IN LANDMINE/UXO ACCIDENTS BY AGE...............................................71
                     ...............................................................................................................................................................................71
                     FIGURE 10. VICTIMS INJURED IN LANDMINE/UXO ACCIDENTS BY AGE..................................... 71
                     ...............................................................................................................................................................................71
                     FIGURE 11. COMMUNE LEADER RESPONSE........................................................................................... 79
                     FIGURE 12. IMPACT SCORE DISTRIBUTION USING FIRST SCORING METHOD.......................... 83
                                 FIGURE 13. IMPACT SCORE DISTRIBUTION USING SECOND METHOD.............................84
                                         FIGURE 14. DETERMINANTS OF THE EXTENT OF REDUCTION IN LANDMINE/UXO
                      ACCIDENTS.................................................................................................................... ...................................89
                     FIGURE 15. FACTORS INFLUENCING PROBABILITY OF RECENT LANDMINE ACCIDENTS... 91
                      FIGURE 16. STATISTICS ON MAIN TYPES OF UXO/MINES FOUND IN BMAS............................... 95
                                                                                                                                                                                                        LIST OF MAPS
                      MAP 1 THE RESULTS OF EOC IN THREE PROVINCES..........................................................................31
                      MAP 2. HISTORIC US AERIAL AND NAVAL BOMBARDMENT RECORD..........................................59
                      MAP 3. BMA CONTAMINATION PERCENTAGE.......................................................................................65
                      MAP 4. MAJOR IMPACT COMBINATIONS................................................................................................ 81
                      MAP 5. IMPACT CATEGORY........................................................................................................................ 84
                            The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
                                                                                                 Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
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GLOSSARY OF ABREVIATIONS IN REPORT

AP                                             Anti-personnel
AT                                             Anti-tank
BMA                                            Bombed and Mined Area
BOMICEN                                        Technology Centre for Bomb and Mine Disposal
CTA                                            Chief Technical Advisor
EM                                             Executive Manager
EOC                                            Expert Opinion Collection
GIS                                            Geographic Information System
GPS                                            Global Positioning System
GSO                                            General Statistics Office
iMMAP                                          Information Management and Mine Action Programs at VVAF
IMSMA                                          Information Management System for Mine Action
IOS                                                    Institute of Sociology
LIS                                                    Landmine Impact Survey
MARD                                                   Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
MOD                                                    Ministry of Defense
MOH                                                    Ministry of Health
MOLISA                                                 Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs
MONRE                                                  Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
MOSTE                                                  Ministry of Science and Technology
MOU                                                    Memorandum of Understanding
MPS                                                    Ministry of Public Security
PD                                                     Project Director
PMU                                                    Project Management Unit
UXO                                                    Unexploded ordnance
VVAF                                                   Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)

Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
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                                                                                                                 OPENING

For the last 30 years since the end of the Vietnam War, Vietnamese government authorities of all
levels have been working diligently to overcome the grave repercussions left in Vietnam by the war.
The government has successfully steered the country toward progress in industrialization,
modernization, and safety. Yet Vietnam is still filled with millions of tons of bombs, landmines,
ammunition, and unexploded ordnances left over from the more than 30 years of devastating war.
Clearance of these hidden killers is a necessity for the socioeconomic development as well as the
achievement of a safe and normal life for the Vietnamese people and future generations to come.

Unfortunately, the clearing of the entire country‟s area of over 330.000 km2 is not feasible as it would
be extremely costly both in terms of time, human resources and finance (it‟s estimated that the
clearance of all landmine/UXO left after the wars would cost 825.000 billion VND and take hundreds of
years). Therefore, in order to save time, human resource and expenditure, it was necessary to first
launch a survey to identify contaminated areas and contamination levels on a nation-wide scale, and
map them in detail. The data collected will be used as a baseline to determine clearance priorities,
establish a feasible clearance program, and evaluate the impact of landmine/UXO presence on the
socio-economic development of the country. To ensure that the survey be complete and accurate in
identifying and conveying the impact of landmines on the community so as to create a foundation base
on which the Vietnamese Government and the Ministry of Defense can work out strategy and specific
measures to surmount landmine/UXO consequences on people‟s normal lives and socio-economic
development, a pilot survey needed to precede the actual survey.

On 21 February 2004, under the authorization of the Prime Minister, the Ministry of Defense of
Vietnam approved the project. With the financial assistance and technical consultation from the
Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF), the attentive cooperation and coordination of
relevant agencies of 3 provinces, and the enthusiastic support of local authorities and residents, the
Technology Center for Bomb and Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command developed and
successfully completed the “Vietnam Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and
Survey” project in which the Phase 1 has been conducted in 3 provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and
Quang Tri from 08 March 2004 up to March 2005. The data collected through the field survey has
been processed to produce report that reflects the landmine/UXO contamination situation and its
impact on the regions suffering from contamination.

The results of the UXO and landmine impact assessment and survey should serve as a foundation
from which to assist central and local authorities, socio-economic development policy makers and
organizations to address the landmine problem and alleviate the socioeconomic harms caused by the
landmine. For example, the Central strip of land, which though highly contaminated is valued by the
community, can be beautified in this process. At the same time, it is expected that the survey results
will draw attention and financial support from Governments and organizations both domestically and
internationally in enabling three provinces dealing with their pressing needs.


The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)

Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
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                                                                                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                                                                                                    PROJECT OVERVIEW

Immediately following the “American War”, from 1975 to 1977 and recently from 1991 until 1998, the
Socialist Republic of Vietnam launched several landmine/ UXO detection and clearance campaigns in
order to expand available agricultural land and assist in resettlement of internally displaced persons
(IDP‟s). Due to a variety of factors, these mass campaigns effectively cleared only explosive remnants
of war (ERW) on the ground surface to a depth of 30 centimeters, and the clearance was limited to
addressing the most pressing objectives of agricultural land expansion and housing. Subsurface
landmine/UXO contamination and UXO in more remote areas has not yet been dealt with. Even within
formerly high priority areas that benefited from these mass clearance activities much work remains to
be done as dangerous ERW continue to resurface and subsurface contamination impedes economic
development activities.

To set up a map of landmine/UXO contamination and its impact on socio – economic life and provide
strategic recommendations for basic solutions of landmine/UXO contamination; The Vietnamese
Technology Centre for Bombs and Mines Disposal (BOMICEN), part of the Ministry of Defense (MOD),
and Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) negotiated a “UXO and Landmine Impact
Assessment and Technical Survey” Project in phase I (pilot phase) in three provinces (Ha Tinh, Quang
Binh and Quang Tri). In January 2002 a partnership agreement between VVAF and BOMICEN, MOD
was obtained. On 27 January 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed by VVAF and
BOMICEN. On 21 February 2004, the Project Document and budget received full approval from the
                                              st


MOD and the survey project commenced on 1st March 2004 and was completed in May 2005.

The extent and impact of adverse social and economic consequences to Vietnam due to the presence
of landmines and UXO is largely unknown. The UXO and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical
Survey Project provide Vietnam and donors with information regarding the impact of landmines and
UXO upon communities. National authorities will have the capacity to plan and prioritize scarce
resources to maximum effect. Aside from the well documented benefits of regional and national survey
projects to support effective mine action planning, the BOMICEN/VVAF project plays a particularly
important role in the context of the mine action environment in Vietnam, where there exists a well-
established, experienced, and most importantly, sustainable national capacity for clearance and
technical surveys in the Ministry of Defense. While mine action non-governmental organizations
(NGO‟s) undertaking clearance activities are doing valuable work at the commune level in a handful of
districts in the central provinces, the enormity of the task ahead is daunting where activities of
externally funded international organizations account for a small percentage of clearance reported by
the MOD. Furthermore, international efforts are currently focused at sites (mostly on and around

The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
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former US military facilities) in three highly contaminated central Provinces. However, the
problem exists in all of Vietnam‟s 64 provinces.
UXO and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey has been directly carried out
by BOMICEN and under BOMICEN field co-ordination (with the participants from regional
military offices in provinces). This project puts more concentration on specifying
contamination location in addition to impact factors, which are specific characters of a typical
Landmine Impact Assessment as required by international standards.

BENEFITS OF PROJECT
The following is a summary of direct outputs and benefits of phase I of “Unexploded
Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey” project which was
jointly carried out by BOMICEN and VVAF in Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri provinces:
Provide a comprehensive UXO and Landmine Impact Assessment incorporating
international approaches;
Develop a landmine/UXO database and Geographic Information System (GIS) integrating
archive data (including historical records of US combat activities) with extensive fieldbased
verification activities;
Undertake an assessment of the socio-economic impact of landmine/UXO contamination
and rank affected communes based upon relative severity of the problem;
Conduct technical surveys in communes visited by this assessment to confirm accuracy
of data generated from community-based appraisals;
Provide maps of communes impacted by areas of landmine and UXO contamination;
Provide a victim database that identifies locations with a high frequency of accidents to
help target victim assistance and Mine Risk Education (MRE) programs;
Produce a final report and provide national and international stakeholders with approved
information to assist mitigation efforts;
Develop a credible dataset of the socio-economic impact of mines/UXO to help access
funds from national and international sources;
Provide data to allow the refinement of the national strategy for mine action, assisting
poverty reduction initiatives and modernization and development in Vietnam.
SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
UXO are littered throughout the
country in almost all provinces and
cities and contaminate every
category of topography:
forests, mountains,
pastures, cultivated land,
lakes, rivers, streams, and
coastal settings. Contamination lies
on the surface in some areas, but
considerable quantities remain
below the surface, generally
at depths ranging between zero and
five meters, while some heavy
ordnance is also found at depths in the 10-20 meter range. The level of contamination varies
between regions, with the central region of Vietnam considered the most heavily affected. Of
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
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the provinces that make up the central region, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri are
thought to be the most severely contaminated.
Landmines and UXO retain their potential to explode for decades (in many countries for
example, there are still reported cases of landmine/UXO accidents from war debris remaining
from World War II) and continue threaten the socio– economic growth and development,
lives and well-being of individuals and families resulting in serious and sometimes fatal
accidents, as well as other physical, emotional and economic losses.
An explosion can cause economic losses and give bad effects to social safety. Annually,
Vietnamese government supports social welfare programs for landmine/UXO victims and this
issue has become an economic burden for the national economy in general and for
provinces in particular. Perhaps the most significant socio-economic impact of landmines and
UXO is that their presence creates a burden of fear and concern among people living in
contaminated communities and impedes full participation in a wide range of productive
economic activities.
Contamination hinders construction of housing, expansion of infrastructure, resettlement
initiatives, and other development activities. UXO and landmines block access to potential
natural resources. The consequences of the contamination should therefore be measured
not only in terms of human suffering and the costs of treatment and rehabilitation, but also
through additional significant impacts - social, economic and environmental.
Accidents still occur - on an almost daily basis - and will continue to occur for decades if no
mitigation solution is applied. Heightened concerns exist where new transport routes are
improving access into rural areas, particularly in border or mountainous regions where many
highly contaminated sites still exist. It is clear that as Vietnam continues to modernize and
develop the current impact of landmine and UXO contamination will have considerable socioeconomic
implications for the country.
PROJECT BUDGET & EXPENDITURE
Total project budget: USD 1,158,342 of which:
Funded by Department of State: USD 993,424.00
BOMICEN in-kind contribution: USD 164,918.00
SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS
A Landmine Impact Survey process has been designed by the international mine action
community to identify communities affected by landmines/UXO and assess the human and
economic impact of these weapons. These surveys outline the contamination problem using
rapid appraisal techniques and mine action software (the Information Management System
for Mine Action [IMSMA]) to store and process survey datasets. The most essential part of
the information is community knowledge regarding the social and economic impact of
landmines/UXO, as well as upon the general location of known or suspected areas of
contamination.
The Landmine Impact Survey is an integral part of mine action assessment, planning, and
resource allocation processes. The survey‟s objectives are to facilitate the prioritization of
resources supporting for basic mitigation of bomb and mine issues through the information
collection in contaminated areas and analysis of its socio-economic impact data.
BOMICEN implemented this project from March 2004 through May 2005 with technical
assistance from VVAF, and with financial and in-kind support from US Department of State.
The three provinces in central Vietnam were chosen due to the heavy landmine and UXO
contamination historically recorded for these locations. At the same time, this survey is
considered a test bed for a larger national Impact Assessment Project.
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
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In accordance with the implementation plan, BOMICEN collected the data using its own
interviewers and technical teams. The primary data collection phase lasted from May until
November 2004, and comprised two integrated components: survey data on contaminated
areas and socio-economic impact, and a technical survey conducting in limited contaminated
areas.
VVAF‟s contribution consisted of implementation of the Information Management System for
Mine Action (IMSMA) in the BOMICEN Hanoi premises, the development of survey protocols
(with assistance from Vietnamese social scientists), training of socio-economic survey and
data management personnel, quality assurance in the field (during Pre-test and Pilot Test
and interventions during data collection) and during data entry and data analysis, and
completion of data analysis and report writing.
Given budgetary and time constraints, a sample survey approach was selected. Communes
affected with landmines and UXO formed the basic units of analysis, and suspected and
confirmed Bombed and Mined Areas within each surveyed commune forming the secondary
units. Through multi-stage sampling using criteria developed jointly by BOMICEN and VVAF,
344 of 549 communes in the three central provinces were selected. This sample was
faithfully executed, with few communes being replaced from the original sample. The 344
surveyed communes represent all 27 districts in the three provinces.
Since virtually all communes showed some degree of contamination, degrees of
landmine/UXO accident hazards were used, rather than the traditional distinction between
affected and non-affected communities. Using data from the historic bombing record, as well
as information regarding commune area and population, four categories were defined, by
one-magnitude increases from Low to Very High hazard density. The surveyed communes
and their populations are summarized as follows:
Table 1. Hazard Density
Hazard
Density Communes Population
Low 81 352,112
Medium 174 872,395
High 85 536,782
Very High 4 57,162
Total 344 1,818,451
Based upon estimates developed by BOMICEN survey teams and the key informants they
interviewed in the communes, more than 1,300 square kilometers of land are considered
confirmed contaminated, while another 3,050 square kilometers are suspected to harbor
UXO or landmines. Note that the figures in this table refer to the 344 surveyed communes
only. UXO, bomb and mine contaminated areas and current contamination status is shown
in Table 2:
Table 2. Bombed and Mined Area by Province and by Confirmation Status
Province Communes BMAs
Confirmed
Surface (square
kilometers) BMAs
Suspected
Surface (square
kilometers)
Ha Tinh 156 319 760.0 203 632.1
Quang Binh 93 260 314.4 143 94.1
Quang Tri 95 456 234.3 180 2,330.4
Total 344 1,035 1,308.7 526 3,056.6
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As much as 13 percent of commune territory is in the “confirmed contaminated” category,
and another 30 percent is “suspected contaminated”. In an interpretation that is easier to
appreciate, these figures represent 719 square meters of confirmed contaminated area per
inhabitant in the three provinces, and a further 1,681 square meters of suspected
contaminated area per inhabitant.
The severity of the impact that the contamination has upon the socio-economic situation of
the communes was rated using a standardized scoring system adapted from the
internationally accepted Landmine Impact Survey process. The scoring considered three
aspects of the impact spectrum – the degree of the hazard (based upon the number of
bombs dropped on the commune, population and area), the impact upon development
activities (types of projects undertaken in the previous five years and affected by the
contamination), and the number of victims of landmine/UXO accidents between 2000 and
2004.
Surveyed communes were classified, by severity of impact, in three categories: Low-Impact,
Medium-Impact, and High-Impact. The distribution by province and impact category is as
follows:
Table 3. Impact Classification
Impact
Province Low Medium High Total
Ha Tinh 74 76 6 156
Quang Binh 38 48 7 93
Quang Tri 34 53 8 95
Total 146 177 21 344
The validity of this classification is debatable. The survey teams were faced with the difficulty
that leaders of numerous communes made very far-reaching claims as to the number of
projects that they had undertaken during the previous five years, and which, according to
them, were frustrated, delayed or made more expensive by contamination.
The impact combinations provided by commune leaders are notably differentiated by the
prominence some give to the areas of water and health, while others emphasize the hazard
and added cost to new construction. Leaders tended to emphasize water and health when
their communes were poorer, closer to the nearest district town, and faced with a higher
hazard from landmines and UXO than the average commune. By contrast, leaders tended to
highlight the impact upon construction when their communes were richer, or farther from
district towns, or dealing with a lower level of hazard. The stark contrast on a polarity
between “water/health” and “construction” as most important impacts, correlated with socioeconomic
and historic factors, is one of the surprise findings of this survey.
Despite the large extent of currently contaminated areas, and the substantial number of
people still living in Highly Impacted communes (123,000 of 1.82 million total population in
surveyed communes), it is undeniable that local communities have made great progress in
coming to terms with the hazardous environment. Nowhere is this more evident that in the
striking decrease in victim numbers.
The absolute victim numbers, as seen in table 4:
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Table 4. Victims of Landmine and UXO Accidents
Communes Province
Period Outcome Involved Ha Tinh Quang Binh
Quang
Tri Total
Recent Victims
(Past 5 years)
Killed 107 29 100 120 249
Wounded 110 41 86 153 280
All Victims 142 70 186 273 529
None 202 - - - -
Past Victims
(1975-1999)
Killed 295 710 1,706 2,152 4,568
Wounded 294 878 1,776 2,846 5,500
All Victims 310 1,588 3,482 4,998 10,068
None 34 - - - -
All Victims
(1975-2004)
Killed 297 739 1806 2272 4817
Wounded 296 919 1862 2999 5780
All Victims 312 1658 3668 5271 10597
None 32 - - - -
translate to these dramatically reduced annual rates and recorded in the following table:
Table 5. Mean Victims Per Year Per Period and Outcome
Outcome
Past Victims
(1975-1999)
Recent
Victims
(2000-2004)
Reduction
factor
Killed 183 50 3.67
Wounded 220 56 3.93
All Victims 403 106 3.81
The reductions have not been uniform. They were most substantial in communes that started
from a Very High hazard baseline. They have been considerable also in poorer communes.
This is a possible indication that the often-deplored close nexus between poverty, risk taking
(in contaminated farm land and in collecting devices) and accidents may in fact have grown
weaker.
Considerable hazards persist. Statistically, the risk for a commune to see at least one
landmine/UXO hazard in a five-year period increases from a low 15% in the coastal areas of
Ha Tinh Province to a high 71% in the mountains of Quang Tri.
Some other risk factors should be noted:
Both population density and proximity to district centers significantly mitigate the
landmine/UXO accident risk. In other words, landmines and UXO are predominantly a rural
problem, and in addition, people in mountainous areas, often of ethnic minority status, are at
particular risk.
Communities that faced obstacles from UXO while trying to expand farmland or residential
construction saw more accidents happen. This illustrates that not only the so-called modern
sector, epitomized by construction activities with attendant risks of setting off deeply buried
UXO, but also farm operations touching the surface share in the hazard.
Access to electricity and paved roads is linked to higher victim numbers. Metal shops (which
depend upon electricity) and better roads provide incentives for scrap metal collection, one of
the leading causes of UXO accidents.
From the period June 2004 to November 2004 technical survey teams completed clearance
in more than 421 hectares under the umbrella of this project: HaTinh teams cleared 165.5
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hectares, Quang Binh teams cleared 145.67 hectares, and Quang Tri teams cleared more
than 109.76 hectares. A total of 6,205 UXO/landmines were located and destroyed (5
destructive bombs weighted 250 to 1000 pounds, 1,283 fragmentary bomb lets, 859 artillery
mortars, 180 M79 shells, 32 anti-personnel mines, 24 grenades and 3,822 other explosive
ordnances)
The analysis has not been deepened beyond this point. Also, due to time constraint, VVAF‟s
analysis team did not have sufficient time to perform analyses based upon mapping data.
As a result, several basic types of analyses have not been performed:
The density and nature of munitions, based upon clearance results of the technical
survey component, could not be evaluated;
A land-type analysis of the bombed and mined area polygons that BOMICEN entered
into the IMSMA database was not conducted;
Survey estimation, i.e. generalizing the findings to all 549 communes of the central
provinces based upon probability models, could not be conducted.
While this Project excelled in the prompt and complete execution of the agreed upon sample
of communities, issues of quality control led to some limitations. For example, it is obvious
from the table of contaminated areas that the ratios between confirmed and suspected areas
varied widely among the three provinces.
These limitations must be significantly redressed in a bid to achieve more comprehensive
results during project implementation in the next phases. However, the findings of the survey
should be appreciated within these limitations.
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PART I PROJECT BACKGROUND
To directly address the continuing problem of landmine/UXO contamination in Vietnam
through mapping, surveying, and the provision of recommendations; the Vietnamese
Technology Centre for Bombs and Mines Disposal (BOMICEN), part of the Ministry of
Defense (MOD), and the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) negotiated a
“UXO and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey” Project in phase I (pilot
phase) in three provinces (Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri). In January 2002 a
partnership agreement between VVAF and BOMICEN, MOD was obtained. On 27 January
2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed by VVAF and BOMICEN. On 21
February 2004, the Project Document and budget received full approval from the MOD, the
survey project commenced on 1st March 2004 and was completed in May 2005.
The extent of and socio-economic impact generated by the presence of landmines and UXO
is largely unknown. The UXO and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
Project will provide Vietnam and donors with information regarding the impact of landmines
and UXO upon communities. National authorities will have the capacity to plan and prioritize
scarce resources to maximum effect.
Aside from the well documented benefits of regional and national survey projects to support
effective mine action planning, the BOMICEN/VVAF project plays a particularly important role
in the context of the mine action environment in Vietnam, where there exists a wellestablished,
experienced, and most importantly, sustainable national capacity for clearance
and technical surveys in the Ministry of Defense.
While mine action non-governmental organizations (NGO‟s) undertaking clearance activities
are doing valuable work at the commune level in a handful of districts in the central
provinces, the enormity of the task ahead is daunting where activities of externally funded
international organizations account for a small percentage of clearance reported by the
MOD. Furthermore, international efforts are currently focused at sites (mostly on and around
former US military facilities) in three highly contaminated central Provinces. However, the
problem exists in all of Vietnam‟s 64 provinces.
The UXO and Landmine Impact Assessment and theTechnical Survey were directly carried
out by BOMICEN and under BOMICEN field co-ordination (with the participants from regional
military offices in provinces). This project specifies the location of contamination in addition
to impact factors as specified by a typical Landmine/UXO Impact Assessment as required by
international standards.
I. OBJECTIVES, REQUIREMENTS, TASKS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
1.1. Objectives
Survey to obtain data regarding landmine/UXO contamination in the target provinces of
Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri;
Verify the accuracy of collected data through technical surveys;
Produce digital maps illustrating affected areas based upon relative density of
contamination and defining the nature and scale of landmine/UXO impact;
Integrate all available archival data with results collected from technical verification to
sufficiently and accurately define the nature and scope of the landmine/UXO problem;
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Propose solutions and specify priority areas to address landmine/UXO contamination in a
basic manner; and,
Develop a total estimated budget for the primary detection and clearance of
landmine/UXO in the three provinces.
1.2. Requirements
Implement project in a comprehensive, scientific and reliable manner with a view to
accurately evaluating contamination status, proposing adequate measures to overcome
mine threats in the 3 provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri;
Allocate required resources and equipment in a timely fashion to conduct the survey in
accordance with agreed plans and schedules to the highest quality; and,
Ensure the safety of human resources and technical equipment mobilized for the project
without affecting regular activities of the surveyed communes during project
implementation while ensuring national security;
Ensure effective collaboration and maintenance of relationships with concerned
organizations, authorities, people, and local military forces during project implementation.
1.3. Tasks
Carry out planning and preparation activities, including:
- Collect available landmine/UXO data from national and international archival
documentary sources;
- Recruit project staffs, develop questionnaires and purchase required equipment and
facilities for the project implementation.
- Train project staff in survey procedures, data entry processing and management;
- Through close coordination with military offices at all levels of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh
and Quang Tri Provinces, conduct a survey to commune level in accordance with the
contents and requirements of the project;
Conduct a survey to commune (town, ward) level as in accordance with the
questionnaires content and project requirement;
Conduct field technical verification using mine detector and bomb locator in the surveyed
commune and areas reported as contaminated to verify accuracy of collected data. The
area that is technically verified will not exceed 0.1% of the total area of the surveyed
communes;
Install the IMSMA database at BOMICEN, adapt it for Vietnamese conditions, populate it
with survey data, conduct analysis of the survey datasets, and provide a report enclosed
with digital maps reflecting contaminated locations at the provincial, district and commune
(towm, ward) level;
Incorporate mine/UXO information with broader datasets and conduct socio-economic
analysis of the data. Provide a framework to rank affected communes based on relative
impact of landmine/UXO and contaminated areas under 2 criteria (confirmed and
suspected) thus determining sound mine action priorities.
Consolidate data regarding landmine/UXO victims and provide an impact assessment in
terms of human and physical losses as well as other impacts in the surveyed communes;
Provide a comprehensive completion report summarizing the contamination situation and
its socio-economic impact on those provinces surveyed. Ensure that the approved data
will be released to relevant authorities in Vietnam and donors as required; and,
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Propose follow-up mitigation solutions (to include management, human resources,
technical training for demining staff and Mine Risk Education for communities). Develop a
total estimated budget based upon human resources, equipment and facility
requirements to address the consequences of landmines/UXO in the three provinces.
1.4. Locations
The survey project Phase 1 was implemented in 3 provinces Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang
Tri with total 374 administrative units (344 communes, 27 district units and 3 provincial units),
an increase of 14 communes as planned.
The survey was conducted at the commune or equivalent administrative level. There was a
suficient and equal solicitation of interviews from hamlets or villages in each commune. The
survey conducted at district and provincial level only collected archival record in combination
with interviewing an appropriate number of witnesses to supplement data collected at
commune or equivalent administrative levels.
1.5. Milestones
Negotiations between BOMICEN and VVAF on preparation and signing of MOU: June
2001 to 27 January 2003.
Designing the project, holding meetings, consolidating Project Document and
subsequently submitting to relevant authorities for approval: 01 February 2003 to 27
October 2003.
Endorsement of Project Document by competent offices of MoD and the Government;
submission of proposal to Prime Minister to authorize the MOD for approval and signing
the project document: 01 November 2003 to 10 February 2004.
Decision by Minister of Defense on approval of Project Document and PMU
establishment: 11 February to 2004 to 21 February 2004.
Signing ceremony of Project Document: 25 February 2004.
Project preparation and implementation plan, equipment procurement and establishment
of PMU Office: 01 March 2004 to 30 April 2004.
Recruitment of PMU staff, training, questionnaire development, and questionnaire
pretests and pilot test: 15 March 2004 to 20 May 2004.
Field implementation of impact survey and technical verification: from 27 May 2004 to 30
November 2004.
Completion of data entry and preliminary analysis: to 31 January 2005.
Data analysis and Phase I Completion Report: 01 February 2005 to 30 June 2005.
Evaluation and lessons learnt, stakeholder meetings: after 30 June 2005.
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1.6. Implementation Plan
Stage 1: Planning, Preparation, Equipment Procurement and Office Establishment (61
days)
1. Preparation and Implementation Contracting
- Engineering Command issues decision regarding establishment and tasks of the
Project Management Unit (PMU);
- Work with appropriate offices for legalizing PMU stamp;
- Work to contract for project implementation with the relevant offices of the
government, Provincial Military Offices (PMO‟s) and Provincial Authorities.
2. Full VVAF International Team Mobilized
- Project design;
- Develop required project timelines, training documents, survey questionnaire.
3. Project Offices
- Establish PMU Office and Provincial Survey Team Offices;
- Recruit staff and officers for PMU and Provincial Survey Teams;
- Assign duties and responsibilities of office staff;
- Procure required equipment and facilities.
4. Quality Assurance and Monitoring Capacity
- Set up and issue a quality monitoring and supervising procedure at field.
5. Maps and GIS
- Procure Map and GIS Data Sets;
- Prepare GIS Instruments.
6. Field Assessment Questionnaire
- Translate and review reference documents;
- Finalization of draft questionnaire.
Stage 2: Archival Records Collection, Refinement, Training, Questionnaire Pre-test,
Operational Pilot Test (61 days)
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1. Archival Records Collection
- Archival data at district, province and central level collected;
- List of communes to visit and sampling strategy determined;
- Archival bombing data provided by US government.
2. Survey Staff
- Survey staff recruitment and training preparation;
- Training of PMU Supervisors and officers from Provincial Survey Teams;
- Questionnaire Pre-test;
- Training for Data Collection Group staff from each province;
- Training of Data Entry staff by IMSMA personnel.
3. Operational Pilot Survey
- Pilot Survey data collection in some communes;
- Pilot survey evaluation, survey methodology and questionnaire adjusted and
completed;
- Preparation for expansion to main phase and printing questionnaires.
Stage 3: Conduct Survey, Collect Data and Survey Reports (228 days)
1. Data collected in relevant offices at provincial and district levels;
2. Collect quantitative data and conduct technical verification at commune Level;
3. Operational review after survey completed in first district of each province;
4. Survey groups/teams consolidate data into reports and submit to PMU as required;
5. Entry of data into IMSMA at PMU;
6. PMU database units conduct preliminary analysis and present provincial map.
Stage 4: Data Analysis, Completion Report for Phase 1 (31 days)
1. PMU consolidates data, analyzes data, and drafts Project Completion Report;
2. Obtain approval from MOD and Vietnamese authorities and release report as
regulated.
Stage 5: Evaluation and Review (37 days)
1. Evaluation of Phase 1 and review draft project document for Phase 2 expansion;
2. Amend project document as required and plan for expansion to Phase 2.
1.7 Implementing chains
Based on MOD-issued legal documents, Engineering Command contracted with Military
Region No.4, People‟s Committee and Provincial Military Command Offices in the three
provinces to coordinate the implementation of the project.
The PMU developed a survey work-plan and issued decisions on survey organization,
including provincial survey teams, survey groups, and technical verification teams prior to the
commencement of the survey.
A training course was provided to the provincial survey team leaders and PMU supervisors
prior to a questionnaire Pre-Test.
Group leaders and survey staff were trained after the questionnaire Pre-Test. The PMU
developed the training plans and manuals in consultation with and assistance from VVAF.
After the completion of the questionnaire Pre-Test and training, the survey group leaders and
staff took part in a pilot test that was carried out in selected communes.
During the training period, VVAF technical advisors provided the following training support:
impact survey concepts, commune interview and questionnaire approaches; IMSMA
management mechanisms for data entry; data processing; data analysis; management of
geographic data; map and report production; use of GPS; and mapping.
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After the training, the provincial survey teams commenced the survey in accordance with the
project timeline. The survey was completed in one district before moving on to the next one
for easy incorporation and processing of the collected data.
During survey implementation, within the approved time frame the provincial survey teams
prepared periodical and summary reports and submitted them (accompanied by all original
questionnaires and summary reports at commune, district and provincial levels) to the PMU.
The PMU would then follow up, monitoring and supporting the provincial suvery teams during
the implementation, management, and analyis stages of the survey.
1.8 Significance of the project
The socio-economic development strategy of Vietnam for a ten-year period is to stimulate
and assist modernization and to pave the way for Vietnam to become an industrialized
country by 2020. The Vietnamese government and people have faced difficulties trying to
overcome the consequences of war, particularly the prominent landmine and UXO
contamination issues. The physical presence or fear of landmine and UXO contamination in
Vietnam has obstructed certain development activities and has hindered the safe
implementation of certain initiatives. The reduction and ultimate eradication of the threat of
accidents and other socio-economic constraints imposed by UXO will assist the process of
industrialization. It will improve safety for people and equipment used in construction projects
and ensure the long-term release of contaminated sites for productive use, maximizing
growth potential for the country.
Prior to this survey there had not been any comprehensive record of the landmine and UXO
contamination in Vietnam and thus clearance and other mine action activities have not been
undertaken in a coordinated and well-organized fashion. Nor had their been more than
modest international support in this area, due in part to the lack of a survey to provide a
comprehensive picture of the landmine problem and target where resources were needed. It
is clear from available statistics that UXO is constraining progress in Vietnam and costing the
country a fortune. A clear understanding of the distribution and impact of Explosive
Remnants of War (ERW) throughout the country is essential in order to attract necessary
fiscal resources and to develop an improved mitigation program in a more effective manner.
Vietnam needs funds and support from both national and international sources to help fully
address landmine clearance, victim assistance, and related issues.
This project has shown that effective mine action programs result from close collaboration
among national authorities, donors and implementing agencies where three main
components of mine action are addressed:
Landmine and UXO clearance, technical minefield survey and minefield marking;
UXO and Mine Risk Education; and,
Survivor assistance.
The survey has defined, for the three provinces surveyed (Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Ha
Tinh Provinces), the contamination problem in terms of scale, location, hazard, and socioeconomic
impact. Results from the survey can improve national planning efforts that support
clear prioritization of resources, and can foster the development or adjustment of existing
plans with immediate, intermediate, and long-term objectives to quickly overcome
UXO/landmine contamination.
The support of these three major pillars of mine action with a database will facilitate sector
planning and integration, and allow priorities to be established by relevant authorities. The
database also gives national authorities the ability to work with information in a transparent
way that is responsive to national and/or local priorities.
The Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
provides the following benefits to Vietnam:
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Training
Instruction and training of national staff regarding database management, data analysis
and exposure to international impact survey methodologies and implementation
approaches.
Equipment
Considerable database and other equipment resources provided for the project
remainavailable for follow-up mine action activities.
Consolidation of Archive Data and Integration of Data from Field Assessment
Available data from national and international sources collected, integrated and analyzed
with the field-collected survey dataset so as to present a precise report on the landmine
and UXO contamination situation and its socio – economic impacts in 3 provinces.
Clearance of Ordnance Through Technical Surveys
Technical verification conducted in a sample of areas reported as contaminated to verify
the accuracy of data obtained from commune appraisals;
Installation of the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA)
The United Nations-developed IMSMA database on UXO and landmine contamination in
the world has been adjusted to be adapted to the conditions of Vietnam, translated and
installed centrally at BOMICEN. Survey data collected from field operations populated to
IMSMA, which will be used to store, analyze and represent the survey results on maps of
various scales.
Provision of Data to Formulate Mine Action Strategies
The project provides a database that will facilitate the development of central and
provincial strategies and assess budgetary requirements for mitigation activities. High
priority areas for assistance can be identified and baseline data established for measuring
the performance of mine action programs. Information derived from the central database
can be used to provide recommendations to the MOD, and other Government of Vietnam
policy stakeholders on UXO/landmine contamination mitigation. In addition, detailed data
from localized sites can be utilized to support more focused tasks of NGO‟s and others
UXO/landmine operators.
Publication of an Approved National Report
On completion of the project, socio-economic and operational analysis of survey data was
undertaken. The approved final report and project data, as requested, can partly or
entirely provided to national and international stakeholders upon the approval of
Vietnamese government;
Facilitate National and International Resource Mobilization
The survey and assessment project will raise the profile of UXO and landmine
contamination in Vietnam and help to further define the problem. International support for
Vietnam in this area remains modest, mainly due to the absence of a comprehensive
survey to determine the magnitude of contamination and its impact on the socioeconomic
development of the country. The survey will produce information that can be
used to seek funds and gain support from both national and international sources to help
address clearance, Mine Risk Education and victim assistance.
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II. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
2.1. Technology Centre for Bomb and Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)
The Technology Center for Bomb and Mine Disposal (BOMICEN) under Engineering
Command/MOD, as assigned by the MOD to be a Project implementing agency, had the
following tasks:
Develop and consult with VVAF and other relevant agencies about Project, and then
submit the MOD for approval.
Coordinate with relevant agencies of Vietnam to implement the Project.
Implement the Project as per agreed schedules. Prepare sufficient equipment and human
resources for project implementation in accordance to objectives and requirements. Use
project budget in compliance to objectives in an effective and efficient manner.
Conduct necessary legal procedures to receive budget and technical equipment as
expected timelines and plans.
The PMU is founded under the Decision of the MOD and put under the direct command
of BOMICEN director board with all posts being assumed by BOMICEN officials and
staffs.
2.2. Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
VVAF is an international, non-governmental humanitarian organization that addresses the
causes, conduct and consequences of war through programs of advocacy and service for
victims of conflict around the world.
VVAF‟s Information Management & Mine Action Programs (iMMAP), implementing arm for
the survey, coordinates, supports and implements humanitarian information management
activities and landmine and UXO surveys during complex emergencies and in developing
countries. iMMAP‟s work forms the basis for setting priorities for humanitarian relief,
landmine clearance and victim assistance.
VVAF‟s iMMAP represents a continuous effort over seven years to achieve international
consensus regarding effective application of survey and information management
approaches to the global landmine problem in complex humanitarian emergencies and postconflict
societies. iMMAP started from the basic premise that implementing organizations,
national authorities and donor governments must be able to define the global landmine
problem‟s physical, social and economic dimensions as a prerequisite for effective planning,
resource allocation and advocacy. iMMAP continues to focus upon its core competencies in
survey and information management practices, but has expanded its efforts beyond
humanitarian mine action to include broader relief and development clients. iMMAP is a
leading advocate for the establishment of humanitarian relief and development standards for
the practical use of information management and geographic information systems (GIS) in
support of decision-making, defining the common operating picture and promoting interorganizational
coordination, planning and collaboration.
Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF), has the following tasks under the Project:
Manage funds required for the project until its completion in accordance with the work
plan and conditional on the progress and goals agreed to by both parties;
Support project with technical equipment for implementation of agreed tasks;
Assist in the technical training of survey staff and training of staff in data analysis and
management of the collected data;
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Advise BOMICEN regarding project design and implementation in accordance with
international standards.
2.3. Project consulting and coordinating agencies
Provincial military agencies
Provincial Military Offices (PMO‟s) at all levels in Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri are
responsible for supporting activities of PMU. PMO‟s provided not only personnel to work
directly with BOMICEN personnel, but also provided assistance in the Expert Opinion
Collection process, including obtaining information regarding the nature of contamination in
communes in the surveyed provinces, and coordinating notification to different provincial
departments and district authorities to select informants who understand the objectives and
content of the project and therefore provided assistance when required during project
implementation.
Institute of Sociology
The Institute of Sociology (IOS) was established in 1983 as a specialized & leading research
unit of the National Center for Social Sciences and Humanities of Viet Nam. The Institute of
Sociology (IOS) under the Centre for Social Sciences and Humanity was reponsible for
supporting the PMU to produce, test, and complete the questionaire, as well as staff tranining
on survey methodologies and skills.
Vietnam Telereconnaisance & Geomatics Center (VTGEO)/Institute of Geology
VTGEO is a research center specializing in optical and radar remote sensing, GIS and
geomatics technology applied in the fields of environmental geology, natural hazards
management and mitigation, and land use mapping.
Vietnam Telereconnaisance & Geomatics Center (VTGEO)/Institute of Geology/Vietnam
Insitute of Science was resposible to provide digital maps containing the entire country‟s
shape files (including the mainland, archipelados and coastal areas at 1:50.000 scale
(excluding Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri) and assistance in staff training for digital map
use and production during the process of data entry and processing and work as database
assistants to the VVAF Information Management Advisor.
Cartographic Publishing House
The Cartographic Publishing House operates as a First-Grade State-owned business under
the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in the fields of culture-ideology, and
natural resources-environment.
The Cartographic Publishing House was contracted to provide paper maps (in TIFF format)
covering the three provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri. They were also to
provide 1:50.000 scale topographic maps, Vietnam 2000 datum covering the entire country
with shape files, and a UTM zone 48- coordinate system.
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III. HUMAN RESOURCES, EQUIPMENT AND FINANCE
3.1. Project organizational chart
Figure 1 Project Organisational Chart
3.2 Organization of human resources
3.2.1 Project Management Unit (PMU).
3.2.1.1 The PMU is under the management of the Engineering Command and under the
direct command of BOMICEN” Board of Directors.
3.2.1.2 The PMU include 27 persons
- BQLDA Director: 1 person.
- Executing Manager: 1 person.
- Planning & General Office Affairs: 9 persons.
- Technical Section: 2 persons.
- Fieldwork Technical Supervision Section: 7 persons.
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Survey
groups
(5 groups)
Relevant Depts. at
provincial/district
levels
Relevant ministries
and agencies
Technical
Verif. Teams
(5 teams)
Ministry of Defense
Engineering Command
BOMICEN
Implementing agency
VVAF
Donor/
Technical advisors
PMU
Ha Tinh prov. Survey Team
Supervisors
Each province: 2
persons
Technical Verif.
Teams
(5 teams)
Quang Binh prov. Survey Team Quang Tri prov. Survey Team
Survey
groups
(3 groups)
Survey
groups
(3 groups)
Technical Verif.
Teams (7 teams)
Government
Relevant Depts. at
provincial/district
Relevant Depts. at
provincial/district
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- Data Analysis Section: 4 persons.
- Finance Section: 3 persons.
3.2.2. VVAF Technical Assistance and Advisory Team
VVAF provided specialists in the areas of survey methodology, survey design, information
management, social science, and statistics. VVAF assigned three permanent specialists
(expatriates) and several visiting experts to work during different stages of project
implementation.
3.2.2.1 The VVAF Chief Technical Advisor: 01
The VVAF Chief Technical Advisor was responsible for the preparation and execution of a
Landmine/UXO Impact Assessment and Survey in Vietnam through the national
implementing partner BOMICEN. Major responsibilities:
Advise BOMICEN to develop a design, budget and implementation plan of the project;
Monitor main activities of the Landmine/UXO Impact Survey teams, carrying out field
visits as planned with the PMU (upon approval from relevant authorities) to ensure survey
quality;
Provide advice on technical and managerial leadership of the survey;
Advise and consult with BOMICEN on field personnel;
Supervise VVAF staff;
Oversee expenses and ensure that budgets are adhered to in accordance with approved
budget;
Report to VVAF management on a periodic basis; and
In conjunction with BOMICEN draft the Phase 1 Completion
3.2.2.2 The Technical Advisor (CTA): 01
The VVAF Technical Advisor is responsible to VVAF for the smooth function and
mechanisms to support the UXO Impact Assessment and Survey in Vietnam through the
national implementing partner BOMICEN. Major responsibilities:
- Provide technical and managerial support for the survey;
- Monitor project activities associated with the Project Manual to ensure timely transfer of
funds and justification for expenses;
- Carry out field visits with PMU as scheduled (upon approval from relevant authorities) to
follow up field work and review survey operations and ensure that standards are
maintained;
- Assist the VVAF Program Manager in the review of the project work plans in accordance
with the Project Document and release of project funds and resources;
- In conjunction with the VVAF finance officer ensure that budgets and operational work
plans are adhered to in accordance with the agreed mechanisms and communicate with
the local auditing company as scheduled;
- Communicate with the local auditor where necessary;
- In consultation with the EM, develop and coordinate activities with national and
international partners; and
- Provide project progress reports to the VVAF PM and assist with donor reporting.
3.2.2.3 The Information Management Advisor: 01
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The Information Management Advisor is responsible for supporting the data entry,
processing and management of the survey database and geographical information system at
PMU. Major responsibilities:
- Provide the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database and
associated geographic information system (GIS);
- Adapt the database to the survey, ensure that database standards are met;
- Oversee the effective translation of IMSMA in conjunction with Project Officer;
- Develop data analysis and presentation according to country specific problems and user
requirements;
- Provide computer-tools for survey team use and ensure continuous back up and updating
of database and GIS systems;
- Ensure serviceability of all Electronic Data Processing equipment (EDP) in the survey
inventory and action trouble calls related to EDP software and hardware;
- Carry out trainings as required for the staffs;
- Provide assistance to the PMU database staff of data processing & IMSMA applications
at the PMU database during training and project implementation to ensure that tasks are
being completed accurately and to assist in solving database problems;
- Assist in the development of a survey work plan and budget by providing input regarding
operating and material requirements of the survey database; and
- Carry out any other tasks as assigned by the VVAF PM.
3.2.2.4 Vietnamese supporting staffs: 2 persons
- Interpreter
- GIS and Database Assistant
3.2.3. Provincial Execution Unit (PEU)
In each province, a team leader was assigned by the PMU to be responsible for executing
the entire survey work. The team
leader was in charge of coordinating
activities in accordance with project
requirements and timelines. The
survey team leader collected data at
relevant provincial offices and at the
same time provided financial and
other logistics assistance for PEU
staff. PEU is responsible for a close
coordination with PMCO during the
survey implementation. The PEU is
also accountable to the PMU office
for timely conduct of the survey,
quality assurance of data collected,
and reporting of any issues that
arose during implementation.
In each province, beside a team leader there is also an assistant and a driver. Since this was
the first time participating in a foreign funded project, during the implementation of the project
there was a requirement for better financial management at provincial level. In order to
resolve this issue, PMU recruited an accounting assistant for each PEU.
3.2.4. Survey groups at district and commune level
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Survey groups, under the direct command of the provincial survey team leader were
responsible for collecting and archiving data at relevant district level departments, carrying
out community interviews at the commune level (or equivalent), and conducting visual field
inspection to verify the ability of collected data to accurately locate contaminated areas.
Using survey results and paper maps, the survey groups identified technical verification plot
sites in accordance with criteria set by the PMU, and hand this information over to technical
verification teams.
After completing the survey work in each commune, the survey groups carried out a
preliminary processing of the full questionnaire and production of a commune-level
contamination map and report, submitting these to the provincial survey team leader for
follow-up activities.
Table 6. Data Collection Staff Division
Province
Number of Communes in
Survey
Number of Data
Collectors
Ha Tinh 156 5
Quang Binh 97 3
Quang Tri 91 3
3.2.5. Technical Verification Teams
Technical Verification Teams,
under the direct command of
provincial survey team leaders
were in charge of
landmine/UXO detection and
clearance found in the selected
areas, data recording, and
report writing as required.
Each Technical response team
had 20 staff, including: team
leader, 11 field assistants (7/10
level): conducting site
clearance, ordnance detection
and disposal; 6 demining equipment operators (8/10 level); 01 drivers; 01 medic. Each team
was equipped with one bomb locator, 2 mine detectors, other equipment and facilities such
as marking tools, site clearance tools, excavation tools, personal protective equipment, first
aid and medical kits etc. There was a total of 17 technical verification teams made up of 340
staff members to survey the three provinces. The split of technical verification teams was as
followed:
Table 7. Technical Verification Teams
Province Number of Technical Verification Teams
Ha Tinh 5
Quang Binh 7
Quang Tri 5
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3.3. Equipment
Table 8. Equipment
No Item Unit Qty Procurement
funding source
VVAF BOMICEN
Note
I Equipment
1 Command car 4 wheel drive
Toyota Landcruser GX4500.
Unit 2 2 0
2 Russian Jeep UA3 – 31622 Unit 3 3 0
3 Motorbike type CPI. Unit 28 28 0
II Office equipment
1 Network Server COMPAQ. Unit 1 1 0
2 Desktop CPQ HP D330 Unit 9 6 3
3 Laptop HP NX 7000 Unit 1 1 0
4 Laser printer HP 1300 A4 size
(Black and White)
Unit 6 6 0
5 Laser Printer HP CP 1700 A3 size
(Colour)
Unit 1 1 0
6 Laser Printer HP CP 1700 A3 size
(Colour)
Unit 1 1 0
7 Scanner A4 Vidar Unit 1 1 0
8 Photocopier XEROX V406, A3 A4
multi functions
Unit 1 1 0
9 Plotter A0 size - HP 800 PS Unit 1 1 0
10 Laminator A3/A4. Unit 1 1 0
11 DVD writer PLEXTOR Unit 1 1 0
12 Digital camera KTS SONY-TRV
70.
Set 1 1 0
13 Digital camera KTS SONY DSC
P8.
Unit 5 5 0
14 Smart UPS Unit 6 6 0
15 Overhead projector for seminars
and conferences
Set 1 1 0
16 Binding machine Unit 1 1 0
17 Cell phones Unit 8 8 0
18 Desk phones Unit 12 0 12
19 Compass Unit 40 40 0
20 Air conditioner Set 3 1 2
21 Ceiling fan Unit 10 10 0
22 Working desks and chairs Set 27 13 14
23 Desks and chairs in meeting room Set 1 0 1
24 Sofa set in meeting room Set 3 0 3
25 Filling cabinet Unit 11 11 0
26 Sliding filling cabinet Unit 3 3 0
27 Map draws furniture Unit 2 2 0
III Surveying equipment
1 Bomb locator Vallon 1303A1
(Germany)
Unit 22 14 8
2 Mine detector Minelab F3 Unit 40 24 16
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(Australia)
3 GPS Set 40 0 40
4 Protective suite for abdomen and
chest
Set 85 85 0
5 Anti-fragment helmet Unit 84 84 0
6 First-Aid Kit Set 17 17 0
BOMICEN was responsible for purchasing equipment in accordance with current procedures
and regulations of the Government of Vietnam regarding the procurement of equipment and
services in granted-funded projects and those of the donors that are not in conflict with the
Decision No. 64/2001/QD-TTg issued on April 26, 2001 by the Prime Minister regarding the
Issuance of the Regulation on the Management and Utilization of the International Nongovernmental
Funds.
All project equipment procured from VVAF funding was handed over to
BOMICEN/Engineering Command for use and management upon project completion.
BOMICEN was responsible for purchasing equipment in accordance with current procedures
and regulations of the Government of Vietnam regarding the procurement of equipment and
services in granted-funded projects and those of the donors that are not in conflict with the
Decision No. 64/2001/QD-TTg issued on April 26, 2001 by the Prime Minister regarding the
Issuance of the Regulation on the Management and Utilization of the International Nongovernmental
Funds.
All project equipment procured from VVAF funding was handed over to
BOMICEN/Engineering Command for use and management upon project completion.
3.4 Budget
3.4.1 Committed budget
Total estimated budget: USD 1,158,342 including:
- VVAF funded budget: USD 993,424
- BOMICEN in-kind contribution: USD 164,918
3.4.2 Total actual expenditure for the project
3.4.2.1 Contribution in-kind from BOMICEN: USD 139,918 (including office rental, office
equipment, bomb locators, mine detectors, GPS equipment).
3.4.2.2 Funded budget from VVAF: USD 969,633.52
Directly spent by VVAF: USD 399,408.64 including (for signing ceremony of Project
Document and for purchasing of maps, bomb locators and mine detectors, map processing
software, protective and medical equipment and contracts with VTGEO/Institute of
Geology/Institute of Sociology and Vietnam Auditing Company (VACO)…
Directly spent by PMU: USD 570,224.88 including
Expenses for personnel: USD 349,993.00
Operation expenses: USD 199,378.88
Expenses for materials: USD 3,437.00
Fee for business trips: USD 17,416.00
3.4.2.3 Total project implementation expenditure: USD 1,106,806
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PART II PROJECT METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION
I. MAJOR ACTIVITIES IN SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION
Collect expert opinions, UXO/landmine archival data and relevant information through
relevant local authorities from commune to provincial level or equivalent in order to
establish some broad definition on the location of impacted communes.
Conduct interviews at the commune level and relevant district and provincial offices to
determine the approximate location and contamination level of landmine/UXO and their
socio-economic impact on each community.
Use technical equipment to carry out technical survey on a limited area (not exceeding
0.1% total area of surveyed communes) in the communes reported as contaminated and
suspected contaminated, with more attention paid to suspected mined areas.
Process data collected through questionnaires, produce technical survey reports and
maps illustrating contaminated areas data analysis, evaluation and develop project
completion report. Provide report on the survey project.
II. COMMUNE SAMPLING FRAME AND SAMPLE
2.1 Sampling Rationales in Vietnam and in Other Countries
One of the objectives of Landmine Impact Surveys in countries other than Vietnam was
production of full national inventories of all affected communities. This called for full-census
approaches. Sampling considerations regarding affected communities did not arise in this
approach. Sampling was used for the control of so-called false negatives – communities that
were wrongly considered non-affected, but in fact did have landmines and/or UXO, as well
as sampling for false positives, suggesting the converse. The sampling procedure for the
detection of false negatives (and the estimation of survey coverage) is inspired by Lot Quality
Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and is regulated in Protocol 7.
The Vietnam example is different, requiring an adapted approach to sampling. The number
of contaminated local communities, the cost of surveying all of them, and the presumably
very low proportion of completely uncontaminated communities place a premium upon the
sampling of positives. Rather than seeking out local experts with the best possible
consensus regarding which communities are likely affected versus those not affected, the
focus is to adequately use continuous-variable EOC information that grades the communities
into more or less heavily affected ones. The Indo-China Bomb Data project is the primary
source to exploit for this.
As a result, the sampling approach used in Phase 1 (and that will be used in Phase 2) of the
Vietnam survey owes more to the logic of traditional social surveys than to LQAS traditions in
other fields.
2.2 The Results of EOC by BOMICEN
The EOC process started with a meeting between PMU and Military Region 4 (MR4), and
then with PMO‟s in three provinces. The process then continued at the district level in all
districts in the provinces. After visiting all civilian authorities down to the district and
occasionally the sub-district level, military authorities were used to refine EOC listings. The
collection of archival data at the higher level, such as at relevant ministries and agencies,
was also conducted. In the meantime, the provision of the Indochina Bombing Data from the
United States Department of Defense‟s Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA)
together with data from preliminary surveys conducted by BOMICEN, was also collected. In
this manner EOC activity combined the need for obtaining lists of communes to visit and the
need to brief civilian and military authorities regarding project tasks and required assistance.
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The importance of these preparatory activities was highlighted during survey operations,
where tremendous assistance was rendered by all parties due to the full understanding of the
survey objectives at all tiers, and to the endorsement given at all layers after this formally
correct top-down approach.
Prior to the second Pre-test in May 2004, BOMICEN canvassed local administrations
regarding their contamination status. Usable returns were obtained for 524 communes. This
map exemplifies the EOC for Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri Provinces. Points are
placed at the administrative centers of the communes.
Map 1 The results of EOC in three provinces
The following table shows the distribution for the three provinces. There were so few
communes claimed to be non-affected that they were grouped with those suspected.
Table 9. Suspected Communities
Province
None or
Suspected
Only Light Heavy Total
Ha Tinh 57 130 50 237
Quang Binh 3 56 92 151
Quang Tri 3 33 100 136
Total 63 219 242 524
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2.3 Drawing the Sample
The sample was drawn in several stages:
Table 10. Stages
Stage Type of Sample Determined By
1.a. Purposive In districts where teams ready to start
work AND in BOMICEN list.
1.b. Purposive Prior commune information incomplete
2. Quota with equal probability within
district residuals from 1.
Prior commune information complete;
two additional communes per district.
3. Weighted probability within province
residuals from 1 and 2.
Strata so as to fill province targets;
weights proportionate to EOC index.
The sampling remained controlled in the sense that the selection probabilities could be
calculated for every unit in the frame.
2.4 Sampling Stages
2.4.1 Communes in the Districts in which work was to begin early
Basing on both subjective and objective factors, PMU selected one district in each province
with the total of 36 communes in which it had positioned its survey groups to start work on 26
May 2004. The specific number of communes and districts are shown in the following table:
Table 11. Communes in the districts in which work was to begin early
Province District Communes
Ha Tinh Huong Son 18
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa 10
Quang Tri Huong Hoa 8
Total 36
These were added to the sample first.
2.4.2 Communes with incomplete information
Outside those three districts, there were 28 communes in 3 provinces with missing
information. Among them, BOMICEN had designated 14 for the survey.
Table 12. Communes with incomplete information
Province Communes
Ha Tinh 13
Quang Binh 1
Quang Tri 0
Total 14
These were added to the sample as the next step.
2.4.3 Ensuring that every district be represented in the project
After leaving communes belonging to districts firstly selected and communes with in
completed information through EOC and archival information. From each remained district
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with eligible communes, two were selected using a random sample with equal probabilities
within districts.
This ensured that every district was represented even if it should accidentally receive no
more communes in the further sampling steps.
Table 13. Ensuring that every district be represented
Province Communes
Ha Tinh 18
Quang Binh 12
Quang Tri 16
Total 46
These were added to the sample next.
2.4.4 Weighted probability sample within each province
With 36 + 14 + 46 = 96 communes already selected, 330 – 96 = 234 remained to be
selected, as per:
Table 14. Weighted probability sample within each province
Province
Communes
Still Eligible
Still to be
Selected
Ha Tinh 188 101
Quang Binh 120 67
Quang Tri 99 66
Total 407 234
Using these residual provincial sampling frames and required sample sizes, a random
sample was drawn in each province. The probabilities for selection were weighted with the
Composite EOC Index.
The index incorporated information regarding the historic bombing record, the population
density and the level of contamination that the local administrations reported. The logarithm
of the number of general-purpose bombs dropped on the commune was used for the
magnitude of the bombing1.
2.4.5 Communes Selected by Province and District
The following table contrasts the initial BOMICEN and the subsequent VVAF samples by
provinces and districts. The VVAF proposal was adopted.
The VVAF proposal counted slightly more than 330 communes, the number defined in the
project document. This was due to fluctuations in the random numbers generated to
determine sample membership. This was not anticipated to be a problem during survey
execution; a number of communes would turn out non-affected upon the first visit to the
commune leadership and thus, would not have to be surveyed.
1This variable [log10(x+1)] has good statistical properties whereas the numbers of other munitions expended on
the commune are distributed with many zeros. Bombies [cluster bomb units] and naval gun munitions, therefore,
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Table 15. Communes Selected by Province and District
Province District All communes
BOMICEN
Proposal
VVAF
Proposal
Ha Tinh
Cam Xuyen 27 16 18
Can Loc 30 18 17
Duc Tho 28 15 12
Ha Tinh 10 10 7
Hong Linh 6 6 6
Huong Son 31 18 18
HuongKhe 22 12 18
Ky Anh 32 18 17
Nghi Xuan 19 11 13
Thach Ha 43 26 25
Vu Quang 12 6 6
Ha Tinh Total 260 156 157
Quang Binh
Bo Trach 30 17 23
Dong Hoi 14 14 8
Le Thuy 27 14 15
Minh Hoa 15 9 7
Quang Ninh 15 9 9
Quang Trach 34 18 19
Tuyen Hoa 18 10 10
Quang Binh Total 153 91 91
Quang Tri
Cam Lo 9 6 7
Da Krong 13 6 9
Dong Ha 9 8 7
Gio Linh 20 12 14
Hai Lang 21 13 16
Huong Hoa 21 8 8
Quang Tri 2 2 2
Trieu phong 19 12 14
Vinh Linh 22 15 18
Quang Tri Total 136 82 95
Total 549 329 343
2.4.6 Over-Sampling Heavily Contaminated Communes
As we have seen, the sample was drawn in several stages, using different criteria.
One question of interest is how the weighting of selection probabilities using historic and
local expert information set the sample apart from the initial BOMICEN plan and in fact from
the universe of communes in the three provinces, regarding their distributions on the
Composite EOC Index as a measure of the likely contamination levels.
The statistical distribution is approximated through this density2 graph:
2“Density” here refers to the probability density on the variable of interest – the composite index – in the graph,
not to the density of munitions in the ground.
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0
.1
.2
.3
.4
Density
234567
Index incorporating historic bombing - population density - local authority rating
BOMICO VVAF
All 551 communes in the three provinces
Proposals for 330 surveys. Graph excludes a small number of communes with missing index values
Composite EOC Index distributions
Communes Proposed for Survey - Phase 1
Figure 2. Communes Proposed for Survey Phase 1
The graph shows that both the BOMICEN and VVAF proposals under-sampled lightly
contaminated communes (their curves run below the curve for all communes up to index
value 4.4). Both over-sampled, highly contaminated communes, but the VVAF sample
places, albeit to a small degree, greater emphasis at the top end (in the 5.5 – 6.5 range). In
fact, the BOMICEN and VVAF selections are very similar.
Given the fact that this survey will ultimately inform bomb and landmine contaminatin status
and its impacts to be used as a background for detecting and clearing plans in contaminated
areas, the over-sampling of highly contaminated communes seemed justified. The oversampling
was mild because of the relatively large size of the Ha Tinh sample. This province
is much less contaminated than the other two provinces.
2.4.7 Replacement Rules
Having discussed in detail, PMU drafted a set of rules regarding replacement of sample
communes that could not be surveyed for reasons apparent during fieldwork only.
Replacements would not be left to the unregulated arbitrariness of Data Collectors.
However, few replacements (and extensions of the survey to communes outside the initial
list3) took place during project implementation at fields.
3The terms “replacement” and “extension” members of the sample are understood here in the everyday sense of
these words. A replacement is a unit selected to replace a sample member left out for any of a number of
possible reasons – the original member never existed (the sampling frame was imperfect), is no longer available,
or is too costly or too inconvenient to survey. An extension of the sample produces surveys of units that were not
in the original frame, or are included ad-hoc beyond replacement needs or by virtue of controlled sample
expansion during execution to correct for apparent under-sampling of some essential category or for some other
critical defect of the original sample.
Replacements are expected to follow rules uniformly applied throughout the survey, including rules concerning
discretion and documentation. Field staff – interviewer teams or their immediate supervisors - may have the
authority to select from a set of non-sampled units using a random device such as dice or a bottle spun around to
point to the direction of the nearest available replacement unit.
In practice, the difference between replacement and extension is difficult to determine. An urban, for example,
may have been split into two or three new wards, and it may be necessary for substantive reasons to survey all
the new units. Since the number of replacements and extensions in the Phase 1 survey is small, the lack of
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-
2.4.8 Executing the Sample
In the course of data collection, a small number of divergences between the original list of
communes and new information were noted. In total, 344 (63%)] of 549 post-listed
communes and urban wards in the three provinces were surveyed in Phase 1. The original
sample was closely adhered to, as this table shows:
Table 16. Adherence to Original Survey
Communes
Sampled in May
2004
Surveyed
No Yes Total
No 194 12 206
Yes 11 332 343
Total 205 344 549
documentation is not seen as a problem.
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Figure 3. The structure of the sample by stages and the correspondence to the plan are displayed
in the following graph.
Total communes and
wards in 3 provinces: 549
Sample size: 344
Communes and wards
in which work can be
started later
Replacements and
extensions during
execution
Districts starting data
collection 26 May 2004
Expert opinion
complete
Expert opinion
incomplete
Random-select from
Selected: 46
Remainder = Weighted
probability sample stratif.
province: Selected: 247
Use BOMICEN plan:
Selected: 50 communes
and wards
Selected and
Surveyed: 47 Surveyed: 43 Surveyed: 242 surveyed: 12
Adjusted frame: 549
Surveyed: 344 (63%)
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2.4.9 Sampling Weights and Survey Estimation
Selection probabilities were calculated for all members of the post-survey commune list.
Sampling weights, scaled to sum to N = 549, were calculated for the 344 surveyed communes.
Both procedures are detailed in the appendix.
0 20 40 60
Surveyed communes
1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Inverse probability weights - scaled
pweights used in STATA survey estimation
Figure 4. pweights used in STATA survey estimation
The distribution of these weights is discontinuous. This is due to the selection probabilities for all
purposively sampled communes, as well as for all replacements and extensions, being set to
one. In other words, information on communes that were not randomly selected is penalized with
lower weights. Essentially, these units represent only themselves among the 549 communes of
the Phase 1 survey area.
The purposive selection of 47 communes (done chiefly in order to ensure an early start of
interviewing in May 2004) and the lower weights assigned to them are not without
consequences for survey estimation. In principle, the weights should automatically correct for
the over-sampling of heavily contaminated (according to the EOC) communes. However, the 47
pre-selected (and actually surveyed) communes are far less contaminated than other randomly
selected sample members:
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Table 17. Un-weighted and Weighted Samples
N
Population
Density
(persons per
square
kilometer,
log10)
Bombs
(log10(x+1))
Rated Heavily
Contaminated
Un-weighted Full EOC, by Later Sampling Stage
Not Surveyed 205 2.39 2.63 32%
Pre-selected 47 2.37 2.27 25%
District Quota 43 2.50 3.13 51%
Weighted Prob 242 2.49 3.08 56%
Replacements 12 2.35 2.91 43%
All Communes 549 2.44 2.84 44%
Weighted Sample Estimation
Mean 344 2.48 2.95 48%
Std. Err. 0.02 0.02 1%
95% LCI 2.44 2.91 45%
95% UCI 2.52 2.98 51%
Deff 0.98 0.57 0.82
This table was made before making a small number of corrections to the list of surveyed
communities after a further check. The effect on this calculation should be minimal.
Since the 48 carry the lowest sampling weights and the lowest group mean, they bias the
estimates of the universal mean upwards. The known population mean is outside of the
confidence intervals for all three estimates, although barely so for the population magnitude.
The biases are small – less than five % for the two contamination indicators. Statistical
adjustments for other contamination related variables might be investigated once the
relationship between bombing magnitude and claimed contaminated area is known for the
surveyed communes.
2.4.10 Statistical Appendices
Expert Opinion
Table 18. Communes by Contamination Rating
Contamination Level Communes Percent
None or Suspected 63 11%
Light 219 40%
Heavy 242 44%
Unknown 7 1%
Commune Code Error 18 4%
Total 549 100%
Note: This is based upon the pre-survey commune list.
The EOC Index
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The index was computed for each commune following these steps:
* Historic Bombing Magnitude:
Take the number of general-purpose bombs dropped on the commune belongs to the three
provinces during the war.
Add one. Take the logarithm of this figure to the base 10 (Adding one is necessary to avoid zero
values for which the logarithm cannot be computed).
* Population Density:
Take the logarithm of the number of persons per square kilometer. Multiply it by 0.56 (0.56 is the
substitution coefficient between bombing magnitude and population density in the statistical
model of the communes that were rated “Highly contaminated”. In other words, multiplying by
0.56 also means that we give the population density less importance than to the historic
bombing record).
* Expert Opinion:
If a commune was rated “Highly Contaminated”, assign the figure 1.15, else assign 0 (On
average, communes rated “Highly Contaminated” received 14.1 times more bombs during the
war than those rated “Unaffected” or “Suspected” only. The logarithm, base 10, of 14.1 is 1.15).
*Compute the Commune Index:
Add those three figures for each commune. This is the composite index for each commune
Communes by Level of Contamination is shown in the table below
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Figure 5. Communes by Level of Contamination
The graph shows the relationship between local administration ratings, historic bombing record
and the population density. Above, 0.56 was mentioned as the weight on the population density
used in the computation of the index. In fact, -0.56 is the regression coefficient for population
density when the Log10 bombing load in the third panel (“Heavy”) is regressed on the Log10
population density.
2.4.11 Differences Between Pre- and Post-Survey Lists
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012345
123412341234
None or suspected Light Heavy
Population density (Log10 persons per sq km)
Communes by level of contamination rated by local administrations
Bombing load (Log10 general-purpose bombs)
Graphs by Contamination level
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The reconciliation of lists after the survey went through a number of iterations, some of which
occurred while the survey weights were being calculated. Because most of the changes
concerned communes that were not surveyed, the calculation of selection probabilities was not
redone from the beginning. Instead, the weights for the surveyed communities, based upon the
inverse selection probabilities, were corrected with multiplying by a factor so that the total sum of
communes would equal the number of the most updated commune list. The provincial sampling
ratios, as stratum-specific finite population correction variable, were also recalculated.
III STAFF TRAINING
To prepare for project implementation, especially field deployment, training courses were
conducted to provide project personnel with basic knowledge of the project, the concepts being
used, and the methods of collecting data as well as some other technical issues. There were two
separate training events, although they were similar in content and delivery method. However,
each training course had focused on certain points that were considered important and relevant
to the specific audience.
3.1 Provincial Team Leaders and Supervisor Training
This five-day training course covered a range of presentations and practices, including:
Overview of Project: This included introduction on project establishment, project partners
and project components;
Building of New Concepts: New concepts were introduced including contamination, impact of
contamination and impact score, mine action components and technical survey;
Roles and Responsibilities: Introduction of roles and responsibilities of Leaders and
Supervisors;
Instrument: Questionnaire content and implementation;
Financial Management;
Global Positioning System: GPS use.
In total, there were ten staff participating in the training (three Provincial Team Leaders and 7
staff of the supervision department) (including 1 Monitor and 6 Supervisors). There were two
supervisors in each province with each supervisor being responsible for two survey groups. The
training course started from the 8th and continued until the 14th of April 2004. Each trainee was
provided with a training material binder together with a detailed training agenda.
The training was structured in two components: theoretical training in Hanoi and questionnaire
Pre-test in Ha Tinh. Training started at 0800 hours and finished at 1630 hours everyday by a
comprehension test, which helped to evaluate the efficiency of training delivery and
achievements of the trainees.
After five days of classroom training all Provincial Team Leaders and Supervisors went to the
field for the questionnaire Pre-test. The Pre-test was conducted at Dong Loc and Son Loc
commune of Can Loc District, Ha Tinh Province. Participating in this event were three experts
from IOS, five persons from VVAF and twelve from BOMICO. Five interview groups were
formed. Each group consisted of two persons.
3.2 Data Collection Staff Training
Another course was provided to the Data Collection staff that was similar to the training provided
to the Provincial Team Leaders and Supervisors. Twenty-two staff participated in this course,
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which commenced on 27 April and ended on 7 May 2004. This training course provided more
time to practice the questionnaire interview and to study interviewing techniques.
It is worthwhile to note that after the training course provided to Provincial Team Leaders and
Supervisors and after the questionnaire Pre-test in Hatinh, the survey questionnaire was again
revised in accordance with input from the project. A new version of the questionnaire was then
used in the Data Collection staff training course and in the Pilot Test
After ten days of training in Hanoi, all Data Collection staff, Supervisors and Provincial Team
Leaders were deployed to Quang Tri for the Pilot Test. The Pilot Test was conducted from 16 to
21 May 2004, and aimed to examine the relevance and applicability of all questions in the
questionnaire as well as to test all components of the survey process and the integration of each
component into the entire operation. Primary activities during the Pilot Test included:
Notify local authorities regarding the arrival of Survey Groups and activities;
Conduct meetings with commune leaders to identify contamination status in the commune;
Complete both questionnaire modules: Commune Leader Module and Key Informant
Module;
Complete commune landmine/UXO contamination map with Bombed and Mined Areas
(BMA) identified;
Organize field visits to several BMA and transfer data to Technical Verification Teams for
implementation of the technical survey component;
Implement technical survey component based upon data transferred from Survey Group and
demining SOP‟s.
IV. COMMUNE SURVEY
Below is a diagram illustrating the major steps in overall implementation of the commune survey:
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Figure 6. Major steps in survey implementation
The official start of field implementation was 28 May 2004 in the three provinces of Ha Tinh,
Quang Binh and Quang Tri. All facets of survey operation were conducted, including impact
survey data collection with commune leaders and key village informants; mapping of confirmed
and suspected areas of landmine/UXO contamination in surveyed communes; visual verification
of confirmed and suspected areas of landmine/UXO contamination; site selection for technical
verification activities; field editing of questionnaires, maps and technical survey reports; and
finally, consolidating data on the district level for preliminary field reporting to the PMU.
The implementation in each province was also completed in every district. That meant that
Survey Groups and Technical Verification Teams only moved on to the next district when work
had been completed in the current district.
In this project, all districts in the three provinces were visited and surveyed, but not all
communes within a district were similarly visited. Rather, restricted by a limited budget, and
armed with specific goals, in this pilot phase only a number of communes within a district were
selected for survey. Once work was completed in one district, the entire set of data collected and
relevant reports were sent to PMU by Provincial Team Leaders.
Due to concerns about difficulty traveling during the rainy season (often between August and
November), the BOMICEN Provincial Team Leaders, Supervisors and PMU agreed to begin
field activities in the most remote and difficult terrain districts transportation-wise, and then
continue with communes characterized by easier conditions.
The communal surveys were conducted by survey group through the following activities:
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Commune leader interview
Key informant interviews
Complete commune map of UXO/mine
contamination
Notification sent to
commune in advance
Supervisors contact commune leaders prior to
arrival of survey group to commune
Visual inspection to contaminated sites for verification of
the maps and data transfer to technical teams
Technical verification at locations suggested by commune
PMU
Collected data
and reports
Collected
data and
reports
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4.1 Commune Leader Interview
Before commencing the survey, all the commune leaders are provided with information
regarding the requirements, mission, and survey process from the People‟s Committee and the
Military Steering Committee so as to be able to prepare the required information for communal
officers and to select qualified witnesses who have full knowledge of the local landmine and
UXO contamination situation.
The Data Collectors Group conducted a questionnaire interview with an average of five
commune leaders, using the
available questionnaires to
interview and record the
commune leaders‟ answers.
The purpose of these meetings
was to attain socio-economic
background data from the
commune statistician, to gain
an overview of the impact that
landmines/UXO are having on
the development of the
commune as a whole
(including collecting preliminary
victim figures), and to record
information regarding both the
history of mine action activities
in the commune and future
plans for mine rehabilitation
and economic development. At
the completion of the interview, the commune leaders were requested to prioritize several areas
in the commune that should receive clearance activities. The commune leaders were instructed
by the Data Collectors that the sites should be selected according to pre-determined site
selection criteria developed by VVAF and the PMU that focused upon social and economic
development projects at the commune level.
The interview with commune leaders was often prepared by the Supervisors. Normally,
members of the commune leader taking part in the interview include:
One representative from either the People's Committee or People Council;
Military Officer;
Head of Public Security;
Land Administration Officer;
Executive Officer/Statistician.
The meeting often took place at the People‟s Committee office and lasted for two hours.
4.2 Key Informant Interview
Following the commune leader meeting, arrangements were made for one or two village key
informant interviews (number of meetings was dependent on the number of villages in a
commune) in the two following days. During the key informant meetings, information regarding
confirmed and suspected areas of contamination, termed Bombed and Mined Areas (BMA), was
recorded on commune maps and in the questionnaire. Other information collected during the
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key informant interview(s) included the socio-economic impact of landmines/UXO (including
detailed victim information from the preceding five years).
Data collectors used the questionnaires in the interview to record the informant‟s answers (after
the answers were agreed by the informant group). Each group interview lasted two hours.
The key informant interview was also arranged by Supervisors and together with the assistance
and support of the commune leaders. It was recommended that there be at least one
representative from each village in the commune invited to the key informant interview. With
experience from the questionnaire Pretest and the Pilot Test, it was advised that meeting with a
large group of people was not easy to manage and was less efficient as a result. Thus, it was
instructed by the PMU to conduct two separate key informant interviews in a commune if the
total number of villages in any commune was larger than eight. The questionnaire was therefore
re-formatted in a way that information from two separate key informant interviews could be
recorded and then combined accordingly.
The criteria for selection of the village representative to participate in the key informant interview
are as follows:
Have been continuously living in the location for at least 35 years;
Have good memory of occurrences at the location during war time;
Have knowledge and understanding of land use in the location; and,
Be active in the community activities
4.3 Commune Mapping Exercise
In both interviews, a commune map of A1 size was used. In the first interview with commune
leaders, the boundary of the commune was verified, compared with the official status. At times
the commune boundary changed. In these cases commune leaders helped to draw the new
boundary but information that was asked for was based upon the boundary shown on the map.
In addition, commune leaders also helped to identify the names and locations of villages.
In the second interview with key informants, the commune map that was verified in the first
meeting with commune leaders was used. After orientating people in the meeting about the
map, identifying their village location, and helping them to identify a primary reference point on
the map, Data Collection staff started the mapping exercise by asking about some historical
activities, including:
Marking the location of bombardment and ground attacks during war time;
Marking the location of former military bases in war time; and,
Marking the location of both aircraft that had been shot down and of trucks carrying
ammunition that had exploded.
The mapping exercise then focused primarily upon asking questions related to current
contamination and its impact. Key informants were asked to help Data Collection staff to draw
on the map the boundaries of:
Areas where contamination is confirmed;
Areas where contamination is suspected; and,
Areas that are landmine/UXO free.
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People were also asked to locate the position(s) where landmine/UXO accidents occurred,
involving both humans and animals. In addition, Data Collectors would ask different questions to
clearly verify the contamination picture of the commune. The mapping exercise often took a
major part of total time spent on the key informant interview.
4.4 Visual Inspection
The main purpose of the visual inspection exercise is to verify information collected (if there is
any difference) during the key informant interviews and correct information required when
necessary. A number of respondents in the interviews were selected to guide the survey groups
to the field. Data Collectors were expected to visit all areas identified by informants as
contaminated by UXO, but due to a large number of contaminated areas and limited time, this
was not always possible.
Data Collectors asked commune leaders and village representatives to suggest relevant and
priority locations for bomb and mine detection and clearance. Site selection was based upon
the commune map of UXO contaminated areas and observations made during visual inspection.
Several mechanisms were employed to transfer information from the Data Collectors to the
Technical Verification Teams (TVT).
Information about the site having bombs/mines detected and thus needing clearance activities
was recorded in paper form and directly handed to a TRT member. Data Collectors used GPS
to determine the location of the site. They marked the location on a topographic map of the
commune and recorded the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates on the paper
forms. In addition, one member of each TRT accompanied each pair of Data Collectors to the
field during the visual inspection process.
4.5 Selection of Location for Clearance
The selection of locations for clearance are mainly based on the outcomes of the interview with
commune informant and should be in accordance with the requirements set by PMU, at the
same time it is necessary to consider the specific requirements made by commune leader on
bomb and mine contamination rehabilitation in order to support the local economic
development. As the initial purpose of technical verification was to check the accuracy of
information collected during commune interviews through the questionnaire, the target land for
this activity should provide the best example representing the nature and extent of
landmine/UXO contamination in the communities. The analysis was made based upon the
following information:
Contaminated areas marked on printed community maps and hand-drawn maps during the
commune interviews, physical feature and locations of suspected or confirmed contaminated
sites. Each site was marked and numbered for easier follow up;
Estimated contamination density in the reported area;
Nature of site contamination by verifying the major contamination problem as either landmine
or UXO. This assisted listing the contaminated land plots on a prioritized list for immediate
clearance tasks;
Contaminated land area reported as having a more significant socio-economic value to local
people. Knowing which types of land played a more important role in daily life;
Visual inspection of the area reported as contaminated by landmine/UXO. Visualizing the
accessibility of reported land plots will assist estimation of possibility of immediate clearance
or parking for later follow-up.
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After assessing the above information, the reported landmine/UXO contamination land plots
were listed in prioritized order for technical verification. The estimated area of site contamination
was recorded as (determined for the purpose of comparing with the limited area) 0.05% of the
total area of surveyed communes. In cases where estimated area of site contamination was
less than the area required for clearance, random selection was applied in reviewing the local
socio-economic plan to determine land plots that fit with the total area for technical verification.
In cases where estimated area of site contamination was more than the required area, the local
socio-economic plan will also be referred to so as to reduce the list of contaminated areas.
In accordance with the above analysis, the criteria for selection of sites for technical verification
are determined as follows:
The selection of the site for technical verification must be based upon UXO/landmine
contamination status in the communes (collected through survey of the commune leader and
key informant interviews) and proposal of the local authority regarding local economic
development;
Technical verification will only be conducted in areas reported as contaminated and
suspected to be contaminated by landmines/UXO. Note: priority was given to suspected
contamination in order to confirm whether such areas are contaminated or not after technical
verification was complete;
The area selected for technical verification should represent the topographic features of the
entire area, such as cultivation land, waste land, pasture, or forest and represent different
geographic features of the area;
Technical verification should not be conducted on built-up land, housing areas and perennial
agricultural land (unless the owner of that land requested technical verification).
However, with experience gained from field visits, it was decided that the size of technical
verification plot should not be limited to the 1,200/1,600 square meters. It could be bigger
depends on actual job requirements.
V TECHNICAL VERIFICATION
5.1 Activities carried out
The nature and level of contamination in several communes was identified mainly based upon
data obtained through interviews with informants groups at communes. The leader of the data
collector group would select the site to be technically verified in accordance with the agreed
criterion and guidelines, verify information on bombs and mines, and make an evaluation
regarding the impact of landmine and UXO contamination.
The Technical Verification process is carried as in accordance with SOP including the following
steps:
Marking the selected verification plot site;
Technical detection and clearance of landmines/UXO in accordance with the Standard
Operation Procedure;
Detecting to a depth of five meters, but only excavating those landmines/UXO with recorded
signals down to a depth of one meter from the natural ground surface;
Disposing of collected landmines/UXO in accordance with the Standard Operation
Procedure;
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Recording the amount of ERW detected and processed, its position and record in detail the
position of the signals of above 1m depth to handle to the Military organizations at different
level;
Using GPS to locate the center of the verified area in order to record other relevant
information using the report format for later database input and processing.
The TVT Leader signs the SVRM reporting the task and relevant information as complete and
accurate.
However, where landmines were suspected the procedures varied depending upon the
expected threat as in accordance with site work.
During the technical verification at site, it is important to acknowledge the role of ambulance staff
in the support of the technical team. PMU and VVAF researched and balanced a budget in order
to purchase ambulance equipment for each technical team. Two experienced lecturers from
Counterpart International (Vietnamese citizens) provided training for medical staff on dealing
with an emergency, first aid and severe accidents.
Since the beginning of Oct 2004, all of the technical verification teams have been outfitted with
85 PPE, including specialized jackets, helmet with glasses. The PPE provided is user friendly,
comfortable and useful.
5.2 The Standard Verification Report Module
The Standard Verification Report Module should include the following information:
Description of method used to select verification plot
Names of the places and the land-users of the verified areas
Size of the verified area
Duration of verified task
GPS coordinate and centre of plot
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A general description of the scale and nature of contamination at site
Current land type and use
Vegetation cover and topography
Types, numbers and depth of landmine/UXO removed
Status of ordnance
A clearance map showing the location of ordnance recovered, false/positive signals
List of development and utility plans for land in the vicinity of the cleared area
VI. PROJECT MORNITORING & QUALITY ASSURANCE
Several steps were taken throughout the survey to ensure that the results are as accurate and
reliable as possible.
6.1. Testing and review
The survey included key tests and activities where the executing body could review the work
that had been done and modified procedures as required to fit the local conditions.
A questionnaire Pre-Test program was
undertaken in 2 communes Son Loc, Dong Loc of
Can Loc district, Ha Tinh province from 15 April
2004 to 21 April 2004 participated by 14 staff
from PMU and 5 staff from VVAF. After Pre-Test
Questionnaire, survey team leaders and technical
supervisors deeply understood the witness
interview approaches; data collection and tasks
during field visual inspection and selection of
technical verification plot sites etc. The activity
helped remarkably the execution of survey team
leaders and technical supervision of supervisors
during project field implementation.
A questionnaire Pre-Test was conducted right
after completion of the training course for survey
groups and before officially implementation of
filed work in order to verify all program activities
and ensure the smooth operation capability.
These activities are also included in a module of
the training course for field staff to gain
experiences. A pilot survey was conducted in 14
communes of Vinh Linh and Gio Linh districts,
Quang Tri province from May 09, 2004 to May
20, 2004 with the participation of 51 staff from
survey groups and technical verification teams and 5 staff from VVAF. During Pre-Test
Questionnaire, survey staff understood to adapt commune leader and witness interview
methodology to field local situation of contamination and socio-economic impact; acquired a
good acquaintance of criteria in field visual inspection and selection of technical verification pilot
sites.
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After Questionnaire Pre-Test, PMU organized a reviewing meeting attended by experts from the
Institute of Sociology and VVAF representatives to correct and consolidate the questionnaire in
the second time as required to fit local conditions.
After completing survey in the first district of each province, PMU evaluated the results obtained
and undertook to accomplish the objectives in accordance to planned timelines and in a cost
effective manner.
In addition from regular inspection filed trip conducted by PMU, during implementation process
at field, the PMU coordinated with VVAF to conduct field trip once a month with the agreement
from both parties, in order to ensure quality and sufficient program activities as agreed.
During project implementation, PMU organized monthly meetings with VVAF to observe a full
range of project activities, reviewing the lessons learned, thus ensuring that the agreed activities
are being followed. These meetings were held in the first week of each month.
6.2. Field editing
The data collected by survey group members was checked and confirmed for completeness and
accuracy in the field by the Group Leader.
Corrections were be made by survey groups before questionnaires and maps are processed
away from the field environment. Approved questionnaires and other relevant maps and
documentation were signed by the Group Leader to certify this process.
6.3. Field staff supervision
The PMU supervisors supported and instructed the group leaders to minimize poor practices
and to ensure that a similar standard of data collection is maintained between survey teams and
survey groups. The provincial survey team leader and project technical supervisors also signed
and approved collected data and other reports prior to sending information to the database at
the PMU.
6.4. Technical verification
The ultimate quality assurance of information gathered from commune interviews was tested in
a limited sample of areas below 0.5% surveyed area (averagely for each commune) using
technical equipment to investigate reported contamination. During the technical verification, the
survey groups collected necessary data to mark and locate contaminated areas on digital maps
using GPS and other technical equipment.
Total technical verification area during project implementation was 421ha/2.761 plot sites. 6.205
landmines/UXO was safely removed and disposed (including 5 destructive bombs, weighted
250-1000 pounds, 1.283 cluster bombs, 859 artillery shells, 180 M79 munitions, 32 antipersonnel
mine, 24 grenades and 3.822 other ordnances).
In general, the entire technical verification area was defined on the basis of such criteria as:
random sampling based on group interviews so as to draw out a clearer picture of
landmine/UXO contamination situation in the surveyed areas. For this, more attention was paid
to areas of suspected contamination, aimed at verifying the accuracy of the data collected;
requests made by local authorities for socio-economic development. Minimum area of a
technical verification plot site is 1.200m2, while those selected by local authorities was
determined on the basis of specific using purposes.
Together with field technical verification, commune-level survey groups collected necessary data
to mark and indicate contaminated areas on digital maps by GPS and other technical
equipment.
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VII DATA ENTRY, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
7.1 IMSMA and Data Entry
7.1.1 IMSMA
The Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) is a software based data
management tool. It combines a relational database with a geographic information system
(GIS). It is able to provide mine action managers and practitioners with up-to-date information
management capabilities to facilitate decision making. IMSMA was provided free of charge to
BOMICEN by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD).
Since January 1999, IMSMA has been the UN-approved standard for information systems
supporting humanitarian demining.
The Vietnam Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
currently uses version 2.2 of IMSMA in a networked configuration with two clients and one
server. IMSMA was modified to reflect institutional conditions in Vietnam and then installed at
BOMICEN premises for later data entry and data analysis.
* IMSMA is an information management tool designed for mine action activities which can be
used to:
Plan, manage, report, and map UXO and landmine related activities;
Plan, manage, report, and map MRE activities;
Record, report on, and map victim information; and,
Record, report on, and map socio-economic information.
* IMSMA has a capability to:
Track the progress of mine action activities;
Assist in the analysis of mine action activities to enable more effective, efficient and
reliable mine action endeavors.
* The IMSMA system is:
Based on standard computer technology;
Easily customizable in the field.
7.1.2 Data Entry
Data entry started in August 2004 after three months of field operations. Data entered into
IMSMA includes:
Survey data collected from interviews and recorded in survey questionnaire;
Contaminated areas (BMA) in each surveyed commune based on the commune map
and through mapping exercise during interviews and visual inspection.
The user interface of IMSMA is in the English language. Data was entered by either selecting
available options corresponding to the questionnaire or by entering texts in Vietnamese.
Information for every question in the questionnaire was given matching field in IMSMA.
For the BMA, database staff at BOMICEN had to digitize from commune paper maps. A number
of reference points were selected to identify the boundary of BMA in the paper map and those
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points were transferred into the commune digital map in the GIS database. The digitized BMA
were linked with information about that BMA recorded in IMSMA.
7.2 Geographic Data
7.2.1 Historical Records of US Combat Activities, Air and Naval
Data Source: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
Accomplished Processes: Historical records of US combat activities were created by the US
Department of Defense during the conflict in Indochina. The databases were recovered, reedited,
and provided to BOMICEN from Defense Security Agency - US MoD. DSCA also
provided VVAF copies of these databases.
The Vietnam assessment used the NARA data as one input to its Expert Opinion Collection and
analysis. These data was combined with population and commune area to produce an index of
UXO hazards for each commune in the three provinces including Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and
Quang Tri.
7.2.2 International Food Policy Research Institute
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) analyzed the data and provided VVAF
with digital results including tabular data, text, and geographic feature data from its povertymapping
project conducted in 2003.
7.2.3 Cartographic Publishing House
Topographic data for the provinces, districts and communes included in Phase 1 survey area
was obtained through the Cartographic Publishing house. These data included detailed data on
minor administrative divisions, rivers, built-up areas, elevation, and transportation. This data was
used to produce all maps used during the mapping exercise portion of the commune interviews.
7.3 Database and Mapping Products Created
7.3.1 Sketch maps: More than 300 Commune Maps to support survey Interviews include A-1
size to facilitate interviews and recording of information and A-3 size to facilitate editing, archival
and digital data entry. One copy per commune;
Data Source: The Project procured geographic data for 46 map sheets covering Quang Tri,
Quang Binh, and Ha Tinh provinces from the Cartographic Publishing House (CPH), Ministry of
Natural Resources and Environment, as MicroStation DGN digital format files. The procured
maps are national 1:50,000 topographic map series. Vietnam 2000 horizontal datum, projection
Universal Transverse Mercator zone 48. Dates: 1999 - 2004.
Accomplished processes: VVAF assisted BOMICEN to convert the following features from
MicroStation DGN format to ESRI shapefile format:
Infrastructure features;
Transportation features;
Hydrographic features, including contour lines and spot heights; and
Administrative boundaries, including those for province, district, and commune.
As it was informed by CPH that buildings depicted on the topographic maps did not always
correspond to actual structures, but depicted settlement areas in general, VVAF created a 100-
meter buffer around each building feature and combined them to form polygons representing
settlement areas. VVAF manually edited administrative boundary lines to form completely
closed polygons and assigned the administrative code used by the General Census Office to
each polygon. The GIS function “identity” was used to assign an administrative code to each of
the geographic features corresponding to the commune containing it. The field containing the
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administrative code was used to select geographic features for the map layout. For example,
roads, rivers, lakes, etc. with administrative code = 4050307 were selected for bold display in a
map of the commune with that code. Features located outside the commune boundary were
displayed using muted colors.
Product description: A-1 and A-3 size “sketch” maps of each commune depicting easily
recognizable geographic features to orient those being interviewed while providing sufficient
non-colored space to record information about UXO contaminated areas. The results play an
important role in the program success.
7.3.2 UXO Contamination Maps: These maps include A-3 size Commune Maps that depict
the location of areas known or suspected to be contaminated with UXO procured. One copy per
commune.
Data source: Same source as the Sketch maps.
Accomplished processes: Same as above product, VVAF modified the IMSMA GIS
functionality to display known (red) and suspected (orange) UXO contaminated areas in a
manner similar to the data compiled during interviews. With assistance from VVAF experts, the
perimeter of UXO contaminated areas from data entered into IMSMA were depicted by staff
from database department, PMU. These points were entered based upon polygons drawn on
“sketch maps” during survey interviews.
Product description: As the result, one A-3 size UXO Contamination Maps produced and used
by interviewers throughout the implementation process for each surveyed commune.
7.3.3 Technical survey Site maps: 300+ A-3 Commune Maps to facilitate selection of sites
for clearance and/or technical survey.
Data source: Data was procured from the Cartographic Publishing House (CPH), Ministry of
Natural Resources and Environment with same source as the sketch map under TIFF format 24-
bit raster images.
Accomplished processes: VTGEO assisted to geo-reference all 46 sheets to UTM zone 48
projection, WGS-84 spheroid. VVAF clipped the images at the map neat line, facilitating a
seamless mosaic covering all three provinces. VVAF also compressed the color range of the
images from 24 bit to 8 bit to reduce the size of the resulting digital images facilitating faster
display. An image catalog file containing directory information and geographic location for all 46
images was created to facilitate ease of use by BOMICEN.
Product Description: A-3 size maps of each commune (varying scales) that depicted all data
from the original topographic map(s), but centered on the selected commune. Sites selected for
clearance were depicted on these maps by surveyors and commune leaders. The use of these
commune centered A-3 maps eliminated the requirement for both survey and clearance teams
to carry numerous topographic map sheets.
Additional geographic data developed in preparation for the next phases:
7.3.4 Raster images from topographic maps, series 2000:
Data source: The procured maps are national 1:50,000 topographic map series. Vietnam 2000
horizontal datum, projection Universal Transverse Mercator zones 48 and 49. Dates: 1999-
2004.
Accomplished Processes: Cartographic Publishing House was contracted to create GeoTiff
format 24-bit raster images of each 1:50,000-scale topographic map sheet. These raster images
were created directly from the original MicroStation DGN format data and are free of errors
relating to scanning of printed maps. All raster images are referenced to VN 2000 horizontal
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datum, projection UTM zone 48 or 49. The files still need to be clipped at the map neat line, to
facilitate a seamless mosaic. The files still need to be reduced from 24 bit to 8 bit.
Product Description: The final products were 600+ raster images in 24-bit GeoTIFF format,
covering entire country.
7.3.5 Vector data from Topograhpic Maps, series 1990s
Data source: National 1:50,000 topographic map series. Hanoi 1972 horizontal datum,
projection Gauss-Kruger (Transverse Mercator) zone 18. Dates: mid-1990s.
After VTGEO and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment provided geographic data
covering entire land territory of Vietnam which were complied from CIAS, as MapINFO table
files, data was stored by province and contained inconsistent structure.
Accomplished 1: As requested, VTGEO converted features from MapINFO table format to
ESRI shapefile format, corrected topological and edge-matching errors, and appended the
features creating a single national database for each feature type, and transformed the
horizontal datum from Hanoi 1972 to VN 2000. These processes were completed for the
following features: transportation features; hydrographic features; administrative boundaries,
including those for province, district, and commune.
Product Description: The final products were in ESRI shapefile format, VN 2000 horizontal
datum, geographic projection (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) with feature attribute tables
compatible with Vector Map (NGA).
Accomplished processes 2: The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
contracted a Ministry of Agriculture research institute to convert features from MapINFO table
format to ESRI shapefile format and append the features creating a single national database for
each feature type, IFPRI corrected topological and edge-matching errors, and transformed the
horizontal datum from Hanoi 1972 to VN 2000. These processes were completed for settlement
areas and spot heights (elevation).
Product Description: Final products were in ESRI shapefile format, VN 2000 horizontal datum,
geographic projection (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) with feature attribute tables
compatible with Vector Map (NGA). Data has been provided to both VVAF and BOMICEN.
7.4 Data Analysis and Reporting
The survey database consists of a tabular component and a GIS data component, stored in
IMSMA. A number of different analytical methods in a variety of software packages were applied
by VVAF to analyze the information.
By means of queries, flat tables were extracted from the IMSMA database, which were used for
statistical analysis in STATA. In order to be able to make full use of STATA‟s survey analysis
capabilities, the survey weights computed for each sample commune were incorporated to
analyze the survey data. The statistical analysis focused on five major aspects:
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The extent of the confirmed and suspected contaminated areas;
The impact levels of the contamination on different aspects of the socio-economic
situation in the communes;
Communal response to UXO/landmine contamination;
Victim demography; and,
Structural risk factors.
The analysis also incorporated information on poverty levels at commune level. The data was
obtained from estimates generated by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS).
In a GIS environment using ESRI‟s ArcView software, various data extraction, as well as
analytical tasks, were performed. A number of different GIS data layers were used in the
analytical process:
Administrative boundary data;
Digitized delineations of confirmed and suspected BMAs;
Detailed delineation of areas of residential built-ups;
Rasterized information on aspects related to the relief, including, elevation, slope, and
terrain roughness;
Forest cover; and,
Modeled cost-distance surfaces (e.g. travel distances to cities or towns, etc).
Areal statistics were computed based on geographic intersections of one or several of the data
layers. The resulting additional statistical information was exported for further analysis and
incorporation into statistical models, combined with the tabular information extracted from the
IMSMA data base in STATA.
Summary tables, as well as graphical charts of various analysis outputs were generated and
served as an integral part of the analysis report.
7.5 Chain of Reporting
Completed questionnaires and maps, once checked in the field and verified as complete and
accurate, were combined with data collected through the relevant departments at the district
level and consolidated into a District Report. District Reports were integrated with results form
the data collection process through departments at the provincial level to be consolidated into
the Provincial Report as per requirements of the project. Provincial Reports, together with
District Reports were then submitted to the Database Section at PMU.
District Reports and the original completed questionnaires and maps were forwarded to PMU on
completion of each district in order to minimize the delay in data entry and processing at the
central database of the PMU. Duplicate copies of all questionnaires and maps were kept by the
Provincial Survey Team to help generate Provincial Reports.
Provincial Survey Teams submitted Weekly and Monthly Progress Reports to the Planning and
General Affairs Office in accordance with regulated schedule.
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PART III PROJECT RESULTS
I. THREE PROVINCES:
1.1 Geographic Location, Population and Socio-economic Position:
The three provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri are located in north central Vietnam,
bordered to the east by the Eastern Sea, to the west by Laos, to the north by Nghe An Province,
and to the south by Thua Thien Hue Province. The topography and geography of the region is
varied, consisting of mountains, forests, midlands and coastal lands.
The harsh climatic conditions in the target provinces can be extreme with temperatures in the
dry season ranging from 300C-400C. The region is prone to rapid flooding due to the intensity of
prolonged seasonal rains and the nature of the topography and drainage patterns. Typhoons
occur between July and October resulting in heavy rains and strong winds.
These harsh conditions cause difficulties for travel and data collection during project
implementation particularly in remote and mountainous areas along the border with Laos where
transportation networks have yet to be fully developed.
The population density in the region is variable with concentrations in urban centers that
dissipate gradually from rural areas out to the mountainous regions.
Total area and population density of the 3 provinces are as follows:
Ha Tinh: Area: 6.055,70 square kilometers; Population: 1.283.900 people; Population
density: 204 people/square kilometer; Provincial capital: Ha Tinh town.
Quang Binh: Area: 8.052,90 square kilometers; Population: 847.412 people; Population
density: 106 people/square kilometer; Provincial capital: Dong Hoi city.
Quang Tri: Area: 4.745,70 square kilometers; Population: 613.000 people; Population
density 129 people/square kilometer; Provincial capital: Dong Ha town.
In recent years, Government socio-economic policies have made changes to population
distribution regarding original residents, thus causing difficulties in historical data collection of
landmine/UXO contamination in these three comunities.
The economies of the three provinces remain underdeveloped, mainly based on agricultural
production and aquatic cultivation. Natural resources are limited and the landmine/UXO
contamination situation grave, restraining the industrial development as well as socio-economic
efforts of provincial authorities and people.
Though living in a region that underwent untold sufferings during the war, the people in Ha Tinh,
Quang Binh, Quang Tri provinces continue to resolutely strive for a better life through national
reconstruction and development.
In recent years, provincial authorities and people in the three provinces have focused on poverty
reduction and hunger eradication programs, incrementally implementing the push for
industrialization and modernization. The Vietnamese government has created a number of
industrial zones and improved infrastructure, including priority for agricultural and aquatic
production that has helped to facilitate socio-economic development and improve people‟s
standards of living in both urban and rural areas.
1.2 Historical Bombardment
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Archival documentation from historic US aerial and naval bombardment records suggests that
the provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri comprise one of the most heavily
landmine/UXO contaminated regions of Vietnam.
In 1954, the Geneva Agreement was signed and the Ben Hai River became the temporary
demarcation line between North and South Vietnam. Since 1955 Military Region No.4 (including
the area of Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Vinh Linh Districts) became the direct rear and
the frontline of the North during the “American” War.
Quang Tri Province was the most heavily bombed in Viet Nam during the war. According to the
historic bombardment record, each square meter of land in Quang Tri received, on average,
more than 140 pounds (or approximately 63 kilograms) of ordnance from both aerial and naval
attack. This impacted major infrastructure sites and transportation routes, as well as virtually all
areas of rugged and remote upland.
Bombardment in Quang Binh was less severe but the province is still considered one of the
fiercest battlefields in the central region of the country during the war. Attacks on the coastal
area were fiercer not only because of bombs dropped from aircraft, but also due to artillery
launched from warships. On average, one square meter of land in Quang Binh was exposed to
nearly 65 pounds (or 29 kilograms) of ordnance. Major transportation arteries and other
infrastructure sites were the primary targets of the bombing campaign, which concentrated
primarily in lowland areas, and which led to heavy human losses and destruction of the
environment.
A similar pattern is presented in Ha Tinh Province. The obvious concentrations of aerial and
naval bombardments are along major highways in the lowland plains and along important
transportation routes running through valleys towards the Laos border. Upland areas appear to
have been spared the concentrated aerial and naval attacks.
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Map 2. Historic US Aerial and Naval Bombardment Record
II. STATUS OF LANDMINE/UXO CONTAMINATION IN THE THREE PROVINCES
2.1. Affected districts and communes
2.1.1. Number of Communes affected
Due to some reasons, the survey was limited to 344 of the 549 communes in the three provinces
of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, and Quang Tri.
2.1.1.1. Ha Tinh Province:
* Ha Tinh town: 7/10 total communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 7/7
communes are contaminated including: Bac Ha, Nam Ha, Tan Giang, Thach Linh, Thach Trung,
Thach Quy, Thach Yen.
* Hong Linh town: 6/6 total communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 6/6
surveyed communes are contaminated including Bac Hong, Nam Hong, Trung Luong, Duc
Thuan, Thuan Loc, Dau Lieu.
* Nghi Xuan district: 13/19 total communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed ; results show
13/13 communes are contaminated including Xuan An, Xuan Dan, Xuan Pho, Xuan Hai, Xuan
Yen, Tien Dien, Xuan Giang, Xuan My, Xuan Hong, Xuan Vien, Xuan Linh, Co Dam, Cuong
Gian.
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* Duc Tho district: 12/28 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 12/12
communes are contaminated including Duc Quang, Tung Anh, Duc Yen, Yen Ho, Duc Thuy,
Duc Hoa, Duc Lac, Duc Long, Duc Lap, Duc Dong, Duc Thanh, Tan Huong.
* Huong Son district: 18/31 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 18/18
communes are contaminated including Tay Son, Pho Chau, Son Linh, Son Tay, Son Quang,
Son Giang, Son Ninh, Son Thinh, Son Diem, Son Ham, Son Phuc, Son Binh, Son My, Son Tan,
Son Long, Son Phu, Son Tra, Son Truong.
* Vu Quang district: 6/12 total communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 6/6
communes are contaminated including Huong Dai, Huong Dien, Duc Giang, Duc Bong, Huong
Tho, Duc Lien.
* Can Loc district: 17/30 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 16/17
communes are contaminated including Thanh Loc, Gia Hanh, Truong Loc, Vuong Loc, Thuong
Nga, Vinh Loc, Khanh Loc, Phu Loc, Trung Loc, Phu Luu, Xuan Loc, Tien Loc, Dong Loc,
Quang Loc, My Loc, Son Loc.
* Thach Ha district: 24/43 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 23/24
communes are contaminated including Thach Ngoc Farm, Thach Kenh, Thach Son, Thach
Bang, Thach Chau, Thach Kim, Thach Ban, Thach Long, Thach Dinh, Thach Thanh, Thach Ha,
Thach Dong, Thach Mon, Thach Hung, Thach Lac, Bac Son, Thach Dai, Thach Hoi, Thach Van,
Thach Xuan, Thach Tan, Thach Dien, Thach Lam.
* Cam Xuyen district: 18/27 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 18/18
communes are contaminated including Cam Xuyen, Cam Vinh, Cam Binh, Cam Thanh, Cam
Huy, Cam Thang, Cam Nhuong, Cam Thach, Cam Due, Cam Quan, Cam Ha, Cam Hung, Cam
Loc, Cam Trung, Cam Thinh, Cam Son, Cam Lac, Cam Minh.
* Huong Khe district: 18/22 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 18/18
communes are contaminated including Huong Khe, 20-4 Farm, Phuong My, Ha Linh, Phuc
Dong, Hoa Hai, Huong Binh, Huong Long, Huong Giang, Gia Pho, Phu Gia, Phu Phong, Loc
Yen, Huong Lam, Huong Lien, Huong Do, Phuc Trach, Huong Trach.
*Ky Anh district: 17/32 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show that 16/17
communes are contaminated including Ky Tien, Ky Phu, Ky Phong, Ky Son, Ky Tay, Ky Lam, Ky
Khang, Ky Lac, Ky Ha, Ky Tan, Ky Phuong, Ky Lien, Ky Ninh, Ky Dong, Ky Thinh, Ky Nam.
2.1.1.2. Quang Binh province:
* Dong Hoi city: 8/14 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show that 8/8
communes are contaminated including Dong Son, Nam Ly, Dong Phu, Dong My, Hai Dinh, Phu
Hai, Duc Ninh, Bao Ninh.
* Tuyen Hoa district: 10/18 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 10/10
communes are contaminated including Dong Le, Thanh Hoa, Le Hoa, Thuan Hoa, Duc Hoa,
Phong Hoa, Mai Hoa, Van Hoa, Thach Hoa, Chau Hoa.
* Minh Hoa district: 9/15 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 9/9
communes are contaminated including Quy Dat, Hoa Thanh, Hong Hoa, Hoa Hop, Yen Hoa,
Quy Hoa, Trung Hoa, Minh Hoa, Tan Hoa.
* Quang Trach district: 19/34 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show
17/19 communes are contaminated including Ba Don, Quang Hop, Quang Dong, Quang Phu,
Quang Chau, Quang Tung, Quang Hung, Quang Xuan, Quang Phuc, Quang Thuan, Quang
Long, Quang Phong, Quang Luu, Phu Hoa, Canh Hoa, Quang Son, Quang Hoa.
* Bo Trach district: 23/30 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 23/23
communes are contaminated including Viet Trung Farm, Tan Trach, Phuc Trach, Lam Trach,
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Son Trach, Hung Trach, Lien Trach, Phu Dinh, Son Loc, Van Trach, Hoan Trach, Tay Trach,
Nam Trach, My Trach, Ha Trach, Bac Trach, Thanh Trach, Hai Trach, Phu Trach, Duc Trach,
Trung Trach, Nhan Trach, Ly Trach.
* Quang Ninh district: 9/15 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 9/9
communes are contaminated including Vinh Ninh, Duy Ninh, Ham Ninh, Hien Ninh, Xuan Ninh,
Van Ninh, Luong Ninh, Vo Ninh, Gia Ninh.
* Le Thuy district: 15/28 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 15/15
communes are contaminated including Kien Giang, Le Ninh Farm, Ngan Thuy, Son Thuy, Phu
Thuy, Mai Thuy, Xuan Thuy, My Thuy, Duong Thuy, Thai Thuy, Hong Thuy, Thanh Thuy, Cam
Thuy, Hung Thuy, Ngu Hoa.
2.1.1.3. Quang Tri province:
* Dong Ha town: 7/9 wards were surveyed; results show 7/7 wards are contaminated including
wards no. 1, 2, 5 and Dong Thanh, Dong Giang, Dong Le, Dong Luong.
* Quang Tri town: 2/2 wards were surveyed; results show 2/2 wards are contaminated including
wards no.1 and 2.
* Vinh Linh district: 18/22 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 18/18
communes are contaminated including Ho Xa, Ben Quan, Vinh Tu, Vinh Chap, Vinh Nam, Vinh
Long, Vinh Kim, Vinh Hoa, Vinh Thach, Vinh Lam, Vinh Hien, Vinh Thuy, Vinh Thanh, Vinh Son,
Vinh Tan, Vinh Quang, Vinh Giang, Vinh O.
* Gio Linh district: 14/20 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 14/14
communes are contaminated including Gio Linh, Trung Hai, Trung Giang, Trung Son, Gio My,
Gio Phong, Gio An, Gio Son, Gio Hoa, Linh Hai, Vinh Truong, Hai Thai, Gio Mai, Linh Thuong.
* Cam Lo district: 7/9 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 7/7
communes are contaminated including Cam Lo, Cam Thanh, Cam Thuy, Cam Tuyen, Cam
Hieu, Cam Chinh, Cam Nghia.
* Trieu Phong district: 14/19 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 14/14
communes are contaminated including Ai Tu, Trieu Thuong, Trieu Phuoc, Trieu Van, Trieu Do,
Trieu Trach, Trieu Lang, Trieu Son, Trieu Giang, Trieu Hoa, Trieu Dong, Trieu Trung, Trieu
Long, Trieu Thanh.
* Hai Lang district: 16/21 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed. Results show 16/16
communes are contaminated including Hai Lang, Hai Lam, Hai Ba, Hai Khe, Hai Quy, Hai Vinh,
Hai Xuan, Hai Que, Hai Thien, Hai Duong, Hai Truong, Hai Thanh, Hai Phu, Hai Tho, Hai
Thuong, Hai Son, Hai Chanh.
* Huong Hoa district: 8/21 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 8/8
communes are contaminated including Khe Sanh, Lao Bao, Huong Linh, Tan Thanh, Tan Lap,
Tan Lien, Huong Loc, A Xing.
* Da Krong district: 9/13 communes (or equivalent levels) were surveyed; results show 9/9
communes are contaminated including Mo O, Da krong, Trieu Nguyen, Ba Long, Hai Phuc, Ba
Nang, Ta Long, A Vao, Ta Rut.
According to survey data, there are 339/344 surveyed communes (or equivalent levels) defined
contaminated, accounting for 99% of total surveyed communes (or equivalent levels), including:
Ha Tinh province: 153/156 (communes or equivalent levels): 98%.
Quang Binh: 91/93 (communes or equivalent levels): 98%.
Quang Tri: 95/95 (communes or equivalent levels): 100%.
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Since all of these communes had some level of contamination, the numbers of communes
affected are meaningful only when a criterion is set.
A measure was created for the density of the UXO hazard, by multiplying the number of
generalpurpose
bombs located (as a proxy for all contamination) with the current population, divided by
the area (in square meters) of the commune. Four categories were defined on the raw measure,
by one-magnitude increases from Low to Very High hazard density. The surveyed communes
and their populations are summarized by this criterion as follows:
Table 19. Hazard Density according to Communes and Population
Hazard
Density Communes Population
Low 81 352,112
Medium 174 872,395
High 85 536,782
Very High 4 57,162
Total 344 1,818,451
These communes are distributed over the three provinces as follows:
Table 20. Hazard Density by Province
Hazard
Density Ha Tinh
Quang
Binh
Quang
Tri Total
Low 59 18 4 81
Medium 86 52 36 174
High 11 23 51 85
Very High 0 0 4 4
Total 156 93 95 344
By way of illustration, the values are given for the four communes with hazard density judged
Very High, all of them in Quang Tri.
Table 21. High Hazard Density
District Commune
GP
Bombs Population
Area
(Square
Kilometers)
Density
Measure
Quang Tri Ward 1 7,191 7,787 3.9 14.2
Trieu Phong Trieu Long 13,565 8,135 8.8 12.5
Dong Ha Ward 1 1,404 21,500 2.9 10.5
Dong Ha Ward 5 3,283 19,740 6.5 10.0
It can thus be estimated that approximately one third of the population in the three provinces are
living in communes with High or Very High UXO hazard according to this density definition.
2.1.2 Settlement Type and Population Size
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Socio-ecological zones in the three provinces are basically of four types - “coastal”, “inland
delta”, “midland”, and “mountainous”. These categories have proven their value in a number of
studies, and thus a breakdown of surveyed communes by zone and hazard density is in order:
Table 22. Settlement Type and Level of Hazard Density
Hazard
Density Coastal
Inland
Delta Midland Mountainous Total
Low 7 15 6 53 81
Medium 20 52 27 75 174
High 10 39 27 9 85
Very High 0 3 1 0 4
Total 37 109 61 137 344
It is obvious that the fraction of “High” and “Very High” hazard communes is higher within the
inland delta and midland zones than in the others, probably for a combination of reasons: higher
population densities (more urban communities) and more ferocious attacks on what were supply
routes during the “American War”.
Most of the surveyed communes are, as would be expected, at the lower end of the population
size distribution. The fact that more urban communities are found among the High and Very
High hazard communes is the result of how the hazard density measure was constructed.
Table 23. Number of Surveyed Communes by Population and Hazard
Hazard Density
Commune
Population
Lo
w Medium
Hig
h Very High Total
0 – 2500 11 20 2 0 33
2500 – 5000 42 62 25 0 129
5000 – 7500 21 71 34 0 126
7500 - 10000 7 18 19 2 46
10000 - 12500 0 3 5 0 8
12500 - 20000 0 0 0 1 1
20000 - 22500 0 0 0 1 1
Total 81 174 85 4 344
The following graph restricts the number of communes shown per population class to those 89
communes affected by at High or Very High hazards. The typical population size is more than
6,000. This finding is remarkable when the situation of this part of Vietnam is compared to other
countries surveyed for landmine and UXO impacts. The frequent preponderance of very small
communities among those affected is not found here.
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Population size distribution
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0 - 2500
2500 - 5000
5000 - 7500
7500 - 10000
10000 - 12500
12500 - 20000
20000 - 22500
Communes, high and very high hazard only
Figure 7. Population Size Distribution
2.1.3 Bombed and Mined Areas and land uses
The survey identified 1,561 bombed and mined areas (BMA‟s) in the 344 surveyed communes.
Local informants, under guidance from interviewer teams, were careful to distinguish between
confirmed and suspected areas to facilitate the follow-up plan on prioritized clearance. While the
map outlines drawn during group interviews were later transferred to the survey database,
surface estimates are based upon estimates advanced by local informants, rather than
computed in a GIS.
The following table provides statistics for areas, status and surface by province:
Table 24. Statistics for areas, status and surface by Province
Province
Ha Tinh Communes
Confirmed Suspected
BMAs Surface Km2 Communes BMAs
Quang Binh 156 319 760,12 203 632.24
Quang Tri 93 260 314,38 143 94.15
Total 95 456 234,38 180 2,317.47
Province 344 1,035 1,308.88 526 3,043.86
In an interpretation that is easier to appreciate, these figures work out as 719 square meters of
confirmed contaminated area per inhabitant in the three provinces, and a further 1,681 square
meters of suspected contaminated area. However, it is important to note the difference in size,
as well as in ratios between the claimed confirmed and suspected areas.
Quang Tri, commonly thought of as the most contaminated of the three provinces, claims a
surprisingly modest rate of confirmed BMA. Meanwhile, this ratio in Ha Tinh is quite high.
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The map on the following page details the geographic distribution of these proportions across
provinces and surveyed communes:
Map 3. BMA Contamination Percentage
A main reason of the discrepencies is that the majority of currently contaminated land ( mostly
fall within the suspected contamination area) has been cleared on surface and down to 0.3
meter depth during the clearance operations since 1975 to expand land for resettlement.
However, little clearance has been done at the greater depth than 0.3 meters. After reinforcing
with the technical verification results, it can be confirmed that all suspected areas reported by
the key informants are located within the contaminated land, with the proportion as in the
following table:
Table 25. Typical Portion Contaminated Land in Total Commune Area
Province Communes Confirmed BMAs Suspected BMAs
Ha Tinh 156 23% 19%
Quang Binh 93 8% 2%
Quang Tri 95 8% 83%
Total 344 13% 35%
Turning from commune-level statistics to the individual 1,561 BMA‟s focused interest upon their
size distribution. In surveys of mined areas in several countries, the magnitude of their surface
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areas was found to follow a normal distribution. However, this is correct within limits only for the
BMA‟s in the three provinces.
Figure 8. BMA (confirmed & suspected) Size Distribution
The above graph provides the density curves for the surfaces of the two kinds of BMA‟s. The
size distribution of the suspected BMA‟s approximates normality, whereas the top of the
confirmed BMA distribution is, in a manner of speaking, “pushed to the right”. In other words, for
some of the confirmed BMA‟s the size must have been significantly overestimated.
Total contaminated area (confirmed and suspected) in all surveyed communes, by districts &
provinces is listed in the following table.
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Table 26. Statistics for contaminated area by district and province
No Location Surveyed
(km2)
Contaminated area (km2)
Confirmed Suspected Total
Contaminated
Proportion
I Ha Tinh Province 3,356,18 760,12 632,24 1,392,36 41%
1 Ha Tinh Town 23.00 6.45 1.95 8.40 37%
2 Hong Linh Town 60.40 26.73 5.52 32.25 53%
3 Nghi Xuan District 165.52 51.40 21.42 72.82 44%
4 Duc Tho District 100.88 33.35 12.10 45.45 45%
5 Huong Son District 302.45 16.76 49.41 66.17 22%
6 Vu Quang District 137.03 10.67 19.20 29.87 22%
7 Can Loc District 204.69 65.34 13.10 78.44 38%
8 Thach Ha District 269.59 94.33 40.69 135.02 50%
9 Cam Xuyen District 379.58 108.16 108.51 216.67 57%
10 Huong Khe District 1,097.72 162.33 262.21 424.54 39%
11 Ky Anh District 615,32 184.60 98.13 282.73 46%
II Quang Binh Province 3,950,40 314,38 94,15 408,53 10%
1 Dong Hoi CIty 96.61 5.79 7.82 13.61 14%
2 Tuyen Hoa District 455.07 16.15 8.66 24.81 5%
3 Minh Hoa District 627.65 14.64 10.24 24.88 4%
4 Quang Trach District 413.22 46.03 12.59 58.62 14%
5 Bo Trach District 1,110.73 107.38 21.89 129.27 12%
6 Quang Ninh District 936.16 28.49 6.90 35.39 4%
7 Le Thuy District 310.96 95.90 26.05 121.95 39%
III Quang Tri Province 2,788.37 234.38 2,317.47 2,551.85 92%
1 Dong Ha Town 60.80 3.58 54.23 57.81 95%
2 Quang Tri Town 6.40 1.86 3.17 5.03 79%
3 Vinh Linh District 398.74 75.17 320.34 395.51 99%
4 Gio Linh District 393.10 37.33 348.00 385.33 98%
5 Cam Lo District 283.72 21.62 148.79 170.41 60%
6 Trieu Phong District 216.50 23.74 184.30 208.04 96%
7 Hai Lang District 387.81 21.57 366.24 387.81 100%
8 Huong Hoa District 291.30 15.60 182.38 197.98 68%
9 Dakrong District 750.00 33.91 710.02 743.93 99%
Total: 10,094.95 1,308.88 3,043.86 4,352.74 43%
Within 344 surveyed communes, there are 339 communes reported to be contaminated. Total
contaminated land in those 339 communes in the three provinces is 4,352.74km2, accounting for
43% total area of the provinces (Ha Tinh: 41%, Quang Binh: 10% and Quang Tri: 92%),
including:
Confirmed contamination area is 1,308.88km2, making up 13% total area of the three
provinces and 30% total affected area.
Suspected contamination area is 3,043.86km2, making up 30% total area of the three
provinces and 70% total affected area.
There is a considerable land area which has been cleared spontaneously by local residents
during land reclamation activities but only ordnance scattering on the ground surface. Currently,
the communities are still living and working in places where UXO contamination can still be
found at depths more than 0.3 meter which results in the fear for the communities when
conducting their daily activities etc. A considerable number of grieved UXO/landmine accidents
happened during the constructions and agricultural productions at a greater depth than 0.3
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meter. It has been seen that most of the UXO/landmine accidents are caused by ordnance lying
in the greater depth than 0.3 meters.
2.2. Types of UXO/landmine
During the wars for national defense lasting for more than 30 years, Vietnam has confronted two
empires whose world leading modern war industries. The weapons including bombs and mines
were continuously innovated and improved by numerous civil and military researching institutes.
Therefore, ordnances used in Vietnam are diversified from small to big items, conventional to
modern types, which place dangers on the communities for now and in the future. Up to date,
there are approximately 1.400 types of bombs, mines and ordnances, mainly originated from the
U.S, France and other allies, were detected in the aftermath, including:
Sea mines (torpedo), anti-tank and anti-personnel mines.
Artillery shells caliber 37mm up to 203mm, anti-aircraft munitions, missile and rocket, mortar
caliber 60mm up to 160mm, infantry munitions, grenade, and other special types as
chemical, incendiary, smoke etc.
Cluster bombs, magnetic bombs, destructive bombs from 100 up to 11.000 pounds;
chemical, toxic, incendiary, smoke bombs loaded with CS, phosphorous, napalm
substances, etc.
III. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT
3.1. Landmine/UXO Victims
3.1.1. Landmine/UXO Victims
Since the end of the “American War” in 1975, more than 90% of the 344 communes surveyed
had experienced accidents related to UXO or landmines, resulting in a total of more than 10,000
victims. In almost all of those communes, at least some of the accidents resulted in fatalities,
claiming nearly 5,000 lives.
More than a quarter of a century on, almost 60% of the surveyed communes suffered such
accidents in recent years, a period hereafter defined as the previous five years (2000–2004).
Three quarter of those communes that experienced recent accidents reported accidents with at
least some victims killed, resulting in 249 fatalities.
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Table 27. Victims of Landmine and UXO Accidents
Province
Period Outcome
Communes
Involved
Ha
Tinh
Quang
Binh
Quang
Tri Total
Recent Victims
(Past 5 years)
Killed 107 29 100 120 249
Wounded 110 41 86 153 280
All Victims 142 70 186 273 529
None 202 - - - -
Past Victims
(1975-2000)
Killed 295 710 1,706 2,152 4,568
Wounded 294 878 1,776 2,846 5,500
All Victims 310 1,588 3,482 4,998 10,068
None 34 - - - -
All Victims
(1975-2005)
Killed 297 739 1806 2272 4817
Wounded 296 919 1862 2999 5780
All Victims 312 1658 3668 5271 10597
None 32 - - - -
Based upon the total population of surveyed communes, 29 of 100,000 people fell victim to UXO
or landmines, whereas based upon the total population of the communes that experienced
recent victims, the number reaches 50 people per 100,000 inhabitants.
The above table provides additional details regarding the geographic distribution of those
victims. Clearly, Quang Tri Province, home of the former Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), is, at least in
terms of the number of victims, by far the most affected province in the survey area. More than
50% of all recent accidents, and half of all accidents, were reported to have occurred in the
sample communes of that province, while Quang Binh, just north of Quang Tri, and the next
closest province to the DMZ, accounted for 35% of all victims. In Ha Tinh Province, located north
of Quang Binh and among the three surveyed provinces farthest from the DMZ, 16% of all
reported accidents occurred, and 13% of recent accidents.
3.1.2. Demography of Recent Victims
The surveyed communes reported a total of 529 recent victims, of whom 88% were male.
Except for the very young children in the age group 0-5 years, where there were „only‟ four
recent victims, three of them female. The males in all ages appear to be clearly much more likely
to fall victim to UXO or landmines, particularly males of working age. 93% of all the victims aged
between 16 and 45 years, for instance, were male. People aged 16–30 are clearly most affected
by UXO and landmine-related accidents: 36% of all recent victims belonged to that age group,
whereas 29% of all victims are between 6 and 15 years old. People aged 46 and older appear to
be much less likely to fall victim to UXO and landmines, with only 6% of all victims in that group.
This indicates that, while a good part of the accidents may be work related, there are still many
accidents involving children that are possibly the result of play activity.
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Table 28. Recent Victims of Landmine/UXO Accidents by Age, Gender, and
Outcome
Fatal Wounded Total
Age Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male Total
Unknown 12 12 9 9 21 21
0-5 3 1 4 3 1 4
6-15 10 48 58 16 82 98 26 130 156
16-30 2 82 84 12 95 107 14 177 191
31-45 4 73 77 5 38 43 9 111 120
46-60 4 12 16 3 13 16 7 25 32
>61 2 2 2 1 3 2 3 5
Total 20 229 249 41 241 280 61 468 529
The above statistics are demonstrated in the following graph:
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Figure 9. Victims died in Landmine/UXO Accidents by Age
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Unknown
0-5
6-15
16-30
31-45
46-60
>61
By Age
Number of Victims
Male
Female
Figure 10. Victims injured in Landmine/UXO Accidents by Age
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By Age
Unknown0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0-5
6-15
16-30
31-45
46-60
>61
Male
Female
Num
ber
of
Victi
ms
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Table 29 breaks down the statistics regarding recent victims by outcome and whether the
victims were members of the military. Clearly, the vast majority (99%) of all victims are civilians.
It is interesting to note, however, that, at least among the few accidents involving military
personnel, a fatal outcome was more often the case than not.
Table 29. Recent Victims of Landmine/UXO Accidents by Military and Civilian
Status
Civilian Military Total
Wounded 277 3 280
Fatal 245 4 249
Total 522 7 529
Table 30 presents recent victim rates for each of the three provinces by ecological region.
Clearly, in all provinces it is the case that the more accidents occurred in the recent past as the
general terrain becomes more rugged. While only 10% of all recent accidents occurred in
coastal areas and 18% occurred in lowland inland and delta areas, the mountainous areas
comprise 45% of all recent accidents, and 25% of all UXO and landmine related accidents
happened in midland areas. The high degree of accidents in mountainous areas compared to,
for instance, the inland and delta areas is particularly striking when considered that only a few
mountainous communes with a high hazard density compared to a significant number of
communes in the inland delta region classified as having a similar hazard density as shown on
table 22. This might indicate the role of terrain with regard to easy access, high interest by
clearance activities on one hand, as well as possibly higher pressure in mountainous areas for
farmers to make use of less intensively used agricultural land that is less likely to have already
been cleared of UXO and landmines in past years.
Table 30. Recent Victims of Landmine/UXO Accidents per capita by Ecological
Region
Recent Victims per 1,000 People
Ecological Zone Ha Tinh Quang Binh Quang Tri
Coastal 0.10 0.28 0.55
Inland Delta 0.01 0.25 0.28
Midland 0.11 0.43 0.83
Mountains 0.16 0.67 2.64
3.2. Accidents and Consequences
While the survey did not collect information concerning the occupations of victims at the time of
accidents, information about the activity people were engaged in when the accidents happened
is available. Table 31 offers a breakdown of the activities of recent victims at the time of their
accidents by gender and ecological region.
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Table 31. Victim Activities at the Time of Recent Accidents
Coastal Delta Inland Midland Mountains Total
Activity Fem Male Fem Male Fem Male Fem Male Fem Male Total
Scrap 9 1 24 2 51 3 83 6 167 173
Farming / Herding 2 11 4 15 5 38 11 60 22 124 146
Playing / Tampering 3 10 6 21 7 20 38 16 89 105
Military Demining 7 3 4 0 14 14
Construction 1 5 1 0 7 7
Other 6 12 2 8 2 11 5 38 15 69 84
Unknown 1 2 1 2 3
Overall, activities involving the collection of scrap metal/war residue – are the leading cause of
accidents, which make up one third of all recent accidents in surveyed communes. Farming and
herding activities are the leading causes of UXO and landmine-related accidents in the female
population: 37% of all female victims were engaged in farming and herding activities at the time
of their accidents. While war scrap metal handling is responsible for 36% of all recent accidents
in mountainous areas, this is less the case in coastal and inland delta areas, where playing and
tempering comprises 24% and 29% of all accidents, respectively. In contrast, playing and
tempering accounts for only 16% of all accidents in mountainous areas, where only males
appeared to have fallen victim to that activity involving UXO and landmines.
As the following table shows, the fatality rate is particularly high among male adults who suffer a
landmine or UXO accident.
Table 32. Fatality Rates of Recent Accidents by Gender and Age
Children (0-15) Adults Total
Fatal Female Male Female Male Female Male Total
Yes 10 48 10 167 20 215 235
No 19 83 22 147 41 230 271
Total 29 131 32 314 61 445 506
Fatality
Rate 34% 37% 31% 53% 33% 48% 46%
Table 33 offers detailed variations in fatality rates among victims living in different ecological
regions, as well as by ethnic minority status. The left side of the table illustrates that fatality rates
for ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) is considerably higher than for any of the ethnic minorities living in
surveyed communes. The fatality rate difference is even more striking in mountainous areas that
are typical ethnic minority areas.
Table 33. Fatality Rates of Recent Accidents by Ethnicity and Ecological Zone
Kinh
Ethnic
Minority Kinh
Ethnic
Minority
Fatal Total Total Costal
Inland
Delta Midland Mountains Mountains
No 238 41 31 49 80 78 41
Yes 222 21 23 46 58 95 21
Total 460 62 54 95 138 173 62
Fatality
Rate 48% 34% 43% 48% 42% 55% 34%
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These differences are difficult to explain. A hint is provided by the different activities that Kinh
and ethnic minority people were conducting at the time of their accidents in the mountainous
regions. Minority people were harmed predominantly during scrap metal collection. Farming and
herding, the chief activity among Kinh victims, are not found among the activities at the time of
their accidents.
Table 34. Victim Activities at the Time of Recent Accidents in Mountainous Areas
Activity Kinh
Ethnic
Minority
Scrap 64 25
Farming/Herding 71 0
Playing/Tampering 32 6
Military Demining 4 0
Other 28 15
Total 199 46
3.3. Causes to the landmine/UXO accidents
Based on the survey results, the following are causes of almost all landmine/UXO accidents as
shown in table 35:
Table 35. Victim activities at the time of accidents
Activities
Landmine/
UXO
Removal
Metal
Scrap
Collection
Farming,
Herding Construc. Playing Other Unknown
Number 14 174 142 7 105 83 5
Portion 3% 33% 27% 1% 20% 16% 1%
Technical mistake by deminers during clearance operations for reclamation and resettlement or
expansion of land for infrastructure construction was one of the causes. The accident proportion
is low, however, making up about 3% of total accidents as the demining teams are given
adequate trainings on demining technical procedures, organizational working order and
equipped with safety protective devices.
Activation of landmine/UXO by communities during reclamation, farming, breeding and house
building or other daily activities. These accidents account for approximately 28% of total
accidents.
Spontaneous metal scrap collection of the people who have no knowledge on the design and
working mechanism of the ordance, attempt to dismantling, sawing, cutting the ordances to
extract explosives and metal scraps. This type of accident also makes up approximately 33%
and has been on rise in recent years.
Children‟s unawareness and curiosity as they play, throw ordnances etc. Number of accidents in
this type is around 20% of total landmine/UXO accidents.
Other causes make up 16% of total accidents.
3.4. Blocked Access to Resources
Given the nature of UXO contamination in Vietnam, notably the amount of deeply buried
munitions, and the rapid socio-economic transformation and industrialization of the country, the
concept of blockage was extended from its narrow sense of interdicting physical access to
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resources to the likely possibility that UXO would affect a variety of development activities.
These effects might be such that projects would:
Not be undertaken;
Be delayed;
Become more costly because of attendant clearance or other safety measures.
Information regarding affected resources and development projects was elicited from two groups
of interviewees. First, commune leaders were presented with a list of 15 project types and were
asked which of those the commune had undertaken in the previous five years and which had
been hampered by UXO or landmine contamination. Project types listed were:
Power Lines
Highways
Bridges
Dikes or Dams
Canals
Factories
Offices
Industrial Zone
Hotels and Tourism
Projects
Residential
Construction
Educational
Facilities
Medical Facilities
Markets, Shopping
Centers
Sports
Stadiums/Cultural
Sites
Second, local key informants from villages and urban wards were met in group interviews. They
were asked to state whether contamination had hampered civil works at the household level.
The list of such activities presented to them included:
Building houses;
Well/pond digging;
Farming;
Land expansion for farming.
3.4.1. Response Pattern at the Commune Leader Level
The following table presents types of projects that community leaders claimed their communes
had undertaken in the previous five years (prior to the survey) in descending frequency. In the
right column, the proportion affected by UXO or landmines is given among the communes that
undertook this type of project. The information regarding canals was not retrieved; thus, the
analysis concerns 14 project types.
Table 36. Affected Communes by Project Type
Project Type
Communes
Undertaking Such
Projects in Past Five
Years
Affected By UXO Or
Landmines If This
Project Type
Undertaken
Residential Construction 92% 88%
Highways 91% 93%
Educational Facilities 90% 88%
Bridges 86% 88%
Offices 83% 87%
Medical Facilities 80% 77%
Power Lines 79% 84%
Cultural Sites 74% 77%
Dikes or Dams 71% 84%
Sport Stadiums 71% 84%
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Markets, Shopping
Centers 40% 87%
Industrial Zones 26% 94%
Factories 24% 91%
Hotels, Tourism 22% 88%
These claims appear, for the most part, to be very high that one would believe that the
residential building, highway construction, school building activities have been conducted in all
communes in the last 5 years, indicating that the Government paid the adequate concern to the
infrastructure and social welfare constructions in communities which are reported with
landmine/UXO contamination.
It is worth noting too that there is an abrupt drop, in the listing by descending frequency, from
sports stadiums (71%) to markets and shopping centers (40%). Also, invariably, more than 75%
of communes that undertook projects claimed that UXO or landmines hampered some of the
projects in the given category.
Whereas in response to the open question regarding the most important impacts, commune
leaders and villages each volunteered 3.7 impacts (see further below), the closed questions
elicited claims, on average, of as many as 8.0 different types of projects undertaken and
affected by contamination. This is really excessive, with ten communes claiming projects
affected in all 14 categories.
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Table 37. Development Activities Affected in Previous Five Years, by Number of
Different Types
Project Types
Claimed Affected
in the Previous
Five Years
Communes
Claiming this
Number of Project
Types Affected by
UXO or Landmines
Percent of All
Surveyed
Communes
0 8 2.33
1 3 0.87
2 5 1.45
3 13 3.78
4 12 3.49
5 28 8.14
6 32 9.30
7 40 11.63
8 38 11.05
9 45 13.08
10 54 15.70
11 37 10.76
12 15 4.36
13 4 1.16
14 10 2.91
Total 344 100.00
3.4.2. Response Pattern at the Village Key Informant Level.
A commune was scored as having a problem with UXO or landmines at the household-activity
level when at least one participant during a key informant meeting reported an instance of this
problem within the previous five years. Therefore, the percentages given in the following table
only indicate how many communes have known some resident households that encountered the
problem. They must not be mistaken as the percentage of all households affected by it.
Table 38. Percentage of Communes in Which Key Informants Reported Problems
with UXO or Landmines
Household-level Activity
Hampered by UXO or
Landmines
Percentage Communes
Reporting Instances
Well and Pond Digging 87%
Farming 79%
Land Expansion for
Farming 68%
Building Houses 64%
Since each commune consists of a large number of households, the fact that a relatively large
proportion report that some member households were affected by UXO and landmines while
pursuing certain activities says little about the overall incidence of these problems. Nevertheless,
note that the complaint about problems in residential construction was raised by village level key
informants less frequently (64%) than by their leaders (88%). The high proportion of communes
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in which some households in the communes encountered problems while digging wells or ponds
agrees with the emphasis that access to water appears among the most important impacts
singled out by commune leaders (see comments & assessments).
IV. COMMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS
4.1 Comments
In each surveyed commune, leaders and village-level key informants were separately asked
open questions regarding the most important impacts of landmines and UXO. The open
questions at the two-interviewee levels were identical.
The elements collected with the help of open questions are sometimes called “qualitative”, but
what is more important in this context is that they concerned those impacts which the
interviewees considered the most important. The second question was intended to elicit impacts
beyond the very frequently invoked climate of fear that the UXO is maintaining (see samples):
In general, what major effects are UXO/mines having in this commune (ward)?
Many people talk about fear that UXO and landmines create. Other than that, do landmines and
bombs have any practical effects in this commune (ward)?
The “most important impact” responses were coded, separately for leaders and villagers, using
an agreed typology constructed on the basis of a sample of verbatim translations. Two
communes did not report village key informant responses. For the others, leader and villager
response patterns can be compared.
4.1.1 The most importants impacts, agreement between Leaders and Key informants
Impact claims varied widely, from almost universally claimed psychological impacts (the “fear
factor”), to very rare cases in which an impact upon tourism was reported. While the frequencies
of these claims are not too dissimilar between leaders and villagers over all surveyed
communes, agreement between these groups in the same commune is generally very low.
This raises questions about the reliability of the local evaluations, but may also be due to
inability of interviewers to reconcile the response from the two villager interviews, and to
subsequent coding or data entry errors. The following table arranges impact claims in
descending order for leaders. It compares the frequency of their claims with those of the key
informants. It adds a statistical measure, known as “Kappa”, expressing the extent of agreement
between the leader and villager groups. A Kappa of one stands for complete agreement, zero
indicates that the opinions are independent between the two groups, and -1 would stand for
complete disagreement.
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Table 39. Type of Impact
Impact Community Leaders Village Key Informants Kappa
Psychological 89% 86% 0.55
Blocked Access 64% 35% 0.23
Construction 52% 61% 0.41
Agriculture & Forests 40% 69% 0.18
Water 34% 39% 0.47
Health 33% 33% 0.40
Soil 24% 26% 0.32
Development 14% 12% 0.41
Transportation 8% 7% 0.13
Canal 4% 3% 0.05
Fishing 3% 4% 0.40
Tourism 0% 1% 0.67
Items with frequencies between 10 and 90 percent (in other words, those that discriminate well)
at the leader level and those among them with kappa >0.30 are highlighted. A statistical analysis
of response patterns was then performed, for each level of respondents, using six impact
variables:
Psychological;
Construction;
Water;
Health;
Soil; and,
Development.
A surprising finding emerged for the commune leaders‟ response. The optimal number of
clusters (configurations of most important impacts) to which their response could be assigned
was very small - two only. The optimal number for the village key informant response was much
larger, at seven. This pattern is difficult to interpret; therefore the focus here is on the leaders‟
choices.
Proportions of Communes by Commune Leader Response
Water & Health
Construction

Figure 11. Commune Leader Response
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What seems to consistently differentiate situations in their eyes is whether landmines and UXO
impact the health of people, access to water, and (less strictly) risks to construction. Moreover,
water and health are strongly correlated.
This is most evident through comparisons of how commune‟s places in cluster 1 and 2
according to their leaders‟ views of the major UXO/landmine impacts compare with regard to
each of those three issues.
Table 40. Health Risks
Cluster
Not a Major Impact Is a Major Impact
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
1 195 84.8% 0 .0%
2 35 15.2% 113 100.0%
Combined 230 100.0% 113 100.0%
Table 41. Impact on Water
Cluster
Not a Major Impact Is a Major Impact
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
1 195 85.9% 0 .0%
2 32 14.1% 116 100.0%
Combined 227 100.0% 116 100.0%
Table 42. Obstacles to Construction
Cluster
Not a Major Impact Is a Major Impact
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
1 71 43.3% 124 69.3%
2 93 56.7% 55 30.7%
Combined 164 100.0% 179 100.0%
It is, of course, of considerable interest to know what factors were prompting commune leaders
to emphasize health and water as major impact areas, compared to other communes whose
leaders characterized the impact upon construction as a leading effect of the contamination.
There is considerable local clustering evident in a number of locations.These clusters in space
might be due to interviewer behavior. However, this is not probable when looking at the results
of a deeper statistical analysis.
This reveals that the preference for “water/health” vs. “construction” among the most important
impacts emphasized by commune leaders is related to social and contamination factors.
That these preferences were not random is evident in the following map. It displays communes
by one or the other of the clusters to which their leaders‟ choice of most important impacts was
assigned.
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Map 4. Major Impact Combinations
Leaders tended to emphasize water and health when their communes were:
Poorer;
Closer to the nearest district town, and;
Faced with a higher hazard from landmines and UXO than the average commune.
These associations are difficult to interpret. One may speculate that richer communes see more
construction activity, and therefore worry more about the safety aspects of new construction.
Proximity to district towns may attract a higher percentage of well-educated residents, and thus
more persons who are more health-conscious. The higher density of the UXO hazard also
contributes to making the impacts on water and health a prime concern – possibly because of
more frequent accidents while well-digging, pond-digging, etc.
4.1.2. The level of landmine/UXO contamination:
Findings of the survey provided an overview of distribution of the contaminated area in the three
provinces which can provisionally be classified into 2 levels:
Level 1: Confirmed BMA scatter in all 27 districts and cities of the three provinces, accounting
for 25% total contaminated area that needs to be set priority for clearance as soon as possible.
Despite of the clearance operations in the past, those areas are still heavily affected, and the
local residents still encounter landmine/UXO during their daily activities.
Level 2: Areas that are currently suspected as contamination but in low density. The local
residents rarely encounter landmine/UXO on the ground surface in these areas during their
production activities, however, ordnances lying deeply under the ground, particularly deeper
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than 0.3 meter are still found during the residential building, pond-digging etc. Therefore,
clearance in those areas is not imperative (except those locations for economic development
and national defense works). The suspected BMAs are in all districts and cities of the three
provinces, making up 75% of total contaminated area.
4.2 Impact Assessment
4.2.1. Severity of Impact:
For each affected commune, the survey calculated a point score expressing the severity of the
various landmine and UXO impacts. The score takes three major impact factors into account:
The number of recent victims;
The types of development projects hampered by the contamination;
The level of the UXO hazard.
The score is then used to classify communities as Low-, Medium- or High-impact. Two
approaches were explored. Results from both are reported here, although the second is more
selective and better suited for strategic planning purposes.
At first, the score was computed in close keeping with the traditional Landmine Impact Survey
(LIS) methodology. A commune reporting UXO was given one point; it earned two more for the
presence of landmines. When the contamination was reported to have hampered development
activities, additional points were awarded depending upon the type of facility and/or resource
affected. These weights are summarized in the following table:
Table 43. Impact Weights Using First Scoring Method
Resource or Facility Weight
Current Homestead Land 0.75
New Housing 1.00
Current Farming 2.50
Farm Land Expansion 0.75
Medical Facilities and Schools 1.25
Markets 1.25
Wells 2.50
Finally, two points were assigned for each victim of an accident in the commune between 2000
and 2004. The resulting impact scores tended to be very high, as high as 44. When the
traditional ranges were applied to place communes in impact categories, only four communes
were rated as Low Impact, and only 39 as Medium Impact. More than 300 communes appeared
as High Impact. This category was subdivided into “High” (202 communes) and “Very High” (99).
This diagram visualizes the distribution of communes based upon impact scores and the
category ranges.
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Figure 12. Impact Score Distribution Using First Scoring Method
An alternative to the inflationary use of the “High Impact” category was needed. Also, the LIS
methodology defines recent victims as those who were killed or injured within the two years prior
to the survey date, as opposed to the five-year period.
The alternative scoring followed the LIS methodology similarly closely, but made small
adjustments reflecting the specifics of this survey in Vietnam. Points within the range 0 – 3
regarding the nature of munitions were allocated in response to the level of UXO hazard, a
measure using the number of general-purpose bombs dropped prior to 1975, multiplied with the
current population and divided by the area of the commune. The points reserved for blockages
of resources (with a maximum of 10, as in the LIS methodology) were calculated from the
response that commune leaders provided concerning 14 types of projects undertaken in the
previous five years, and affected by the contamination.
A statistical correction was made to deflate claims of numerous types of UXO-affected projects.
Finally, as in previous surveys, two points were assigned for each recent victim, but this number
was multiplied by 0.4 to reflect the fact that the survey had counted them for a five-year period
instead of the standard two-year period.
The resulting score distribution is more conservative, as shown in this bar graph. Only the usual
three categories were formed. Of 344 surveyed communes, 146 (42%) are classified Low
Impact, 177 (51%) Medium Impact, and 21 (6%) High Impact.
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Figure 13. Impact Score Distribution Using Second Method
A comparison is offered in the following regarding the distribution of communes by impact
category using the two scoring methods:
Map 5. Impact Category
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All subsequent analyses are based upon this more conservative scoring. The category
boundaries follow international standard, with 1-5 earning the grade “Low Impact, 6 – 10
“Medium Impact”, and 11 and higher as “High Impact”.
Thus, and in geographic perspective, the distribution of survey communes by impact category is
as follows:
Table 44. Impact Category
Impact Category
Province Low Medium High Total
Ha Tinh 74 76 6 156
Quang Binh 38 48 7 93
Quang Tri 34 53 8 95
Total 146 177 21 344
4.2.2. Populations by Impact Category
It is calculated from official population figures that 1.8 million persons were living in surveyed
communes at the time of the interviews. If broken down by province and impact category, this
picture emerges:
Table 45. Population by Impact Category
Impact Category
Province Low Medium High Total
Ha Tinh 384,480 398,977 33,146 816,603
Quang Binh 205,432 283,921 42,949 532,302
Quang Tri 146,000 276,969 46,577 469,546
Total 735,912 959,867 122,672 1,818,451
As expected, the fraction of provincial populations living in HighI Impact communes rises from
north to south, from less than 5% in Ha Tinh to close to 10% in Quang Tri.
4.3. Landmine/UXO impacts
4.3.1. Impact to the human and socio-economic development.
Accidents caused by landmine/UXO left after the wars are day by day exerting impacts on
communities, causing deaths or permanent injuries, consequently leading to fear and reduction
in production productivity. According to statistics, the lamdmine/UXO victims are mostly in the
working age and the breadwinners of families or the prospective masters of the country as in
table 28. The death or permanent injuries of family members will cause a number of difficulties
for landmine/UXO victim families. In many cases, a victim though survived from an incident,
became a burden for his/her family for all lifetime as well as the entire society.
It can be seen that most bombs, mines and munitions left by the wars in Vietnam were designed
to maim and kill people in large killing radius, thus causing huge human losses and sufferings
when an explosion occurs. Statistics shows that, most survivors were undergone operations and
endured permanent injuries as: limps loosed, blind, burned, and a minor number of head
wounds.
Another serious impact on the whole society and landmine/UXO victim families is financial
burden for burial services, medical first aid and treatment. Every year, provincial social welfare
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organizations and victim families spend tens of VND billions for: giving first aid and medial
healthcare for landmine/UXO victims and assistance for their families; organizing physical
rehabilitation and orthotics services; setting up vocational centers and create job to help victims
integrate to communities; launching mine propaganda and education campaigns through mass
media, etc. Due to economic difficulties of the provinces, victim assistance activities are yet to
sufficiently meet the present needs of mine victims and their families.
4.3.2. Impact on the agricultural production:
For an agricultural country as Vietnam in general and the three provinces in particular, most
population is in rural areas with main income coming from agricultural production.
Landmine/UXO presence in cultivation areas, however, causes fear and insecure feelings in
production, making the farmers to leave their field fallow, thus reducing productivity and output.
Many arable areas through fertile can not be fully used for agricultural production because of
landmine/UXO presence.
Every year, the expense for landmine/UXO clearance in production recovery and living
stabilization spent in reclamation and resettlement projects is really a burden on budget of the
provinces.
4.3.3. Burdens on State budget and economy
In the wartime, national transportation network and infrastructure system in the three provinces
were all the targets for destruction and mostly leveled by the U.S destructive bombs and
ammunitions in Vietnam War. So far, the amount of unexploded ordnance is still numerous,
imposing difficulties on investment and development projects as a considerable expense for
landmine/UXO clearance incurred.
Right after the wars came into the end, during 1975-1977 and 1991-1998 Government and the
provinces made efforts regarding finance, human resources and even human losses to conduct
landmine/UXO clearance operations to expand land for construction. The works only focused on
highly contaminated and important areas, national and provincial large projects constructed on
the ground and up to 30cm depth.
During the cause of modernization and industrialization, for the safety of basic infrastructure
system constructions landmine/UXO clearance operations need to be implemented in decades
to come with an expense of VND trillions against the situation of economic difficulties of the
three provinces in particular and the country in general.
4.3.4. Impacts on social stability and security
Due to the fact that most area in the three provinces is highly contaminated with various types of
landmine/UXO while population‟s standard of living and per capita remain low, economies
underdeveloped, many people in the leisure after harvest time engage in metal scrap and even
explosives collection for livelihood. The sawing, cutting and breaking bombs and war heads to
extract explosives and collect metal scraps have been causing tragic incidents and imposing a
permanent danger on people‟s life and disordering normal activities of communities.
Explosives are special materials under the management of government agencies, exclusively for
use and possession by army forces and some relevant organizations as approved. As it is sold
and exchanged as a normal goods, however, it will be easily abused for prohibited purposes
such as: fishing, mining etc. which both causes exhaustion in natural resources and environment
pollution. Particularly in current world situation when terrorist attacks occur continuously, unless
explosives is put under a firm management it can be employed by the hostile forces to cause
social instabilities and undermine national society‟s order and security.
V. COMMUNITY RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION.
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5.1. Community Response and Adaptation
Since the “American War” ended more than 30 years ago, communities in Vietnam have faced
the challenge of learning to live with a dangerous legacy of that war. Adaptations to longstanding
hazards and resource blockages caused by war involve multifarious processes that are
known incompletely in this case. The movements of victim and accident numbers over time,
however, can capture a large portion of the adaptation success.
The ability to avoid accidents is a key indicator of communal learning and of the development of
alternatives to the use of contaminated resources. This section takes advantage of victim data
that the survey collected in two ways. It measures differential adaptability by the ratio of recent
victims (2000 – 2004) to those of previous periods. Second, it examines factors associated with
the absolute numbers of recent victims and estimates the probability of a commune to suffer at
least one landmine/UXO related accident in a five-year period.
A look at the average number of victims per year between 1975 and 1999 compared to the
average number of recent victims per year reveals a drastic reduction of average annual victim
numbers by a factor of almost four. Table 46 presents the average annual victim numbers by
outcome for each of those two periods, and the respective reduction factors. While the reduction
rate for accidents with wounded victims is slightly higher than for accidents with a fatal outcome,
the differences are small. This indicates that, while the number of accidents has become fewer
over the years, the landmines and UXO have not lost any of their lethality, nor do the
communities appear to have been able to lower the risk of fatalities caused by accidents.
Table 46. Mean Victims per Year per Period and Outcome
Past Victims per
Year (1975-
1999)
Recent Victims
per Year (2000-
2004) Reduction Factor
Killed 183 50 3.67
Wounded 220 56 3.93
All Victims 403 106 3.81
As table 47 illustrates, there are great differences in those reduction factors among the different
ecological regions. While communities in the inland delta region were able to reduce the
average annual victim rates from the highest among the different regions by the factor 7.1,
mountainous communities, which experienced an average annual victim rate in the past not
much lower than the one of the inland delta region still possess an average annual recent victim
rate that is more than double that of the lowland areas.
Table 47. Mean Victims Per Year Per Period and Region
Mean Victims Per Year
Ecological Zone 1975-1999 2000-2004 Reduction Rate
Coastal 42 11 3.9
Inland Delta 134 19 7.1
Midland 112 29 3.8
Mountainous 114 48 2.4
Several possible reasons for such differences may be true: First, the inland delta region is the
area most heavily affected in terms of hazard density (see table 22). If clean-up efforts in the
years after the war concentrated on such areas, they must have resulted in a reduction of
contaminated lands. This would also have lowered opportunities for scrap metal collection in the
inland delta, and with it the attendant risk of accidents.
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Conversely, in the mountainous areas, large tracts of sloping land were and still are used for
agricultural purposes, many as ”newly cleared land”, under a rotational cultivation process. In
such terrain, clearance would have been more difficult. It is plausible to assume that the
residents of this ecological zone had less access to the expanding education system and to new
economic opportunities. As the alternatives to using contaminated land and to scrap metal
collection were fewer, the accident reduction rate was thus lower.
Examining the communal learning rates with respect to the communal welfare status reveals
that the learning rates tend to improve with decreasing economic welfare: communes with high
rate of households below the poverty line, the learning rate is highest, while those communes
with a medium poverty rate exhibit a significantly lower learning rate. The lowest learning rates,
however, are found among the poorest communes, with over three quarter of all the households
being poor.
Table 48. Communal Welfare and Learning Rates
Mean Victims Per Year
Reduction
Rate
< 25% of households poor 4.9
25%-50% of households poor 5.1
50%-75% of households poor 6.2
>75% of households poor 4.6
5.2. Factors Relevant to Community Adaptability
Factors that potentially influence and affect a commune‟s adaptability to the landmine/UXO
hazard are explored here, which include the degree of initial contamination, the general level of
socio-economic welfare, geophysical aspects, and factors related to a commune‟s access to
infrastructure and services. These are measured through various associated indicators:
Initial contamination level (here expressed by the hazard density measure);
Level of socio-economic well-being (poverty rate);
Urbanity (population density, distance to nearest district town);
Physical accessibility (paved roads, flat land as percentage of commune area);
Access to services and institutions (degree of access to clean water in the commune,
access to electricity, telephone service, health care and education, markets).
The following graph visualizes the strength of the influence that those factors each had on
community adaptability. The variable in focus is the ratio of recent victim count (2000 – 2004) to
the victims recorded in older data (i.e. from the period 1975 – 1999). Because of a technicality,
the factors that have contributed to the relative reduction in accidents are shown with bars
running left; factors that have slowed down the adaptation have bars that run right.
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Figure 14. Determinants of the Extent of Reduction in Landmine/UXO Accidents
Note: Figures are standardized regression coefficients. The dependent variable is computed as ln (recent
victims + 1/old victims+ 1), which is why coefficients conveying relatively greater progress appear as
negative numbers. Grey bars: not significant at 10% level
A number of non-trivial findings leap out. The reduction in victims was most substantial in
communes that started from a very high hazard baseline. Counter-intuitively, it has also been
considerable in poorer communes. This is a possible indication that the often-deplored close
nexus between poverty, risk taking (in contaminated farm land and in collecting devices) and
accidents may in fact have grown weaker, an assumption that the following analyses will
reinforce.
Urbanity‟s effects are ambiguous – higher population density has slowed down adaptation;
closeness to the centers of districts and better access to education seem to have accelerated
the drop in victim numbers. Mountainous areas have paid a penalty in terms of slower
adaptation. Paved roads, electricity and, in particular, better health care facilities have helped to
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keep victim numbers high – roads and electricity may increase incentives for scrap metal
collection and processing, as well as access to previously inaccessible contaminated areas,
although this is an ad-hoc explanation for a causal rapport that is not well understood.
The apparent slowing down of adaptation by the presence of more or better health care facilities
seems an aberrant result; this variable may proxy for unobserved factors, possible but unproven,
such as wealthier communes that were able to initiate more construction projects and thus
invited more accidents with deeply buried UXO.
In sum, however, the model results suggest that the communes with the highest hazards have
made the greatest progress in reducing accidents, relative to their baseline. Together with the
progress of poorer communes, that may mean that the impacts of the remaining contamination
are more equally distributed across communes than they were, say, twenty years ago.
5.3. Determinants of Contemporary Risks
A similar set of factors has been considered for their influence upon the absolute numbers of
recent victims, in other words, in a cross-sectional rather than a dynamic perspective. In addition
to the variables used in the model presented above, the following model also considers access
to blockages to a number of important resources. The results of this model are shown in the
following graph. In this graph, variables with bars running right are associated with higher victim
numbers.
Again, note that “Access to Clean Water” is not a directly UXO-related variable, while “Blocked
Access to Water Source” is directly UXO-related, but more in terms of physical effects on the
water source rather than related to the water quality with respect to chemical contamination.
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Figure 15. Factors Influencing Probability of Recent Landmine Accidents
Note: The figures are standardized coefficients from a Poisson regression. Grey bars: not
significant at 10% level.
Again, one notes the very significant influence of hazard density. Communes living with higher
hazards (despite the fact that they made strong progress during the previous period) continue to
have more victims than communes with fewer hazards do. Urbanity provides another strong
determinant of recent victims – in the opposite direction. Both population density and proximity
to district centers significantly mitigate the landmine/UXO accident risk.
Some other contributing factors should be noted. As might be expected, communities that faced
obstacles from UXO while trying to expand farmland or residential construction saw more
accidents happen. Access to electricity and paved roads is linked to higher victim numbers,
which might tempt one to attribute the effect to the additional incentives that metal shops (which
depend on electricity) and better roads have for scrap metal collection and tampering with UXO.
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The great surprise is from a factor that has lost its significance. Contrary to common wisdom,
poverty is not (or is no longer) associated with higher victim numbers. This is certainly
debatable; it can be shown that certain groups of communes that have high poverty rates also
are faced with elevated landmine and UXO accident risks, such as those in mountainous areas
of Quang Tri Province. It can, however, also be observed that somewhat surprisingly the
accident reduction rate, or the communal learning rate improves with higher poverty rates, as
shown in the preceding chapter.
This finding, while globally true, may conceal a paradox, a contradiction between the effects of
individual and collective poverty. Poor households may still be obliged to pursue livelihoods that
put them at higher risk of accidents than those accepted by richer households. When these risks
are aggregated at the commune level, however, they may statistically disappear. This will be the
case if richer communes are those able to afford a higher volume of new construction and civil
works, with increased contact with deeply buried UXO.
The persons exposed to these new risks may originate disproportionately from poorer segments
of society, such as construction workers, but if harmed they become a statistic of their
communes, and the aggregation conceals the effects of individual poverty.
Thus it would seem premature to conclude that in Vietnam poverty has lost its association with
landmine and UXO victimization. But, taken together with the findings of the dynamic model
discussed earlier, there are strong indications that this association has weakened over time.
Extrapolating from recent experience, the risk may be calculated for each commune with known
socio-economic parameters to incur some landmine or UXO-related accident during a five-year
period. The following table provides mean risk estimates for communes defined by province and
ecological zone.
Table 49. Mean Probability of a Commune to Suffer at Least One Victim in a Five-
Year Period
Ha Tinh
Quang
Binh Quang Tri
Coastal 0.15 0.37 0.51
Inland Delta 0.21 0.46 0.59
Midland 0.27 0.44 0.69
Mountains 0.27 0.47 0.71
These risks vary strongly, by a factor of almost 1 to 5, from a low 15% in coastal Ha Tinh to 71%
in the mountains of Quang Tri. Note, however, that the risks for mountain communes are not
significantly higher than for midland communes.
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PART IV RESPONSE TO THE LANDMINE/UXO CONTAMINATION
I. TECHNICAL RESPONSE
1.1. Cleared Area prior to the Project:
Preceding 1975, local provinces and Vietnamese army units cleared landmines and UXO
contamination lying on the surface down to 0.3 meters of heavily contaminated areas in efforts
to make land available for resettlement and agriculture.
In addition, local residents have spontaneously cleared UXO found on the ground during land
reclamation activities. Presently, based upon reported accidents occuring during house
construction and earth removal, it is believed that communities are still living and working in
places where UXO contamination can still be found at depths more than 0.3 meters.
Total contaminated area in the three provinces cleared by regular and local army forces and
international organizations through November 2004 is listed in the following table:
Table 50. Statistics of cleared area until November 2004
No Location Area (ha)
I Ha Tinh Province 1.175,32
1 Ha Tinh Town 13,90
2 Hong Linh Town 28,77
3 Nghi Xuan District 52,72
4 Duc Tho District 64,92
5 Huong Son District 27,60
No Location Area (ha)
6 Vu Quang District 34,50
7 Can Loc District 59,50
8 Thach Ha District 41,00
9 Cam Xuyen District 142,32
10 Huong Khe District 209,93
11 Ky Anh District 500,16
II Quang Binh
Province 1.533,97
1 Dong Hoi City 47,50
2 Tuyen Hoa District 137,00
3 Minh Hoa District 103,70
4 Quang Trach District 483,84
5 Bo Trach District 286,16
6 Quang Ninh District 220,70
7 Le Thuy District 255,07
III Quang Tri Province 3.268,79
1 Dong Ha Town
2 Quang Tri Town 10,00
3 Vinh Linh District 677,37
4 Gio Linh District 613,21
Total: 5.978,08
5 Cam Lo District 437,30
6 Trieu Phong District 305,62
7 Hai Lang District 353,60
8 Huong Hoa District 435,20
9 Dakrong District 436,48
This area has been cleared primarily in conjunction with infrastructure development projects at
State investment industrial zones or domestic and international joint ventures since 1975,
particularly from 1990 onwards. There are no statistics (either at central or local levels) before
1990. The above area has been cleared up to depths of five meters (both on the surface and
underwater).
The accuracy of these statistics remains limited due to issues such as poor management of the
area under control of local authorities; the management of archival data and records in this field
has not gained adequate attention from commune/district to provincial level.
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Based on survey statistics as reported by witnesses and provincial authority interviews,
combined with archival data from 1975 to present, there have been a number of landmine/UXO
clearance operations at various scales launched by Vietnamese military forces (Engineering
Command, regular and regional forces) to expand land for agricultural production, resettlement,
reclamation, building and basic infrastructure system and migration projects. These operations
focused largely upon highly contaminated areas, but clearance was generally only conducted for
immediate high-need objectives. Therefore, only landmines and/or UXO down to the 0.3 meter
depth and within cultivated and housing areas, and specific developmental works was
addressed. Ordnance lying at greater depth than 0.3 meters and in other areas remains to be
cleared.
The Vietnamese Party and Government have focused great attention on infrastructure and
socio-economic development in the central region, as this areasuffered most during the long
period of warfare. Therefore, many infrastructure development and industrial zone projects have
been undertaken in this region. In addition, a number of international NGO‟s are permitted to
implement landmine/UXO clearance operations in the three surveyed provinces, and have
cleared a remarkable amount of contaminated area.
According to incomplete statistics, approximately 1% to 2% of the contaminated area in the
three provinces has been cleared. Landmine/UXO clearance, however, will not attain necessary
objectives unless a national strategy is developed that attracts sound investment and assistance
from social agencies and international governments and NGO‟s.
1.2. Technical Response during the Project
During the field operations June 2004 to November 2004 Technical Verification Teams
completed clearance of 421 hectares of land in 2,761 sites (an increase of 21 hectares
compared with the plan) (clearance operation was done up to the depth of 5 meter as in
accordance with technical process; landmine and UXO at the depth of 1m was cleared and
those located at greater depth were marked and handed over to local military offices for later
clearance). The project detected and disposed safely 6,205 landmine/UXO items (5 destructive
boms from 250 to 1000 pounds, 1,283 bomblets, 859 mortars, 180 M79 projectiles, 32 anti-tank
mines, 24 grenades and other 3,822 UXO items. The results are as follows:
Ha Tinh Province:
Total land cleared: 165.5 hectares/853 technical response sites.
Detected and safely disposed: 3,404 landmine/UXO items (2 destructive bombs of 750 and 1000
pound, 639 bomblets, 234 artillery shells, 234 mortars, 8 BB mines, 12 grenades and other
2,509 UXO).
Quang Binh Province:
Total land cleared: 145.7 hectares/931 technical response sites.
Detected and safely disposed: 1.203 landmine/UXO items (1 destructive bomb of 750 pounds,
345 bomblets, 122 mortar and artillery shells, 11 grenades and other 724 UXO items).
Quang Tri Province:
Total land cleared: 109.8 hectares/977 technical response sites.
Detected and safely disposed: 1.598 landmine/UXO items (2 destructive bomb of 750 pounds,
299 bomblets, 503 mortar and artillery shells, 180 M79 projectiles, 24 BB mines, 1 grenade and
other 589 UXO items).
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500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
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Figure 16. Statistics on Main types of UXO/mines found in BMAs
II. WAR SCRAP METAL COLLECTION.
The standard of living of most families in the three surveyed provinces is at the lowest level in
comparison to other regions of the country. This socio-economic environment leads to
spontaneous scrap metal collection by local residents in order to supplement livelihood. Among
these people, some consider this pursuit to be a profession because they have no alternative
means of sustenance. The number of landmine/UXO victims as a result of scrap metal collection
accounts for a significant percentage in the total number of victims. According to statistics, 98%
of the districts in Quang Tri Province have scrap metal collectors, while in Ha Tinh and Quang
Binh the number of districts encountering this phenomenon are fewer.
During the period between 1976 and 1998, the number of landmine/UXO accidents related to
scrap metal collectors was high (the most intense period being between 1976 and 1985). Yet in
recent years (during 1999-2004) there were still a number of people seeing this activity as main
income, thus causing a lot of accidents with many injured and quite a few died. The number of
victims killed while cutting items of ordnance, however, has reduced significantly in recent years
in comparison to the immediate post-war period, mainly thanks to a number of community-based
Mine Risk Education programs, as well as other assistances in career creation and economic
development etc.
The majority of metal scrap collectors now feel complex about their sneaky work because of
social criticism. Almost all of them have little knowledge on demining and disposing
landmine/UXO. They do the job because they have no other choice to afford their living. This
shows the significance of implementing a range of assistance programs to raise mine
awareness, create jobs, increase the production, improve living standard, assist landmine/UXO
victims and invest in clearance activities to eliminate all the war remnants.
III. MINE RISK EDUCATION
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Main type of UXO/ mines in BMAs
of UXO
Bomblets Mortals
859
M79 projectile
180
s AT Mines
32
Grenades
24
Big Bombs
5
Other UXO
3822
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According to the survey results, provincial authorities in the three provinces have paid great
attention to mine awareness education with a great number of villagers gaining access to mine
risk education through various and interesting advocacy programs that effectively raise the
understanding of the communities.
A part of the comunities lack of good understanding of landmine/UXO. In addition to that, their
daily lives are threatened by its potential danger. It is imperative to develop comprehensive and
effective mine risk education programs that facilitate the enhancement of community‟s
awareness about the landmine/UXO danger, thus minimizing accidents caused by
landmine/UXO.
Most communes have launched community-based mine risk education programs in the form of
art composition and performing arts competitions, as well as extracurricular activities for young
people and in schools, thus promoting landmine/UXO awareness, providing essential
information on how to ensure safety for themselves and others when encountering
landmine/UXO. The reduction in victim numbers (about 23%) during the last five years has
proved the effectiveness of these operations.
For Quang Tri and Quang Binh alone, while financial resources for mass media (broadcasting
systems, newspapers, etc.) remain limited and operational methodologies inadequate, television
continues to draw public attention in Mine Risk Education. With 90% of communities now
enjoying access to television, it is necessary to emphasize the importance mass media in Mine
Risk Education campaigns for the communities.
IV. LANDMINE/UXO VICTIMS ASSISTANCE
Bombs and mines are among the most destructive weapons in wars which impose tremendous
and prolonged impacts on the communities in the aftermath of war. Landmine/UXO victim issues
are of great concern and attention of the society.
According to survey statistics as well as national and international archival data, the victims
suffering partial or permanent injuries are often more than people killed in landmine/UXO
accidents. The victims are usually permanently injured, are almost unable to work, however
require medical care and other assistance from families and society for their mental & physical
lives. Thus, the victim assistance is always viewed as a humanitarian activity in reducing the
burdens not only on mine victims but also on their families and the entire communities.
In recent years, authorities at both central government and local levels, as well as social
organizations have paid great attention to landmine/UXO victims through medical treatment
programs, support to families of victims, organizing physical rehabilitation and services,
establishing vocational centers, and jobs creation to reintegrate mine victims into society. Due to
limited financial resources, however, the requirements of most mine victims are not currently
being met. In addition, Quang Tri Province has received assistance from international
organizations, but the number of victims and districts with access to this assistance remains
limited.
In sum, victim assistance in the three provinces, through recent support provided by the
government, local authorities and international organizations, is still not sufficient to address the
needs of the large number of victims and their families.
PART V RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
I. MINE AWARNESS EDUCATION AND MINE VICTIM ASSISTANCE
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In order to minimize landmine/UXO accidentsand impacts on socio-economic development in
the three provinces of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh and Quang Tri, Mine Risk Education should be
integrated in each province‟s mine action program. Relevant agencies of each province should
be fully aware of landmine/UXO danger and take concrete measures to impart appropriate
messages through mass media (newspapers, films, radio and television, etc).
Local social establishments including the Veteran‟s Foundation, Youth Union, and Women‟s
Union, etc., should actively participate in community-based propaganda concerning landmine
accident prevention through meetings, paintings and posters and other means. The
establishment of a network of local collaborators should be reinforced to disseminate information
regarding landmine danger, identification of types of ordnance and preventive measures to
communities.
Children are among those who should be a major focus of Mine Awareness Education because
of their curiosity and activeness, which gives rise to number of children related mine accidents.
Therefore, mine awareness and preventive measure education programs should be considered
to integrate in extra circular activities in primary and secondary schools, firstly in heavily affected
regions and then expand to all communities. This is viewed as the best environment for mine
education to pupils and their parents.
Likewise given the above-mentioned risk factors identified from the survey, Mine Awareness
Education is necessary for adults, within specific geographic areas and segments of the
population possibly involved in construction and farm activities. Adapting Mine Awareness
Education to address scarp metal collection is necessary.
Provincial and district medical services in the Highly Impacted areas should be given adequate
resources, i.e. technical equipment, facilities and financial resources in order to improve the
quality and capacity of medical care to victims.
Physical rehabilitation services should be developed to facilitate community reintegration of
landmine/UXO victims.
II. MINE/UXO CLEARANCE.
2.1. Strategy design:
In order to successfully implement the cause of modernization and industrialization in a country
experienced over 30 years of wars and in the three provinces Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri,
where the infrastructure system is severely devastated and a vast of land area contaminated by
various types of landmine/UXO scattering in all communities will be a hard and extremely
dangerous task that needs a great deal of human resources, equipment and finance.
Landmine/UXO clearance is a highly necessary and urgent task, aiming at ensuring an absolute
safety for human and technical equipment in construction activities, ensuring the quality of
constructions, minimizing the landmine/UXO impacts on national socio-economic. This is not
only the responsibility of the authorities but the entire communities, thus requiring a sound
attention and support of the Government, the entire people, international organizations and of
the international communitiy.
With the availability (through this project) of detailed contamination maps, landmine/UXO
clearance operations in the three provinces should be implemented in the following steps:
Design of landmine/UXO clearance strategies incorporated with mine risk education and
victim assistance operations.
Besides State budget and self-investment of comunities, efforts should be made to call
for financial assistance from national social associations, international non-governmental
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organizations and governments of other countries to support this extremely costly but
humanitarian task.
Investment in equipment procurement, developing demining technologies and
procedures, step by step manufacturing technical devices, training the deminers on use
and application of technical machineries and technologies during landmine/UXO
clearance activities.
Implemention of clearance in accordance to the designed priorities.
2.2. Clearance Strategy in the 3 provinces.
2.2.1. Plan of using human resource and time
Based on Demining Norm No. 41/2004/QD-BQP dated 08 April 2004, issued by the MOD, on
Demining Technical Procedures, topographical features in affected areas of the three provinces
and practical workload, it is necessary to establish qualified personnel equipped with sound
equipment and thorough training to effectively carry out the task. Each demining team will
consist of 15 persons, including:
Team leader: 1 Army Official
Technical army official group 1, level 7/10: 8 persons
Technical army official group 1, level 8/10: 5 persons
Driver: 1 person
Each team is to be equipped with at least one bomb locator (locating to the depth of five
meters), two mine detectors, protective devices and other hand-held demining equipment.
Average demining productivity of each team is 4,000 square meters/day. With the total number
of working days in one year as 295 days each year (excluding the holidays, annual leave
account for 70 days/year), the area that one team will clear is 295 days x 0.4 hectares = 118
hectares.
The clearance of all contaminated area of 521.608 hectares in the three provinces should be
based upon financial sources to design plans for use of time according to priority in each year
and province.
2.2.2. Training
In order for the landmine/UXO clearance forces to gain adequate technical competence and
skills, focused training should include the following:
Design, working mechanism, removal and destruction of landmine/UXO found during
clearance operations;
Design, working mechanism, maintenance procedures of landmine/UXO detectors and
technical equipment during clearance operations.
Basic demining skills and procedures both theoretically and practically prior to the field
works.
In addition, Survey Group leaders will be trained on the following additional matters:
Procedures for organization and execution of a clearance operation;
Procedures for recording, archiving data and reporting clearance results in each area;
Community-based Mine Risk Education contents and methodologies.
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Expected minimum time for each training course is 15 days.
2.2.3. Procurement of Technical Equipment.
Based upon general features, landmine/UXO types and the contamination situation in the three
provinces, landmine/UXO clearance will face difficulties, particularly technical equipment.
In past years it has become apparent that technical equipment plays a key role in effective
landmine/UXO clearance operations. Therefore, procurement of technical devices such as bomb
locators and mine detectors and other supporting equipment is necessary.
Based on contaminated area in the three provinces and annual discount rate of equipment in the
last years total estimated expenses for procurement of equipment is: 1.733 VND billion,
including:
Procurement of mine detectors: 20.447 units x 37 VND million = 756 VND billion
Procurement of bomb locators: 5.360 units x 180 VND million = 965 VND billion
Procurement of protective devices: 440 teams x 6 units x 4.5 VND million = 12 VND billion
2.2.4. Landmine/UXO Clearance.
Based upon contaminated area and local clearance priorities, and in conformity with command
of Provincial Military Regions, Provincial Military Command established clearance plans and
forces within its control level as detailed:
Establishing a Provincial Management Committee to steer Provincial Military Commands to
design comprehensive plans regarding landmine/UXO clearance in known contaminated
areas. Procuring sufficient technical equipment for project execution. Training, managing and
commanding demining forces to clear landmines/UXO within theirareas of responsibility.
Producing reports and contracting with supporting forces (in case that the community has not
enough human resources to assume the task).
Establishing demining units and implementing field clearance operations in accordance with
approved timelines.
Organizing consultation teams to conduct community-based Mine Risk Education programs.
Issuing official samples for recording, archiving and reporting clearance results in
accordance with established regulations.
Designing plans for storing and disposing of collected landmines/UXO and/or arranging
disposal sites for dangerous ordnance. In cases of on-site disposal, approval from relevant
authorities must be acquired in conformity with administrative procedures.
2.2.5. Total Expense for Landmine/UXO Clearance.
Clearance localities will be selected based upon Demining Technical Procedures, Norms and
Costs issued by MOD, and the area to be cleared estimated based upon sound expense
estimates for the detailed items below:
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Cost of community-based Mine Risk Education;
Cost of procurement of demining equipment;
Cost of clearance operations (including detection and clearance costs for landmines/UXO
removed);
Cost of management and oversight.
A total cost for landmine/UXO clearance in the three areas is: 10.882 VND billion, including:
Ha Tinh: 139.236 hectares x 25 million VND/hectare = 3.481 VND billion
Quang Binh: 40.853 hectares x 25 million VND/hectare = 1.021 VND billion
Quang Tri: 255.185 ha hectares x 25 million VND/hectare = 6.380 VND billion
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CONCLUSIONS
The “Vietnam UXO/landmine impact assessment and technical survey” project was implemented
by BOMICEN with the financial and technical assistance of VVAF. This is the first time
Engineering Command and BOMICEN as the direct partner have ever implemented a project
with the non-refundable aid of an international non-governmental organization. After 14 months
of execution, including 6 months of field implementation, the entire project workload has been
completed in accordance to expected plan and time line collecting a reliable database in a safe
and effective manner.
The project completed the survey and technical verification works in 374 administrative units
(including 344 communes, 27 districts and 3 provinces). Total contaminated area has been
cleared up to 1m depth is 421 ha with 2.761 sites. Total 6.205 bombs, mines and unexploded
ordnances (including 5 destructive bombs weighted from 250 to 1000 pounds, 1.283 cluster
bombs, 859 mortars and artillery shells, 180 M79 munitions, 32 anti-personnel mines, 24
grenades and 3.822 other ordnances) were removed and disposed. The above area was
selected based on random selection through witness interviews and partially by the requests of
local authorities in support for socio-economic development activities.
A report including analysis of available archival information and survey and technical verification
data has been completed, aiming at sufficiently and accurately evaluating contamination
situation and human and socio-economic impacts caused by landmine/UXO left after the wars.
Digital maps on landmine/UXO contamination levels in the three provinces Ha Tinh, Quang Binh
and Quang Tri including all administrative levels has been produced. At the same time,
clearance solutions, volume and priorities have been laid. Total expense estimation for
landmine/UXO clearance in the three provinces in the coming years has been worked out.
A complete, accurate and systematic dataset on landmine/UXO contamination situation gained
through the survey project implementation will help call for more international assistance for the
clearances operations in affected areas as well as other works in the field of mine action in the
future.
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APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: LIST OF SURVEYED COMMUNES
I. HA TINH PROVINCE
1.1 Number of surveyed communes in each district
No. List of districts and towns # Communes
Number of
surveyed
communes
1 Ha Tinh town 10 7
2 Hong Linh town 6 6
3 Nghi Xuan district 19 13
4 Duc Tho district 28 12
5 Huong Son district 31 18
6 Vu Quang district 12 6
7 Can Loc district 30 17
8 Thach Ha district 43 24
9 Cam Xuyen district 27 18
10 Huong Khe district 22 18
11 Ky Anh district 32 17
Total 260 156
1.2 List of surveyed communes
PROVINCES DISTRICT COMMUNE
COMMUNE
CODE
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Bac Ha 4050101
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Nam Ha 4050103
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Tan Giang 4050107
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Thach Linh 4050109
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Thach Trung 4050111
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Thach Quy 4050115
Ha Tinh Ha Tinh Thach Yen 4050119
Ha Tinh Hong Linh Bac Hong 4050301
Ha Tinh Hong Linh Nam Hong 4050303
Ha Tinh Hong Linh Trung Luong 4050305
Ha Tinh Hong Linh Duc Thuan 4050307
Ha Tinh Hong Linh Thuan Loc 4050309
Ha Tinh Hong Linh Dau Lieu 4050311
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan An 4050503
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Dan 4050509
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Pho 4050511
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Hai 4050513
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Yen 4050515
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Tien Dien 4050517
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Giang 4050519
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan My 4050521
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Hong 4050525
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Vien 4050527
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Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Xuan Linh 4050531
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Co Dam 4050535
Ha Tinh Nghi Xuan Cuong Gian 4050537
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Quang 4050705
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Tung anh 4050717
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Yen 4050719
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Yen Ho 4050725
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Thuy 4050729
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Hoa 4050735
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Lac 4050737
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Long 4050739
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Thanh 4050743
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Lap 4050747
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Duc Dong 4050755
Ha Tinh Duc Tho Tan Huong 4050763
Ha Tinh Huong Son Tay Son 4050901
Ha Tinh Huong Son Pho Chau 4050903
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Linh 4050907
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Tay 4050919
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Quang 4050921
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Giang 4050923
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Ninh 4050925
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Thinh 4050929
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Diem 4050931
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Ham 4050933
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Phuc 4050939
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Binh 4050949
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son My 4050953
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Tan 4050955
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Long 4050957
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Phu 4050959
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Tra 4050963
Ha Tinh Huong Son Son Truong 4050965
Ha Tinh Vu Quang Huong Dai 4051001
Ha Tinh Vu Quang Huong Dien 4051007
Ha Tinh Vu Quang Duc Giang 4051011
Ha Tinh Vu Quang Duc Bong 4051017
Ha Tinh Vu Quang Huong Tho 4051021
Ha Tinh Vu Quang Duc Lien 4051023
Ha Tinh Can Loc Hong Loc 4051103
Ha Tinh Can Loc Thanh Loc 4051115
Ha Tinh Can Loc Gia Hanh 4051119
Ha Tinh Can Loc Truong Loc 4051121
Ha Tinh Can Loc Vuong Loc 4051123
Ha Tinh Can Loc Thuong Nga 4051127
Ha Tinh Can Loc Vinh Loc 4051129
Ha Tinh Can Loc Khanh Loc 4051131
Ha Tinh Can Loc Phu Loc 4051141
Ha Tinh Can Loc Trung Loc 4051145
Ha Tinh Can Loc Phu Luu 4051147
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
103
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ha Tinh Can Loc Xuan Loc 4051149
Ha Tinh Can Loc Tien Loc 4051151
Ha Tinh Can Loc Dong Loc 4051155
Ha Tinh Can Loc Quang Loc 4051157
Ha Tinh Can Loc My Loc 4051159
Ha Tinh Can Loc Son Loc 4051161
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Ngoc Town 4051303
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Kenh 4051307
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Son 4051311
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Bang 4051313
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Chau 4051317
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Kim 4051319
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Ban 4051321
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Long 4051325
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Dinh 4051327
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Thanh 4051333
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Ha 4051337
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Dong 4051339
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Mon 4051343
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Khe 4051347
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Hung 4051351
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Lac 4051355
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Bac Son 4051363
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Dai 4051365
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Hoi 4051369
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Van 4051371
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Xuan 4051373
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Tan 4051375
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Dien 4051381
Ha Tinh Thach Ha Thach Lam 4051385
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Xuyen 4051501
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Vinh 4051503
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Binh 4051505
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Thanh 4051515
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Huy 4051519
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Thang 4051521
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Nhuong 4051525
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Thach 4051527
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Due 4051529
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Quan 4051535
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Ha 4051537
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Hung 4051541
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Loc 4051543
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Trung 4051545
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Thinh 4051547
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Son 4051549
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Lac 4051551
Ha Tinh Cam Xuyen Cam Minh 4051553
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Khe 4051701
Ha Tinh HuongKhe 20-4 Farm Town 4051703
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
104
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Phuong My 4051717
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Ha Linh 4051719
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Phuc Dong 4051721
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Hoa Hai 4051723
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Binh 4051725
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Long 4051727
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Giang 4051731
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Gia Pho 4051733
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Phu Gia 4051735
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Phu Phong 4051741
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Loc Yen 4051743
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Lam 4051745
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Lien 4051747
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Do 4051749
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Phuc Trach 4051751
Ha Tinh HuongKhe Huong Trach 4051753
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Tien 4051905
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Phu 4051911
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Phong 4051913
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Son 4051915
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Tay 4051917
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Lam 4051921
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Khang 4051923
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Lac 4051927
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Ha 4051929
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Hung 4051931
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Tan 4051937
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Phuong 4051945
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Lien 4051949
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Ninh 4051951
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Dong 4051953
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Thinh 4051959
Ha Tinh Ky Anh Ky Nam 4051963
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
105
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
II. QUANG BINH PROVINCE
1.1Number of surveyed communes in each district
No. List of communes and towns # Communes
Surveyed
communes
1 Dong Hoi city 14 8
2 Tuyen Hoa district 18 10
3 Minh Hoa district 15 9
4 Quang Trach district 34 19
5 Bo Trach district 30 23
6 Quang Ninh district 15 9
7 Le Thuy district 27 15
Total: 153 93
1.2 List of surveyed communes
PROVINCES DISTRICT COMMUNE
COMMUNE
CODE
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Dong Son 4070101
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Nam Ly 4070105
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Dong Phu 4070109
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Dong My 4070111
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Hai Dinh 4070113
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Phu Hai 4070115
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Duc Ninh 4070119
Quang Binh Dong Hoi Bao Ninh 4070125
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Dong Le town 4070301
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Thanh Hoa 4070305
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Le Hoa 4070309
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Thuan Hoa 4070311
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Thach Hoa 4070315
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Duc Hoa 4070317
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Phong Hoa 4070319
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Mai Hoa 4070321
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Chau Hoa 4070327
Quang Binh Tuyen Hoa Van Hoa 4070331
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Quy Dat 4070501
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Hoa Thanh 4070503
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Hong Hoa 4070507
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Hoa Hop 4070511
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Yen Hoa 4070517
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Quy Hoa 4070519
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Trung Hoa 4070521
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Minh Hoa 4070523
Quang Binh Minh Hoa Tan Hoa 4070527
Quang Binh Quang Trach Ba Don 4070701
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Hop 4070703
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Dong 4070705
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Phu 4070709
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Chau 4070711
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
106
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Tung 4070713
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Hung 4070717
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Xuan 4070719
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Phuc 4070723
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Thuan 4070725
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Long 4070727
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Phong 4070729
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Luu 4070737
Quang Binh Quang Trach Phu Hoa 4070745
Quang Binh Quang Trach Canh Hoa 4070747
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Trung 4070751
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Son 4070755
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Hoa 4070759
Quang Binh Quang Trach Quang Tan 4070763
Quang Binh Bo Trach Viet Trung Farm 4070903
Quang Binh Bo Trach Tan Trach 4070907
Quang Binh Bo Trach Phuc Trach 4070909
Quang Binh Bo Trach Lam Trach 4070911
Quang Binh Bo Trach Son Trach 4070915
Quang Binh Bo Trach Hung Trach 4070917
Quang Binh Bo Trach Lien Trach 4070919
Quang Binh Bo Trach Phu Dinh 4070923
Quang Binh Bo Trach Son Loc 4070925
Quang Binh Bo Trach Van Trach 4070927
Quang Binh Bo Trach Hoan Trach 4070929
Quang Binh Bo Trach Tay Trach 4070931
Quang Binh Bo Trach Nam Trach 4070935
Quang Binh Bo Trach My Trach 4070937
Quang Binh Bo Trach Ha Trach 4070939
Quang Binh Bo Trach Bac Trach 4070941
Quang Binh Bo Trach Thanh Trach 4070943
Quang Binh Bo Trach Hai Trach 4070945
Quang Binh Bo Trach Phu Trach 4070947
Quang Binh Bo Trach Duc Trach 4070949
Quang Binh Bo Trach Trung Trach 4070953
Quang Binh Bo Trach Nhan Trach 4070957
Quang Binh Bo Trach Ly Trach 4070959
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Vinh Ninh 4071102
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Duy Ninh 4071107
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Ham Ninh 4071109
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Hien Ninh 4071111
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Xuan Ninh 4071115
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Van Ninh 4071119
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Luong Ninh 4071121
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Vo Ninh 4071123
Quang Binh Quang Ninh Gia Ninh 4071125
Quang Binh Le Thuy Kien Giang 4071301
Quang Binh Le Thuy Le Ninh 4071303
Quang Binh Le Thuy Ngan Thuy 4071307
Quang Binh Le Thuy Son Thuy 4071311
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
107
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Quang Binh Le Thuy Phu Thuy 4071313
Quang Binh Le Thuy Mai Thuy 4071317
Quang Binh Le Thuy Xuan Thuy 4071325
Quang Binh Le Thuy My Thuy 4071331
Quang Binh Le Thuy Duong Thuy 4071333
Quang Binh Le Thuy Thai Thuy 4071337
Quang Binh Le Thuy Hong Thuy 4071339
Quang Binh Le Thuy Thanh Thuy 4071341
Quang Binh Le Thuy Cam Thuy 4071343
Quang Binh Le Thuy Hung Thuy 4071345
Quang Binh Le Thuy Ngu Hoa 4071349
III. QUANG TRI PROVINCE
1.1 Number of surveyed communes in each district
No. List of communes and towns # Communes
Surveyed
communes
1 Dong Ha town 9 7
2 Quang Tri town 2 2
3 Vinh Linh commune 22 18
4 Gio Linh commune 20 14
5 Cam Lo commune 9 7
6 Trieu Phong commune 19 14
7 Hai Lang commune 21 16
8 Huong Hoa commune 21 8
9 Da Krong commune 13 9
Total: 136 95
1.2List of surveyed communes
PROVINCES DISTRICT COMMUNE
COMMUNE
CODE
Quang Tri Dong Ha Ward 1 4090101
Quang Tri Dong Ha Ward 2 4090103
Quang Tri Dong Ha Ward 5 4090109
Quang Tri Dong Ha Dong Thanh 4090111
Quang Tri Dong Ha Dong Giang 4090113
Quang Tri Dong Ha Dong Le 4090115
Quang Tri Dong Ha Dong Luong 4090117
Quang Tri Quang Tri Ward 1 4090301
Quang Tri Quang Tri Ward 2 4090303
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Ho Xa 4090501
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Ben Quan 4090503
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Tu 4090507
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Chap 4090511
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Nam 4090513
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Long 4090517
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Kim 4090519
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Hoa 4090521
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
108
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Thach 4090523
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Lam 4090525
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Hien 4090527
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Thuy 4090529
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Thanh 4090531
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Son 4090535
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Tan 4090537
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Quang 4090539
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh Giang 4090541
Quang Tri Vinh Linh Vinh o 4090543
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio Linh 4090701
Quang Tri Gio Linh Trung Hai 4090705
Quang Tri Gio Linh Trung Giang 4090707
Quang Tri Gio Linh Trung Son 4090709
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio My 4090711
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio Phong 4090713
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio An 4090715
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio Son 4090723
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio Hoa 4090725
Quang Tri Gio Linh Linh Hai 4090727
Quang Tri Gio Linh Vinh Truong 4090731
Quang Tri Gio Linh Hai Thai 4090733
Quang Tri Gio Linh Gio Mai 4090735
Quang Tri Gio Linh Linh Thuong 4090739
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Lo 4090901
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Thanh 4090903
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Thuy 4090909
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Tuyen 4090911
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Hieu 4090913
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Chinh 4090915
Quang Tri Cam Lo Cam Nghia 4090917
Quang Tri Trieu phong Ai Tu 4091101
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Thuong 4091105
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Phuoc 4091107
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Van 4091109
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Do 4091111
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Trach 4091113
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Lang 4091117
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Son 4091121
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Giang 4091123
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Hoa 4091125
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Dong 4091129
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Trung 4091131
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Long 4091133
Quang Tri Trieu phong Trieu Thanh 4091135
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Lam 4091303
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Ba 4091307
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Khe 4091309
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Quy 4091311
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Vinh 4091313
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
109
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Xuan 4091315
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Que 4091317
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Thien 4091319
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Duong 4091321
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Truong 4091323
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Thanh 4091325
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Phu 4091327
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Tho 4091329
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Thuong 4091337
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Son 4091339
Quang Tri Hai Lang Hai Chanh 4091341
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Khe Sanh 4091501
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Lao Bao 4091503
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Huong Linh 4091511
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Tan Thanh 4091517
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Tan Lap 4091521
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Tan Lien 4091523
Quang Tri Huong Hoa Huong Loc 4091529
Quang Tri Huong Hoa A Xing 4091537
Quang Tri Da Krong Mo o 4091701
Quang Tri Da Krong Da Krong 4091705
Quang Tri Da Krong Trieu Nguyen 4091707
Quang Tri Da Krong Ba Long 4091709
Quang Tri Da Krong Hai Phuc 4091711
Quang Tri Da Krong Ba Nang 4091713
Quang Tri Da Krong Ta Long 4091715
Quang Tri Da Krong A Vao 4091719
Quang Tri Da Krong Ta Rut 4091721
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
110
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
APPENDIX 2: MAPS - BOMB AND MINE AREAS AT PROVINCIAL, DISTRICT AND
COMMUNE LEVELS
(FROM SURVEY AND TECHNICAL RESPONSE RESULTS)
I. HA TINH PROVINCE
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
111
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Ha Tinh Provincial Town
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 7/10 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 23,00km2.
Comtamninated areas: 8,40 km2
Comtamimated rate: 37%
Victims: 29 people
Deaths: 15 people
Injuries: 14 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
112
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Hong Linh Provincial Town
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 6/6 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 60,40 km2
Comtamninated areas: 8,40 km2
Comtamimated rate: 37%
Victims: 29 people
Deaths: 15 people
Injuries: 14 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
113
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Nghi Xuan District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 13/19 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 165.52 km2
Comtamninated areas: 72.82km2
Comtamimated rate: 44%
Victims:197 people
Deaths: 78 people
Injuries: 119 people
4. Duc Tho District
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
114
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 12/28 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 100.88 km2
Comtamninated areas: 45.57 km2
Comtamimated rate: 45.57
Victims: 138 people
Deaths: 69 people
Injuries: 69 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
115
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Huong Son District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 18/31 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 302.45 km2
Comtamninated areas: 66.16 km2
Comtamimated rate: 22%
Victims: 23 people
Deaths: 10 people
Injuries: 13 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
116
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Vu Quang District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 6/12 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 137.03 km2
Comtamninated areas: 21.34 km2
Comtamimated rate: 16%
Victims: 6 people
Deaths: 2 people
Injuries: 4 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
117
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Can Loc District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 17/30 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 204.69 km2
Comtamninated areas: 78.43 km2
Comtamimated rate: 38%
Victims: 288 people
Deaths: 104 people
Injuries: 184 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
118
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Thach Ha District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 24/43 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 269.59 km2
Comtamninated areas: 135.01 km2
Comtamimated rate: 50%
Victims: 144 people
Deaths: 78 people
Injuries: 66 people
9. Cam Xuyen District
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
119
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 18/27 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 379.58 km2
Comtamninated areas: 216.66 km2
Comtamimated rate: 57%
Victims:173 people
Deaths: 78 people
Injuries: 95 people
10. Huong Khe District
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
120
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 18/22 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 1,097.72 km2
Comtamninated areas: 421.38 km2
Comtamimated rate: 38%
Victims:173 people
Deaths: 78 people
Injuries: 95 people
11. Ky Anh District
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
121
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 17/32 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 615.32 km2
Comtamninated areas: 282.71 km2
Comtamimated rate: 46%
Victims:262 people
Deaths: 119 people
Injuries: 143 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
122
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
II. QUANG BINH PROVINCE
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam V1et2e3rans of
America Foundation (VVAF)
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Dong Hoi Provincial Town
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 8/14 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 96.61 km2
Comtamninated areas: 13.61km2
Comtamimated rate: 14%
Victims: 94 people
Deaths: 53 people
Injuries: 41people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
124
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Tuyen Hoa District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 10/18 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 455.07 km2
Comtamninated areas: 24.81 km2
Comtamimated rate: 5%
Victims:151 people
Deaths: 78 people
Injuries: 73 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
125
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Minh Hoa District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 9/15communes.
Total surveyed areas: 627.65 km2
Comtamninated areas: 18.74 km2
Comtamimated rate: 3%
Victims:184 people
Deaths: 104 people
Injuries: 80 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
126
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Quang Trach District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 19/34 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 413.22 km2
Comtamninated areas: 58.62 km2
Comtamimated rate: 14%
Victims: 553 people
Deaths: 302 people
Injuries: 251 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
127
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Bo Trach District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 23/30 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 1,110.73 km2
Comtamninated areas: 129.26 km2
Comtamimated rate: 12%
Victims:1490 people
Deaths: 744 people
Injuries: 746 people
6. Quang Ninh District
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
128
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 9/15 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 936.39 km2
Comtamninated areas: 35.39 km2
Comtamimated rate: 4%
Victims: 355 people
Deaths: 171 people
Injuries: 184 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
129
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Le Thuy District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 15/27 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 310.96 km2
Comtamninated areas: 121.92 km2
Comtamimated rate: 39%
Victims: 645 people
Deaths: 254 people
Injuries: 391 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
130
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
III QUANG TRI PROVINCE
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
131
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Dong Ha Provincial Town
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 7/9 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 60.80 km2
Comtamninated areas: 57.81 km2
Comtamimated rate: 95%
Victims: 198 people
Deaths: 105 people
Injuries: 93 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
132
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Quang Tri Town
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 2/2 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 6.40 km2
Comtamninated areas: 3.42 km2
Comtamimated rate: 53%
Victims: 143 people
Deaths: 67 people
Injuries: 76 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
133
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Vinh Linh District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 18/22 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 398.74 km2
Comtamninated areas: 395.45 km2
Comtamimated rate: 99%
Victims: 303 people
Deaths: 132 people
Injuries: 171 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
134
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Gio Linh District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 14/20 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 393.10 km2
Comtamninated areas: 384.85 km2
Comtamimated rate: 98%
Victims:886 people
Deaths: 367 people
Injuries: 519 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
135
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Cam Lo District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 7/9 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 283.72 km2
Comtamninated areas: 170.37 km2
Comtamimated rate: 60%
Victims: 512 people
Deaths: 162 people
Injuries: 359 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
136
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Trieu Phong District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 14/19 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 216.50 km2
Comtamninated areas: 196.51 km2
Comtamimated rate: 91%
Victims: 980 people
Deaths: 386 people
Injuries: 594 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
137
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Hai Lang District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 16/21 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 387.81 km2
Comtamninated areas: 353.91 km2
Comtamimated rate: 91%
Victims: 863 people
Deaths: 502 people
Injuries: 361 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
138
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Huong Hoa District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 8/21 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 291.30 km2
Comtamninated areas: 197.98 km2
Comtamimated rate: 68%
Victims: 398 people
Deaths: 156 people
Injuries: 242 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
139
Project: Unexploded Ordnance and Landmine Impact Assessment and Technical Survey
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Da Krong District
Number of surveyed communes/total communes: 9/13 communes.
Total surveyed areas: 750.00 km2
Comtamninated areas: 743.93 km2
Comtamimated rate: 99%
Victims: 293 people
Deaths: 105 people
Injuries: 188 people
The Technology Centre for Bomb & Mine Disposal (BOMICEN)/Engineering Command/Ministry of Defense - Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF)
140

								
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