Struts by Oi1Uzb

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									     Struts
Slides by Igor Polevoy
    Web Interface Best Practices
•       Minimize Java Code in JSP
    –     Separation of concerns (web designer/Java
          developer)
•       Use include mechanisms
    –     Include directive: <%@ include file="filename" %> : static
          inclusion when pre-processing JSP
    –     Include action: <jsp:include page="page.jsp"
          flush="true" /> : dynamic execution of request by included
          resource
•       Do not mix business logic with presentation logic
          •   Separate responsibilities
          •   Better maintainability
          •   Better composition
  Web Interface Best Practices
• Use JSP custom tags (may have to
  develop these)
  – Eliminate Java code from HTML
  – Easier syntax
  – Improve web designers productivity
  – Elements of reusable code
  – Suggestions:
    • Keep tag syntax simple (fewer attributes)
    • Do not re-invent a wheel
Web Interface Best Practices

  – Place business logic in
    JavaBeans
  – Do not use logic in custom tags
    that is not user interface-specific
  – Use MVC pattern
  – Use XHTML syntax
  Web Interface Best Practices
• Use Servlet filters for common tasks
  – Common login
  – Compression
  – Authentication/Authorization
• Create a portable security model
  – If cannot avoid vendor security model
• Cache results from DBMS in RowSets
       Power of Frameworks
• Frameworks:
  – Provides abstraction of a particular concept
  – Defines how these abstractions work together
    to solve a problem
  – Framework components are reusable
  – Organizes patterns at higher level
  – Provides generic behaviour (many different
    applications can be built with the use of the
    same application)
   JSP Model 1 Architecture



Web Browser              JSP




                       JavaBean




Demo Model 1 example
             MVC Pattern

Change notification
                                       Change state
                            Model

        Query state

                      User input
                                          Controller
      View

                      View selection

         events
    JSP Model 2 Architecture



                             Servlet   JavaBean

Web Browser


                                 JSP



      Demo Model 2 example
        Java Web UI History
• Java – based CGI - HTML mixed in Java
• Servlets – HTML mixed in Java
• JavaServer Pages – Java code mixed in
  HTML
• Servlets + JSP – use of MVC pattern to
  separate business logic from presentation
• Frameworks: Tapestry(servlets, it’s own
  html templates), Struts, JavaServer Faces
                   Struts
• Framework for building Web applications
  using Java
• Builds on MVC pattern
• Located at: http://jakarta.apache.org/struts/
              Struts History
•   Created in 2000 by Craig R. McClanahan
•   Donated to ASF in 2000
•   Current stable release: 1.3.5
•   Soon (2006) to be released 2.0
•   1.x will be around - there is new
    development, great community, many
    applications are developed in 1.x
   Quick Technology Overview
• HTTP Protocol (request/response)
• HTML
• The Java Language and Application
  Frameworks
• JavaBeans
• Properties Files and ResourceBundles
• Java Servlets
• JavaServer Pages, JSP Tag Libraries
• XML
                  Struts
                  MVC
• Struts does not specify how to implement
  Model part of MVC
• JSP and Struts Tag Libraries used for
  View part of MVC
• Struts Controller implemented as:
  ActionServlet and ActionMapping
               Struts MVC

• 3 Major Components
  – Servlet controller (Controller)
  – Java Server Pages (View)
  – Application Business Logic (Model)
• Controller bundles and routes HTTP
  request to other objects in framework
  (Actions)
• Controller parses configuration file
               Struts MVC
• Configuration file contains action
  mappings (determines navigation)
• Controller uses mappings to turn HTTP
  requests into application actions
• Mapping must specify
  – A request path
  – Object type to act upon the request
            View Components
•   HTML
•   DTO
•   Struts ActionForms objects
•   JavaServer Pages
•   Struts Tags
•   Custom Tags
•   Java Resource Bundles
•   Other: graphics, downloads, etc.
View Components Action Forms
• ActionForm Beans
   – Extends the ActionForm class
   – Create one for each input form in the application
   – JavaBeans – style properties must match form entries
View Components Action Forms
• Continued
  – Define a property (with associated getXxx() and setXxx()
    methods) for each field that is present in the form. The field
    name and property name must match according to the usual
    JavaBeans conventions
  – Place a bean instance on your form, and use nested property
    references. For example, you have a "customer" bean on your
    Action Form, and then refer to the property "customer.name" in
    your JSP view. This would correspond to the methods
    customer.getName() and customer.setName(string
    Name) on your customer bean
     Controller Components
• org.apache.struts.ActionServlet
  is a main component of Struts
• org.apache.struts.action.Action
  – extension of controller component
  (defined in action mapping in the
  configuration file)
        Controller Components
             Deployment descriptor for Struts


• Struts use configuration file called
  – struts-config.xml
  – This file provides for a configuration of
    controller components (actions), resources,
    model components: JavaBeans and other
    resources
       Controller Components
The action mapping example
<action-mappings>                   Action mapping name
<action path="/addBookAction―
              type=
"edu.depaul.struts_example.BookInputAction"
               name="addBookBean"
               scope="request"                  mapping type
               input="/add_book.jsp">
               <forward name="Go"         Form Bean name
  path="/result.jsp"/>
               <forward name="cancel"
                                           forward definition
  path="/index.html"/>
 </action>
        Model Components
• System State Beans
• A set of one or more JavaBeans classes,
  whose properties define the current state
  of the system
• Example: shopping cart
• In a J2EE application a model is usually
  encapsulated as a layer of Session
  Façades
    Struts Model Components
• Accessing Relational Databases
• Struts can define the data sources for an
  application from within its standard
  configuration file
• A simple JDBC connection pool is also
  provided (can be configured in the
  configuration file)
        Struts Action Forms
• Action Forms are a Java Beans
• Extends ActionForm class from Struts
  Framework (makes it dependent on the
  Struts API)
• Action Forms are mapped to HTML forms –
  hence the name
           Struts Action Forms
• Extend
 org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm
• Override:
  – validate() - optional
  – reset() - optional
• Provide JavaBeans/style properties that
  match an HTML form input/output values
              Struts Actions
• For every ―action‖ in the application , a
  custom ―Action‖ is defined
• These a similar to servlets
• Short – lived (for the duration of the
  request)
• Stateless – do not put any state in the
  Action classes
                 Struts Action
• FQCN:
  org.apache.struts.action.Action
• Implementations subclass this class and
  provide implementation of execute method:
ActionForward execute(ActionMapping , ActionForm ,
 HttpServletRequest , HttpServletResponse );
Action.execute() Arguments
• ActionMapping - provides access to the information
  stored in the configuration file (struts-config.xml) entry
  that configures this Action class.
• ActionForm form—This is the form bean. By this
  time, the form bean has been pre-populated and the
  validate() method has been called and returned
  with no errors (assuming that validation is turned on).
  All the data entered by the user is available through
  the form bean.
• HttpServletRequest request—This is the
  standard JSP or Servlet request object.
• HttpServletResponse response—This is the
  standard JSP or Servlet response object.
   Action.execute() Return
     Value: ActionForward
• ActionForward represents a destination to which the
  controller, RequestProcessor, might be directed to perform a
  RequestDispatcher.forward or
  HttpServletResponse.sendRedirect to, as a result of
  processing activities of an Action class.
• Instances of this class may be created dynamically as
  necessary, or configured in association with an
  ActionMapping instance for named lookup of destinations
  from configuration files
     RequestProcessor – the heart of
      Controller (Chain of Responsibility
                   Pattern)
•   SelectAction    Determine the ActionMapping associated with this path.
•   CreateActionForm Instantiate (if necessary) the ActionForm associated with this
    mapping (if any) and place it into the appropriate scope.
•   PopulateActionForm      Populate the ActionForm associated with this request, if any.
•   ValidateActionForm Perform validation (if requested) on the ActionForm associated
    with this request (if any).
•   SelectInput If validation failed, select the appropriate ForwardConfig for return to
    the input page.
•   CreateAction Create an instance of the class specified by the current
    ActionMapping
•   ExecuteAction     This is the point at which your Action's execute method will be called.
•   PerformForward Finally, the process method of the RequestProcessor takes the
    ActionForward returned by your Action class, and uses it to select the next resource
    (if any). Most often the ActionForward leads to the presentation page that renders the
    response.
03StrutsSimple Demo
Decomposing Struts Application
         (web.xml)
    <servlet>
   <servlet-name>action</servlet-name>
       <servlet-class>
       org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet
   </servlet-class>
    </servlet>

    <servlet-mapping>
        <servlet-name>action</servlet-name>
        <url-pattern>*.do</url-pattern>
    </servlet-mapping>

    <welcome-file-list>
        <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file>
    </welcome-file-list>

</web-app>
Decomposing Struts Application
        (index.jsp)
<%@ taglib uri="http://struts.apache.org/tags-html"
prefix="html" %>
<%@ taglib uri="http://struts.apache.org/tags-bean"
prefix="bean" %>

<html:form action="simpleAction" method="POST">

First Name:
<html:text property="firstName"/>
<font color="red"><html:errors property="firstName"/>
</font>

Last Name:
<html:text property="lastName"/>
<font color="red"><html:errors property="lastName"/>
</font>
<html:submit value="Submit"/>

</html:form>

Note: some HTML tags are omitted for clarity
Decomposing Struts Application
     (SimpleForm.java)
Rule: Action forms in Struts must:
• Conform to the JavaBeans property name conventions
• Action forms properties must correspond to the names defined in a form

public class SimpleForm extends ActionForm
{
    private String firstName;
    private String lastName;

     public String getFirstName()
     {
         return firstName;
     }

... other getters and setters
}
Decomposing Struts Application
   (struts-config.xml part 1)

  <form-beans
     type="org.apache.struts.action.ActionFormBean">

       <form-bean
         name="simpleBean"
         type="edu.depaul.struts.SimpleForm"
  />

  </form-beans>
Decomposing Struts Application
   (struts-config.xml part 2)
   <action-mappings
      type="org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping">

       <action path="/simpleAction"
               type="edu.depaul.struts.SimpleAction"
               name="simpleBean"
               scope="request"
               input="/index.jsp">

           <forward name="next" path="/next.jsp"/>
           <forward name="again" path="/index.jsp"/>
       </action>
   </action-mappings>

<!--
   This is a reference to a resource bundle with
   messages. The file name is:
   struts-examples.properties
   -->
<message-resources parameter="struts-examples" />
Anatomy of a Struts Application


                      Web Container

  Browser                         2
                ActionServlet         Action
            1

                       5                   3       DBMS

                 JSP View             Model
                                               4

                           struts-config
  Decomposing Struts Application
       (SimpleAction.java)
public ActionForward execute(
       ActionMapping actionMapping,
       ActionForm actionForm,
       HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest,
       HttpServletResponse
       httpServletResponse) throws Exception
{
   //getting posted information
SimpleForm simpleForm = (SimpleForm) actionForm;

///... - business – related processing

httpServletRequest.setAttribute("simpleForm", simpleForm);

//passing control to the next page
return actionMapping.findForward("next");
}
                Request Processing
• If action mapping defined in the configuration file, the Controller
  Servlet/RequestProcessor will perform the following:
•   Check session or request for instance of bean of appropriate class
•   If no session/request bean exists, one is created automatically
•   For every request parameter whose name corresponds to the name of a
    property in the bean, the corresponding setter method will be called
•   The validate() method of ActionForm is called
•   The updated ActionForm bean will be passed to the Action Class
    execute() method when it is called, making these values immediately
    available
•   The execute() method must return an instance of ActionForward –
    instructing the controller which is the next view (page)
•   The next page is merged with data passed in request or session object, and
    then renders HTML
       Request Processing
                                          4
                                                        Action

                             ActionForm
                                                                 5

                         3                              Model
       1                                      6

Web Browser     2
                     Controller
displays page                                       7



                    struts-config                 JSP Page




                             8
                   Page Construction
                       html tags
The <html:html> Tag
The <html:html>tag simply generates the <html> HTML element at the
     beginning of the file. In our case, this is a very basic tag.
If this application were written to provide locale-specific text, the tag could have
     been written as
<html:html locale=‖true‖>
Using the local=‖true‖ option causes this page to set its locale value based on the
Accept-Language header submitted by the client browser (if a locale was not
   already
set).
                 Page Construction
                     html tags
The <html:base> Tag
The <html:base>tag generates an HTML <base> element in the <head>
    section of the
document. The <base> HTML element is used to assist the client browser in
    correctly
forming relative URL paths if they’re present in the HTML page.
In this case, our <html:base/> tag rendered the following HTML:
<base href=‖http://localhost:8080/appname/mypage.jsp‖>
                   Page Construction
                       html tags
The <html:link> tag provides convenience and a great deal of flexibility if it makes
   sense for your application to URL encode request parameters. It also automatically
   handles URL encoding of Session IDs to ensure that you can maintain session state
   with users who have cookies turned off in their browser.
<global-forwards>
    <forward name=‖index‖ path=‖/index.jsp‖/>
</global-forwards>
<html:link forward=‖index‖>Go Home</html:link>
The HTML generated is
<a href=‖/myapp/index.jsp‖>Go Home</a>
Create Link by Specifying a Full URL
<html:link href=‖http://jakarta.apache.org/struts/index.html‖>
    Generate an ―href‖ directly
</html:link>
          Form Construction
The Basics of Form Processing
This section provides information on the following
  tags:
<html:form> - Render an HTML <form>
  element
<html:text> - Text box INPUT element
<html:hidden>— INPUT type=hidden element
<html:submit>—Place a Submit INPUT element
<html:cancel>—Place a Submit INPUT element
  which can be used to ―cancel‖ workflow
               Form Construction
                  <html:form>
<html:form action="simpleAction"
 method="POST">

‖simplAction‖ - action name corresponds to action name in configuration
<action path="/simpleAction"
          cancellable="true"
          type="edu.depaul.struts.SimpleAction"
          name="simpleBean" //– name of bean mapped to form controls
          scope="request"
          input="/index.jsp" >
           Form Construction
              <html:text/>
<html:text property="firstName"/>
Generates HTML:
<input type="text" name="firstName" value="">
Bean form bound:
public class SimpleForm extends ActionForm
{
    private String firstName;
    private String lastName;
...
         Form Construction
          <html:submit/>
<html:submit value="Submit"/>

Generates:
 <input type="submit" value="Submit">
          Form Construction
            <html:select>
<html:select property="address">
  <html:option value="Please, make selection"/>
  <html:options property="addresses"/>
</html:select>
Where
address is a form bean property which will be
  set with a selected value
addresses – Collection type property for
  inputs
                 Input Validation
Validation can be provided:
  – FormBean.validate(ActionMapping mapping,
    HttpServletRequest request)
  – Directly in the Action.execute() method:
  ActionMessages actionMessages = new ActionMessages();
  if (simpleForm.getFirstName() == null
      ||simpleForm.getFirstName().equals(""))
  {
           actionMessages.add("firstName", new
                 ActionMessage("field.required"));
  }
        Input Validation
if (!actionErrors.isEmpty())
{
  saveMessages(request, actionErrors);
  return actionMapping.getInputForward();
}

getInputForward(); -> sends back name of a page
  from which the Action was invoked
        Strings in ActionForm
Struts converts data according to property
   data type
If typed value cannot be converted to
   appropriate type, then exception is thrown
Exception cannot be intercepted – happens
   before validation
Best practice: all properties are Strings
      Message Configuration
Resource Bundle specified in a struts-config
  file:
<message-resources parameter="struts-
  examples" />
Simple Java properties file:
message_key=Message Text

Easy to do I18N
           Message Output
• <html:errors> - outputs all error messages
• <html:errors property=‖propName‖> -
  outputs a message for property ―propName‖
  if one exists
           Global Messages
Page Global Messages:
Adding:
messages.add(ActionMessages.GLOBAL_MESSAGE,
new ActionMessage(―this.message.key‖) );
Displaying:
<html:messages property=
‖org.apache.struts.action.GLOBAL_MESSAGE‖/>
             Uploading Files
               form bean
public class UploadForm extends ActionForm
{

    private FormFile file;
... - setter and getter
           Uploading Files
                jsp
<html:form action="/uploadAction"
  enctype="multipart/form-data">
   Please select local file:<br/>
   <html:file property="file"/>
   <html:submit/>
</html:form>
            Uploading Files
                action
 UploadForm form =
 (UploadForm)actionForm;

    FormFile formFile = form.getFile();
    byte data[] = formFile.getFileData();

//now that you have data, you can act on the
  //contents of a file
                        Bean Tags

The <bean:cookie> tag retrieves a cookie or cookies sent to the server
  from thebrowser.
The <bean:header> Tag - provides access to the HTTP header
The <bean:parameter> tag enables you to explicitly get a parameter
  passed into this page (either by a form submit or by arguments in the
  URL).
The <bean:page> Tag: to gain access to the request, session, response,
  Struts config, or application data. The id attribute must be one of the
  strings ―request‖, ―session‖, ―config‖, ―response‖, or ―application‖).
             Bean Tag Examples
<bean:cookie id=‖cookie‖ name=‖/tags/cookiedemo‖ value=‖firsttime‖/>
<bean:write name=‖cookie‖ property=‖value‖/>

<bean:header id=‖lang‖ name=‖Accept-Language‖/>
The preferred language for this browser is: <bean:write name=‖lang‖/>

<bean:parameter id="bean1" name="bean1" />
<bean:write name=‖bean1‖ property=‖name‖/>

<bean:page id=‖this_session‖ property=‖session‖/>
Session Created =
<bean:write name=‖this_session‖ property=‖creationTime‖/>
                Bean Tag
              bean:message
<bean:message key="welcome.user"
  arg0="${user.username}" />

${user.username} – JSP 2.0 EL expression

Resource Bundle:

welcome.user={0}, welcome to Acme Books
               Bean Tag
             bean:resource
<bean:resource id="webxml" name="/WEB-
 INF/web.xml"/>

Gets contents of a resource and assigns it to
 a parameter with id=‖webxml‖
                 DynaActoinForms
org.apache.struts.action.DynaActionForm

config:
<form-bean name=‖userForm‖ type=‖org.apache.struts.action.DynaActionForm‖>
      <form-property name=‖userId‖ type=‖java.lang.String‖ initial=‖admin‖/>
      <form-property name=‖password‖ type=‖java.lang.String‖/>
</form-bean>
No need to write any Java.
Validation? There is no validate() method.
Solution1: validate in Action
Solution 2: sub-class the DynaActionForm class and add a validate() method
Solution 3: Use validation framework
Disadvantage: not type safe, typos can lead to hours of debugging (no Compile
    time type checking)
           DynaActionForms
             inside Action
execute(...)
{

DynaActionForm myForm =
 (DynaActionForm )form;

String name = (String)myForm.get(―name‖);
}
        Validation Framework
Jakarta Commons Validator Framework
  http://jakarta.apache.org/commons
Deployed as a Struts Plugin
Extended by Struts to provide generic
 validation rules
Common Rules:
  check for required fields
  check for max/min size
  check for the right data type
       Validator Built-in Rules
required – field data provided
minlength – more than min length
maxlength – less than max length
range – in range of values
mask – correct format (takes regexp)
date – validates correct date format
email – validates correct E-Mail fromat
primitives: byte, integer, float, double, etc.
                     Validator Setup
<plug-in
 className="org.apache.struts.validator.ValidatorPlugIn">
     <set-property
         property="pathnames"
      value="/org/apache/struts/validator/validator-rules.xml, /WEB-
INF/validation.xml"/>

     <set-property
              property="stopOnFirstError"
              value="true"/>
</plug-in>
            Validator Files
validation-rules.xml – contains all possible
  rules
validation.xml – contains mappings of forms,
  properties and rules
                Validator Example
                         DynaValidatorForm

Configure a dyna-form in struts-config.xml file
<form-bean
name="userForm"
type="org.apache.struts.validator.DynaValidatorForm">
<form-property
        name="userId"
        type="java.lang.String"/>
<form-property
        name="password"
        type="java.lang.String"/>
</form-bean>
 DynaValidatorForm - provides basic field validation based on an XML
                                  file
           Validator Example
            action mapping

<action
path="/validationAction"
  cancellable="true"
type="edu.depaul.struts.ValidationAction"
  name="userForm"
  scope="request"
  input="/validation.jsp">
<forward
        name="next"
        path="/validation-results.jsp"/>
<forward
        name="cancelled"
        path="/index.jsp"/>
</action>
                 Validator Example
                   validation.jsp
validation.jsp (HTML omitted for clarity – see demo):
<html:form action="validationAction" method="POST">
User ID:
        <html:text property="userId"/>
    <html:errors property="userId"/>
Password
    <html:password property="password"/>
    <html:errors property="password"/>
  <html:submit value="Submit"/>
  <html:cancel value="Cancel"/>
</html:form>
                   Validator Example
                     validation.xml
<form name="userForm">                          action form name
       <field property="userId"                          property name validated
              depends="required, maxlength">
          <msg                                                    mandatory
              name="required"
              key="validationForm.iserId.required" />
         <msg name="maxlength"
              key="validationForm.iserId.maxlength" />
              <arg0 name=‖required‖ key=‖iserId.label‖/>
          <var>
             <var-name>maxlength</var-name>
             <var-value>3</var-value>
          </var>
       </field>                                                  resource bundle
                                                                   message key
... other fields
               Validator Framework
                   validation.jsp
• Where
userForm – name of action form defined in the struts-config.xml
userId – name of a form property being validated
validationForm.iserId.required – message key from message resource
   bundle
• Also:
<arg0 name=‖required‖ key=‖iserId.label‖/>
You can have the following in the message bundle:
validationForm.iserId.maxlength={0} exceeded maximum length.
iserId.label=User Id
In this case, the error message returned by the framework in case this
field does not pass validation would be:
User Id exceeded maximum length.
        Validator Framework
            validation.xml
var element is used to pass any variables to
the validation rule that is being used.

minlength      minlength
maxlength        maxlength
range            min,max
mask             mask
date           datePattern
          Validator Framework
          mixing programmatic invocation and XML rules

class MyValidatorForm extends
   DynaValidatorForm
{
...
public ActionErrors validate(ActionMapping,
   HttpServletRequest)
{
    super.validate(mapping, request);
    ...
}
       Validator Framework
    Adding new rules(validators)
1. Create class with public static method:
someMethod(
ValidatorAction, Field, ActionErrors,
   HttpServletRequest);
2. Provide a new validator definition in the validation-
   rules.xml file:
    a. Validator name
    b. Class name
    c. Method name
    d. Signature
3. Can provide JavaScript to validate on client
          Validator Framework
• Struts bakes rules directly into Jakarta Validator
  Framework.
• Jakarta Framework allows for any method
  signature, but Struts requires exact signature –
  dependency in Struts- difficult to reuse validators
  in a different environment
• JavaScript can break if user disables JS in client
• Better to implement validation logic in a
  framework independent manner (even if using
  Jakarta Validator) and invoke validations from
  validate() methods – this will lead to more
  infrastructure work
                 Struts-Tiles
•   Tool for creating reusable layouts for sites
•   Open Source Project (ASF)
•   Integrated with Struts
•   Not Enabled by default
•   Allows for tiles definitions in XML
                   Struts-Tiles
Need to define a Tiles plugin in struts-
 config.xml:
<plug-in
className=
"org.apache.struts.tiles.TilesPlugin">
  <set-property
   property="definitions-config"
   value="/WEB-INF/tiles-defs.xml"
  />
</plug-in>

Close to the end of file with all other plugins
              Struts-Tiles
Create template JSP(template.jsp):
<table border="1">
<tr> <td>
<tiles:insert attribute='header'/> </td></tr>
<tr> <td>
<tiles:insert attribute='menu'/>
</td></tr>
<tr> <td>
<tiles:insert attribute='content'/>
  </td></tr>
<tr> <td>
<tiles:insert attribute='footer'/> </td></tr>
</table>
               Struts-Tiles
Provide Tiles Definitions in the tiles-defs.xml
 file:
<definition name=".baseDef"
  page="/tiles/template.jsp">
        <put name="title" value="Base
  Template Page"/>
        <put name="header"
  value="/tiles/header.jsp"/>
        <put name="footer"
  value="/tiles/footer.jsp"/>
        <put name="menu"
  value="/tiles/menu.jsp"/>
        <put name="content"
  value="/tiles/blank.jsp"/>
    </definition>
                 Struts-Tiles
<definition
     name=".index"
     extends=".baseDef">
   <put
     name="title"
     value="New Page Title"/>
   <put
     name="content"
     value="/tiles/index.jsp"/>
</definition>

This definition extends .baseDef and overrides title
  and content fields
              Struts-Tiles
Provide Action Mapping in the

<action path="/someAction"
...
  <forward name="next" path=".index"/>
...
</action>
Looking Ahead Struts 2 - 2006?
* Improved design - All Struts 2 classes are based on
interfaces. Core interfaces are HTTP independant.
* Intelligent Defaults - Most configuration elements have a
default value that you can set and forget.
* Enhanced Results - Unlike ActionForwards, Struts 2
Results can actually help prepare the response.
* First-class AJAX support - The AJAX theme gives your
interactive applications a boost.
* Stateful Checkboxes - Struts 2 checkboxes do not
require special handling for false values.
* QuickStart - Many changes can be made on the fly
without restarting a web container.
Looking Ahead Struts 2 - 2006?
* Easy-to-test Actions - Struts 2 Actions are HTTP independant and
 can be tested without resorting to mocks.
* Easy-to-customize controller - Struts 1 lets you customize the
 request processor per module, Struts 2 lets you customize the request
 handling per action, if you like.
* Easy-to-customize tags - Struts 2 tags can be customized by
 changing an underlying stylesheet.
* Easy cancel handling - The Struts 2 Cancel button can go directly to
 a different action.
* Easy Spring integration - Struts 2 Actions are Spring-aware. Just add
 your own Spring beans!
* Easy Plugins - Struts 2 extensions can be added by dropping in a
 JAR. No manual configuration required!
Looking Ahead Struts 2 - 2006?
 * POJO forms - No more ActionForms!
Use any JavaBean you like or put
properties directly on your Action. No need
to use all String properties!
 * POJO Actions - Any class can be used
as an Action class. You don't even have to
implement an interface!
                 Struts 2.0
Bottom Line:
• Integrated with WebWork
• Breaks backwards compatibility
• 1.x is deeply entrenched in enterprise
• JSF is gaining momentum
• Struts 1.x has been too long in the 1.x
  mode
• Is there future for 2.0? - time will tell

								
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