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									        MSA
 Internship Manual

East Carolina University
         College of Education

 Department of Educational Leadership


              2007-2008
           Revised--Summer 2007
                                      Contents

Chapter 1: Guidelines
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..                                 3
Purpose of the Internship……………………………………………………………..                         3
Eligibility for the Internship………………………………………………………….                      3
Chapter 2: Roles and Responsibilities
Role of the Intern……………………………………………………………………..                             4
      Local School Board Policy…………………………………………………….                       4
      Professional Relationships……………………………………………………..                     4
      Professional Appearance………………………………………………………                         4
The Intern’s Calendar………………………………………………………………...                           5
Completion of MSA Internship—Time requirement………………………………...               5
Internship Site Issues…………………………………………………………………                            6
Role of the Host Principal……………………………………………………………                          6
Role of the University Supervisor……………………………………………………                      7
Chapter 3: The Learning Process
Self-Assessment and Individual Plan for Growth……………………………………                8
Internship Seminars…………………………………………………………………..                              8
Reflection Team Process……………………………………………………………..                            9
Reflecting and Keeping a Journal…………………………………………………….                      16
NASSP’s 21st Century School Administrators Skills Program……………………...       16
The Leadership Portfolio……………………………………………………………..                          17
      Professional Resource File…………………………………………………….                      17
      Professional Library …………………………………………………………                          17
Chapter 4: Final Steps
Final Evaluation of an Intern’s Performance…………………………………………                18
Comprehensive Examinations………………………………………………………..                          18
Recommendation for Licensure………………………………………………………                          19
Evaluation of Internship Program…………………………………………………….                      19
                                    Appendixes
Appendix A:   AASA Code of Ethics…………………………………………………                       22
Appendix B:   North Carolina School Executive Standards…………………………..        23
Appendix C:   ISLLC Standards………………………………………………………                         36
Appendix D:   MSA Assessment Center (MSAAC) Skills …...…………………...…         44
Appendix E:   Growth Plan for the Internship (GPI) ……………………………...…         46
Appendix F:   Leadership Portfolio: Sample Journal Form………………………….         52
Appendix G:   Leadership Portfolio: Sample Artifact Cover Sheet……………..……   53
Appendix H:   NCSES Pre and Post Self Assessment……………………...…………            54
Appendix I:   Evaluation Rubric………...……………...……………………………                   62
Appendix J:   MSA Internship Schedule …………………………………………….                   67
Appendix K:   Calendar of Significant Dates for Interns……………………………..       68
CHAPTER 1: GUIDELINES

Introduction
An intensive year-long internship is the culminating activity for students in the Master of School
Administration program at East Carolina University. This field experience provides the time for
students to apply theory and knowledge about school leadership learned in the classroom. This
on-the-job training provides opportunities for interns to develop and refine leadership skills as
they contribute to the total school program.

In developing these orientation materials, it is our intent to explain the basic purpose for this
internship experience, internship expectations, and the additional requirements for this university
program that leads to licensure by the state of North Carolina. A clear understanding of these
parameters will encourage the establishment of productive working relationships within the
school setting and ultimately enhance the experience.

Lynn K. Bradshaw, Kermit G. Buckner, and H.C. Hudgins, Jr. developed this manual with input
from the faculty of the Department of Educational Leadership. Updates and revisions have
occurred periodically. The 2006-2007 update was developed by William J. Grobe, Marjorie
Ringler, and Harold L. Holloman, Jr. The 2008-2009 update was developed by the university
intern supervisors.

Purpose of the Internship
The purpose of the internship is to blend the theoretical and research-based content of course
offerings with the practical day-to-day experiences of school leadership. Ultimately, the
internship affords students a realistic notion of school administration and allows students to learn
from past experiences while they develop an appreciation for reflective practice.

In order to reap the full benefits of internship learning opportunities, an intern must be directly
involved in the many diverse activities a principal encounters on a daily basis. An intern is
expected to examine the overall school vision, become immersed in the school’s improvement
process, and make a significant contribution to this vision and process as he/she refines his/her
leadership skills. It is expected that, upon successful completion of the program, an intern will
be prepared to assume a school leadership position.

Eligibility for Internship
Full-time students complete their internships during the second year of a two-year program.
Part-time students may begin their internship when more than half the course requirements have
been completed. The intent is that an internship should follow study of leadership theory,
change theory, education law, ethics, curriculum, communication and other topics in order for
that knowledge base to be tested in practical application.




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CHAPTER 2: ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Role of the Intern
Administrative interns may or may not be formally employed by their host school system. In
either case, while functioning as interns, students are held to the same standards of conduct as
other professional employees. They are expected to establish professional relationships with
administrators and school faculty, become familiar with and act in accordance with local school
board policy, maintain professional appearance, and abide by the American Association of
School Administrators (AASA) Code of Ethics (see Appendix A).

Local School Board Policy
One of an intern’s first responsibilities is to locate and study the local school board policy
manual. An intern will be expected to follow school board policy at all times. It is essential to
know what is covered by those policies and to know where copies of the policy manuals are kept
so that they can be referenced at any time. If an intern is assigned specific tasks that are covered
by policies, it is a good idea to make a personal copy of these policies.

Professional Relationships

When engaged in an internship, a student is responsible to and interacts with a number of
individuals who serve in various roles. An understanding of these various roles and relationships
must be clarified.

First, an intern is considered as being an employee of the local school system. The same laws,
rules, and regulations that apply to other professional school system personnel bind him/her.
Second, an intern reports to the principal of the school in which he/she works. The principal
may delegate some intern supervisory responsibility to an assistant principal. In these
circumstances, the intern would report to the assistant principal. For additional clarification of
the intern’s roles and responsibilities on the administrative team, the intern should ask the
supervising principal. Finally, an intern enjoys a professional relationship with the faculty
similar to an assistant principal-teacher relationship.

In addition, an intern is a student at East Carolina University (ECU) and conducts him/herself as
a professional representative of the university as well as the local school system. An intern is
also responsible to the university supervisor who works with him/her to ensure that the internship
provides opportunities to learn on-the-job and linkage with the university through seminars,
portfolio development and a comprehensive exam.




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Professional Appearance
Interns must follow the administrative dress code for the district in which they serve. A safe
standard to follow is the dress of other administrators in the school district. If something is
questionable, the safest and wisest position to take is to be conservative.

The Intern’s Calendar
North Carolina state legislation requires a significant, yearlong, full-time internship for students
enrolled in the MSA program in Educational Leadership. At ECU, the full-time internship
carries eight semester hours of credit over two semesters, fall (LEED 6808) and spring (LEED
6809). An MSA Internship Orientation Session will be held at the end of the spring semester
prior to the beginning of the internship. The orientation session will provide important
information about the experience and time lines for fulfilling the requirements of the MSA
Internship Portfolio.

The internship is designed for students who have completed at least 18 semester hours of course
work. Full-time students complete 24 semester hours of course work during the first year and
undertake the internship during the second year of study. Due to the rigor of the internship
program, it is strongly recommended that students do not take additional coursework during the
internship.


Completion of MSA Internship--Time Requirement

The 1000-hour administrative experience requirement of the internship is two-fold: (1) interns
must log a minimum of 500 directed administrative hours during the academic year (including
summer months), and (2) will complete 500 supplemental hours at the discretion of their
university supervisor. Interns will consult with their host principal to determine the completion
date of the internship and receive approval from their university supervisor.

MSA administrative interns can fulfill this time requirement in one of the following three ways:

I. Full-Time MSA Students
Full-time students have resigned from their teaching positions or obtained professional leave.
For example, most Principal Fellows are granted professional leave by their employing school
district for the two years they are enrolled in the MSA program.

The full-time internship students (including Principal Fellows) attend to their internship duties
four days a week during ECU's regular academic year. The fifth day is set aside to attend ECU
courses and periodic internship seminars and/or workshops. A projected calendar of on-campus
activities will be given to each intern early in the fall semester.




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II. Part-Time MSA Students Employed in a Full-Time Administrative Position
These interns are employed by a school district in an administrative position five days a week.
Although these students enjoy full-time employment with full-time administrative
responsibilities, the reflective internship experience provided through seminars, journaling,
collection of artifacts, and professional leadership portfolio development will enrich their
practice and enhance their administrative skills. Occasionally, these students may be granted
leave to take a morning or afternoon course on campus with full-time students.

III. MSA Students Employed in a Teaching Position (Extended Interns)
Extended interns hold regular teaching positions in a school system and undertake an internship
in addition to their teaching responsibilities. Although the ECU faculty strongly recommends
one of the two previously mentioned options, they recognize that this arrangement may be
necessary for some students. While full-time interns and administrative employees easily invest
at least one thousand hours in their administrative experiences, ―extended‖ interns who log
administrative hours while they continue to teach must monitor their hours more carefully. It is
essential that extended interns work closely with their host administrator to determine how they
will experience a wide variety of administrative responsibilities. The 1000-hour administrative
experience requirement of the internship is two-fold: (1) interns must log a minimum of 500
directed administrative hours during the academic year ( this MUST include at least one summer
of internship experiences concomitant with the internship) including experiences during school,
before school and after school hours, and (2) complete 500 supplemental hours at the discretion
of their university supervisor.

Internship Site Issues
All interns must be sensitive to the calendars of their host district and that of the university.
Because it is important for them to experience the opening and closing of the school year, most
interns will follow the school district’s calendar whether or not they are under contract. Full-
time MSA students receiving the state stipend are expected to complete a minimum of ten
months in the district.

Interns will follow the holidays and vacation days set by the local school district. Interns will
follow the ECU calendar with respect to internship seminar dates, the schedule for courses being
taken, and graduation ceremonies.

All interns will follow the workday schedule required of professional personnel in the school as
determined by local school board policy. Interns are encouraged to gain valuable experience by
beginning work prior to the opening of the school year and by helping with school closure at the
end of the year.




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Role of the Host Principal
The host principal must agree in writing to accept on site responsibility for the supervision of the
intern. The host principal assumes responsibility for the specific assignments given an intern. It
is expected that these assignments will cover the range of duties and responsibilities of an
assistant principal or a principal. The university supervisor will meet with the intern's principal
early in the school year to discuss assignments and encourage the principal to assign a wide
range of tasks. A recommended and suggested list of possible tasks/duties/experiences will be
provided by the university at this time.

The host principal should be informed of the intern’s development plan early in the relationship
so that he/she can assign appropriate responsibilities and tasks. Knowledge of an intern’s
strengths, potential derailers and development goals will enable the host principal and
supervising professor to assist the intern as he/she evaluates performance, reflects on experiences
and plans future development. Interns will make sure their host principals have a copy of the
North Carolina School Executive Standards (see Appendix B) and Interstate School Leaders
Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) (see Appendix C). Professional evaluation of North Carolina
school executives and MSA internship portfolio requirements are aligned with the North
Carolina School Executive Standards. The School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) is
aligned with the ISLLC standards (see Council of Chief State School Officers at
<www.ccsso.org> at ISLLC).

A host principal is expected to assist the intern in becoming fully absorbed in the life of the
school. An intern is expected to participate actively, as would an assistant principal, in the total
school program.

A host principal works collaboratively with the intern and the university supervisor to assess the
intern’s progress and ensure development of essential leadership skills. At the end of the
internship, the host principal will evaluate the intern’s progress using evaluation instruments
provided by the university supervisor.

Role of the University Supervisor
The university supervisor works with a superintendent of schools for placement of an intern in a
specific school. The university supervisor works with the host principal and intern to assure that
roles and responsibilities are clear.

The university supervisor makes on-site visits to an intern at least twice during the first semester,
at least once during the second semester, and on other occasions as needed. Interns are also
expected to interact electronically with the supervisor on a regular basis. The supervisor confers
with a host principal (in person and electronically) about the progress the intern is making;
similarly, the supervisor confers with an intern about the individual’s growth as an educational
leader. Additional conferences are scheduled on campus as needed.

The university supervisors will facilitate a minimum of 8 seminars for all interns during the
academic year. These seminars are focused on the North Carolina School Executive Standards
and the learning experiences of interns. Each seminar will provide interns with an opportunity to
discuss problems and issues they have encountered. Each seminar will focus on one of the North


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Carolina School Executive Standards and artifacts interns collect to demonstrate their
competence in that standard. The centerpiece of each seminar will be a meeting of the reflection
team. The supervising professor will identify reflection team members early in the fall semester.
This team will meet throughout the internship. Host principals are invited to attend and
participate in these seminars.

Toward the conclusion of the internship, the university supervisor, in consultation with the host
principal, assesses the progress of an intern. The university supervisor assumes responsibility for
the assignment of the final grade based on the intern’s portfolio and comprehensive exam, which
is based on the portfolio (See Final Evaluation of an Intern's Performance in Chapter 4).




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CHAPTER 3: THE LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

Self-Assessment and the Growth Plan for the Internship
Effective development occurs in stages beginning with assessment, moves through on-the-job
experiences, and culminates in reflection. After an evaluation of progress, the development
cycle begins again.

Prior to beginning the internship, an intern is expected to assess his/her level of knowledge and
skill. This assessment should be used in the creation of a development plan. Students who have
participated in the MSA Assessment Center (MSAAC) and the School Administrator Skills
Simulation (SAS) should use the reports and development guides from those experiences to
create a growth plan (see Appendix E). (Note: Students who have not participated in the
MSAAC should see their university site supervisor.)

Development planning focuses on building areas of strength and dealing with areas that might
potentially derail an intern. It is essential that interns create their growth plan around their
assessed strengths and potential derailers within the context of the tasks and responsibilities they
are assigned. In addition, the plan should be connected to the school’s improvement plan. For
example, an intern might want to work on problem analysis because it is an area of assessed
strength. A school also has a need to improve its state test scores. If a principal agrees to assign
an intern responsibilities related to the analysis of data to improve student performance, the
intern will have the opportunity to link his/her development goal to school improvement. In
addition, this development goal is linked to North Carolina School Executive Standards One and
Five.

It is appropriate for an intern to revise the growth plan during the year; however, revisions
should result from documented growth or a significant change in assigned responsibilities.
Interns should discuss their growth plans with their host principal and the supervising professor
very early in the internship. Revisions in the growth plan should also be reviewed with the
intern's host principal and supervising professor.

Internship Seminars
Throughout the academic year, interns engage in a series of academic seminars. These seminars
serve a number of purposes: to focus on learning the North Carolina School Executive Standards;
to provide for a discussion of ideas related to a specific leadership text; to provide for exchange
of information among interns; to allow interns to share artifacts, their reflections about learning
linked to artifacts and feedback; and to assess student progress. The university supervisor
assumes major responsibility for scheduling and conducting the seminars. A schedule for
seminars and other intern activities is provided early in the fall semester.

At the first seminar, interns will meet with their university supervisor and will be introduced to
the development of artifacts and reflection teams. Subsequent seminars focus on specific North
Carolina School Executive (NCSE) standards. Interns will examine case studies related to the
NCSE standards and practices, discuss required readings (to be provided), and share related
artifacts that interns bring to each seminar (see Appendix G for sample artifact cover sheet, and



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Appendix L for seminar topic schedule). The final seminar provides an opportunity for interns to
focus on a completed portfolio and performance review (see Appendix K).

Students will also benefit from a review of the ISLLC Standards that serve as the basis for the
School Leader Licensure Assessment (SLLA) required for principal licensure in North Carolina.
Four internship seminars are scheduled during each semester.

The Reflection Team Process
In the Reflection Team Process there are five steps:

      Step 1: Analyze your professional development needs, identify your preliminary goals,
       and prepare a preliminary growth plan.
      Step 2: Establish norms and procedures for your team meetings and present your
       preliminary professional development plan.
      Step 3: Identify an artifact related to the standard that is the focus for the seminar, and
       develop a preliminary reflection.
      Step 4: Meet with the Reflection Team.
      Step 5: Reflect on the meeting.

An explication of each of the five steps follows. General comments and specific suggestions are
offered for the purpose of helping an intern maximize this important element of the internship
program.

Step 1: Analyze your professional development needs, identify your preliminary goals, and
prepare a preliminary professional development plan.

You will begin the internship by identifying the professional development goals that you
believe will help you become an effective school leader. Link your goals to issues identified in
your school’s improvement plan, your individual growth plan, and the tasks your supervising
principal assigns. By completing this process, you will ensure that you will have opportunities to
develop your skills in an authentic context as well as help your school improve. Your goals
should be written in terms of the standards, practices, and competencies that you have targeted
for growth because you believe growth in these areas will make you a more effective school
leader and help your school progress towards its goals. The professional development goals
should be written in terms of personal outcomes, not school or district outcomes. However,
they should be personal outcomes that will help you become more effective at enhancing
teaching and learning in your school.

Select issues: Consider the specific needs of your school as identified in the school improvement
plan. Choose two to three issues (short- and long-term) from the school improvement plan that
will frame your primary, personal and professional development goals. The issues may address a
pressing need (e.g., the need to improve student performance on state tests), the implementation
of a new policy (e.g., dress code), reflect on-going assessment and improvement (e.g., work with
teachers to close the achievement gap), or relate to an existing school strength (e.g., help your
school maintain a high state evaluation). Focus on important issues and issues with which you
will be involved, those in which your success will have a significant impact. The issues you
select need not represent all of your responsibilities for the year, but should incorporate the


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needs of the school, with an emphasis on teaching and learning, and represent areas in which
you can demonstrate learning linked to the North Carolina School Executive Standards.

Frame the issues through the North Carolina School Executive Standards and leadership
competencies, then identify your professional development goals: Review the North Carolina
School Executive Standards to identify the practices and competencies that are most relevant to
the issue(s) you have selected. The practices and competencies will provide the specific
professional development goals. That will be the emphasis of your learning. For example, if the
issue is related to improving performance on a state test, you might develop a plan to improve
your skills in working with teachers to ensure that assessment data related to student learning
are used to develop the school vision and goals (Standard 5), to increase your knowledge and
understanding of measurement, evaluation, and assessment strategies (Standard 1) and to
become more effective at ensuring that operational procedures are designed and managed to
maximize opportunities for student learning (Standard 3) . Your professional development goals
and work experiences should cut across all standards as you move through the internship. A list
of skills assessed through the MSA Assessment Center (MSAAC) is listed in Appendix D.
Students who have participated in MSAAC should use this list of skills in addition to the North
Carolina School Executive Standards to frame their growth plans. All students should reflect
upon skills needed to master successfully the North Carolina School Executive Standards
practices and competencies in their individual school settings.

Using your goals, the standards, skills, and your work context, develop a preliminary plan for the
year. As you develop this plan consider the following: What do you need to learn? How does
your plan address the standards and skills? What tasks and responsibilities will you have? What
kinds of artifacts might you produce for your portfolio to reflect your learning?

As you begin to draft your plan, think about the role a team of fellow interns can play in the
process to help you critique your work, clarify your thinking, and reflect on your growth. What
products(s) will you bring to them? How will you demonstrate your work so they can help you
reflect on your learning?

As you identify your goals, work to maintain a balance between ways to build on your personal
strengths while broadening your abilities by addressing areas that are not current strengths. In
any case, choose professional development goals that reflect areas you consider important for
your learning and improvement.

Where to begin: Once you have completed a personal audit of the standards and skills
(MSAAC/North Carolina School Executive Standards Self Assessment) to determine areas you
feel are strengths and areas you need to strengthen, you will start with reflective questioning.
What do you already do well? Where do you need to grow? What skills can you develop
through the assignments and responsibilities your supervising principal has assigned? Where
will you be able to spend time? Where do you need to gain additional experience? This process
may yield a different profile in terms of professional growth goals; however; you will still need
to connect these goals to important school needs and work toward these goals within the context
of real school issues. You will need to review your initial development plan with your
supervising principal as early as possible. This review will allow you to explore ways to link
your initial goals with areas of needed school improvement. You must link your plan to your
tasks and responsibilities. The planning process may reveal areas in which initially you will not



                                               11
have had opportunities to gain needed experiences. If you discover gaps, work with your
supervising principal to find ways to fill them and adjust your plan accordingly.

How to document your work: Throughout the year you will build a collection of artifacts (e.g.,
samples of your work) that serve as a historical record and provide evidence of your learning.
You may choose to store these materials in a file folder, a binder, a portfolio, or through
electronic means. What is critical is that you have a collection of artifacts and reflections that
document your work for the year and what you have learned about your abilities with respect to
the North Carolina School Executive Standards. Some students have begun by generally filing
artifacts by standard and using the journal to record details about the events surrounding the
artifacts, initial reflections regarding learning, and other details that will be useful at the end of
the year when the final portfolio is assembled. Students are encouraged to use electronic
portfolios. This technique allows the use of audio and video artifacts along with more typical
kinds of presentation. In addition, the electronic format enables the linkage of artifacts with
reflection in unique ways that can more clearly demonstrate learning. Students interested in the
electronic format should confer with the supervising professor early in the year to learn more
about the possibilities of using this technique.

Step 2: Establish norms and procedures for your team meetings and present your
preliminary growth plan for the internship.

At the first seminar you will meet with your university supervisor. Parameters for the reflection
teams will be established for subsequent meetings. The supervising professor manages all this
process and is responsible for establishing a functional team and process.

Begin by agreeing on logistical matters, so no time will be lost to these issues at future meetings.
You should consider the following as you develop a general plan for how the reflection team will
work (e.g., rules, procedures, roles, and norms):

The team will meet at each seminar to:

       Consider what procedures should be established to maximize the time on each intern’s
       stated goals and not be taken off task by seemingly more immediate, but in the long run
       not as important topics. The supervising professor will act as coach to ensure that a
       maximum amount of time is spent on issues related to the North Carolina School
       Executive Standard that is the focus for the seminar.

       Consider what procedures will guide the review of work. Should work be exchanged in
       advance? Will everything be presented/read/reviewed during the meeting time? How can
       you ensure that feedback is balanced? What measures of confidentiality should govern
       the meetings?

       Move ahead to establish the foundation necessary to help you progress as a group.

       Consider the context knowledge that team members will need. Are they already familiar
       with your school? Do you need to provide a summary of the school, staffing, and student
       population? A copy of the school improvement plan? Some background information will
       be valuable to your reflection team members; however, additional context knowledge will



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       likely emanate from the questions they raise as they review your professional
       development goals and your plan.

Prepare a packet of materials, if necessary, to provide team members with the common
background information (e.g., school improvement plan, description of school) necessary before
they begin this process.

At one of the early seminar sessions interns you have the opportunity to share your professional
development plan, to seek feedback, and to make the revisions necessary to begin the process at
the next meeting. Fellow interns will consider the following questions at the this meeting. Is
there sufficient detail? Does it map to the North Carolina School Executive Standards? Does it
seem reasonable in light of the intern’s responsibilities? Does it emphasize teaching and
learning? Is it tied to school improvement? Is it meaningful to the school? Is it manageable?
What modifications are necessary?

Distill, target, and focus the plan. The most important outcome of the initial seminars (and
the first university supervisor site visit) is a clear and concise professional development
plan. Take the time necessary to articulate the most essential elements of the goal(s) and to
target specific practices and competencies in terms of the North Carolina School Executive
Standards and MSAAC skills. It will take time, but it is critical to invest the time and energy in
developing a clear plan that will provide the direction for subsequent meetings.

At each seminar the reflection team members will:

       adhere to beginning and ending times and allocate time within the meeting to provide
           meaningful analysis of artifacts,
       ensure all interns are engaged in the discussion,
       stay focused on the intern presenting an artifact,
       maintain a professional tone that is respectful of colleagues and the risks they are taking,
       contribute to substantive discourse, asking thoughtful questions that provide sufficient
           challenge to help colleagues grow professionally,
       make connections to the North Carolina School Executive Standards, the practices, the
           competencies, and MSAAC skills,
       push for depth of analysis as contrasted with attending to surface issues,
       keep a running log of reflections about their artifacts and learning.

Step 3: Identify an artifact related to the standard that is the focus for the seminar, and
develop a preliminary reflection. This activity is done prior to each seminar.

Interns should select an artifact from their collection that is linked to the North Carolina School
Executive Standard identified for the seminar. The artifact should illustrate learning that is
linked to the professional development plan and the focus standard. The artifact is the basis for
self-reflection on learning with respect to established personal goals and feedback from the
professional development team. Works in progress are more likely than finished products to
illustrate the ways in which you are growing and the issues with which you are struggling. The
purpose of these products is to illustrate how you are working toward your professional
development goals. They should be rich enough to stimulate discussion and feedback from your
team. The quality of your written reflections on the product, framed by your professional



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development goals, is a critical determinant of how effectively your team will be able to examine
your progress toward your goals. Remember that your development plan and products you
develop along the way are more than just a collection of paper products. Documentation of
meetings you have conducted and their outcomes, videotapes of faculty meetings, reports of
difficult issues you have addressed, drafts of communications, or coordination with other staff,
all provide some evidence of your work. They can provide a basis from which team members
examine your actual leadership performance and make suggestions for progress toward your
development goals.

Advice
How to keep it manageable. The reflections you develop are drafts to be critiqued by others.
Spend your time on the activities that will help you grow professionally, not on polishing
products to make them look better. Modifications may be "margin notes." Reflections can be
bulleted lists. Do not overwrite, but write when it focuses your thinking and enhances the quality
of your reflection.

In preparation for each seminar you will select an artifact and reflect on the learning that resulted
from dealing with that artifact.


NCSES Artifact Check

Is each artifact and reflection tied clearly and convincingly to a NCSE standard? Is the
product connected to your professional development goal? Does the product and your
reflection illustrate ways in which you have grown professionally with respect to the
identified North Carolina School Executive standards, practices, and competencies? Are
the product and reflection rich enough to provide an opportunity for others to review and
critique your growth?




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Step 4: Meet with the Reflection Team

Each reflection team member will engage in critical analysis of artifacts at each seminar. The
most important elements of these meetings will occur through the thorough and thoughtful
critical analysis of the artifacts interns bring to the team meetings. It is essential that you make
optimal use of these meetings as the opportunity to examine your learning against the North
Carolina School Executive Standards, practices, and competencies through the artifacts of your
work. The comments of your team members and your own observations should enhance your
learning and your ability to maximize the experiences of the internship.

There are five key elements for each team meeting:

       The discussion must focus on examining your learning as you serve your school.
       The reflection team is responsible for asking probing questions, helping each other
       examine the issues, and helping each other identify ways to further learning. Team
       members are not to tell ―war stories‖ that recast the problem in a way that becomes a
       description of one of their achievements.

       The analysis should focus on the artifact and reflection. The type of meetings may
       vary. In some instances you may bring in a problem and a possible solution and then ask
       your team to help you think through your plan. Other meetings may center on a plan you
       have in progress and the products you have developed to help implement it. Later in the
       year you will bring artifacts to the team that you plan to make part of your final portfolio
       and ask the team to critique your artifacts and reflections.

       The North Carolina School Executive Standards are the lens through which the
       reflection team critiques your work. Your presentation of the product should be
       framed in terms of the standards, and specifically those practices and competencies
       highlighted in your professional development plan. The reflection team will follow a
       process that focuses their critique on those specific standards and indicators as examined
       through the work you provide.

       On-topic behavior is reinforced through a structure that governs time and process in a
       way that keeps the focus on your work, your professional development goals, the North
       Carolina School Executive Standards, and the identified outcome for the meeting.

       A clear outcome based on a critical analysis of your professional development is
       identified at the beginning of the meeting and progress towards that goal is maintained
       throughout the meeting. This revised product and your reflections on the meeting serve as
       the entry into your portfolio.

Advice
How to stay on topic? It is important to follow some established process for who speaks when,
for how long, and the type of feedback provided to ensure optimal use of time. Over time, your
group may incorporate these procedures in the norms for the meeting and the process will
become less formal. A general rule of thumb is to keep asking yourself, ―Is this discussion tied



                                                 15
to the development goals and are we talking about learning?‖ If not, bring the group back on
topic.

How to keep it meaningful? Sound planning and rules for effective meetings should apply to this
process. A schedule and time-line are critical; otherwise your products and meetings will
continually be postponed because of more pressing needs. Establish deadlines and stick to them.
Although some meetings may include brainstorming, written products and written reflections
will be at the heart of this process. Requiring interns to prepare actual products to focus
meetings can only enhance the quality of planning and of reflecting. The quality of feedback
from team members is essential. They must be prepared to commend good work, offer
ideas for new direction, and identify problems when they are encountered.


How to keep feedback balanced? Team members should monitor the balance of commendations
and recommendations in the feedback. It is important to respect the presenter’s risk taking. By
sharing their work products, interns are exposing themselves to kinds of critiques they may not
be used to. However, colleagues should also be willing to raise difficult issues and ask difficult
questions. Without thoughtful but probing questions and comments, an intern won’t benefit
from the team.

How to maintain the role of helping an intern focus on learning, and not fall into a management
team mode? The purpose of a team is to help school interns as they pursue identified
development goal(s). When interns collaborate, it is very easy to focus on the educational issue
or problem and constitute a management team that works to identify solutions or strategies to
address the problem. This natural tendency may yield some wonderful solutions to a problem at
hand, but will not necessarily lead to development for the interns and help them address similar
issues in the future. Team members should monitor their questions and responses and
continually ask if they are remaining focused on developed goals and North Carolina School
Executive Standards, as framed by the issue, or if they are more engaged in an issue than an
intern’s learning. The team should restrict itself to probing, questioning, and suggestions that are
framed by the standards, and not jump to collaborative problem solving.

Step 5: Reflect on the Meeting

After each meeting, you should prepare at least one entry for your journal. The entry should
provide a summary of the meeting, a reflective commentary that describes what you have
learned, and action you plan to take. This journal entry should
        be based on the team meeting and
        provide reflections about the feedback you received during the team meeting.




                                                16
At the end of each meeting the team should answer the following questions:

Did your team stay on topic and focused on learning? Was there a balance of supportive
and critical feedback? Did each intern receive significant feedback? Did the meeting
help each intern better understand what he/she was learning?




Reflecting and Keeping a Journal
An important factor in your growth plan will be your ability to learn from your experiences
and observations. Keeping a journal is essential in this process. The journal is a place for
you to record your competency/skill development and what is happening to you. You have a
plan that will assist you in developing your leadership skills. It is important to reflect on
those learning experiences and to record them. The journal is a place to tie all your learning
experiences together in one place. You will find that writing in your journal and putting your
feelings and perceptions into words will further enhance your learning experience.


Please note that the journal is structured to allow you to:

      identify the time and date of the learning event,
      describe briefly the situation and identify the competencies/skills involved, and
      record your reflection.

At the end of each day, set aside 15 minutes to reflect on your development plan and ask
yourself if you learned anything from an assignment, boss, hardship, development activity,
or off-the-job experience. If you did, write about it briefly in your journal. A sample journal
entry will be provided and another sample can be found in Appendix F.

Your journal will be valuable when you want to share your experiences with your
supervising professor and colleagues during the reflection team meetings at seminars.



NASSP’s 21St Century School Administrator Skills (SAS) Program
(LEED 6812)
The 21st Century School Administrator Skills (SAS) Program is a skill development program
developed at East Carolina University for the National Association of Secondary School
Principals (NASSP). There are four purposes for offering this program to complement the MSA
internship at East Carolina University:

          to reinforce knowledge about the performance domains for school administrators,
          to provide practice in working with leadership skills,
          to develop skills in giving and receiving feedback,


                                                 17
          to support the individual growth plan.

The SAS Program is scheduled prior to fall semester. Typically, the simulation is delivered late
summer over a three day period (Thursday or Friday, Saturday, Monday).

Each participant is assigned an administrative role in a school or in the central office of the
Springfield School District. Participants perform a variety of tasks and respond to opportunities
throughout the day.


The Leadership Portfolio
Professional portfolios mean different things to different people. While completion of a portfolio
is a requirement, what a student turns in may vary according to the student’s interpretation of
what the instructor wants and the student’s needs and interests.

For the purposes of this internship, the Leadership Portfolio is defined as a collection of evidence
that documents an acceptable level of knowledge, skill and understanding as defined by the
North Carolina School Executive Standards. The contents of the Leadership Portfolio should be
maintained in electronic format and organized in sections as follows:

       An up-to-date resume - including professional background, experience, and aspirations.

       Growth Plan for the Internship with amendments throughout the year.

       Journal of weekly activities and hours devoted to administrative activity.

       Three artifacts for each standard with an analysis sheet (see Appendix G) explaining the
          link to specific practices and competencies organized in seven sections.

       Formal evaluations by host principal (Appendix I) and North Carolina School Executive
          Standards pre and post assessments.

       Additional evaluations by 360 Survey Report, feedback from teachers and students.

       SAS section – which includes: SAS Reflection Summary, SAS Performance Review,
         notes from Feedback Form, and 3 selected artifacts with cover sheets from the
         simulation

       Summative Activity

Each section of artifacts should begin with a tab indicating the standard being addressed
followed by the first artifact that is preceded by the artifact cover sheet (see Appendix G). The
second and third artifacts should follow the same pattern.

In addition to the Leadership Portfolio, an intern may want to continue to gather useful
professional resources in the following ways:



                                                18
Professional resource file: It is always helpful to collect resource materials, ideas, helpful tips,
articles, curriculum materials, etc. They should be filed in a way that allows them to be located
easily as needs arise.

Professional library: An annotated bibliography of professional books that are or will be helpful
later as an administrator, provide a basis for a personal professional library. Textbooks from
MSA courses are an appropriate beginning for one’s professional library. Throughout the
internship, other resources will be available, and bibliographic information will provide a means
of obtaining them for a personal collection should the need arise.




                                                 19
CHAPTER 4: FINAL STEPS

Final Evaluation of an Intern’s Performance
At the conclusion of each semester, an intern is assessed by use of the Evaluation Rubric (see
Appendix J).

The internship is graded in two parts, four semester hours during the fall semester and four
semester hours during the spring semester.

Comprehensive Examinations
Students completing requirements for the MSA degree will, during the last semester of course
work, undergo a comprehensive examination. The examination consists of two parts: written
and oral. An intern’s progress as reflected in the portfolio is the basis for the written and oral
comprehensive examinations. The written examination involves the submission of a Leadership
Portfolio and the completion of a Summative Activity. It represents the culmination of the MSA
program and, in particular, the internship. The contents of the Leadership Portfolio are expected
to provide evidence of competence in each of the North Carolina School Executive Standards.
The portfolio also provides evidence of an intern’s reflections on individual growth with respect
to knowledge, skills, and professional perspectives. The oral examination focuses on the contents
of the Leadership Portfolio and requires an intern to present, discuss, and ―defend‖ the learning
reflected in the portfolio as related to the performance domains and essential administrative
skills.

The portfolio may contain other evidence of a student’s choice directly related to what a student
has learned and achieved, that provides evidence of his/her qualifications to be an administrator.
Portfolios may include transcripts, letters of commendation, copies of publications, test data,
pictures of one at work, or video documentation. The portfolio should be well organized and the
writing error free.

LEED faculty assess the quality of the portfolio. A team of LEED faculty members, including
the supervising professor, evaluates the portfolio; and the supervising professor conducts the oral
examination. Faculty inquiry into a student’s fitness and readiness for assuming an
administrative position, exploring such topics as the following:

       the student’s ability to articulate an appropriate educational philosophy,
       the student’s ability to articulate an appropriate and compelling vision for schools,
       evidence of the student’s leadership skills,
       evidence of the student’s understanding of current issues in education,
       evidence of the student’s ability to apply knowledge, theory and research to real world
           challenges in the principalship,
       evidence of the student’s ability to use technology.




                                                20
In order to pass the comprehensive examination, a student must have made acceptable scores on
both the written and oral components.

Recommendation for Licensure
Students are recommended for licensure upon successful completion of all requirements for the
degree (including course work, comprehensive examinations, and computer proficiency) as well
as additional requirements for licensure (passing score on the School Leaders Licensure
Assessment).

Students apply for licensure through the Department of Educational Leadership at East Carolina
University. They must complete an application form and submit a money order, certified check,
or personal check and a copy of their SLLA test score. The Department of Educational
Leadership assumes responsibility for securing a copy of the student’s transcript containing all
courses and grades required for licensure.

Please note that any incomplete grade must be removed before one can graduate and be
recommended for licensure.

Evaluation of the Internship Program
Throughout the year, the university supervisor seeks feedback from the host principal, the intern,
and other school district administrators regarding the effectiveness of the internship program. At
the time of the university supervisor’s final visit to the school, the supervisor, the host principal,
and the intern evaluate not only the intern’s progress, but also the effectiveness of the internship
program.




                                                 21
APPENDIX A:

AASA Code of Ethics
An educational administrator’s professional behavior must conform to an ethical code. The code
must be idealistic and at the same time practical, so that it can apply reasonably to all educational
administrators. The administrator acknowledges that the schools belong to the public they serve
for the purpose of providing educational opportunities to all. However, the administrator
assumes responsibility for providing professional leadership in the school and community. This
responsibility requires the administrator to maintain standards of exemplary professional
conduct. It must be recognized that the administrator’s actions will be viewed and appraised by
the community, professional associates, and students. To these ends, the administrator
subscribes to the following statements of standards.

The educational leader:

         Makes the well being of students the fundamental value of all decision-
          making and actions.
         Fulfills professional responsibilities with honesty and integrity.
         Supports the principle of due process and protects the civil and human
          rights of all individuals.
         Obeys local, state, and national laws and does not knowingly join or
          support organizations that advocate, directly or indirectly, the overthrow
          of the government.
         Implements the governing board of education’s policies and
          administrative rules and regulations.
         Pursues appropriate measures to correct those laws, policies, and
          regulations that are not consistent with sound educational goals.
         Avoids using positions for personal gain through political, social,
          religious, economic, or other influences.
         Accepts academic degrees of professional certification only from duly
          accredited institutions.
         Maintains the standards and seeks to improve the effectiveness of the
          profession through research and continuing professional development.
         Honors all contracts until fulfillment, release, or dissolution mutually
          agreed upon by all parties to the contract.




                                                 22
APPENDIX B:



            North Carolina Standards for School Executives
               Standards for Principal and Assistant Principal Evaluation


A New Vision of School Leadership
Public education’s changed mission dictates the need for a new type of school
leader – an executive instead of an administrator. No longer are school leaders just
maintaining the status quo by managing complex operations, but just like their
colleagues in business, they must be able to create schools as organizations that
can learn and change quickly if they are to improve performance. Schools need
executives who are adept at creating systems for change and at building
relationships with and across staff that not only tap into the collective knowledge
and insight they possess but powerful relationships that also stir their passions for
their work with children. Out of these relationships the executive must create
among staff a common shared understanding for the purpose of the work of the
school, its values that direct its action, and commitment and ownership of a set of
beliefs and goals that focus everyone’s decision making. The staff’s common
understanding of the school’s identity empowers them to seek and build powerful
alliances and partnerships with students, parents and community stakeholders in
order to enhance their ability to produce increased student achievement. The
successful work of the new executive will only be realized in the creation of a
culture in which leadership is distributed and encouraged with teachers, which
consists of open, honest communication, which is focused on the use of data,
teamwork, research-based best practices, and which uses modern tools to drive
ethical and principled, goal-oriented action. This culture of disciplined thought
and action is rooted in the ability of the relationships among all stakeholders to
build a trusting, transparent environment that reduces all stakeholders’ sense of
vulnerability as they address the challenges of transformational change.
              Philosophical Foundations of the Standards
The standards are predicated on the following beliefs:
Today schools must have proactive school executives who possess a great sense of
urgency. The goal of school leadership is to transform schools so that large-scale,
sustainable, continuous improvement becomes built in to their mode of
operation. The moral purpose of school leadership is to create schools in which all
students learn, the gap between high and low performance is greatly diminished
and what students learn will prepare them for success in their futures, not



                                          23
ours. Leadership is not a position or a person. It is a practice that must be
embedded in all job roles at all levels of the school district. The work of leadership
is about working with, for and through people. It is a social act. Whether we are
discussing instructional leadership, change leadership or leadership as
learning, people are always the medium for the leader. Leadership is not about
doing everything oneself but it is always about creating processes and systems that
will cause everything to happen. Leadership is about the executive’s ability to
select and develop a strong executive staff whose complementary strengths
promote excellence in all seven functions of leadership identified in this document.
The concept of leadership is extremely complex and systemic in nature. Isolating
the parts of leadership completely misses the power of the whole. It is not just
knowing what to do, but why to do it, how to do it and when to do it. Within a
school district there are nested leadership systems (local boards of education,
central office, school, and classroom). For the organization to be successful these
systems must be aligned and supportive, and function as a team. Leadership is
about setting direction, aligning and motivating people to implement positive
sustained improvement. Leaders bring their ―person‖ to the practice of leadership.
Matching the context of leadership to the ―person‖ of the individual is important to
the success of the leader.

                    Intended Purposes of the Standards
The North Carolina School Executive Standards have been developed as a guide
for principals and assistant principals as they continually reflect upon and
improve their effectiveness as leaders throughout all of the stages of their careers.
Although there are many influences on a school executive’s development, these
standards will serve as an important tool for principals and assistant principals
as they consider their growth and development as executives leading schools in the
21st century. Taken as a whole these standards, practices and competencies are
overwhelming. One might ask, ―How can one person possess all of these?‖ The
answer is, one person cannot. It is, therefore, imperative that a school executive
understands the importance of building an executive team that has complementary
skills. The more diversity that exists on the team the more likely the team will be to
demonstrate high performance in all critical function areas. The main responsibility
of the school executive is to create aligned systems of leadership throughout the
school and its community. In addition, these standards will serve other audiences
and purposes. These standards will: Inform higher education programs in
developing the content and requirements of school executive degree programs;
Focus the goals and objectives of districts as they support, monitor and evaluate
their school executives; Guide professional development for school executives;
Serve as a tool in developing coaching and
mentoring programs for school executives.


                                          24
                    Organization of the Standards
Each standard is formatted as follows:
Standard: The standard is the broad category of the executive’s knowledge and
skills.
Summary: The summary more fully describes the content and rationale of each
Standard.
Practices: The practices are statements of what one would see an effective
executive doing in each Standard. The lists of practices are not meant to be
exhaustive.
Artifacts: The artifacts are evidence of the quality of the executive’s work or
places where evidence can be found in each Standard. Collectively they could be
the components of a performance portfolio. The lists of artifacts are not meant to
be exhaustive.
Competencies: Although not articulated, there are many obvious competencies
inherent in the practices of each critical leadership function.
This document concludes with a list of those competencies which may not be
obvious but that support practice in multiple leadership functions.
        The Seven Standards of Executive Leadership and Their Connection
Relevant national reports and research in the field focused on identifying the
practices of leadership that impact student achievement were considered in the
development of these standards. Particularly helpful were the Maryland
Instructional Leadership Framework, and work by the Wallace Foundation,
the Mid-continental Regional Education Laboratory, the Charlotte Advocates for
Education and the Southern Regional Education Board. Work by the National Staff
Development Council, the National Association of Secondary School Principals,
the National Association of Elementary School Principals, the National Middle
School Association, the Interstate School Leader Licensure Consortium, and the
National Policy Board for Educational Administration Education Leadership
Constituent Council were also considered in the development of these standards.
Additionally, input was solicited from stakeholders and leaders in the field.
The seven critical standards used as the framework for the North Carolina School
Executive Standards are borrowed from a Wallace Foundation study,
Making Sense of Leading Schools: A Study of the School Principalship (2003).
Unlike many current efforts that look at all of the things principals ―might‖
or ―should‖ do, this study examined what principals actually do. As such, it is
grounded in practice, exploits story and narrative, and supports the distribution of
leadership rather than the ―hero leader.‖ North Carolina’s Standards for School
Executives are interrelated and connect in executives’ practice. They are not
intended to isolate competencies or practices. Executives’ abilities in each standard
will impact their ability to perform effectively in other standard areas. For
example, the ability of an executive to evaluate and develop staff will directly


                                         25
impact the school’s ability to reach its goals and will also impact the norms of the
culture of the school. School executives are responsible for ensuring that
leadership happens in all seven critical areas, but they don’t have to provide it.

                    The Standards and their practices follow.

                             Standard 1: Strategic Leadership
               Summary: School executives will create conditions that result in
               strategically re-imaging the school’s vision, mission, and goals in the
               21st century. Understanding that schools ideally prepare students for
               an unseen but not altogether unpredictable future, the leader creates a
               climate of inquiry that challenges the school community to
               continually re-purpose itself by building on its core values and beliefs
               about its preferred future and then developing a pathway to reach it.
               Practices: The school executive practices effective strategic
               leadership when he or she:
1.1 Is able to share a vision of the changing world in the 21st century that schools
    are preparing children to enter;
1.2 Systematically challenges the status quo by leading change with potentially
beneficial outcomes;
1.3 Systematically considers new ways of accomplishing tasks and is comfortable
with major changes in how processes are implemented;
1.4 Utilizes data from the NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey in developing
the framework for continual improvement in the School Improvement Plan;
1.5 Is a driving force behind major initiatives that help students acquire 21st
century skills;
1.6 Creates with all stakeholders a vision for the school that captures peoples’
attention and imagination;
1.7 Creates processes that provide for the periodic review and revision of the
school’s vision, mission, and strategic goals by all school stakeholders;
1.8 Creates processes to ensure the school’s identity (vision, mission, values,
beliefs and goals) actually drive decisions and inform the culture of the school;
1.9 Adheres to statutory requirements regarding the School Improvement Plan;
1.10 Facilitates the collaborative development of annual school improvement plans
to realize strategic goals and objectives;
1.11 Facilitates the successful execution of the school improvement plan aligned to
the mission and goals set by the State Board of Education;
1.12 Facilitates the implementation of state education policy inside the school’s
classrooms;
1.13 Facilitates the setting of high, concrete goals and the expectations that all
students meet them;


                                          26
1.14 Communicates strong professional beliefs about schools, teaching, and
learning that reflect latest research and best practice in preparing students for
success in college or in work;
1.15 Creates processes to distribute leadership throughout the school.
       Artifacts:
    Degree to which school improvement plan strategies are implemented,
       assessed and modified
    Evidence of an effectively functioning, elected School Improvement Team
    NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey
    School improvement plan, its alignment with district and state strategic
       priorities, and a plan for growth on items of concern as evidenced in the NC
       TWC Survey
    The degree to which staff can articulate the school’s direction and focus
       Student testing data
              Standard 2: Instructional Leadership
       Summary: School executives will set high standards for the professional
practice of 21st century instruction and assessment that result in a no nonsense
accountable environment. The school executive must be knowledgeable of best
instructional and school practices and must use this knowledge to cause the
creation of collaborative structures within the school for the design of highly
engaging schoolwork for students, the on-going peer review of this work and the
sharing of this work throughout the professional community.
       Practices: The school executive practices effective instructional leadership
when he or she:
2.1 Focuses his or her own and others’ attention persistently and publicly on
learning and teaching by initiating and guiding conversations about instruction and
student learning that are oriented towards high expectations and concrete goals;
2.2 Creates an environment of practiced distributive leadership and teacher
empowerment;
2.3 Demonstrates knowledge of 21st century curriculum, instruction, and
assessment by leading or participating in meetings with teachers and parents where
these topics are discussed, and/or holding frequent formal or informal
conversations with students, staff and parents around these topics;
2.4 Ensures that there is an appropriate and logical alignment between the
curriculum of the school and the state’s accountability program;
2.5 Creates processes and schedules that facilitate the collaborative (team) design,
sharing, evaluation, and archiving of rigorous, relevant, and engaging
instructional lessons that ensure students acquire essential knowledge;
2.6 Challenges staff to reflect deeply on and define what knowledge, skills and
concepts are essential to the complete educational development of students;



                                         27
2.7 Creates processes for collecting and using student test data and other formative
data from other sources for the improvement of instruction;
2.8 Creates processes for identifying, benchmarking and providing students access
to a variety of 21st century instructional tools (e.g., technology) and best practices
for meeting diverse student needs;
2.9 Creates processes that ensure the strategic allocation and use of resources to
meet instructional goals and support teacher needs;
2.10 Creates processes to provide formal feedback to teachers concerning the
effectiveness of their classroom instruction;
2.11 Creates processes that protect teachers from issues and influences that would
detract from their instructional time;
2.12 Systematically and frequently observes in classrooms and engages in
conversation with students about their learning.
       Artifacts:
     School improvement plan
     NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey
     Student achievement data
     Dropout data
     Teacher retention data
     Documented use of formative assessment instruments to impact instruction
     Development and communication of goal oriented personalized education
       plans for identified students (ESOL, exceptional children, Level I and Level
       II children)
     Evidence of the team development and evaluation of classroom lessons
                     Standard 3: Cultural Leadership

             Summary: School executives will understand and act on the
      understanding of the important role a school’s culture contributes to the
      exemplary performance of the school. School executives must support and
      value the traditions, artifacts, symbols and positive values and norms of the
      school and community that result in a sense of identity and pride upon which
      to build a positive future. A school executive must be able to ―reculture‖ the
      school if needed to align with school’s goals of improving student and adult
      learning and to infuse the work of the adults and students with passion,
      meaning and purpose. Cultural leadership implies understanding the school
      as the people in it each day, how they came to their current state, and how to
      connect with their traditions in order to move them forward to support the
      school’s efforts to achieve individual and collective goals.




                                          28
              Practices: The school executive practices effective cultural leadership
when he or she:
3.1 Creates a collaborative work environment predicated on site-based
management that supports the ―team‖ as the basic unit of learning and decision-
making within the school and promotes cohesion and cooperation among staff;
3.2 Communicates strong ideals and beliefs about schooling, teaching, and
professional learning communities with teachers, staff, parents, and students and
then operates from those beliefs;
3.3 Influences the evolution of the culture to support the continuous improvement
of the school as outlined in the school improvement plan;
3.4 Systematically develops and uses shared values, beliefs and a shared vision to
establish a school identity that emphasizes a sense of community and cooperation
to guide the disciplined thought and action of all staff and students;
3.5 Systematically and fairly acknowledges failures and celebrates
accomplishments of the school and staff;
3.6 Visibly supports the positive, culturally responsive traditions of the school
community;
3.7 Promotes a sense of well-being among staff, students and parents;
3.8 Builds a sense of efficacy and empowerment among staff that result in a ―can
do‖ attitude when faced with challenges;
3.9 Empowers staff to recommend creative 21st century concepts for school
improvement.
              Artifacts:
     Work of Professional Learning Communities within and tangential to the
       school
     Documented use of the SIT in decision making throughout the year
     NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey
     School improvement plan
     Teacher retention data
     Student achievement data
     Awards structure developed by school
                     Standard 4: Human Resource Leadership
              Summary: School executives will ensure that the school is a
       professional learning community. School executives will ensure that
       processes and systems are in place that result in the recruitment, induction,
       support, evaluation, development and retention of a high performing staff.
       The school executive must engage and empower accomplished teachers in a
       distributive leadership manner, including support of teachers in day-to-day
       decisions such as discipline, communication with parents, and protecting
       teachers from duties that interfere with teaching, and must



                                         29
practice fair and consistent evaluation of teachers. The school executive must
engage teachers and other professional staff in conversations to plan their career
paths and support district succession planning.
              Practices: The school executive practices effective human resource
       leadership when he or she:
4.1 Provides structures for the development of effective professional learning
communities aligned with the school improvement plan, focused on results, and
characterized by collective responsibility for instructional planning and for 21st
century student learning;
4.2 Models the importance of continued adult learning by engaging in activities to
develop personal knowledge and skill along with expanded self – awareness;
4.3 Communicates a positive attitude about the ability of staff to accomplish
substantial outcomes to improve their efficacy;
4.4 Creates processes for teachers to assume leadership and decision making roles
within the school that foster their career development;
4.5 Creates and monitors processes for hiring, inducting and mentoring new
teachers and other staff to the school;
4.6 Uses the results of the Teacher Working Conditions Survey to create and
maintain a positive work environment for teachers and other staff;
4.7 Evaluates teachers and other staff in a fair and equitable manner and utilizes
the results of evaluations to improve performance;
4.8 Provides for results-oriented professional development that is aligned with
identified 21st century curricular, instructional, and assessment needs, is connected
to school improvement goals and is differentiated based on staff needs;
4.9 Continuously searches for the best placement and utilization of staff to fully
benefit from their strengths;
4.10 Is systematically and personally involved in the school’s professional
activities.
              Artifacts:
     School improvement plan
     NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey – with special emphasis on the
       leadership and empowerment domains
     Copy of master school schedule documenting the time provided for
       individual and collaborative planning for every teacher
     Number of National Board Certified teachers
     Teacher retention data
     Number of teachers pursuing school executive credentials, National Board
       Certification, or advanced licensure in their teaching areas
     Records of school visits for the purpose of adult learning
     Record of professional development provided staff and an assessment of the
       impact of professional development on student learning


                                         30
    Mentor records, beginning teacher feedback, and documentation of
      correlation of assignment of mentor to mentee
    Copies of professional growth plans
    Student achievement data
                     Standard 5: Managerial Leadership
             Summary: School executives will ensure that the school has
      processes and systems in place for budgeting, staffing, problem solving,
      communicating expectations and scheduling that result in organizing the
      work routines in the building. The school executive must be responsible for
      the monitoring of the school budget and the inclusion of all teachers in the
      budget decisions so as to meet the 21st century needs of every classroom.
      Effectively and efficiently managing the complexity of every day life is
      critical for staff to be able to focus its energy on mprovement.
             Practices: The school executive practices effective managerial
             leadership when he or she:
5.1 Creates processes to provide for a balanced operational budget for school
programs and activities;
5.2 Creates processes to recruit and retain a high quality workforce in the school
that meets the diverse needs of students;
5.3 Creates processes to identify and solve, resolve, dissolve or absolve school-
based problems/ conflicts in a fair, democratic way;
5.4 Designs a system of communication that provides for the timely, responsible
sharing of information to, from, and with school and district staff;
5.5 Designs scheduling processes and protocols that maximize staff input and
addresses diverse student learning needs;
5.6 Develops a master schedule for the school to maximize student learning by
providing for individual and on-going collaborative planning for every teacher;
5.7 Collaboratively develops and enforces clear expectations, structures, rules and
procedures for students and staff.
      Artifacts:
    NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey
    School Improvement Plan
    External reviews, such as budget
    Copies of master schedules/procedures
    Communication of safety procedures and behavioral expectations throughout
      the school community




                                        31
                             Standard 6: External Development Leadership
              Summary: A school executive will design structures and processes
       that result in community engagement, support, and ownership.
       Acknowledging that schools no longer reflect but in fact build community,
       the leader proactively creates with staff opportunities for parents,
       community and business representatives to participate as ―stockholders‖ in
       the school such that continued investments of resources and good will are
       not left to chance.
              Practices: The school executive practices effective external
       development leadership when he or she:
6.1 Implements processes that empower parents and other stakeholders to make
significant decisions;
6.2 Creates systems that engage all community stakeholders in a shared
responsibility for student and school success;
6.3 Designs protocols and processes that ensure compliance with state and district
mandates;
6.4 Creates opportunities to advocate for the school in the community and with
parents;
6.5 Communicates the school’s accomplishments to the district office and public
media in accordance with LEA policies;
6.6 Garners fiscal, intellectual and human resources from the community that
support the 21st century learning agenda of the school;
6.7 Builds relationships with individuals and groups to support specific aspects of
the learning improvement agenda and also as a source of general good will.
              Artifacts:
    PTSA participation
    PTSA meeting agendas, bulletins, etc.
    Parent attendance at school improvement team meetings
    Survey results from parents
    Evidence of visible support from community
    Booster club participation
    Number of school volunteers
    Plan for shaping the school’s image throughout the community
    PTSA membership
    Evidence of business partnerships and projects involving business partners
                      Standard 7: Micropolitical Leadership
              Summary: The school executive will build systems and relationships
       that utilize the staff’s diversity, encourage constructive ideological conflict
       in order to leverage staff expertise, power and influence to realize the
       school’s vision for success. The executive will also creatively employ an



                                          32
       awareness of staff’s professional needs, issues, and interests to build social
       cohesion and to facilitate distributed governance and shared decisionmaking.
              Practices: The school executive practices effective micropolitical
       leadership when he or she:
7.1 Uses the School Improvement Team to make decisions and provides
opportunities for staff to be involved in developing school policies;
7.2 Creates an environment and mechanisms to ensure all internal stakeholder
voices are heard and respected;
7.3 Creates processes and protocols to buffer and mediate staff interests;
7.4 Is easily accessible to teachers and staff;
7.5 Designs transparent systems to equitably manage human and financial
resources;
7.6 Demonstrates sensitivity to personal needs of staff;
7.7 Demonstrates awareness of informal groups and relationships among school
staff and utilizes these as a positive resource;
7.8 Demonstrates awareness of hidden and potentially discordant issues in the
school;
7.9 Encourages people to express opinions contrary to those of authority;
7.10 Demonstrates ability to predict what could go wrong from day to day;
7.11 Uses performance as the primary criterion for reward and advancement;
7.12 Maintains high visibility throughout the school;
7.13 Maintains open, vertical and horizontal communications throughout the
school community.
              Artifacts:
     NC Teacher Working Conditions Survey
     Teacher retention data
     Dissemination of clear norms and ground rules
     Evidence of ability to confront ideological conflict and then reach consensus
     Evidence of shared decision-making
     Evidence of use of a decision matrix
     Evidence of a school that operates through teams
     Evidence of distributed leadership

                                  Competencies
A competency is a combination of knowledge (factual and experiential) and skills
that one needs to effectively implement the practices. Factual knowledge is simply
―knowing‖ content; experiential knowledge is the knowledge one gains from
understanding – it is knowing the when and why. Skills bring structure to
experiential knowledge. It is when one can put their accumulated knowledge into a
series of steps that – if followed – will lead to practice. There are many



                                         33
competencies that are obviously inherent in the successful performance of all of
the practices listed under each of the seven critical functions of leadership.
The principal may or may not personally possess all of these competencies but
must ensure that a team is in place that not only possesses them but can effectively
and efficiently execute them. Although the principal may not personally possess
them all, he or she is still responsible for their effective use in the various
leadership practices. The competencies listed below are not so obvious in the
practices, can be applied to multiple practices and are absolutely essential for all
school executives to possess to ensure their success. For example, the competency
conflict management is important in Micropolitical Leadership, Strategic
Leadership, Cultural Leadership, and perhaps one could argue that this competency
is necessary in all seven Standards. These competencies are listed here to
emphasize their importance and to make sure they are incorporated into the
development of school executives.
    1. Communication – Effectively listens to others; clearly and effectively
       presents and understands information orally and in writing; acquires,
       organizes, analyzes, interprets, maintains information needed to achieve
       school or team 21st century objectives.
    2. Change Management – Effectively engages staff and community in the
       change process in a manner that ensures their support of the change and its
       successful implementation.
    3. Conflict Management – Anticipates or seeks to resolve confrontations,
       disagreements, or complaints in a constructive manner.
    4. Creative Thinking – Engages in and fosters an environment for others to
       engage in innovative thinking.
    5. Customer Focus – Understands the students as customers of the work of
       schooling and the servant nature of leadership and acts accordingly.
    6. Delegation – Effectively assigns wo rk tasks to others in ways that provide
       learning experiences for them and in ways that ensure the efficient operation
       of the school.
    7. Dialogue/Inquiry – Is skilled in creating a risk free environment for
       engaging people in conversations that explore issues, challenges or bad
       relationships that are hindering school performance.
    8. Emotional Intelligence – Is able to manage oneself through self awareness
       and self management and is able to manage relationships through empathy,
       social awareness and relationship management. This competency is critical
       to building strong, transparent, trusting relationships throughout the school
       community.
    9. Environmental Awareness – Becomes aware and remains informed of
       external and internal trends, interests and issues with potential impacts on
       school policies, practices, procedures and positions.


                                        34
10. Global Perspective – Understands the competitive nature of the new global
   economy and is clear about the knowledge and skills students will need to be
   successful in this economy.
11.Judgment – Effectively reaching logical conclusions and making high
   quality decisions based on available information. Giving priority and caution
   to significant issues. Analyzing and interpreting complex information.
12.Organizational Ability – Effectively plans and schedules one’s own and the
   work of others so that resources are used appropriately, such as scheduling
   the flow of activities and establishing procedures to monitor projects.
13.Personal Ethics and Values – Consistently exhibits high standards in the
   areas of honesty, integrity, fairness, stewardship, trust, respect, and
   confidentiality.
14. Personal Responsibility for Performance –Proactively and continuously
   improves performance by focusing on needed areas of improvement and
   enhancement of strengths; actively seeks and effectively applies feedback
   from others; takes full responsibility for one’s own achievements.
15.Responsiveness – Does not leave issues, inquiries or requirements for
   information go unattended. Creates a clearly delineated structure for
   responding to requests/situations in an expedient manner.
16.Results Orientation – Effectively assumes responsibility. Recognizes when
   a decision is required. Takes prompt action as issues emerge. Resolves short-
   term issues while balancing them against long-term goals.
17.Sensitivity – Effectively perceives the needs and concerns of others; deals
   tactfully with others in emotionally stressful situations or in conflict. Knows
   what information to communicate and to whom. Relates to people of varying
   ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.
18.Systems Thinking – Understands the interrelationships and impacts of
   school and district influences, systems and external stakeholders, and applies
   that understanding to advancing the achievement of the school or team.
19.Technology – Effectively utilizes the latest technologies to continuously
   improve the management of the school and enhance student instruction.
20.Time Management – Effectively uses available time to complete work
   tasks and activities that lead to the achievement of desired work or school
   results. Runs effective meetings.
21.Visionary – Encourages imagineering by creating an environment and
   structure to capture stakeholder dreams of what the school could become for
   all the students.




                                      35
APPENDIX C

ISLLC Standards

Standard 1: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all
students by facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a
vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community.

Knowledge

The administrator has knowledge and understanding of

              learning goals in a pluralistic society,
              the principles of developing and implementing strategic plans,
              systems theory,
              information sources, data collection, and data analysis strategies,
              effective communication,
              effective consensus-building and negotiation skills.

Dispositions

The administrator believes in, values, and is committed to

              the educability of all,
              a school vision of high standards of learning,
              continuous school improvement,
              the inclusion of all members of the school community,
              ensuring that students have the knowledge, skills, and values needed to become
               successful adults,
              a willingness to continuously examine one’s own assumptions, beliefs, and
               practices,
              doing the work required for high levels of personal and organization performance.




                                                36
Performances

The administrator facilitates processes and engages in activities ensuring that

              the vision and mission of the school are effectively communicated to staff,
               parents, students, and community members,
              the vision and mission are communicated through the use of symbols, ceremonies,
               stories, and similar activities,
              the core beliefs of the school vision are modeled for all stakeholders,
              the vision is developed with and among stakeholders,
              the contributions of school community members to the realization of the vision
               are recognized and celebrated,
              progress toward the vision and mission is communicated to all stakeholders,
              the school community is involved in school improvement efforts,
              the vision shapes the educational programs, plans, and actions,
              an implementation plan is developed in which objectives and strategies to achieve
               the vision and goals are clearly articulated,
              assessment data related to student learning are used to develop the school vision
               and goals,
              relevant demographic data pertaining to students and their families are used in
               developing the school mission and goals,
              barriers to achieving the vision are identified, clarified, and addressed,
              needed resources are sought and obtained to support the implementation of the
               school mission and goals,
              existing resources are used in support of the school vision and goals,
              the vision, mission, and implementation plans are regularly monitored, evaluated,
               and revised.

Standard 2: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all
students by advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school culture and instructional program
conducive to student learning and staff professional growth.

Knowledge

The administrator has knowledge and understanding of

              student growth and development,
              applied learning theories,
              applied motivational theories,
              curriculum design, implementation, evaluation, and refinement,
              principles of effective instruction,
              measurement, evaluation, and assessment strategies,
              diversity and its meaning for educational programs,
              adult learning and professional development models,
              the change process for systems, organizations, and individuals,
              the role of technology in promoting student learning and professional growth,
              school cultures.


                                                37
Dispositions

The administrator believes in, values, and is committed to

              student learning as the fundamental purpose of schooling,
              the proposition that all students can learn,
              the variety of ways in which students can learn,
              life long learning for self and others,
              professional development as an integral part of school improvement,
              the benefits that diversity brings to the school community,
              a safe and supportive learning environment,
              preparing students to be contributing members of society.

Performances

The administrator facilitates processes and engages in activities ensuring that

          all individuals are treated with fairness, dignity, and respect,
          professional development promotes a focus on student learning consistent with the
           school vision and goals,
          students and staff feel valued and important,
          the responsibilities and contributions of each individual are acknowledged,
          barriers to student learning are identified, clarified, and addressed,
          diversity is considered in developing learning experiences,
          life-long learning is encouraged and modeled,
          there is a culture of high expectations for self, student, and staff performance,
          technologies are used in teaching and learning,
          student and staff accomplishments are recognized and celebrated,
          multiple opportunities to learn are available to all students,
          the school is organized and aligned for success,
          curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular programs are designed, implemented,
           evaluated, and refined,
          curriculum decisions are based on research, expertise of teachers, and the
           recommendations of learned societies
          the school culture and climate are assessed on a regular basis,
          a variety of sources of information is used to make decisions,
          student learning is assessed using a variety of techniques,
          multiple sources of information regarding performance are used by staff and students,
          a variety of supervisory and evaluation models is employed,
          pupil personnel programs are developed to meet the needs of students and their
           families.




                                                38
Standard 3: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all
students by ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for a safe,
efficient, and effective learning environment.

Knowledge

The administrator has knowledge and understanding of

              theories and models of organizations and the principles of organizational
               development,
              operational procedures at the school and district level,
              principles and issues relating to school safety and security,
              human resources management and development,
              principles and issues relating to fiscal operations of school management,
              principles and issues relating to school facilities and use of space,
              legal issues impacting school operations,
              current technologies that support management functions.

Dispositions

The administrator believes in, values, and is committed to

          making management decisions to enhance learning and teaching,
          taking risks to improve schools,
          trusting people and their judgments,
          accepting responsibility,
          high-quality standards, expectations, and performances,
          involving stakeholders in management processes,
          a safe environment.

Performances

The administrator facilitates processes and engages in activities ensuring that

              knowledge of learning, teaching, and student development is used to inform
               management decisions,
              operational procedures are designed and managed to maximize opportunities for
               successful learning,
              emerging trends are recognized, studied, and applied as appropriate,
              operational plans and procedures to achieve the vision and goals of the school are
               in place,
              collective bargaining and other contractual agreements related to the school are
               effectively managed,
              the school plant, equipment, and support systems operate safely, efficiently, and
               effectively,
              time is managed to maximize attainment of organizational goals,
              potential problems and opportunities are identified,


                                                39
              problems are confronted and resolved in a timely manner,
              financial, human, and material resources are aligned to the goals of schools,
              the school acts entrepreneurally to support continuous improvement,
              organizational systems are regularly monitored and modified as needed,
              stakeholders are involved in decisions affecting schools,
              responsibility is shared to maximize ownership and accountability,
              effective problem-framing and problem-solving skills are used,
              effective conflict resolution skills are used,
              effective group-process and consensus-building skills are used,
              effective communication skills are used,
              a safe, clean, and aesthetically pleasing school environment is created and
               maintained,
              human resource functions support the attainment of school goals,
              confidentiality and privacy of school records are maintained.

Standard 4: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all
students by collaborating with families and community members, responding to diverse
community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources.

Knowledge

The administrator has knowledge and understanding of

          emerging issues and trends that potentially impact the school community,
          the conditions and dynamics of the diverse school community,
          community resources,
          community relations and marketing strategies and processes,
          successful models of school, family, business, community, government and higher
           education partnerships.

Dispositions

The administrator believes in, values, and is committed to

          schools operating as an integral part of the larger community,
          collaboration and communication with families,
          involvement of families and other stakeholders in school decision-making processes,
          the proposition that diversity enriches the school
          families as partners in the education of their children,
          the proposition that families have the best interests of their children in mind,
          resources of the family and community needing to be brought to bear on the
           education of students,
          an informed public.




                                                40
Performances

The administrator facilitates processes and engages in activities ensuring that

              high visibility, active involvement, and communication with the larger
               community are priorities,
              relationships with community leaders are identified and nurtured,
              information about family and community concerns, expectations, and needs is
               used regularly,
              there is outreach to different business, religious, political, and service agencies
               and organizations,
              credence is given to individuals and groups whose values and opinions may
               conflict,
              the school and community serve one another as resources,
              available community resources are secured to help the school solve problems and
               achieve goals,
              partnerships are established with area businesses, institutions of higher education,
               and community groups to strengthen programs and support school goals,
              community youth family services are integrated with school programs,
              community stakeholders are treated equitably,
              diversity is recognized and valued,
              effective media relations are developed and maintained,
              a comprehensive program of community relations is established,
              public resources and funds are used appropriately and wisely,
              community collaboration is modeled for staff,
              opportunities for staff to develop collaborative skills are provided.

Standard 5: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all
students by acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner.

Knowledge

The administrator has knowledge and understanding of

          the purpose of education and the role of leadership in modern society,
          various ethical frameworks and perspectives on ethics,
          the values of the diverse school community,
          professional codes of ethics,
          the philosophy and history of education.

Dispositions

The administrator believes in, values, and is committed to

              the ideal of the common good,
              the principles in the Bill of Rights,
              the right of every student to a free, quality education,


                                                 41
              bringing ethical principles to the decision-making process,
              subordinating one’s own interest to the good of the school community,
              accepting the consequences for upholding one’s principles and actions,
              using the influence of one’s office constructively and productively in the service
               of all students and their families,
              development of a caring school community.

Performances

The administrator

          examines personal and professional values,
          demonstrates a personal and professional code of ethics,
          demonstrates values, beliefs, and attitudes that inspire others to higher levels of
           performance,
          serves as a role model,
          accepts responsibility for school operations,
          considers the impact of one’s administrative practices on others,
          uses the influence of the office to enhance the educational program rather than for
           personal gain,
          treats people fairly, equitably, and with dignity and respect,
          protects the rights and confidentiality of students and staff,
          demonstrates appreciation for and sensitivity to the diversity in the school
           community,
          recognizes and respects the legitimate authority of others,
          examines and considers the prevailing values of the diverse school community,
          expects that others in the school community will demonstrate integrity and exercise
           ethical behavior,
          opens the school to public scrutiny,
          fulfills legal and contractual obligations,
          applies laws and procedures fairly, wisely, and considerately.

Standard 6: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all
students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic,
legal, and cultural context.

Knowledge

The administrator has knowledge and understanding of

          principles of representative governance that undergird the system of American
           schools,
          the role of public education in developing and renewing a democratic society and an
           economically productive nation,
          the law as related to education and schooling,
          the political, social, cultural and economic systems and processes that impact schools,



                                                42
          models and strategies of change and conflict resolution as applied to the larger
           political, social, cultural and economic contexts of schooling,
          global issues and forces affecting teaching and learning,
          the dynamics of policy development and advocacy under our democratic political
           system,
          the importance of diversity and equity in a democratic society.

Dispositions

The administrator believes in, values, and is committed to

          education as a key to opportunity and social mobility,
          recognizing a variety of ideas, values, and cultures,
          importance of a continuing dialogue with other decision makers affecting education,
          actively participating in the political and policy-making context in the service of
           education,
          using legal systems to protect student rights and improve student opportunities.

Performances

The administrator facilitates processes and engages in activities ensuring that

          the environment in which schools operate is influenced on behalf of students and their
           families,
          communication occurs among the school community concerning trends, issues, and
           potential changes in the environment in which schools operate,
          there is ongoing dialogue with representatives of diverse community groups,
          the school community works within the framework of policies, laws, and regulations
           enacted by local, state, and federal authorities,
          public policy is shaped to provide quality education for students.




                                                43
APPENDIX D:
                MSA Assessment Center (MSAAC) Skills


      Code     Educational Leadership
       SID    Setting Instructional Direction
      SID-1   Articulates a vision related to teaching and learning
      SID-2   Articulates high performance expectations for self or
              others
      SID-3   Encourages improvement in teaching and learning
      SID-4   Sets clear measurable objectives
      SID-5   Generates enthusiasm toward common goals
      SID-6   Seeks to develop alliances outside the school to support
              high quality teaching and learning
      SID-7   Acknowledges achievement or accomplishments
      SID-8   Seeks commitment to a course of action
        T     Teamwork
       T-1    Supports the ideas of team members
       T-2    Encourages team members to share ideas
       T-3    Contributes ideas toward accomplishing the team’s goals
       T-4    Assists in performing the operational tasks of the team
       T-5    Seeks input from team members
       T-6    Acts to maintain direction or focus to achieve the team’s
              goals
       T-7    Seeks consensus among team members
        S     Sensitivity
       S-1    Interacts professionally and tactfully with others
       S-2    Elicits perceptions, feelings, or concerns of others
       S-3    Voices disagreement without creating unnecessary
              conflict
       S-4    Communicates necessary information to appropriate
              persons in a timely manner
       S-5    Expresses written, verbal, and/or non-verbal recognition
              of feelings, needs, or concerns in responding to others

      Code Resolving Complex Problems
        J  Judgment
       J-1 Takes action within the bounds of appropriate priority
       J-2 Acts with caution in approaching an unfamiliar person or
           situation
       J-3 Analyzes information to determine the important
           elements of a situation
       J-4 Communicates a clear rationale for a decision
       J-5 Seeks additional information
       J-6 Uses information sources that are relevant to an issue
       J-7 Asks follow-up questions to clarify information



                                      44
 J-8    Seeks to identify the cause of a problem
 J-9    Sees relationships among issues
 RO     Results Orientation
RO-1    Takes action to move issues toward closure
RO-2    Initiates action for improvement
RO-3    Determines the criteria that indicate a problem or issue is
        resolved
RO-4    Considers the implications of a decision before taking
        action
RO-5    Makes decisions on the basis of information
RO-6    Relates individual issues to the larger picture
 OA     Organizational Ability
OA-1    Delegates responsibilities to others
OA-2    Plans to monitor delegated responsibilities
OA-3    Develops action plans
OA-4    Monitors progress
OA-5    Establishes timelines, schedules, or milestones
OA-6    Prepares for meetings
OA-7    Uses available resources

Code    Communication Skills
 WC     Written Communication
WC-1    Writes concisely
WC-2    Demonstrates technical proficiency in writing
WC-3    Expresses ideas clearly in writing
WC-4    Writes appropriately for different audiences
 OC     Oral Communication
OC-1    Demonstrates effective presentation skills
OC-2    Speaks articulately
OC-3    Uses proper grammar, pronunciation, diction, and syntax
OC-4    Tailors message to meet the needs of unique audiences
OC-5    Clearly presents thoughts and ideas in small group
        settings

Code       Developing Self and Others
  DO      Development of Others
 DO-1     Shares expertise gained through experience
 DO-2     Encourages others to change behaviors that inhibit
          professional growth
 DO-3     Recommends specific developmental strategies
 DO-4     Asks others for their perceptions of their professional
          development needs
 DO-5     Seeks agreement on specific actions to be taken for
          developmental growth
 OSW      Understanding Own Strengths and Weaknesses
OSW-1     Recognizes own strengths
OSW-2     Recognizes own developmental needs


                                 45
APPENDIX E:

              Developing Your Growth Plan for the Internship


GOALS

  The long-range professional focus point:

        What leadership position do you want to hold within the next
         two years?
         five years?
         ten years?
         twenty years?

  The long-range personal focus point

           What lifestyle/routine/relationships do you want to enjoy over the course of your career?




North Carolina School Executive Standards, Practices and Competencies

   In selecting specific standards, practices, and competencies—build on:
        Your strengths and experience—relative to leadership
        Specific leadership skill dimensions and key behaviors (LEED 6810 and LEED 6812)
        Skills and behaviors that are relevant to your goal
        Professional Development Plan (PDP) or Individual Growth Plan (IGP)
        School Improvement Plan (SIP)
        Personal needs
        Personal desires


In pursuing your goals and objectives, be prepared to:

           Examine yourself and your priorities
           Make a commitment
           Re-examine yourself and your priorities
           Take risks
           Re-examine yourself and your priorities
           Fight frustration
           Re-examine yourself and your priorities
           Experience failure
           Re-examine yourself and your priorities
           Be persistent
           Re-examine yourself and your priorities
           Achieve success
           Re-examine yourself and your priorities




                                                      46
                            Grounding Your Plan

1. What professional “skills” do you need to reach your goals?




2. What personal “skills” do you need to reach your goals?




3. Where do #1 and #2 intersect?




4. What are my school’s objectives (from School Improvement Plan)?




5. What are my objectives (from Professional Development Plan—PDP, or Individual
   Growth Plan—IGP)?




6. Where do #4 and #5 intersect?




7. What did I learn about myself from the LEED 6810 and LEED 6812 experiences?




8. What are my 3 NCSE Standards of Focus at this point in time—for the internship
   experience?


                                         47
                                       Growth Plan for Internship

Selected North Carolina School Executive Standard:
                                         2. Instructional Leadership



                                                               Projected Evidence of Completion
       Selected Practices from                                                 What artifact will I produce to
           NCSE Standard               What specific steps or actions will I                                       Date of
                                                                                 clearly and convincingly
                                       take to demonstrate this practice?                                        Completion?
                                                                                demonstrate this practice?




North Carolina School Executive Competencies to be used:
                                      Growth Plan for Internship

Selected North Carolina School Executive Standard:




                                                               Projected Evidence of Completion
      Selected Practices from                                                  What artifact will I produce to
          NCSE Standard                What specific steps or actions will I                                       Date of
                                                                                 clearly and convincingly
                                       take to demonstrate this practice?                                        Completion?
                                                                                demonstrate this practice?




North Carolina School Executive Competencies to be used:



                                                       49
                                      Growth Plan for Internship

Selected North Carolina School Executive Standard:




                                                               Projected Evidence of Completion
      Selected Practices from                                                  What artifact will I produce to
          NCSE Standard                What specific steps or actions will I                                       Date of
                                                                                 clearly and convincingly
                                       take to demonstrate this practice?                                        Completion?
                                                                                demonstrate this practice?




North Carolina School Executive Competencies to be used:


                                                       50
                                                  Growth Plan for Internship (SAMPLE)

Selected North Carolina School Executive Standard:
                                           2. Instructional Leadership



                                                                                            Projected Evidence of Completion
          Selected Practices from                                                                                What artifact will I produce to
              NCSE Standard                                 What specific steps or actions will I                                                             Date of
                                                                                                                   clearly and convincingly
                                                            take to demonstrate this practice?                                                              Completion?
                                                                                                                  demonstrate this practice?
1.1 Focus their own and others’ attention persistently     Facilitate Grade 4 instructional team meetings        Minutes of grade level meetings           Aug. – Jun. 2007-
and publicly on learning and teaching by initiating and                                                                                                    08
guiding conversations about instruction and student
learning that are oriented towards high expectations and
concrete goals
1.4 Creates processes that facilitate the collaborative    Analyze 3rd grade EOG to determine instructional      Priority listing of learning objectives   Sept. 30 2007
(team) design, sharing, evaluation, and archiving of       objectives for 4th grade
rigorous, purposeful and engaging instructional lessons;


1.7 Creates processes that ensure the strategic            Develop a list of all existing resources by subject   Teacher resource inventory list and       Oct 15, 2007
allocation of resources to meet instructional goals        and teacher for allocation and sharing of             procedure for collaborating and sharing
and support teacher needs;                                 resources                                             resources




North Carolina School Executive Competencies to be used:

Communication, team building, data analysis

                                                                                  51
APPENDIX F:
                                                         Sample Form
                                                  MSA INTERNSHIP JOURNAL

         Date          Time       Hrs                                      Description of Situation
        8/20/08


        8/21/08


        8/22/08


        8/23/08


        8/24/08


     Weekly Total

      Cumulative
        Hours

     Weekly reflection: Focus on this week’s actions performed and/or observed. Use a minimum of one NCSES Competency, one
     NCSES practice, and one MSAAC skill to provide a context for reflecting on this week’s experiences. (Bold each skill, practice,
     and competency you identify. Reflect on both positive and negative experiences. The format for this week’s reflection should be:
     What occurred positively? Why was it positive? What would you improve on in the future? What occurred negatively? Why was it
     negative? What would you improve on in the future?




                                                                   52
APPENDIX G:
                                 Leadership Portfolio: Artifact Cover Sheet
(This is an artifact cover sheet written by a former MSA intern, is exhibited here as an example of an artifact
analysis and should not be viewed as a model. Every student’s analysis will be unique and individual.)

Name _______________________________________

           Identification of Item Being Placed in Portfolio:                Primary Executive Standard:

            1. Eisenhower Professional Development Grant                    2: Instructional Leadership
               Activity Proposal
            2. Email announcing the approval of grant
               proposal

           Description of Problem/Issue:

           Seeking the opportunity and monetary support for grade-level staff development

           Description of Your Action:

           At the beginning of the school year in a grade-level planning meeting, it was suggested that we all attend a
           grade-level retreat. We wanted to focus on one of the core learning areas: math, reading or writing. After
           further discussion we decided we wanted to attend the ―AIMS by Design, Notable Numbers‖ workshop.
           Our next concern was how we would obtain funding for our staff development. My colleagues requested I
           share our desire with our principal. He advised me to try writing an Eisenhower grant proposal.

           Reflections on this executive practice. Include lessons learned and identify further learning
           needs:

           During this experience, I learned that funding is available for all types of projects. I also learning that
           obtaining funding is not so complex and that employees are willing to participate in projects if they are
           accessible. This was a professional growth experience for the grade level. It was extremely rewarding for
           me because I was able to provide this retreat for my colleagues. This was not your average staff
           development, it was a retreat on an NC waterfront. During the retreat each teacher was able to relax, attend
           training, receive a lot of supplemental materials and renew credit, and break away from our daily work
           environments.

           Link to primary North Carolina School Executive Practice:

           Creates processes that ensure the strategic allocation of resources to meet instructional
           goals and support teacher needs.

           Link to School Executive Competencies applied:

           Technology, budgeting, and systems thinking.
APPENDIX H:




                                  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

                                     NCSES Pre and Post Self-Assessment


Instructions: This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This particular inventory
focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on where you are at this moment and
respond to each statement accordingly.

In responding to each question, please consider the following:

                 N/A                       1                       2                      3                      4
          Experience aligned to   I have minimally        I am emerging as a     I am proficient as a   I am exemplary as
          the specific NCSE       addressed the           leader in this area,   leader in this area,   a leader in this area
          practice has not been   standard element        have demonstrated      have demonstrated      and have
          demonstrated .          and have had little     evidence that          clear evidence that    demonstrated clear,
                                  experience aligned to   addressed the          addressed the          convincing, and
                                  the specific NCSE       standard element,      standard element,      consistent
                                  practice.               and have had some      and have had good      evidence that
                                                          experiences aligned    experiences aligned    addressed the
                                                          to the specific NCSE   to the specific NCSE   standard element
                                                          practice.              practice.              and have had strong
                                                                                                        experiences aligned
                                                                                                        to the specific NCSE
                                                                                                        practice.



Use the comment space provided to describe areas for additional focus. Please respond to every statement
and circle only one number per question. Once you have responded to every statement please add the ratings
for each standard (1 through 7) to determine the Standard Total. Then, take the Standard Total and divide it
by the total number of items to determine the Standard Average for each Standard (1 through 7)



                   Date:________________________________________________________

                   Name of Intern:________________________________________________

                    Location of Internship:__________________________________________

                   Name of Site Supervisor:_________________________________________

                   Name of ECU Intern Supervisor:___________________________________




                                                                  54
Standard 1: Strategic Leadership –




                                                                                                                              STRONG
                                                                                                       LITTLE



                                                                                                                       GOOD
                                                                                                                SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                       N/A
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.

1.1 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she is able to share a vision of the
                              st                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    changing world in the 21 century that schools are preparing children to enter.

1.2 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she systematically challenges the status
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    quo by leading change with potentially beneficial outcomes
1.3 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she systematically considers new ways
    of accomplishing tasks and is comfortable with major changes in how processes are                  1        2      3      4        -
    implemented
1.4 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she utilizes data from the NC Teacher
    Working Conditions Survey in developing the framework for continual improvement in the             1        2      3      4        -
    School Improvement Plan
1.5 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she is a driving force behind major
                                             st                                                        1        2      3      4        -
    initiatives that help students acquire 21 century skills

1.6 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she creates with all stakeholders a vision
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    for the school that captures peoples’ attention and imagination
1.7 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she creates processes that provide for
    the periodic review and revision of the school’s vision, mission, and strategic goals by all       1        2      3      4        -
    school stakeholders
1.8 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she creates processes to ensure the
    school’s identity (vision, mission, values, beliefs and goals) actually drive decisions and        1        2      3      4        -
    inform the culture of the school
1.9 Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she adheres to statutory requirements
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    regarding the School Improvement Plan

1.10   Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she facilitates the collaborative
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    development of annual school improvement plans to realize strategic goals and objectives
1.11   Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she facilitates the successful
    execution of the school improvement plan aligned to the mission and goals set by the State         1        2      3      4        -
    Board of Education
1.12    Practices effective strategic leadership when he or she facilitates the implementation of
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    state education policy inside the school’s classrooms

1.13    Practices effective strategic leadership by facilitating the setting of high, concrete goals
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    and the expectations that all students meet them
1.14    Practices effective strategic leadership by communicating strong professional beliefs
    about schools, teaching, and learning that reflect latest research and best practice in            1        2      3      4        -
    preparing students for success in college or in work
1.15    Practices effective strategic leadership by creating processes to distribute leadership
                                                                                                       1        2      3      4        -
    throughout the school




                                                               55
Standard 2: Instructional Leadership –




                                                                                                                          STRONG
                                                                                                   LITTLE



                                                                                                                   GOOD
                                                                                                            SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                   N/A
performances, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.

  2.1   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she focuses his or her own and
        others’ attention persistently and publicly on learning and teaching by initiating and
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        guiding conversations about instruction and student learning that are oriented towards
        high expectations and concrete goals
  2.2   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates an environment of
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        practiced distributive leadership and teacher empowerment
  2.3   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she demonstrates knowledge of
           st
        21 century curriculum, instruction, and assessment by leading or participating in
        meetings with teachers and parents where these topics are discussed, and/or holding        1        2      3      4        -
        frequent formal or informal conversations with students, staff and parents around these
        topics
  2.4   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she ensures that there is an
        appropriate and logical alignment between the curriculum of the school and the state’s     1        2      3      4        -
        accountability program
  2.5   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates processes and
        schedules that facilitate the collaborative (team) design, sharing, evaluation, and
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        archiving of rigorous, relevant, and engaging instructional lessons that ensure students
        acquire essential knowledge
  2.6   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she challenges staff to reflect
        deeply on and define what knowledge, skills and concepts are essential to the complete     1        2      3      4        -
        educational development of students
  2.7   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates processes for
        collecting and using student test data and other formative data from other sources for     1        2      3      4        -
        the improvement of instruction
  2.8   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates processes for
                                                                                     st
        identifying, benchmarking and providing students access to a variety of 21 century
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        instructional tools (e.g., technology) and best practices for meeting diverse student
        needs
  2.9   Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates processes that
        ensure the strategic allocation and use of resources to meet instructional goals and       1        2      3      4        -
        support teacher needs
  2.10 Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates processes to provide
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       formal feedback to teachers concerning the effectiveness of their classroom instruction
  2.11 Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she creates processes that
       protect teachers from issues and influences that would detract from their instructional     1        2      3      4        -
       time
  2.12 Practices effective instructional leadership when he or she systematically and frequently
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       observes in classrooms and engages in conversation with students about their learning




                                                            56
Standard 3: Cultural Leadership –




                                                                                                                            STRONG
                                                                                                     LITTLE



                                                                                                                     GOOD
                                                                                                              SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                     N/A
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.

3.1 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she creates a collaborative work
    environment predicated on site-based management that supports the “team” as the basic
                                                                                                     1        2      3      4        -
    unit of learning and decision-making within the school and promotes cohesion and
    cooperation among staff
3.2 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she communicates strong ideals and
    beliefs about schooling, teaching, and professional learning communities with teachers,          1        2      3      4        -
    staff, parents, and students and then operates from those beliefs
3.3 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she influences the evolution of the culture
    to support the continuous improvement of the school as outlined in the school improvement        1        2      3      4        -
    plan
3.4 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she systematically develops and uses
    shared values, beliefs and a shared vision to establish a school identity that emphasizes a
                                                                                                     1        2      3      4        -
    sense of community and cooperation to guide the disciplined thought and action of all staff
    and students
3.5 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she systematically and fairly
                                                                                                     1        2      3      4        -
    acknowledges failures and celebrates accomplishments of the school and staff

3.6 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she visibly supports the positive,
                                                                                                     1        2      3      4        -
    culturally-responsive traditions of the school community

3.7 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she promotes a sense of well-being
                                                                                                     1        2      3      4        -
    among staff, students and parents

3.8 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she builds a sense of efficacy and
                                                                                                     1        2      3      4        -
    empowerment among staff that result in a “can do” attitude when faced with challenges

3.9 Practices effective cultural leadership when he or she empowers staff to recommend
               st                                                                                    1        2      3      4        -
    creative 21 century concepts for school improvement




                                                             57
Standard 4: Human Resource Leadership –




                                                                                                                          STRONG
                                                                                                   LITTLE



                                                                                                                   GOOD
                                                                                                            SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                   N/A
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.

  4.1   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she provides structures for
        the development of effective professional learning communities aligned with the school
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        improvement plan, focused on results, and characterized by collective responsibility for
                                         st
        instructional planning and for 21 century student learning
  4.2   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she models the importance
        of continued adult learning by engaging in activities to develop personal knowledge and    1        2      3      4        -
        skill along with expanded self-awareness
  4.3   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she communicates a positive
        attitude about the ability of staff to accomplish substantial outcomes to improve their    1        2      3      4        -
        efficacy
  4.4   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she creates processes for
        teachers to assume leadership and decision making roles within the school that foster      1        2      3      4        -
        their career development
  4.5   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she creates and monitors
        processes for hiring, inducting and mentoring new te3achers and other staff to the         1        2      3      4        -
        school
  4.6   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she uses the results of the
        Teacher Working Conditions Survey to create and maintain a positive work environment       1        2      3      4        -
        for teachers and other staff
  4.7   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she evaluates teachers and
        other staff in a fair and equitable manner and utilizes the results of evaluations to      1        2      3      4        -
        improve performance
  4.8   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she provides for results-
                                                                            st
        oriented professional development that is aligned with identified 21 century curricular,
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        instructional, and assessment needs, is connected to school improvement goals and is
        differentiated based on staff needs

  4.9   Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she continuously searches
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        for the best placement and utilization of staff to fully benefit from their strengths


  4.10 Practices effective human resource leadership when he or she is systematically and
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       personally involved in the school’s professional activities




                                                            58
Standard 5: Managerial Leadership




                                                                                                                          STRONG
                                                                                                   LITTLE



                                                                                                                   GOOD
                                                                                                            SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                   N/A
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.

  5.1   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she creates processes to provide
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        for a balanced operational budget for school programs and activities
  5.2   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she creates processes to recruit
        and retain a high-quality workforce in the school that meets the diverse needs of          1        2      3      4        -
        students
  5.3   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she creates processes to identify
        and solve, resolve, dissolve or absolve school-based problems/conflicts in a fair,         1        2      3      4        -
        democratic way
  5.4   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she designs a system of
        communication that provides for the timely, responsible sharing of information to, from,   1        2      3      4        -
        and with school and district staff
  5.5   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she designs scheduling
        processes and protocols that maximize staff input and addresses diverse student            1        2      3      4        -
        learning needs
  5.6   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she develops a master schedule
        for the school to maximize student learning by providing for individual and on-going       1        2      3      4        -
        collaborative planning for every teacher
  5.7   Practices effective managerial leadership when he or she collaboratively develops and
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        enforces clear expectations, structures, rules and procedures for students and staff




                                                            59
Standard 6: External Development




                                                                                                                         STRONG
                                                                                                  LITTLE



                                                                                                                  GOOD
                                                                                                           SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                  N/A
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.


  6.1   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she implements
                                                                                                  1        2      3      4        -
        processes that empower parents and other stakeholders to make significant decisions

  6.2   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she creates systems
        that engage all community stakeholders in a shared responsibility for student and         1        2      3      4        -
        school success

  6.3   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she designs protocols
                                                                                                  1        2      3      4        -
        and processes that ensures compliance with state and district mandates

  6.4   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she creates
                                                                                                  1        2      3      4        -
        opportunities to advocate for the school in the community and with parents

  6.5   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she communicates the
        school’s accomplishments to the district office and public media in accordance with LEA   1        2      3      4        -
        policies
  6.6   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she garners fiscal,
                                                                               st
        intellectual and human resources from the community that support the 21 century           1        2      3      4        -
        learning agenda of the school
  6.7   Practices effective external development leadership when he or she builds relationships
        with individuals and groups to support specific aspects of the learning improvement       1        2      3      4        -
        agenda and also as a source of general good will




                                                           60
Standard 7: Micropolitical Leadership




                                                                                                                          STRONG
                                                                                                   LITTLE



                                                                                                                   GOOD
                                                                                                            SOME
This assessment is designed to allow you the opportunity to examine your school leadership




                                                                                                                                   N/A
performance, based on the North Carolina School Executive Standards (NCSES). This
particular inventory focuses on the practices contained within the NCSES. Please reflect on
where you are at this moment and respond to each statement accordingly.

  7.1   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she uses the School
        Improvement Team to make decisions and provides opportunities for staff to be              1        2      3      4        -
        involved in developing school policies
  7.2   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she creates an environment
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        and mechanisms to ensure all internal stakeholder voices are heard and respected
  7.3   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she creates processes and
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        protocols to buffer and mediate staff interests
  7.4   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she the school executive
        practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she is easily accessible to       1        2      3      4        -
        teachers and staff
  7.5   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she designs transparent
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        systems to equitably manage human and financial resources
  7.6   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she demonstrates sensitivity to
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        personal needs of staff
  7.7   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she demonstrates awareness
        of informal groups and relationships among school staff and utilizes these as a positive   1        2      3      4        -
        resources
  7.8   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she demonstrates awareness
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        of hidden and potentially discordant issues in the school
  7.9   Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she encourages people to
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
        express opinions contrary to those of authority
  7.10 Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she demonstrates ability to
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       predict what could go wrong from day to day
  7.11 Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she uses performance as the
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       primary criterion for reward and advancement
  7.12 Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she maintains high visibility
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       throughout the school
  7.13 Practices effective micropolitical leadership when he or she maintains open, vertical
                                                                                                   1        2      3      4        -
       and horizontal communications throughout the school community




                                                             61
APPENDIX I:
                                            Evaluation Rubric
The evaluation of student performance during the internship (LEED 6808 and 6809) will be based on four
requirements: (1) attendance and active engagement in seminar activities, (2) observations of the supervising
professor and supervising principal, (3) completion of a portfolio (including summative activity) which
documents professional growth, and (4) completion of an oral examination based on the portfolio.

          Seminar activities include attendance at each seminar, being prepared with an artifact that matches
           the appropriate North Carolina School Executive Standards, the preparation and sharing of a
           reflection about learning associated with the artifact, participation in discussions following peer
           presentations of artifacts and reflections, and completion of make-up work (in a scheduled make-up
           session) if unable to attend a seminar. Students are required to get their supervisor’s permission to
           miss a seminar prior to the absence.

          Observations include school visits, e-mail correspondence with supervising professor, and data
           from supervising principals. If the supervising professor is unable to download electronic
           correspondence, students must provide a hard copy.

          Portfolio includes the completion of a portfolio (including the summative activity) in accordance
           with the guidelines in the Internship Manual and documentation of a minimum of 500 hours of
           quality work in a school in an administrative capacity. The internship requires 1000 hours.

          Oral examination includes the ability to respond to questions (based on the individual portfolio)
           that demonstrate competence to succeed as an entry-level school administrator.




                                                       62
APPENDIX I (continued): Evaluation Rubrics


       Above Expected Performance—A                       The evidence demonstrates clearly and
                                                          consistently that the student has
                                                          performed above the expected level for an
                                                          MSA intern.
        Seminar Activities          Observation               Portfolio          Oral Examination
       The student has           The student has          The student has        The student was able to
       attended all scheduled    demonstrated             created a portfolio    respond to questions in a
       seminars (or provided     engagement in            that included the      manner that clearly
       documentation for         administrative           information listed     supports the learning
       absence and completed     activity at the school   in the MSA             documented in the
       all expected make-up      site, interacted with    Internship Manual,     portfolio, was able to
       work), been well          the supervising          included artifacts     clearly articulate an
       prepared to present an    professor                that clearly show      appropriate educational
       artifact aligned with     electronically to        significant learning   philosophy, was able to
       the designated NCSE       provide journals and     related to each        discuss the importance of
       Standard,                 other information,       NCSE Standard,         vision in a school and
       demonstrated a high       provided journal         included               clearly relate it to the
       level of learning and     entries that             summative activity     internship experience,
       reflection, actively      demonstrated             that clearly           was able to discuss skills
       participated in the       significant learning     demonstrates           that were developed
       discussions following     was occurring, and       significant learning   during the internship and
       presentations of          been evaluated in a      across the             skills that require further
       artifacts by peers and    positive manner by       performance            development, was able to
       made insightful           the supervising          indicators for each    demonstrate an
       comments regarding        principal (orally and    standard, and had      understanding of current
       their                     in writing).             included a journal     issues in education that
       learning/reflections,                              that documents         are clearly reflected in the
       and used the sharing of                            between 500 and        portfolio, was able to
       information and                                    1,000 hours of         discuss ways in which
       reflections to                                     direct                 research, theory, and
       significantly increase                             administrative         knowledge impact
       own learning.                                      experience.            schools and school
                                                                                 leaders, and was able to
                                                                                 describe ways in which
                                                                                 technology impact
                                                                                 schools and their leaders.
                                                                                 At the conclusion of the
                                                                                 examination, the
                                                                                 candidate has provided
                                                                                 clear and consistent
                                                                                 evidence that he/she had
                                                                                 performed above the
                                                                                 expected level for an
                                                                                 MSA intern and is an
                                                                                 excellent candidate for a
                                                                                 position as a school
                                                                                 administrator.




                                                          63
Expected Performance—B                                 The evidence demonstrates that the
                                                       student has performed at the expected
                                                       level for an MSA intern.
  Seminar Activities            Observation                  Portfolio      Oral Examination
The student has attended     The student has been      The student has         The student was able
most of the scheduled        engaged in                created a portfolio     to respond to
seminars, been prepared      administrative            that included the       questions in a
to present an artifact       activity at the school    information listed in   manner that supports
aligned with the             site, interacted with     the MSA Internship      the learning
designated NCSE              the supervising           Manual-- included       documented in the
Standard, demonstrated       professor                 artifacts that show     portfolio, was able to
learning and reflection,     electronically to         learning related to     articulate an
participated in the          provide journals,         each NCSE               appropriate
discussions following        provided journal          Standard, included      educational
presentations of artifacts   entries that              summative activity      philosophy, was able
by peers, and used the       demonstrated              that demonstrated       to discuss the
sharing of information       learning was              learning across the     importance of vision
and reflections to           occurring, and been       performance             in a school and relate
increase own learning.       evaluated in a            indicators, and has     it to the internship
                             generally positive        included a journal      experience, was able
                             manner by the             that documents          to discuss skills that
                             supervising principal     between 500 hours of    were developed
                             (orally and in            direct administrative   during the internship,
                             writing).                 experience.             was able to
                                                                               demonstrate an
                                                                               understanding of
                                                                               current issues in
                                                                               education, was able
                                                                               to discuss ways in
                                                                               which research,
                                                                               theory, and
                                                                               knowledge impact
                                                                               schools and their
                                                                               leaders, and was able
                                                                               to describe ways in
                                                                               which technology
                                                                               impacts schools. At
                                                                               the conclusion of the
                                                                               examination, the
                                                                               candidate has
                                                                               provided evidence
                                                                               that he/she had
                                                                               performed at the
                                                                               expected level for an
                                                                               MSA intern and is a
                                                                               qualified candidate
                                                                               for a position as a
                                                                               school administrator.




                                                  64
Below Expected Performance—C                         The evidence demonstrates that the
                                                     student has performed at a minimal level
                                                     for an MSA intern
Seminar Activities            Observation                 Portfolio       Oral Examination
The student attended       The student has been      The student has         The student was able to
most of the scheduled      generally engaged in      created a portfolio     respond to questions in
seminars (but did not      administrative            that included the       a manner that generally
make-up all of the         activity at the school    information listed in   supports the learning
missed sessions), was      site, interacted, after   the MSA Internship      documented in the
generally prepared to      reminders, with the       Manual, included        portfolio, was able to
present an artifact        supervising               artifacts that show     articulate a limited
somewhat aligned with      professor                 learning generally      educational philosophy,
the designated NCSE        electronically to         related to each NCSE    was able to discuss the
Standard,                  share journals            Standard, included      importance of vision in
demonstrated some          entries, provided         Summative Activity      a school in a limited
learning and reflection,   journal entries that      that demonstrated       manner and relate it
generally participated     demonstrated some         limited learning        somewhat to the
in the discussions         learning was              across the              internship experience,
following                  occurring, and has        performance             had some difficulty
presentations of           been evaluated in a       indicators, and has     discussing skills that
artifacts by peers, and    generally positive        included a journal      were developed during
generally used the         manner by the             that documents          the internship, was able
sharing of information     supervising principal     between 500 hours of    to demonstrate a limited
and reflections to         (orally and in            direct administrative   understanding of
increase own learning.     writing).                 experience.             current issues in
                                                                             education, had
                                                                             difficulty discussing
                                                                             ways in which research,
                                                                             theory, and knowledge
                                                                             impact schools and
                                                                             their leaders, and had
                                                                             difficulty describing
                                                                             ways in which
                                                                             technology impacts
                                                                             schools. At the
                                                                             conclusion of the
                                                                             examination, the
                                                                             candidate has provided
                                                                             evidence that he/she
                                                                             had performed below
                                                                             the expected level for
                                                                             an MSA intern and is
                                                                             minimally qualified for
                                                                             a position as a school
                                                                             administrator.




                                                     65
Unacceptable Performance—F                             The evidence demonstrates that the
                                                       student has not performed at an
                                                       acceptable level for an MSA intern.
  Seminar Activities             Observation                Portfolio        Oral Examination
The student attended          The student has been     The student has          The student was not
scheduled seminars            minimally engaged        created a portfolio      able to respond to
sporadically (did not         in administrative        that did not include     questions in a
make-up any of the            activity at the school   the information listed   manner that
missed sessions), was         site, did not            in the MSA               supported the
unprepared prepared to        interacted with the      Internship Manual,       learning documented
present an artifact aligned   supervising professor    did not include          in the portfolio, was
with the designated           electronically, did      artifacts showing        not able to articulate
NCSE Standard,                not provide journal      learning related to      an educational
demonstrated little           entries that             NCSE Standard,           philosophy, was not
learning and reflection,      demonstrated             included Summative       able to discuss the
sporadically participated     learning was             Activity that            importance of vision
in the discussions            occurring, and was       demonstrated little      in a school or relate
following presentations       not evaluated in a       learning across the      it to the internship
of artifacts by peers, and    positive manner by       performance              experience, could not
did not use the sharing of    the supervising          indicators, and          discuss skills that
information and               principal (orally and    included a journal       were developed
reflections to increase       in writing).             that documents less      during the internship,
own learning.                                          than 500 hours of        was not able to
                                                       direct administrative    demonstrate an
                                                       experience.              understanding of
                                                                                current issues in
                                                                                education, could not
                                                                                discuss ways in
                                                                                which research,
                                                                                theory, and
                                                                                knowledge impact
                                                                                schools and their
                                                                                leaders, and could
                                                                                not describe ways in
                                                                                which technology
                                                                                impacts schools. At
                                                                                the conclusion of the
                                                                                examination, the
                                                                                candidate has
                                                                                provided evidence
                                                                                that he/she had
                                                                                performed at an
                                                                                unacceptable level
                                                                                for an MSA intern
                                                                                and is not qualified
                                                                                for a position as a
                                                                                school administrator.




                                                  66
APPENDIX J:
              MSA Internship Schedule

                         Fall 2008 and Spring 2009

                           Date            NCSE Standards
                         Monday,
                       September 8        NCSE Standard 1
                        (5pm-7pm)
                         Monday,
                        October 13        NCSE Standard 2
                        (5pm-8pm)
                         Monday,
                       November 10        NCSE Standard 3
                        (5pm-8pm)
                         Monday,
                       December 8         NCSE Standard 4
                        (5pm-8pm)

                         Monday,          NCSE Standard 5
                        January 12
                        (5pm-8pm)

                         Monday,
                        February 9        NCSE Standard 6
                        (5pm-8pm)
                         Monday,
                         March 9          NCSE Standard 7
                        (5pm-8pm)
                         Monday,
                         April 20         Final Meeting
                        (5pm-8pm)




                                     67
APPENDIX K:


                  Calendar of Significant Dates for MSA Interns
                                    2008-2009
May12             Orientation meeting
May               Training for Task Stream
June 2            Letter from Site Supervisor Due in MSA Office
                  Sign on Task Stream
July 18           Pre Assessment must be posted on Task Stream
July 18,19, 21    SAS
August            Site visit from University Supervisor
                  Growth Plan due for University Supervisor visit
September 1       Journal entries from May-August 24 posted on Task Stream
September 8       Intern Meeting (Bring 1 artifact from Standard 1)
October 7         Journal entries from August 25– Oct. 6 posted
October 13        Intern Meeting (Bring 1 artifact from Standard 2)
November 3        Journal entries from Oct. 7- Nov.2 posted
November 10       Intern meeting (Bring 1 artifact from Standard 3)
December 1        Journal entries from Nov. 3-Nov.30 posted
December 8        Intern Meeting (Bring 1 artifact from Standard 4)
January           Opportunity to take licensure exam
January 5         Journal entries from Dec1-Jan.4 posted
January 12        Intern meeting (Bring artifact from Standard 5)
January 23        Last day to apply for May graduation
February 2        Journal entries from Jan.5-Feb 1 posted
February 9        Intern meeting (Bring artifact from Standard 6)
March 2           Journal entries from Feb.2-Mar.1 posted
March 9           Intern meeting (Bring artifact from Standard 7)
March 10          Intern distribute 360 to principal and other
                     school related individuals
March 24          360 results due in MSA office
April 1           Final Journal entries posted
April 6           Completed portfolio posted on Task Stream
April 20          Intern meeting (site supervisor/superintendent invited)
April 21- May 1   University supervisor will conduct final defenses
June              Opportunity to take licensure exam




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