Nineteenth Century Political Ideologies by 6y7epU


									I.    Nationalism and Unification: Italy and Germany
      A.         Nationalism
            1.          The national principle = political boundaries should be the same as
                  national (cultural, linguistic, ethnic) boundaries
            2.          Nationalism = anger generated when the national principle is ignored
            3.          Transcends politics
            4.          Origins in French Revolution
            5.          Problem: multi-national empires
      B.         The Unification of Germany
                        a.     1848 Revolutions: Frankfurter Parliament
                                       1862: Otto von Bismarck = Prussian Prime Minister
                                       Unified through Prussian Military Might:
                                                Series of wars (Denmark, Austria, France)
                                                At end of Franco-Prussian war (1870), King
                                            Wilhelm I of Prussia crowned Kaiser Wilhelm I of
                                            German Empire at Hall of Mirrors, Versailles
II.   Imperialism: the process of European expansion and domination of remote peoples
      A.       KEY TERMS: Colonialism, zones of economic privilege,“New Imperialism”,
           The White Man’s Burden”, civilizing mission, Social Darwinism, Eugenics, “Jewel of
           the Crown”, British East India Company, 1857 Mutiny, Scramble for Africa, Suez
           Canal, quinine
      B.         Forms of imperialism in 19th Century:
            1.          Colonialism
            2.          Indirect rule
            3.          Zones of economic privilege
      C.         19th & 20th centuriesrapid increase
            1.          1870-1900 = “new imperialism”
      D.         Why did European nations seek vast and costly overseas empires?
            1.          Solution to economic problems
            2.          Nationalist rivalries
            3.          Colonies as showcases
            4.          “The White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling
            5.          “civilizing mission”
     6.          France: Spreading Republican values
     7.          Social Darwinism
     8.          European Missionaries: want to save souls
E.        Imperialism in Asia
     1.          British India—the “Jewel of the Crown”
     2.          Great natural & human resources
     3.          1750’s-1850’s: controlled by British East India Company
                 a.     1857 Sepoy mutiny
     4.          Disagreements on goalscommerce or salvation?
     5.          Used economic pressure to control other areas: China
F.        The Scramble for Africa
     1.          By 1902, Europeans control 90% of Africa
                 a.     Suez Canal (constructed 1860s)
                               France & Britain take over Egyptian Treasury (1879)
                               British essentially take over
                 b.     French in North Africa
                               Algeria, occupy Tunisia (1881)
                 c.     Sub-Saharan Africa
                               Want raw materials
     2.          1880-1900Africa gobbled up
                 a.     Caused tensions between European states
                 b.     Europeans could succeed in Africa where they failed before b/c:
                 c.     Technology
                 d.     Medicine: quinine
                 e.     Self-confidence born of social Darwinism
     3.          European Imperialism utterly destroyed existing African economic &
           political systems

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