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					          Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                                 1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


   At a Glance: Country Overviews Day 1

   Bangladesh ........................................................................................................... 4
     Outbreaks in wildlife and surveillance ................................................................ 4
     Diagnostics ........................................................................................................ 4
     Wildbird studies not related to AI ....................................................................... 4
     Conclusions ....................................................................................................... 5

   Cambodia .............................................................................................................. 5
     Capacity Building ............................................................................................... 5
     Development of Preparedness Plan for wild birds AI surveillance and Monitoring
     .......................................................................................................................... 5
     Objectives:......................................................................................................... 5
     Conclusions ....................................................................................................... 5
     Challenges for enabling wildlife bird surveillance ............................................... 6
     Recommendations............................................................................................. 6

China ........................................................................................................................ 6
    H5N1 HPAI testing from the wild birds ............................................................... 6
    H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in wild birds in recent years ............................................ 6
    H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in wild birds in recent years ............................................ 6
    Training to veterinarians/Wildlife officials to undertake surveillance of Avian
    Influenza ............................................................................................................ 6
    Future Programmes........................................................................................... 7
    Funding ............................................................................................................. 7

   Hong Kong SAR .................................................................................................... 7
     Background ....................................................................................................... 7
     Monitoring Methods ........................................................................................... 7
     Findings and Results ((01.05.2006 – 07.06.2007) ............................................. 8
     Preliminary Conclusions .................................................................................... 8
     H5N1 HPAI testing in wild birds ......................................................................... 9
     Main surveillance activities of wild birds AI ........................................................ 9
     Where are the H5N1 from in Qingzang Plateau? .............................................. 9
     What are the relationships between wild birds and poultry? ............................... 9
     Ⅲ Main Weakness .......................................................................................... 10
     Ⅳ Priority Activities .......................................................................................... 10

   India .................................................................................................................... 10
     AI outbreaks in India (poultry and wildbirds) .................................................... 10
     Live Bird - AI Surveillance in 2006 (table) ........................................................ 10
     Results of sera and swabs analysis ................................................................ 10
     Waterbird Population Monitoring (Monthly/Fortnightly)..................................... 10
     Bird ringing in India .......................................................................................... 11
     GAINS Project- Components ........................................................................... 11
     Activities proposed for the current migratory season ....................................... 11

   Indonesia............................................................................................................. 11
     Introduction...................................................................................................... 11
     What have we done? ....................................................................................... 11
     Networking ...................................................................................................... 11
     Surveillance ..................................................................................................... 11
     Capacity building ............................................................................................. 12
     Public awarness .............................................................................................. 12



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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


   Next steps ....................................................................................................... 12
   Priorities .......................................................................................................... 12
   Lessons learned .............................................................................................. 12

Lao PDR.............................................................................................................. 13
  Issues and threats for wild birds ...................................................................... 13
  AI in wild birds ................................................................................................. 13
  Public Awareness ............................................................................................ 13
  Future conservation efforts .............................................................................. 13

Malaysia .............................................................................................................. 13
 Organisation structure, line of authority in hpai emergency response (diagram)
  ........................................................................................................................ 13
 Outbreak reporting system (diagram) .............................................................. 13
 Chronology of 2004 outbreaks (table) .............................................................. 13
 Details outbreaks (2006 & 2007) ..................................................................... 13
 Stamping out operation (diagram) ................................................................... 13
 Amt & rat: members and responsibilities (diagram).......................................... 13
 Preparedness and containment (diagram) ....................................................... 13
 Hpai control and eradication policies (diagram) ............................................... 13
 New measures to added in eradication measures (diagram) ........................... 13
 Import risk analysis process (diagram) ............................................................ 13
 Migratory birds ................................................................................................. 13
 Concept of wildlife ranching ............................................................................. 14
 Animal repository centre (animal database) ..................................................... 14

Mongolia.............................................................................................................. 14
 Prevention and Surveillance (diagram) ............................................................ 14
 Strategy of Mongolian Government for control AI (diagram) ............................ 14
 Locations and associated levels under regular bird surveillance for AI in 2007 14
 HPAI outbreaks (H5N1) ................................................................................... 14
 Species infected with HPAI .............................................................................. 14
 Wildbird surveillance National organizations: ................................................... 15
 International organizations; .............................................................................. 15
 Wildbird surveillance plan for 2007 MoA-FAO (map) ....................................... 15
 Satellite tracking of swan geese and whooper swans in 2006 (map) ............... 15
 Migration study ................................................................................................ 15
 Needs .............................................................................................................. 15

Myanmar ............................................................................................................. 15
  Outbreaks in Poultry ........................................................................................ 15
  Outbreaks in wildlife ........................................................................................ 15
  Diagnostics ...................................................................................................... 16
  Challenges for Diagnosis ................................................................................. 16
  Surveillance ..................................................................................................... 16
  Objectives for wild bird surveillance and monitoring ......................................... 16
  Surveillance ..................................................................................................... 17
  Important wetlands .......................................................................................... 17
  HPAI surveillance in migratory birds ................................................................ 17
  AI surveillance activities in wild birds ............................................................... 17
  Surveillance in wild birds in 2006 ..................................................................... 17
  Additional Capacity Building and Training Needs............................................. 17
  Future programs .............................................................................................. 18
  Needs .............................................................................................................. 18



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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Phillipines ............................................................................................................ 19
  I. Introduction................................................................................................... 19
  II. Outbreaks in Poultry and Wildlife ................................................................. 19
  III. Preparedness Programs ............................................................................. 19
  III. Diagnostics ................................................................................................. 20
  IV. Surveillance ............................................................................................... 20
  V. Other Wildbird Studies not related to HPAI.................................................. 21
  VI. Capacity Building ....................................................................................... 21
  Needs .............................................................................................................. 22
  Future Programs.............................................................................................. 22

Vietnam ............................................................................................................... 22
  Outbreaks in poultry ........................................................................................ 22
  Outbreaks in wildlife ........................................................................................ 22
  Diagnostics ...................................................................................................... 22
  Surveillance ..................................................................................................... 23
  Wild birds study not related to HPAI ................................................................ 23

Thailand .............................................................................................................. 23
  Government agency responsible AI in Wildbirds .............................................. 23
  Work Plans ...................................................................................................... 23
  The reports ...................................................................................................... 23
  AI research projects to be carried out .............................................................. 24
  Needs .............................................................................................................. 24
  Future programs .............................................................................................. 24




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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


   Bangladesh
Monirul Khan, Phd.                                  Raquibul Amin
Department of Zoology                               IUCN-Bangladesh
Jahangirnagar University



    A densely populated country with a lot of wetlands, waterbirds, domestic ducks
       and poultry
    Many flyways passes through the country and the wetlands serve as the
       wintering grounds for migratory waterbirds, so the country was at a high risk of
       Avian Influenza outbreak
      Import of poultry products were banned from 2005
      H5N1 virus outbreak in poultry farms was first confirmed in March 2007, after
       testing samples in Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute and in the National
       Institute of Animal Health in Bangkok
      Poultry industry adds huge amount of money to the country‟s GDP and five
       million people are directly employed in poultry farms
      The Government has taken measures to cull the infected chicken and destroy
       the eggs, and aware people, but surveillance of wild birds has not been started
       yet

Outbreaks in wildlife and surveillance
    No testing of wild bird was conducted
    Biologists and ornithologists were not involved
    Ornithologists observed dead and sick waterbirds, particularly in large wetlands
     and coasts, and the species included Tufted Duck, Gadwall, Brown-headed
     Gull, Black-headed Gull, Lesser Sand Plover and Red-necked Stint
    Resources are limited and therefore reluctance in testing of wild birds
    No formal surveillance exists for wild birds

Diagnostics
    AI-related capacity is very limited
    Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, and a 20-member Rapid Response
     Team of the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock are the main bodies for testing
    Universities, e.g., Jahangirnagar has small setup for molecular biology and
     zoonotic disease
    Regarding human health, only facility is available at ICDDR‟B (CDC supported)
    Lack of proactive testing due to limited resources
    AI-controlling measures need to be more dynamic
    Prospective international donor support: FAO, WB, ADB, DANIDA, JICA,
     USDA and USAID to update the facility

Wildbird studies not related to AI
     Major bird studies in Bangladesh are: IUCN‟s project in Tangua Haor, Coastal
      and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project of DOE, Asian Waterbird
      Census, bird surveys in PAs under Nishorgo Support Project of the Forest
      Dept., and species/taxon-specific research
     IUCN and its member organizations, experts from Universities (Dhaka,
      Jahangirnagar and Chittagong), and clubs (Bangladesh Bird Club, Oriental
      Bird Club, etc.) are involved in survey and monitoring
     Frequently studied groups of birds are waterfowls, waders, forest birds,
      indicator birds and threatened birds



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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


     Ornithological studies take place mainly in winter (Nov-Feb) and in
       monsoon/breeding season (Mar-Jun)
     Data and results are available in the form of reports, but not very widely
       circulated

Conclusions
          Free ranging domestic ducks probably played a key role in spreading AI
           and probably serve as a bridge.



Cambodia
Chheang Dany                                       Lim Sopheap
Deputy Director of Wildlife Protection             Chief Administrator of Forest and Wildlife
Office                                             Science
                                                   Research Institute of the Forestry
                                                   Administration

On-going Activities within Wildlife Protection Office of Cambodia

Capacity Building
    Capacity Building: On-job-training: USDA APHIS Field Visit in Cambodia 2006
    Research
    Ex-situ and In-situ Conservation
    Development of Preparedness Plan for wild birds AI surveillance and
     Monitoring
    Taskforces

Development of Preparedness Plan for wild birds AI surveillance and
Monitoring

Objectives:
  Expected Outcomes:
              o Methodology and Techniques: Proposed surveillance techniques
              o Investigation of morbidity/mortality
              o Active/Live bird surveillance
  Hunter harvest/Dead bird surveillance
  Surveillance during the outbreak events
  Targeted Species for Surveillance
  Species prioritization for Surveillance:
  Specific Plan of Annual Action by Region
  Simple Measures to prevent infection of HP H5N1 Avian Influenza: Reporting,
    Isolating from Cleaning Well cook, Safely burning and buried

Conclusions
   HP H5N1 AI has raised global concern regarding the serious (potential) impact
    on wild birds, domestic poultry, and human health.
   H5N1 is primarily a disease of domestic poultry
   Very small numbers of wild birds can carry the virus (0.05%)
   No one can tackle Wild Birds Surveillance to detect AI alone, but this effort can
    be enhance through collaboration and working in partnership




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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Challenges for enabling wildlife bird surveillance
    Lack financial, technical support and human resources
    Lack of Coordination and information Sharing
    Standardize Surveillance System
    Wild Birds AI and it surveillance activities are likely yet primary concern of the
     local governments, donor institutions and major developments partners.

Recommendations
    Piloting a systematic Wild Bird AI Surveillance within the region
    Establishing Regional Networking
    Financial and Technical Support Needs To Piloting Surveillance Activities in
     National & Regional Level.



China
Xiang-Dong RUAN, Ph.D.                              Agriculture, Fisheries & Conservation
Department of Wildlife Conservation,                Department HKSAR, China
SFA P.R. China


H5N1 HPAI testing from the wild birds
 Biologists or ornithologists involved in evaluating the role of wild birds may have
  played in introducing disease to farms
 There are reports about the H5N1 testing and results from the wild birds, that are
  public information
 Wild birds in Liaoning, Qinghai, Xizang and Fujian were found carrying the H5N1
  through routine surveillance
 But no direct evidences conformed that outbreaks in poultry involved death of wild
  birds

H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in wild birds in recent years
 In 2005, the first outbreak happened in Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve
  which is one of the National Level Stations of Pathogen-Origins and Diseases
  Monitoring for Wildlife
 The died birds were discovered by the staff of the station at the first locale and at
  the first time
 Over 6400 birds were died

H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in wild birds in recent years
 In 2006, the outbreaks happened in Qinghai Province and Xizang Autonomous
  Region (Tibet)
 Over 3700 wild birds died
 The died birds were mainly migratory species, such as:
 Bar-headed goose, Brown-headed gull, Common Cormmorants and Rudy
  shelduck etc.
 Comparing to 2005, fewer birds and more species were found dead in 2006

Training to veterinarians/Wildlife officials to undertake surveillance of Avian
Influenza
 Introduction to identification of waterbirds and counting techniques
 Important waterbird habitats in India
 Bird Migration & Flyways
 Migratory birds and avian influenza (AI)



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        Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                               1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


   Wild bird catching techniques and handling methods
   Bird ringing and color flagging
   Common Wild bird diseases and symptoms
   Sample collection and guidelines to be followed during collections


Future Programmes
 Capacity building to enhance AI surveillance and marking more birds with colour
  band to fill the gaps in migratory movement with the co-operation from other
  countries along the flyway.
 PTT for long distance migratory ducks/geese and larger waders and local
  migrants such as Painted Stork, Grey Pelican and ibises.
 Education and public awareness on AI

Funding
 Funding from the Government is not enough to undertake extensive AI wild bird
  surveillance, marking
 External funding will greatly assist to continue the work on long term basis.
 Fund requirement will depend on the scope and magnitude of the project
  implementation.

Hong Kong SAR
Xiang-Dong RUAN, Ph.D.                               Agriculture, Fisheries & Conservation
Department of Wildlife Conservation,                 Department HKSAR, China
SFA P.R. China


Background
   Since the HPAI outbreak in 2002, the HKSAR Government has enhanced her
    monitoring and control measures in all aspects.
   Infected Little Egret found in Penfold Park
   All ornamental birds in recreational parks and public aviaries have been
    vaccinated with killed H5N2 vaccines.
   Because of the AI outbreaks in the Asian and European regions, it raises a
    concern whether migratory/wild birds become a potential HPAI source
   As from Oct 2005, HK govt. provides a round-a-clock dead bird collection
    service. Wild bird monitoring has also been enhanced.
   Since Feb 2005, the HK Govt. has introduced legislation banning the keeping of
    backyard poultry, including chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons and quails
   Offenders are liable to a fine of HK$50K¡V100K

Monitoring Methods

1)Data involve the wild birds and their samples collected within the period from
01.05.2006 to 07.06.2007

2)Fecal/cloacal swab samples were collected from live birds caught in different
districts, as well as wetland areas, in Hong Kong and tested by the AFCD Veterinary
Laboratory.

3)Dead birds collected in different places (including wetland, urban areas, both
public and private premises,etc.) were sent to AFCD Veterinary Laboratory for further
handling.


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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand



4)Veterinary Officers of Vet Lab would collect necessary samples for further
testing:
          Based on the bird conditions, different tissue/swab samples (tracheal /
           bronchial / cloacal / lung / brain, etc.) may be collected.
          Samples with poor conditions would be disposed of.

5)Immunoflourescent RT-PCR for H5 subtype identification
     Interim report would be given to submitters
     Final diagnosis is based on the result of viral isolation.
     N-subtyping will be performed in the positive cases.

6)Birds are identified by AFCD ornithologists

7)If a positive case is detected, local poultry farms, wet markets and pet shops,
which are situated within the 3-km zone of the concerned site, would be under an
intensive monitoring and investigation.

Findings and Results ((01.05.2006 – 07.06.2007)

1)Approx. 6,500 fecal/cloacal swab samples from live wild birds were collected
within the period, and no HPAI virus was detected.

2)11,000 dead bird carcasses were collected. Among these, approx. 7,800 bodies
are suitable for AI testing (approx.70%).

        According to the results of species identification,birds from 15 Orders and
          43 Families were involved (approx. 987 wild bird samples (8.9%) with poor
          conditions could not be identified).

3)Neither birds in farms, wet markets, pet shops nor wild birds were found affected
within the 3-km zone of the concerned site.

Preliminary Conclusions

1)Comparing to monitoring live wild birds, testing carcasses may be a more
effective way to detect the AI infection in wild birds.

2)Apart from the last four cases (Long-tailed Shrike, Starling, Common Magpie,
House Crow), all infected wild bird carcasses were collected between January and
February

H5N1 infected wild bird carcasses in 2007 (as at June 2007)
   Bird flu season likely occurs in Jan and Feb
   Although infected wild birds might scatter anywhere in HK, they are more
    commonly found in urban areas.
   11 out of 17 infected wild bird carcasses were collected from two adjoining
    districts (ie. Mongkok and Sham Shui Po)
   Comparatively low numbers of birds were collected in suburban or wetland
    areas(54% birds were collected in N.T.)
   What makes the difference? Population distribution? Food sources? Portion of
    greening areas? Regional cultures?




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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


3)HPAI virus has been detected in birds of Order Passeriformes and Order
Falconiformes in both 2006 and 2007

These birds may be more suspicious to HPAI virus

   Birds of Order Columbiformes; Family Columbidae were the most common birds
    collected in 2006 and 2007 (approx.25-30%), but no positive case is detected in
    these birds. These birds may be comparatively less suspicious to HPAI virus.
   A higher positive testing rate in birds of Order Falconiforms may result from their
    preying habit.

4)Most of the remaining infected wild birds belong to Order Passeriformes
   Further comparative studies on their predisposition to Bird Flu and the infection
    rate among the birds of the same Order/Family should be done

5) Is there any correlation between the flying route of migratory birds (migration
pattern) and the outbreak occurrence in the concerned regions? Is it a potential
threat?

6)Zero infection in farms and wet markets reveals that the biosecurity measures
taken so far are effective.
    These valuable information may be used as a good reference for the Govt. to
      make a proper policy on AI control.

H5N1 HPAI testing in wild birds
 The samples of H5N1 HPAI from the outbreak sites were collected by monitoring
  stations and were finally diagnosed by National AI Reference Lab
 The results could be checked in the government reports and official internets as
  well as public internets
 Representatives and biologists from SFA, MOA, CAS and universities concerned
  performed the investigation and analysis

Main surveillance activities of wild birds AI
 HPAI surveillance in animals in the infected sites
 HPAI surveillance in waterfowls
 Migratory birds flyway by PPT satellite transmitter tracking
 HAPI origin investigation

Where are the H5N1 from in Qingzang Plateau?
 There was no any H5N1 found in wild birds before 2005
 H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in migratory birds happened suddenly without omen
 What causes? Where are they from? And where are they spreading?

And also we try to know:
What are the relationships between wild birds and poultry?
 It is thought that H5N1 in poultry related closely to wild birds
 Common understanding: migratory birds infected will spread AI
 What are the relationships? Wild birds to poultry? Or poultry to wild birds? Who is
  the most important medium?
 Objective: prevent H5N1 to spread to man, poultry and other wild birds, finally for
  public health safety and social security
 Recalling the position of bridge birds or ……
 Outbreaks in migratory birds were well controlled
 None spreading to man and poultry from the migratory birds was found



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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


 The central and local governments, specialists, local people, international
    organizations etc. paid a great deal of endeavor for the AI control

Ⅲ Main Weakness
Wildlife diseases (eg. AI) monitoring was started very late in no more than 3 years

   Basic materials needed, few studies
   Special equipments and technique needed
   Short of high qualified monitoring staffs
   Funds limited

Ⅳ Priority Activities
 Migration and spreading studies of migratory birds, especially HPAI suspected
    natural hosts
 Surveillance of natural origin of the migratory and bridge birds, and identification
    of viruses
 Methodologies (field inspection, monitoring, etc.)
 On relationships of wild birds and poultry, especially transmitting mechanism cross
    species
 Evaluation and risk analysis on wild birds AI
 Mechanism establishment of epidemic situation report, information exchange and
    sharing
 National and international training program



India
Dr. S. Balachandran
Bombay Natural History Society

AI outbreaks in India (poultry and wildbirds)
 Two outbreaks in 2006 (NW India) and one outbreak in 2007 (NE India)
 Ornithologists from both Government institutes and Non-Governmental
  organisations were involved in preliminary surveys to evaluate the role of wild
  birds (if any) in introducing disease to the farm.
 No outbreaks in wild birds

Live Bird - AI Surveillance in 2006 (table)

Results of sera and swabs analysis
 Death not due to HPAI H5N1 by High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
  (HSADL), Bhopal.
 Mortality due to Pasteurellossis, and the causative agent of the disease was
  identified as Pasteurella haemolytica - Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary
  Biologicals (Research & Training), Kolkata.

Waterbird Population Monitoring
(Monthly/Fortnightly)
 Through Research Projects by researchers in four major wetlands
 By Volunteers : Members of IBCN (Indian Bird Conservation Network) and BNHS
  through Important Bird Areas Programme of BNHS in 27 wetlands across the
  country




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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Bird ringing in India
 Waterbird ringing is being carried out in two coastal wetlands along the east coast
  of India in small numbers.
 Recovery is almost nil as there is limited ringing activities in the other countries of
  the Central Asian Flyway
 All the birds sampled for AI are ringed with metal rings.

GAINS Project- Components
 Provision of training to veterinarians, wildlife staff, experts and volunteers
 Active Surveillance for virus/antibodies detection
 Monitoring of waterbird diversity and abundance in three selected wetlands
 Marking of sampled birds

Activities proposed for the current migratory season
 Minimum of 800 samples from migratory ducks
 Provision of training for 60 personnel from 19 states across India
 Continue fortnightly bird population monitoring in three wetlands
 To initiate Satellite Telemetry (PTT) studies in selected duck species and Bar-
  headed Goose
 Field manual for the identification of waterbirds and population monitoring
  techniques is being prepared.


Indonesia
Introduction

The policy framework in complex.

What have we done?

Networking
    Task Force on AI control on wild animals
    Waterbird census, including migratory waterbirds (Asian Waterbird Census,
     National Waterbird Census)
    Raptor watch
    Indonesian Ornithologists‟ Union
    Indonesian Bird Banding Scheme

Surveillance
    Natural habitat
                Migratory birds : shore birds & barn swallow
                Resident birds
                Colonial water birds
    Wild Animal Markets/Trade
    Captive : zoos, animal rescue centers, conservation institution, animal
     rehabilitation centre (mostly parrots)

   Focussed in Java and Bali
   Most data are still being analysed




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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Capacity building
Highly demanded but currently less implemented
    Development of SOP
    Surveillance techniques and methodology
    Bird capture and marking techniques and protocol
    Laboratory analysis techniques
    Monitoring and reporting mechanism

Public awarness
    Media gathering
    Radio programme & TV coverage
    Article on newspapers
    Migratory birds map : supplement to National Geographic Indonesia
    Leaflet
    Public exposure : workshop & symposium

Next steps

Priorities

Development of protocol for monitoring, case treatment and reporting mechanism at:
   wild habitat (protected and non-protected areas): surveillance, monitoring,
    development of alert systems
   chain of wild birds/animals trade: transport control, medical assessment
   captive: sampling, medical assessment, treatment, transport control
   Integrated surveillance, including assessment of epidemiology on poultry,
    human and wild birds
    Mainstreaming of wild bird/animal issues to National commission programme
      and funding
    Capacity building, including development of “Rapid Response Team” in
      selected important areas
    Regional networking on surveillance and monitoring
    Development of media outreach protocol
    Broader and inclusive coordination and information & data sharing/networking
    Continue wild birds monitoring and counts
    Further development of Indonesian Bird Banding Scheme

Lessons learned
    Many things are still need to be done nationally and internationally
    Concerted effort is needed for emergency response, especially on poultry and
     wild birds
    Partnership is a key to a better success
    AI is a global concern, international cooperation is required
    Capacity building is pre-requisite for global data & information sharing




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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Lao PDR
Sengrath Phirasack
Department of Forestry


Issues and threats for wild birds
Of the 700 sp of wild birds, 27 are considered global treat and 47 are neared global
treat.
    Population increase
    Habitat Lost
    Agriculture Activities
    Forest Fire
    Wildlife Trade
    Illegal hunting

AI in wild birds
 No species of wild birds transmitting disease to domestic birds in Laos, because
   there is little wild bird/ domestic bird contact.

Public Awareness
 Well organized public awareness campaigns are underway.

Future conservation efforts
 Provincial Training
 Public Awareness
 Bird Survey
 Research
 Law Enforcement



Malaysia
Dr Raden Fadzilah A‟ini Abdul Kadir, Deaprtment of Veterinaty Services,
Headquarters, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Base Industries

Organisation structure, line of authority in hpai emergency response (diagram)
Outbreak reporting system (diagram)
Chronology of 2004 outbreaks (table)
Details outbreaks (2006 & 2007)
Stamping out operation (diagram)
Amt & rat: members and responsibilities (diagram)
Preparedness and containment (diagram)
Hpai control and eradication policies (diagram)
New measures to added in eradication measures (diagram)
Import risk analysis process (diagram)

Migratory birds
   Migration – Oriental region
   About > 638 species of birds (436 are resident)
   Mangrove swamps, mudflats region, green lungs and hill stations as „birds
     santuaries‟,
   Eagle feeding – Langkawi Island




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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Concept of wildlife ranching

Farming captive breeding versus ranching: Rrearing in a controlled environment of
specimens taken from the wild and a continuous interchange of gene pool promotes
conservation of natural habitat by giving it added economic value

A new and vibrant industry
    Edible-nest swiftlets
    Wild
    Incooperated into the urbane living
    Lucrative income

Animal repository centre (animal database)
(Veterinary Association Malaysia) (register, identification, licensing)
    transponder (transponder tagging system)
    surveillences of animal disease
    Animal cencors animal monitoring and movement

Ability to gather accurate information on bird population surrounding infected case
   Animal census is current and accurate
   Quick survey can be conducted
   Cooperation with villagers/farmers


Mongolia
Ts. Purevkhuu
Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia
B. Nyambayar
Wildlife Science and Conservation Center of Mongolia

Mongolia located between two countries with large poultry farms and wild
birds and on the way of major migration paths.

Poultry farming is on the increase.

Prevention and Surveillance (diagram)

Strategy of Mongolian Government for control AI (diagram)

Locations and associated levels under regular bird surveillance for AI in 2007
(map)

HPAI outbreaks (H5N1)
2005 – Erkhel Lake
2006 – Khunt Lake and Erkhel Lake
2007 – none so far

Species infected with HPAI
   •   Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)
   •   Golden eye (Bucephala clangula)
   •   Bar headed goose (Anser indica)




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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Wildbird surveillance National organizations:
   • Institute of Biology, MAS
   • State Central Veterinary Laboratory
   • National Centre for Control of Diseases of Natural Foci
   • Wildlife Science and Conservation Center
   • National University of Mongolia

International organizations;
   FAO
   USAID - WCS
   JICA
   KOICA

Wildbird surveillance plan for 2007 MoA-FAO (map)

Satellite tracking of swan geese and whooper swans in 2006 (map)

Migration study
MNE ordered to strengthen the study of migration of wildbirds.
Baird marking activity was highlighted.
MAS will be responsible for overall coordination and development of the bird banding
system in Mongolia.

Needs
   • Funding
   • Training staff and bird banders
   • Join regional activities and learn BB systems
   • Report, disseminate and share results with neighboring countries



Myanmar
Dr. Maung Maung Kyin, Deputy Director, LBVD, Ministry of LF
Dr. Khin Maung, USDA
Daw Than Than Aye, General Secretary, Biodiversity and Nature Conservation
Association (BANCA)
Dr. Khin Than Win, Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA)

Outbreaks in Poultry
      45215 Chicken, 120 Guinea fowl, 3380 Ducks and 16907 quails (65,800)
       were destroyed.
      Reports of wild bird deaths included in national statistical reports mostly
       crows, pigeons and sparrows.
      Especially many crow deaths found in Yangon outbreak this year. H5N1 has
       been detected in dead crows

Outbreaks in wildlife
      Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department, Ministry of Livestock and
       Fisheries performed the outbreak investigation
      Below this level, township offices are staffed one-two or more (average 5
       staff) and responsible to report to District veterinary officer who report again
       to the State/Divisional office.



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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


       At the sub township level, Deputy veterinary officers are recruited who will
        report the disease information to the Township veterinary officers.
       At the village level, basic animal health services are provided by the Village
        Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) appointed by LBVD.
       During the outbreaks Laboratory investigations has shown H5N1 positives in
        some samples of crows in Yangon
       Avian Influenza integrated Programme included three projects provided
        through FAO
                o OSRO/MYA/601/AUL (AusAID),
                o OSRO/RAS/602/JPN (JTF) /FAO-OIE and
                o OSRO/RAS/USA (USAID) support to conduct these
                   investigations

Diagnostics
      Yangon Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Livestock Breeding and
        Veterinary Department (LBVD), Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries-
      Cooperation with FAO/ OIE in disease control and informed immediately
        when AI outbreak occurs
      Contact person; U Maung Maung Nyunt, Director General of LBVD
      Under the Diagnostic Section, Virology and Serology Unit recruited 3
        Research Officer, 4 Research Assistant for the diagnostic works on Avian
        Influenza
      The tests used for the investigation of AI virus are Commercial Rapid test
        kits, (Anigen, Rapigen) including AIV antigen, H5 AIV Ag , combo kit for both
        AI and ND.
      Virus isolation by egg inoculation and MDCK cell line, HA, HI , AGID tests,
        RT-C-ELISA, and RT-PCR for confirmation.

Challenges for Diagnosis
      Bio-security of laboratory including in Regional Labs.
      -Need epidemiology and surveillance network in State/Divisions
      -Insufficiency of standard antigen and anti-sera for disease detection.
      -More technical training and necessary equipment in gene sequencing.

Surveillance
      Wild bird surveillance is in place in Myanmar
      Director of Disease Control, LBVD will be in charge of this program
      Epidemiology Section of LBVD conducts the surveillance for wild bird and
        poultry

Objectives for wild bird surveillance and monitoring
      Surveillance wild bird free ranging & market trade
      Capacity building partnership
      Early warning system and information sharing
      PA/P health
      Conservation
      Field research
      Develop disease reporting data management the interactions between WB
        and domestics in rural.
      Establishment of bird monitoring system at key
      Wild bird santuaries (species diversity/ irds count / unusual mortality)
      Deveopment communication between LBVD and Forest Department (Wildlife
        Conservation Division)




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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Surveillance
       Only faecal samples collected from wetlands areas, not capturing birds
       The collected samples were analyzed for HPAI at YVDL, Yangon
       Since 2004, All samples shown negative so far.
       Apart from that, samples from poultry and other domestic birds raised in the
        villages near the wetlands, were randomly collected for the investigation of
        HPAI infection
   - Protected wetland sites
        Wethikan bird sanctuary
        Hlawga wildlife park
        Moeyungyi wetland Bird sanctuary
        Indawgyi wetland bird sanctuary
        Meinmahla kyun wildlife sanctuary
        Thamihla kyun wildlife sanctuary
        Moscos island wildlife sanctuary
        Lampi Marine park
        Inlay wetland bird sanctuary

Important wetlands
      Indawgyi Lake
      To conserve one of the biggest lake in SE Asia.
      To conserve resident & migratory birds
      To develop the ecosystems in the area
      To develop research program

HPAI surveillance in migratory birds
      Survey area-
      Indawgyi, Tanai, Ayeyarwady river (Sinbo), Talaw), Inlay, (2002-2005)
      Indawgyi, Ayeyarwady river (Bamaw, Mandalay), Meinmahla (2006)
      Interviews,
      No sign of HPAI outbreak by migratory birds

AI surveillance activities in wild birds
       In 2005, Moeyungyi, Indawgyi and Inlay wetlands and Northern Rakhine
        State were visited; collected samples from wild birds, ducks, and village
        chicken from the area around these wetlands
       CS- 307, TS 113, sera 309 and 2 pairs of brain and internal organs from
        dead birds were taken from those places

Surveillance in wild birds in 2006
      Moeyungyi wetland
      Inlay
      Indawgyi
      Mainmahla Kyun
      Mahanandar lake (Shwe Bo)
      55 fecal samples from Moeyungyi wetland
      11 fecal samples Indawgyi wetland
      5 fecal samples from Meinmahla Kyun
      10 fecal samples of migrated cranes from Mahanandar lake

Additional Capacity Building and Training Needs
      Surveillance study design
      District and township veterinary officers together with the staff of Forest
       Department and NGOs such as BANCA will work for the surveillance activity
       of wild birds in the four target Wetland wildlife sancturies, Indawgyi of


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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


        Moenyin township, Kachin State, Inlay Lake of Nyaung Shwe township,
        Southern Shan State and Moeyungyi wetland of Bago township, Eastern
        Bago Division and Meinmahla Kyun of Bogalay township, Ayerwady Division
       Wild bird surveillance activity will include wild bird capture technique, sample
        collection and banding. Training will be given before the surveillance
        activities. International expert missions will be necessary for the systematic
        HPAI surveillance in wild birds.
       Every six month, LBVD local and Laboratory staff will visited and conduct
        clinical and serological surveillance among the poultry farms and village
        chickens, ducks of villages near the wetlands.
       Equipment for sampling and reagent such as standard antigen, anti-sera
        will be necessary.

Future programs
      Every Where the risk for HPAI is from migrating birds, identification of the
       migratory habits of different species, their origins, destinations and timing of
       migration in Myanmar. Active and passive surveillance of wild birds at the
       wet land sanctuaries and poultry farms nearby seasonally and six month
       interval, will be priority.
      Awareness program about HPAI control in these area will be done together
       with surveillance activities.
      Some Migratory water fowl will be captured and collect the samples for virus
       isolation
      Domestic ducks, geese and Muscovy will be targeted for serosurveillance to
       detect their immune response.
      More Epidemiological and seological Understanding, will assist to define
       the high risk areas for risk prevention and disease control measures
      The program will cost about US$ 150,000. for surveillance of wild birds and
       domestics in all wetlands of Myanmar and will need external assistance for
       implementation
      FAO provided assistance to carry out a training for wild bird capture
       technique and public awareness program this year.
      30 training in 4 wildlife sanctuaries will be held for Public awareness. 40
       people will participate in each training. 4 places will be Indawgyi, Moeyungyi,
       Inlay and Meinmahla Kyun island.
      Training for wild bird capturing technique for disease surveillance will be
       conducted at only Moeyungyi wetland. Two from LBVD, two from Forest
       Department and 2 from NGOs will be invited for training. The training will be
       2 times.

Needs
     Interagency collaboration &Cooperation
     Equipment and training
           o   Field level
           o   Township veterinarians
           o   Regional diagnostic centers
           o   PAs




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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Phillipines

I. Introduction

        The Philippines is an archipelago with thousands of islands and very long
coastline estimated to be as long as 36,000 kms. The Philippines can therefore be
considered as one big wetland with a very long coastal zone and with many fresh
water bodies.

       The Philippines lies along the migratory pathway used by waterbirds that
breed in the northern hemisphere and spend their winter in the tropics or to places in
the southern hemisphere as far south as Australia and New Zealand.

II. Outbreaks in Poultry and Wildlife

The Philippines have not isolated or detected the HPAI H5N1 in both poultry and
wildlife and therefore remains free of HPAI H5N1. Surveillance conducted by the
Department of Agriculture in 2006 (20,643 blood and cloacal samples) and in 2007
(6,980 blood and cloacal samples) in domestic poultry such as chickens, ducks,
quails, turkeys and geese have shown negative results to the HPAI H5N1.

Wildlife surveillance has not been routinely conducted because of existing Wildlife
Act wherein catching of wildlife is prohibited which includes migratory birds.
However, there were instances wherein surveillance for research purposes was
conducted.

There has been no outbreak in wildlife but two false alarms have shown how the staff
of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) cooperates with
counterparts from the Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry and the
Local Government Units in addressing any possible outbreak. These two (2)
incidents involving migratory waterbirds were reported from the Bicol Region in south
eastern Luzon. The first report was from Prieto Diaz in Sorsogon, where a weak
intermediate egret was collected from a rice field on February 5, 2007. The bird died
and was subsequently buried in the haste of a local government official to have it
disposed immediately to prevent any possible spread of the disease. The bird was
not assessed for the virus or what caused its condition to degenerate. However,
monitoring of wild birds in the vicinity for 20 days after the incident and the results of
the swabs taken by BAI from poultry within a 1 km radius of the area where the egret
was taken all yielded negative results for the HPAI virus. The other report was of
another migratory waterbird collected on February 18, 2007 from a school athletic
field in Daet, Camarines Norte. The bird, reportedly a sandpiper, was properly
retrieved and sent to the Philippine Animal Health Center for evaluation. The bird
tested negative for any HPAI virus. The reports were made public and the results are
public information.

III. Preparedness Programs

In February of 2004, the President issued Executive Order 280 creating the National
Avian Influenza Task Force (NAITF), composed of different government agencies,
stakeholders and private institutions. This was formed to plan out activities and
programs in keeping the Philippines free from the HPAI and create a response plan
in case of an incursion. With the formation of the task force, the Avian Influenza




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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


Protection Program (AIPP) was drafted and adapted in 2005 through a joint
Administrative Order.

The four stages of the AIPP program are the following:
Stage 1 - Keeping the Philippines bird flu free
Stage 2 - Control and eradication of birdflu in domestic fowl
Stage 3 - Control of Transmission from fowl to human
Stage 4 – Mitigation of Public Health and Socio Economic impact of Pandemic
influenza

Stage 1 of the program are preventive measures in keeping the Philippines bird flu
free. Such measures are banning importation from AI affected countries; instituting
biosecurity measures and surveillance in seaports and airports; surveillance in
domestic poultry in identified critical areas (critical areas – these are areas where
migratory birds are found and poultry population is dense); establish preparedness
and response plans at the national and local level; upgrading of laboratory facilities;
establishment of zones; enforcement of Wildlife Act and information campaigns.

The first line of defense against any possible outbreak are the village people in the
vicinity of areas identified as habitat for migratory waterbirds. The DENR in 2006 was
able to reach out to 150 villages near important wetlands and informed the people on
how to detect any possible HPAI outbreak and where to report suspect cases. There
has been very limited follow up to this initiative in 2007 because funding has not been
available to support continuation of the activity.

III. Diagnostics

The Philippine Animal Health Center (PAHC) of the Bureau of Animal Industry is the
reference center for AI in the country. There are 4 AI regional laboratories that are
developed and equipped to rapidly diagnose HPAI. Equipping and capacity building
through continued training of laboratory staff of the region are supported by projects
handled by the FAO, the Japan Special Trust Fund (JTF) and the New Zealand Aid.

The PAHC AI laboratory staff were trained locally and abroad. They are equipped to
do diagnostic test related to HPAI such as ELISA, AGID, HI, viral isolation using the
egg inoculation method and the rapid antigen test using the real time PCR
(RRTPCR)

Contact Persons:
Dr. Davinio P. Catbagan, Director, Bureau of Animal Industry
Dr. Magdalena S. Cruz, Chief, PAHC, BAI

IV. Surveillance

There was a more intensive migratory wildbird surveillance in 2006 when special
funds were made available to the DENR. There was a slowdown in the activity this
year because funds were not released if ever it becomes available. It should be
noted, however, that only passive surveillance of migratory waterbirds; they were not
trapped and no samples were collected from them.

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources, through the Protected
Areas and Wildlife Bureau and the DENR field offices are in charge of the migratory
waterbird surveillance.




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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


The Department of Agriculture conducted surveillance activities in domestic poultry
that includes ducks, geese, quails and chickens were conducted in 2006 (20,600)
and 2007 (6,980). Serum and cloacal swabs were collected and submitted to the AI
reference laboratory, the PAHC. Samples revealed negative for the H5 and H7.

In a project study conducted in a wetland in Mindanao (southern island of the
Philippines), 75 wild ducks (tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula) were caught with 75 serum
samples and 25 cloacal swabs collected. The results revealed negative for the HPAI
H5N1.

Sentinel ducks were used in another study to monitor presence of the H5N1 in
waterfowls. The sentinel ducks were fenced-in and let to share the same
environment as the waterfowls. Blood and cloacal swabs were collected from these
sentinel ducks on a monthly basis and monitored for a period of 3 months. The
samples were sent to the PAHC for analysis and all samples revealed negative
results to the H5 and H7 AI virus.

Use of sentinel animals is a way of determining the presence of a disease in an area.
However, this could also post a risk if these sentinel animals are found positive and
co-mingled with the domestic poultry.

V. Other Wildbird Studies not related to HPAI

There is an on going monitoring program in relation to the Asian Waterbird Census.
It is an annual activity conducted in the last two weeks of January every year
consisting of counting waterbirds in wetlands throughout the Philippines. It is
coordinated by Wetlands International at the international level and by the Protected
Areas and Wildlife Bureau of the DENR at the national level.

The list of participants is very long; suffice it to say that DENR is leading the activity
with some NGOs like the Wild Bird Club of the Philippines also contributing.

The data is transmitted to the Wetlands International Office in Malaysia and regular
assessments, particularly of waterbird populations within the region are made.
Publications are available on the data thus gathered

VI. Capacity Building

DENR and DA staff need to undergo training in bird trapping (mist netting), bird
processing or collection of essential data such as morphometrics, ageing; bird
banding or colour marking. The DENR staff also needs to be trained in sample
collection, preservation and submission.

Sustained passive need to be conducted with the involvement of both the DENR and
the DA and the local communities.

It is also desirable that active surveillance of birds in priority wetlands throughout the
country be conducted. If this would not be feasible, then focus should in the north, in
the central Philippines and in the southern Philippines. Capacity of DENR staff need
to be developed along these lines. DENR staff would focus on bird handling but it is
expected that BAI would be in charge of analysis of samples.

An expected outcome would be a clearer understanding of the role of migratory water
birds in the spread and transmission of HPAI in this region.



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       Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                              1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


For passive and active surveillance the cost would be about P15M per annum.
Financial and technical assistance from outside sources to train the local staff on
wild bird surveillance is needed so that the program can be fast tracked.
Government has limited funds for such type of programs.

Needs
   DENR staff and LGUs need to undergo training in bird trapping (mist netting),
    bird processing or collection of essential data such as morphometrics, ageing,
    bird banding or color marking.
   Training on sample collection and preservation.
   Laboratory capacity building for developed regional laboratories
   Additional laboratory personnel

Future Programs
   Sustained passive surveillance need to be conducted with the involvement of
     local communities.
   Active surveillance of birds especially in priority wetlands must be conducted
     with the collaboration of BAI, DENR and LGUs wherein all waterbirds captured
     will be sampled.
   Expected outcome would be a clearer understanding of the role of migratory
     water birds in the spread of HPAI in the area.


Vietnam
Outbreaks in poultry
 Pandemic was occurred in late 2003/early 2004, it then was under the control for
  a year are small outbreaks occurred in late 2006 and 2007
 Most reported outbreaks in small backyard ducks without vaccination at villages
  where vaccinations were not properly carried out
 Reports of wild bird deaths not included in national statistical reports, but there
  were some cases confirmed that HPAI/H5N1 was detected in wild birds
 Have “unofficial” reports from local residents
 No biologist or ornithologist involved in poultry outbreaks
 Not yet available although an attempt was carried out in 2007 and another will be
  performed soon in October 2007

Outbreaks in wildlife
 The Department of Animal Health (DAH), National Institute for Veterinary
  Research (NIVR) Wifelife Conservation Society (WCS) provide technical support
  to their 64 provincial and municipal Sub-department of Animal Health (SDAH).
 below this level, district offices are staffed with several veterinary officers who
  report to the provincial office.
 at the village level, paravets conducting some reports to their district offices, but
  not always.

Diagnostics
 7 Labs belonging to DAH and two labs belonging to NIVR are cable for diagnosis
   of AI in Vietnam
 Yes, they have been supported by both FAO and OIE.
 List of Lab leader:
   + NCVD: Nguyen Tung
   + RAHO1: Nguyen Van Van
   + RAHO2: Nguyen Ba Minh



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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


  + RAHO3: Nguyen Ba Hue
  + RAHO4: Phuong
  + RAHO6: Ngo Thanh Long
  + RAHO7: Dzung
  + NIVR: Nguyen Tien Dzung
  + Sub-NIVR: Quang
 Capacity: HI, viral isolation (egg inoculation), real-time RT-PCR, sequencing
 Overwhelming, biosafety (almost all of them are 2 or under 2rd bio-level

Surveillance
 Yes, there was one research, but no sample was collected due to many reasons.
 MARD, DAH, NIVR, SDAH, DFP, WCS
 DAH, SDAH, WCS
 No birds were captured
 Not applicable
 Yes, there was a band on hunting birds
 In both domestic labs and overseas labs
 NO

Wild birds study not related to HPAI
 US university
 Martin Gilbert, Nguyen Duc Tu, Thomas V. Dietsch, Nguyen Van Long
 shorebirds and waterfowl, domestic poultries that are closely to sites for taking
  samples from wild birds
 400 samples/ each site
 Epidemiological analysis, distribution of wildlife, species, etc



Thailand
Mrs. Kalyanee Boonkird ,Wildlife Research Section
Mrs. Duangrat Pothieng, Wildlife Conservation Bureau, Department of National Park
Wildlife and Plant

Avian Influenza (AI) first outbreak in Thailandซ January, 23, 2004, in poultry at farms
and continue to many types of poultry, including fighting cocks, ducks, backyard
chickens. In wild animal first occurred in Asian Open-billed Stork Feb, 4 2004.

Government agency responsible AI in Wildbirds
 Department of National Park Wildlife and Plant Conservation
 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Work Plans
 Assign 72 officials from provincial or regional office of Wildlife Conservation
  Bureau, to do an AI surveillance in wildbirds in 76 province
 The tasks focus on taking samples for AI diagnosis from Pigeons, Treesparrow,
  Mynas, Starling, Egret, Wadder, Munia, Asian Openbill, WildDucks, Plover, Gull,
  and Swallows
 Samples include Cloacal Swab, Tracheal Swab and blood
 Aims: 4,000 samples from 12,000 birds in nature, farms, zoo and pet markets

The reports
16 Regional Offices of the National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
make a daily report to the Department, then forwarded to Birdflu surveillance center


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      Avian Influenza and Wildlife: Regional Surveillance and Research Priorities for Asia
                             1-5 September 2007, Bangkok, Thailand


of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The reports will be further
forwarded to the Ministry of Public Health.

 Pet birds found to be AI infected in 2004
 Colony of Open-billed stroks in Supan Buri
 Satellite tracking of Cinerous Vultures

Samples were sent to:
 National Institution of Animal Health, DLD
 Regional Veterinary Research and Center
 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at:
       - Kasetsart University
       - Mahidol University
       - Chulalongkorn University
       - Chaiengmai University
       - Khon Khaen University
Between 2004 and 2007, 22,017 samples of cloacal swab from 59,995 individuals of
213 species of birds were sent to institutions for diagnosis.

AI research projects to be carried out
 Study on Population and Migration of Migratory birds in Thailand : Ducks (Family
  Anatidae), Shorebirds, Raptors Census, Gull (Family Laridae, Asian billed Stork
 Monitoring of migratory birds by Satellite Telemetry
 Survey on the bird Colony in Thailand
 A Disease-Surveillance Study of Emerging Viral Diseases in Migratory Raptors
 Ringing Studies of Migratory Shorebirds and Land birds in the inner Gulf of
  Thailand.
 Shedding of influenza viruses (H5N1) from infected Thai native avian and infected
  wild birds
 Natural history of infection and shedding of influenza viruses (H5N1) in infected
  lesser whistling duck (Dendrocygna javanica)
 Surveillance of AI virus in migratory and domestic bird populations and evaluation
  of their role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus
 Risk assessment of transmission of avian influenza H5N1 virus in wild birds and
  poultry in Thailand

Needs
Training:
 Wild bird capture techniques
 Bird banding and morphometrics techniques (measurements)
 Techniques for control and suppress colonial birds or pest birds

Future programs
 Do satellite telemetry in a variety species of migratory large birds such as ducks,
  gull, wader, raptors.
 Carry out a collaborative study with other countries on bird banding in the
  migratory species to examine present flyways




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