Chapter 21 An Emerging World Power - 1877–1914 Objectives 1. How did economic interests affect American involvement in overseas expansion? 2. What were the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War? 3. Explain and assess President Wilson’s attempts to reconcile America’s foreign policy with the nation’s political ideals. 4. Describe the American foreign policy that developed between 1877 and 1914. Introduction A. What is foreign policy? B. What nations are considered "world powers" today? o What makes the U.S. a "world power"? o When did we become a world power? C. Do world powers have any particular rights or responsibilities because of their status? D. The U.S. did not enter world politics until the 1890's; Why? o (preoccupied - Reconstruction, Winning the West, Industrialization) E. Our rise to world power was a consequence of our: o 1. Geographic position o 2. Our natural resources o 3. Our dynamic energy Physical and industrial growth led to a larger navy to protect investments Led to an activist foreign policy F. Foreign policy is almost always an extension of domestic policy...needs, wants, ideals G. Brainstorm - What should be our goals/purposes in determining foreign policy? Goals - based on Social Darwinism o 1. National Security - self defense o 2. Trade - Promotion of world trade and to better our economic opportunities at home markets resources places to invest o 3. Nationalism - pride in your country - the desire to spread our ideas around the world – Social Darwinism A sense of mission in encouraging freedom around the world and promoting "self government" - democracy promoting capitalism promoting Protestant Christianity - missionary work o 4. Social Gospel - "do the right thing"! Altruism Humanitarianism Morality o 5. Improving our image at home and abroad Tough guy image Nice guy image Those goals had to be weighed against the cost in terms of money and lives I. Early U.S. Foreign Policy - "isolation" not making permanent commitments with foreign countries wish to be left alone and to leave others alone A. "Cornerstones" of Isolation - Early U.S. Foreign Policy (Before 1898) 1. George Washington's Farewell Address (1797) o Further U.S. trade o Avoid "entangling alliances"; (permanent) temporary ones for expediency ok o Thomas Jefferson would reaffirm it o "Peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none" 2. Monroe Doctrine (1823) o Came out of turmoil in Latin America o Warning to Europe to stay out of western hemisphere! o It would give us a chance to grow without worrying about Europe's intentions o It would "evolve" No Annexation! No Transfer! No Coercion! No Oppression! o We got lucky, England decided to work with us instead of against us (trade possibilities) B. Trade-Related Foreign Policy - Prior to Civil War 1. China o GB exposed weakness of China in the Opium Wars (ended in 1842) they acquired Hong Kong o Caleb Cushing - 1844 - opened trade with the largest market in the world o Treaty of Wanghia - opened 5 ports "most favored nation" status "extraterritoriality" o By 1890's, lots of trade and missionary activity o Was this a good decision on bad decision? Use goals to evaluate. 2. Japan o Commodore Matthew Perry - 1854 - used intimidation to force trade o "Black ships" (black smoke) and "toys" of the Industrial Revolution o Treaty of Kanagawa (1858) opened 2 ports (for their own good) established "most favored nation" status for U.S. o Japanese later erected a statue of Perry in Japan o Was this a good decision or bad decision? Use goals to evaluate. C. Civil War-Related Foreign Policy 1. Great Britain o Alabama Claims o Treaty of Washington (1871) U.S. awarded $15.5 million (had to pay $5m to GB) Agreed to work cooperatively on fishing, lumber rights and sealing in Canada 2. France o 1863 - Maximilian and Carlota o At end of Civil War warned France to withdraw (Monroe Doctrine) sent 50,000 troops to Rio Grande o France withdrew support and its army o 1867 - Maximilian and Carlota executed (Benito Juarez) as a warning to other "would be" intruders! 3. Russia o 1867 - sold Alaska for $7.2 million (2 cents/acre) o "Seward's Folly" - Seward died without knowing true worth Polar Bear Garden Frigidia o Got rid of another European power o 1898 - gold discovered (and later oil) o 1959 - statehood for Alaska o Was this purchase a good decision or bad decision? Use goals to evaluate. 4. Coaling Stations and Naval Bases (with interests in the Pacific) o Midway - annexed in 1867 1 and 1/2 square miles occupied uninhabited island because of its location - on the way to Asia Secretary of State William Seward (1861-1869) o Samoa 1872 - Comm. R.W. Meade got chieftain to sign over use of Pago Pago 1878 - Samoa became a "protectorate" (first entangling alliance) location on the way to Australia 1880's - GB and Germany made similar arrangements with other chieftains 1889 - near war (hurricane) 1890 - triprotectorate pact 1899 - GB out, divided between U.S. and Germany 1929 - formally added to U.S. territory in an act of Congress Was this a good decision or a bad decision? Use goals to evaluate. o Hawaii 1820's - missionary activity 1840's - center of Pacific whaling industry 1850's - sugar-growing (plantations) 1875 - reciprocal trade treaty (sugar) 1887 - got exclusive use of Pearl Harbor 1890 - McKinley Tariff - hurt sugar business! Sanford Dole - began to plan revolt against Queen 1891 - Queen Lilioukalani led reform to rid island of all foreigners 1893 - U.S.navy backed coup led by American Minister, John L. Stevens and Sanford Dole President Cleveland - refused to annex - still isolationist 1898 - annexation (during Tr. of Paris debate) - President McKinley Do you side with Cleveland or McKinley? Are you an isolationist or imperialist? Use goals to explain why. 1959 - statehood! I. The Roots of Expansion A. Diplomacy in the Gilded Age 1. In 1880 the United States had a population of 50 million, and the nation’s industrial production ranked second only to Britain’s. 2. The Civil War had put the United States at odds with Britain and France; the United States opposed France’s attempt to establish a puppet regime in Mexico; with Britain, the issues involved damages to Union shipping by the Alabama and other Confederate sea raiders operating from English ports. 3. In the years after the Civil War, the United States lapsed into diplomatic inactivity as the building of the nation’s industrial economy turned Americans’ attention inward. 4. Americans shared a sense of security and isolation from the rest of the world, even though new international telegraphic cables provided overseas communication after the 1860s. 5. The U.S. Navy fleet gradually deteriorated; the administration of Chester A. Arthur (1881– 1885) began a modest upgrading program, but the navy remained small. 6. Domestic politics made it difficult to develop a coherent foreign policy, and appointment to the foreign service was mostly through the spoils system. 7. The State Department tended to be inactive and exerted little control over either policy or its missions abroad; the American presence often consisted of independent religious missionaries. 8. Diplomatic activity quickened when James G. Blaine became secretary of state in 1881; he tried his hand at settling disputes in South America, and he called the first Pan-American conference. 9. After the McKinley Tariff of 1890 cancelled Hawaii’s favored access to the American market, sugar planters backed by the Harrison administration planned an American takeover, but Grover Cleveland halted the annexation that would, he said, have violated America’s “honor and morality” and nonimperial tradition. 10. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska from imperial Russia, and to the south it secured rights in 1878 to a coaling station in Pago Pago Harbor in the Samoan Islands. 11. American diplomacy during the Gilded Age has been characterized as a series of incidents rather than the pursuit of a clear foreign policy. B. The Economy of Expansionism 1. America’s gross domestic product quadrupled between 1870 and 1900, and as the industrial economy expanded, so did factory exports. 2. American firms such as the Singer Sewing Machine Company and Standard Oil began to establish their factories overseas. 3. Foreign trade was important for reasons of international finance: to balance its foreign debt account, the United States needed to export more goods than it imported. 4. Many thought that the nation’s capacity to produce had outpaced its capacity to consume, so the United States needed buyers in foreign markets to purchase its surplus products. 5. Europe and Canada represented the bulk of American export trade in the late nineteenth century, and Asia and Latin America represented a modest part. 6. The importance of the non-Western markets was not so much their current value as their future promise, especially the China trade, which many felt would one day be the key to American prosperity. 7. The pace of European imperialism accelerated in the mid-1880s: Africa was carved up after the Berlin Conference, and European powers challenged American interests in Latin America. 8. The Panic of 1893 set in motion industrial strikes and agrarian protests that many Americans took to be symptoms of revolution. 9. Securing the markets of Latin America and Asia became an urgent necessity and inspired the expansionist diplomacy of the 1890s. C. The Making of a “Large” Foreign Policy 1. In his book The Influence of Seapower upon History (1890), Captain Alfred T. Mahan, a leading naval strategist, argued that the key to imperial power was control of the seas. 2. Traversing the oceans required a robust merchant marine, a powerful navy to protect American commerce, and strategic overseas bases. 3. Mahan called for a canal across Central America to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with control over strategic points in defense of American trading interests. 4. Politicians accepted Mahan’s underlying logic, and pushed for a “large policy”; from 1889 onward, a surprising consistency began to emerge in the conduct of American foreign policy. 5. In 1890, under Benjamin Harrison’s administration, Congress appropriated funds for three battleships as the first installment on a two-ocean navy. 6. Grover Cleveland’s administration cancelled Harrison’s scheme for annexing Hawaii but picked up the naval program; the nation’s commercial vitality depended on its naval power. 7. For years, a border dispute simmered between Venezuela and British Guiana, and the United States demanded that the British resolve it. 8. Invoking the Monroe Doctrine, Secretary of State Richard Olney warned Britain that the United States would brook no challenge to its vital interests in the Caribbean. 9. Realizing that the Cleveland administration meant business, the British agreed to arbitration of the border dispute. 10. Secretary of State Olney asserted that other countries would now have to accommodate America’s need for access to “more markets and larger markets.” D. The Ideology of Expansionism 1. One source of expansionist dogma was the Social Darwinism theory: if the United States wanted to survive, it had to expand. 2. Linked to social Darwinism was a spreading belief in the inherent superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race. 3. John Fiske’s “Manifest Destiny” lecture espoused the belief that every land on the earth’s surface should become English in its language, religion, political habits, and bloodline. 4. Frederick Jackson Turner suggested a link between the closing of the western frontier and overseas expansion, and as Turner predicted, American confidence in Manifest Destiny turned outward. II. Motives for U.S. Expansion By 1890's, the U.S. would abandon its traditional policy of "isolation" and launch one of "imperialism" o (exerting control over another nation) o (spreading a country's influence beyond its borders). What would be the effects? On the U.S.? On countries involved? On the world? Why did we become expansionist? Was it the right decision? 1. European Example (1870s and 80s) Which countries were among the most imperialistic nations? o England o France o Germany o Russia Why a renewed interest in the 1870s and 80s? Countries wanted "empires", judged as a world power by its influence o (would we want to be left out?) 2. Profits - Trade (enhanced by the Industrial Revolution) Raw materials New markets (for surpluses) Nations want a "favorable balance of trade" (by 1880s, U.S. had it) From 1870-1890, sale of American products doubled! New investments (mines, rr, plantations) 3. Patriotism - Prestige - Nationalism ("Jingoism") Failure to expand a sign of decay! Greatness measured by possessions Alfred Mahan - The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) Two of Mahan's converts were o TR - assistant secretary of navy "I should welcome almost any war for I think this country needs one." o Henry Cabot Lodge a leading Senator from Mass. advocating the "new manifest destiny" pushed through the Naval Act of 1890 - Head of Senate Foreign Relations Comm. First battleship completed - USS Maine - 1890 led to the "Large Policy" o Power through naval strength o Needed colonies coaling stations naval bases o Inter-oceanic canal o America must "look outward" Led to the Naval Act (1890) - began construction of the "White Squadron" ("Great White Fleet") o From sail to steam, from wood to iron ships (1880s) o Our navy had been 12th largest in the 1880's o After 1890 - 3rd (behind GB and FR) 4. Piety - Racial Supremacy Reinforced by the idea of "Social Darwinism" o (again, foreign policy is usually an extension of domestic ideals, etc.) "Force of good" (like Carnegie's "Gospel of Wealth") "The white man's burden" (Rudyard Kipling poem) o We followed the example set by GR and Germany Josiah Strong - Our Country (1885) - Anglo- Saxon institutions are "fittest" 5. Publicity - Politics Close of Frontier o Look beyond our borders o Frederick Jackson Turner o "New Manifest Destiny" (expansionism to imperialism) Divert Attention (from domestic matters) o Agrarian depression o Panic of '93 (effects felt until 1897) o Clamoring for reform (progressivism) Motivating Ideas o National honor (weren't we proud of our growth?) o Commerce/Trade (where to get raw materials? where to sell surpluses?) o Racial superiority (reinforced by Social Darwinism, so prevalent during the Gilded Age) o Altruism ("uplifting" others) (shouldn't we be the force of good?) Was imperialism the correct course for the U.S. to follow? (strongly agree, agree, undecided, decided, strongly agree) Inquiry on Spanish-American War II. An American Empire A. The Cuban Crisis 1. In February 1895, Cuban patriots rebelled and began a guerrilla war for their freedom from Spain; the Spanish commander, Valeriano Weyler, adopted a policy of “reconcentration.” 2. The Junta, a key group of exiles, tried to make a case for the Cuba Libre in New York; William Randolph Hearst put Cuba’s plight on the front page of the New York Journal. 3. Americans felt concern and sympathy for the Cubans, and their anger against Spain came to be known as “jingoism.” 4. Congress began calling for Cuban independence, but Grover Cleveland was more concerned that the Cuban civil war was disrupting trade and harming American property interests. 5. William McKinley, like Cleveland, felt that the United States was the dominant Caribbean power with vital interests to be protected, but McKinley was tougher on the Spaniards. 6. McKinley was sensitive to business fears that any rash action might disrupt an economy just recovering from the depression. 7. On September 18, 1897, the United States informed the Spanish government that it was time to end the war, or the United States would take steps to end it. 8. Spain backed away from reconcentration and offered Cuba a degree of self-rule, but the Cuban rebels demanded full independence. 9. The New York Journal published the private letter of Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish minister to the United States, which called President McKinley weak and implied that the Spanish government did not take American demands seriously. 10. A week later the U.S. battle cruiser Maine blew up and sank in Havana Harbor, killing 260 seamen; now, McKinley had to contend with popular clamor for a war against Spain. 11. Spain rejected McKinley’s demands for an immediate armistice, abandonment of the practice of reconcentration, and peace negotiations. 12. The War Hawks in Congress chafed under McKinley’s cautious progress, but the president did not lose control. 13. The resolutions authorizing intervention in Cuba contained an amendment disclaiming any intention by the United States of taking possession of Cuba. 14. It was not because of expansionist ambitions that McKinley forced Spain into a corner, but once war came, McKinley saw it as an opportunity for expansion. B. The Spoils of War 1. When Spain declared war on April 24, 1898, Theodore Roosevelt was commissioned lieutenant colonel in the volunteer cavalry regiment known as the Rough Riders. 2. Confusion reigned in the swelling volunteer army: uniforms did not arrive, the food was bad, the sanitation was worse, rifles were in short supply, and no provisions had been made for getting troops to Cuba. 3. The small regular army provided a nucleus for the civilians who had to be turned into soldiers inside of a few weeks. 4. The navy was in better shape, as Spain had nothing to match American battleships and armored cruisers. 5. On May 1, American ships cornered the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay and destroyed it; Manila, the Philippine capital, fell on August 13, 1898. 6. After Commodore George Dewey’s naval victory, Americans were not going to let the Philippine Islands go; the Philippines made a strategic base in the western Pacific and projected American power into Asia and its markets. 7. Hawaiian annexation went through Congress by joint resolution in July 1898; now, Hawaii was a crucial halfway station on the way to the Philippines. 8. The navy also pressed for a coaling base in Guam in the central Pacific and a base in Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. 9. The main battle in the campaign in Cuba occurred near Santiago on the heights commanded by San Juan Hill; convinced that Santiago could not be saved, Spanish forces surrendered. 10. In an armistice, Spain agreed to liberate Cuba and cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and American forces occupied Manila pending a peace treaty. III. The Spanish-American War We had come close to war with England, France, even Chile! In 1898, we would get a "splendid little war" with Spain! One that would last, from start to finish, 115 days! Causes A. Background to War Economic interests in Cuba (had long wanted the island only 90 miles from U.S.) o early 1800s - John Quincy Adams had proposed annexing the island o 1853 - US offered Spain $130 million for Cuba o Spain declined Cuba's relationship with Spain o 1868 - "Cuba Libre" movement began (lots of U.S. support, "filibustering") revolt against Spain caused by economic hard times leadership of José Martí and Maximo Gomez in 1895. A Cuban poet and journalist living in New York MÁXIMO GÓMEZ "All plantations shall be totally destroyed, their cane and outbuildings burned. Laborers who shall aid the sugar factories shall be considered traitors to their country and shall be shot." o 1873 - Virginius Affair (supplying arms to rebels) 1) Cuban ship flying American flag, many American sailors 2) Spain stopped ship, tried crew, began executing them! 3) Spain paid $80,000 indemnity when we protested! 1893 - Wilson-Gorman Tariff o took sugar off the duty free list o (price of sugar fell from 8 cents a pound to 2 cents...led to a severe depression!) The islanders revolted (believed themselves to be a "pawn") o Insurgents - used guerrilla tactics, "scorched earth" attacked US plantations hoping to force us into the war we remained isolated o Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler ("The Butcher") to crush the rebellion "Reconcentrado camps" in which some 200,000 Cubans died! (removed peasants from the country-side to camps in the cities) B. War Fever Rises Yellow Press - Tales of Spanish atrocities (propaganda and truth) o Valeriano Weyler - named "the butcher" by the press - we created good guys and bad guys o Became a target of the "yellow press" (a war might increase circulation/readership) William Randolph Hearst - NY Journal Joseph Pulitzer - NY World o Became a campaign issue in 1896 election Pressure by American business "Jingoes" ("itching" for a war!) McKinley, the winner, urged Spain to give Cuba more autonomy (Spain refused to grant independence) War with Spain - two events made it inevitable: Feb. 9, 1898 - DeLome Letter o published by Hearst - another example of Yellow Journalism Headlines - "Greatest Insult Ever to America: Spanish Insult Our President." Hearst papers now demanded war. o (called McKinley a "would be politician") o TR had called him a man with the backbone of a chocolate eclair!) o public opinion forced McKinley to take action - nationalism C. "Remember the Maine" Feb. 15, 1898 - U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana harbor o (260 American crewmen died) o Yellow Press - rush to judgment - blamed Spain o ("Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain") o The American people demanded action! o McKinley ordered an investigation which proved inconclusive - the blame remained on Spain o To the Maine memorial in Havana, Castro's government added an inscription: "to the victims of the Maine who were sacrificed by imperialist greed in its mission to conquer the island of Cuba." o In 1911, the Navy decided to re-float the Maine and take it out to sea and sink it. o 1970s - Admiral Rickover reinvestigated came up with the conclusion that it was not an external explosion it was probably set off by a spontaneous combustion fire in the coal bunker. o April 11 - McKinley sent a war message to Congress; warned Spain to get out of Cuba! o April 25 - Spain declared war on U.S. o We claimed war existed since April 21 (?) added Teller Amendment to our declaration of war, no territorial ambitions!!! o Still isolationists at the beginning of the war o we promised to set Cuba free o The war lasted 115 days o At the end of 115 days to US had shifted from isolation to imperialism Did the US make the right decision by going to war against Spain? Use the goals as criteria to justify your position. D. Victory in Manila Began in the Philippines - surprise o Assistant Secretary of Navy - Teddy Roosevelt sent Dewey to Hong Kong prepared to attack the Spanish fleet the moment the war began did so while the Secretary of Navy was out of town - didn't tell him of course this meant we took no army with us to invade the Philippines o May 1 - Comm. George Dewey attacked Spanish fleet at Manila Bay Just after midnight on May 1st, 1898, Commodore Dewey's flagship Olympia entered Manila Bay. Dewey's nine ships, modernized to compete with the navies of Europe, had yet to be tested in battle. Sixteen Spanish ships Ten Spanish ships were destroyed. The rest surrendered wiped out Spanish fleet in the Pacific One U.S. sailor was killed. o Assault on island (Emilio Aguinaldo) E. The Cuban Campaign Our Navy established a "blockade" U.S. army was in deplorable state! o only 28,000 o When President McKinley called for 200,000 volunteers, more than a million Americans responded. o 274,000 would serve "There is no division in any part of the land. North and south, east and west, all alike cheerfully respond. From cap and campaign there comes magic healing which has closed ancient wounds." President William McKinley. June 14 - landed at Daquiri, 15 mi. east of Santiago o met Spanish army of 200,000, but ill- equipped July 1 - "Rough Riders" charged San Juan Hill - most famous battle o famous Remington painting of TR charging the hill o 10th Negro cavalry led by John J. Pershing actually deserved most of the credit o Why would the Yellow Press make TR a hero and ignore the 10th Negro Cavalry? o TR later denied the Congressional Medal of Honor – probably unfairly so – he was a war hero July 14 - Battle of Santiago o The USS Oregon arrived in time to help finish the Spanish navy o after Admiral William Sampson destroyed remaining Spanish navy Aug. 12 - Spain surrendered o Peace negotiations between the United States and Spain began in Paris on October 1st, 1898. o No Filipinos or Cubans had been consulted or invited to attend. o Their fate lay in the hands of ten American and Spanish delegates. Secretary of State - John Jay F. Treaty of Paris - After the War the great debate between isolation and imperialism began over this treaty signed Dec. 10; ratified by one vote more than the required 2/3, 57 to 27, on Feb. 6, 1899 o Independence for Cuba o Spain ceded Philippines Guam Puerto Rico o U.S. paid $20m Results o 5,462 U.S. died 379 in battle over 5000 due to disease caused by bad food and sanitation o Cost $250 million o U.S. now had an empire! During the war annexed Hawaii Also claimed Wake Island - 1898 Johnston Island - 1898 Palmyra Island - 1898 o Would have to protect and defend them! C. The Imperial Experiment 1. As to the question of what to do with the Philippines, not even avid American expansionists advocated colonial rule over subject peoples. 2. McKinley and his advisors felt that they could neither return the islands to harsh Spanish rule nor did they believe that the Filipinos were fit to rule themselves. 3. In the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish ceded the Philippines to the United States for a payment of $20 million. 4. Opponents of the treaty invoked American republican principles, declaring that the federal government could not conquer an alien people and hold them in subjugation. 5. In November 1890, a social elite of old-line Mugwump reformers from Boston formed the first of the Anti-Imperialist Leagues that began to spring up around the country. 6. The anti-imperialists never developed a popular movement: they shared little other interests, and they lacked “the common touch.” 7. Before the Senate ratified the Treaty of Paris, fighting broke out between American and Filipino patrols; confronted with American annexation, Cubans turned their guns on American forces. 8. Fighting tenacious Philippine guerrillas, the U.S. Army resorted to the reconcentration tactic the Spaniards had used in Cuba. 9. The fighting ended in 1902, and, as governor-general, William Howard Taft intended to make the Philippines a model of American road building and sanitary engineering. 10. Americans had not anticipated the brutal methods needed to subdue the Filipino guerrillas; the Jones Act (1916) formally committed the United States to granting Philippine independence but set no date. 11. In a few years the United States had acquired the makings of an overseas empire and had moved into a position of what is commonly called a world power. B. The Filipino Uprising Filipino Insurrection (led by Aguinaldo until his capture) o Philippines (7000 islands) o (annexed it to "uplift" and Christianize the people and what if Germany or Japan got it?) US used the same tactics that we had criticized when Weyler had used them in Cuba o AN ANONYMOUS SOLDIER - "I don't believe the people in the United States understand the condition of things here. Even the Spanish are shocked. I have seen enough to almost make me ashamed to call myself an American." 70,000 U.S. troops (under Arthur MacArthur) Lasted 3 years, many atrocities! We became "the butchers" 7,000 U.S. casualties, over 20,000 Filipinos, plus 200,000 Filipino civilians! Ended with capture of Aguinaldo Cost $600 million! By the end of the war, Americans simply had no stomach for any more colonies. o Even Roosevelt himself was forced to conclude that the Americans were not an imperial people. o He said that the Philippines had become America's Achilles heel. 1900 - William Howard Taft became governor of Philippines o "Big Bill" Taft called the Filipinos his "little brown brothers." o McKinley described Taft's mission as one of "benevolent assimilation." 1902 - Philippine Government Act - began "Americanization" of the Philippines o English - official language o schools o public works o taught them baseball and basketball "Unorganized" territory Filipinos - citizens of the Philippines Established gov't similar to Puerto Rico o Except that the American administration in the Philippines passed a law which made illegal anything that was anti- American o whether it was written, spoken, or even a picture, the Philippine flag was banned Filipinos found other ways to continue the struggle. 1916 - Jones Act - U.S. gov, rest elected 1934 - Tydings-Duffie Act - provided for independence within 10 years o attempted to get out of the way of Japan o they attacked it before we could set it free o In World War II, Japan conquered the Philippines. o Sixty-thousand Americans and more than a million Filipinos were killed driving the Japanese from the islands. (granted independence on July 4, 1946) o we kept military bases (Subic Bay and Clark Field) o they are now gone! C. Ruling Cuba and Puerto Rico Cuba o Teller Amendment - forbade annexation o After war, military occupation under General Leonard Wood - lasted until 1902 (cleaned up island - Dr. Walter Reed) o 1901 - Platt Amendment - Senator Orville Platt - U.S. had the right to intervene (did so 3 times by WWI). 1st time in 1906 Cuba could not make debts it could not repay couldn't enter into treaties w/o consent of U.S. The Platt Amendment made Cuba a "protectorate" o Cubans were not happy "This is not the Republic we fought for; it is not the independence we dreamed about, but there is no gain in discussing that now. We must save what remains of the redemptive revolution." General Máximo Gómez. we went from heroes to villains o 1934 - canceled the Platt Amendment, but kept the navy base at Guantanamo Puerto Rico o Puerto Ricans resented American control o 1900 - Foraker Act - citizenship, governing (gov. and council appointed by U.S. President and elected House) o 1917 - Jones Act - became a U.S. territory notice timing - WWI people became US citizens o 1952 - commonwealth status (own constitution, elected officials) US protectorate o Statehood? Referendum on Statehood for a third time - 1998 1) Can vote in pres. elections (but no electoral votes) 2) Can advise Congress, but not vote - they have a non-voting representative 3) No federal income tax Insular Cases o Governing our new possessions What rights for our new inhabitants? Did the Constitution follow the flag? SC ruled that there were "fundamental rights" (for all) and "procedural rights" (those given by Congress, like trial by jury) Decisions were not easy o SC ruled that there were two types of territorial possessions in 1901 (to be governed, and had some Const. rights) would basically be dealt with by Congress as it saw fit 1. "Incorporated" - destined for statehood (Hawaii and Alaska) 2. "Unincorporated" - not destined (Phil., Guam, Puerto Rico) After the Spanish-American War, the U.S. entered its "Age of Imperialism" (1898-1917). McKinley - Sept. 5, 1901- "We have a vast and intricate business built up through years of toil and struggle, in which every part of this country has its stake. Isolation is no longer possible or desirable." o He was the first President who had ever said this, who had essentially told o Americans they now had global responsibilities and that they had to start learning o foreign languages because they were now competing in a world market. o The next afternoon, President McKinley was assassinated by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist IV. The Imperialism Debate A. The Debate over Imperialism Imperialist Arguments o new markets - new places to invest o imperialism was our duty - civilize and Christianize who would take them over if we didn't? o naval bases o improve our status among the countries of the world and European powers were doing it! (our "destiny") The Anti-Imperialist League o formed in Nov., 1898 o Carl Schurz, Mark Twain, Jane Addams, Samuel Gompers, William Jennings Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, President Cleveland o what were their arguments? immoral What would the U.S. do with an overseas empire? Does the Constitution follow the flag? Strong debate. went against the democratic principles found in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness it would be costly to protect colonies o Andrew Carnegie "Is the Republic to remain one homogeneous whole, one united people, or to become a scattered and disjointed aggregate of widely separated and alien races?". Part of the treaty terms with Spain included $20 million for the Philippines. Carnegie offered to pull out his checkbook and write a check to the United States government for $20 million and in return for which he wanted McKinley to give the Philippines their independence. o American brutality in the Philippines brought an unexpected supporter to the anti-imperialist movement: William Randolph Hearst. Imperialist won with one vote to spare o 57 to 27 III. Onto the World Stage A. A Power among Powers 1. Roosevelt justified American dominance in the Caribbean by saying that it was incumbent upon the civilized powers to insist on the proper policing of the world and the maintenance of the balance of power. 2. Britain’s position in Europe was steadily worsening, challenged by a Germany bent on imperial supremacy and weakened by soured relations with France and Russia. Now, Great Britain had a new and clear need of rapprochement with the United States. 3. In the Hay-Pauncefote Agreement of 1901, the British gave up their rights to participate in any Central American canal project. 4. There was no formal alliance, but Anglo-American friendship had been placed on such a firm basis that it was assumed that the Americans and the British would never have a parricidal war. 5. In regard to American power, especially naval power, Roosevelt said, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” 6. Roosevelt was furious when the Columbian legislature voted down his proposal to lease land for a canal; he contemplated outright seizure of Panama but instead lent covert assistance that ensured a bloodless Panamanian revolution against Columbia. 7. On November 7, 1901, the United States recognized Panama and two weeks later received a perpetually renewable lease on a canal zone. 8. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers finished the Panama Canal in 1914, giving the United States a commanding commercial and strategic position in the Western Hemisphere. 9. A condition for Cuban independence had been a proviso called the Platt Amendment, which gave the United States the right to intervene if Cuba’s independence or internal order was threatened. 10. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine translated into an unrestricted American right to regulate Caribbean affairs. 11. On occasions when Caribbean domestic order broke down, the U.S. Marines occupied Cuba in 1906, Nicaragua in 1909, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic in later years. Chapter 12 - Latin American Policy (1900 - 1920) 3 Presidents would turn the Caribbean into an "American Lake" by WWI! Policy in Latin America would cause much anti-Yankee hostility! Goal (of all 3): stability for L.A. countries I. Background A. Latin America in the 1800s Lots of problems since L.A. countries got their independence o Social inequality o Not much experience in self-government, nor stability o Caudillos - history of dictatorships B. The Economies of Latin America Extreme concentration of wealth in most countries o Lots of debts by tenant farmers to wealthy landowners - sharecropper system o Foreign investors took most of the other wealth C. Early U.S. involvement William Walker's attempt to bring slavery to Nicaragua o wanted Central America as slave states before the civil war Minor Cooper Keith built a "banana republic" in Costa Rica (brought bananas to U.S.) o emerged into the United Fruit Company o "the Octopus" - symbol of American greed Involvement 1889 - First International American Congress o 1) U.S. and 17 L.A. nations met in Washington o 2) Agreed to commercial and cultural exchanges o 3) This was the first effort at hemispheric cooperation o 4) Still, Latin America was suspicious! 1891 - Valparaiso Incident o 1) U.S. sailors from U.S.S. Baltimore went ashore to the "Blue Moon" saloon o 2) Got in a fight, 2 Americans killed, 17 wounded o 3) Called for an indemnity and an apology, Chile refused! o 4) Pres. Harrison sent a "war message" to Congress o 5)Chile agreed to our demands ($75,000) o 6) Repercussions? D. Crossing the Isthmus 1849 - Gold discovery in California led to Forty-niners gold rush o first crossings of what is now Panama o Cornelius Vanderbilt attempted to match this effort in Nicaragua conflicted with Walker failed Clayton-Bulwer Treaty - 1850 o US and GB agree that any canal will be neutral politically E. Connecting the Americas 1880 - France attempted to build a canal across what is now Panama o had finished the Suez Canal in the 1860s o malaria caused this effort to fail Spanish - American War - 1898 demonstrated that the US need the canal for national security o took U.S.S. Oregon 68 days to circle South America o Need for an inter-oceanic canal for national security - World War I coming o what if it had been a powerful European country instead of Spain? II. Big Stick Diplomacy - T. Roosevelt - foreign policy "Speak softly and carry a big stick" (an African proverb) o remember TR was an "active president"; in Latin America, he had two goals: 1) build an inter- oceanic canal 2) keep Europe out of Latin America A. Plans for a Canal 1901 - Hay-Pauncefote Treaty - cleared way for U.S. to build it o (promised to keep it open to all) Where to build? o Nicaragua (Mt. Motombo) Panama (owned by Colombia) Fr. under De'Lesseps had begun a canal in 1879 (to 1889), but the company went broke and half its work force died! French offered to sell their equipment and rights to the canal for $40 million Volcano eruption on Martinique, killing 40,000s o Philippe Bunau-Varilla (New Panama Canal Co.) - French Company's agent sent postage stamps to all U.S. Senators! B. Revolution in Panama 1903 - Hay-Herran Treaty with Colombia o 99 year lease o we offered $10 million, $250,000 yearly Columbia wanted $25 million difference $15 million o Options pay the $25 million negotiate for some price in between take the canal by force o TR called them "bandits" - decided to exploit unrest in Panama wanted their independence from Colombia in 57 years, 53 attempts to break away! issue of time - Congress wanted to negotiate - TR said that would take too long Bunau-Varilla visited U.S., met with TR - asked us to support a revolution which he would lead U.S.S. Nashville sent to keep Columbian troops from landing o bribed Commander of Columbian Navy! Nov 3, revolution began; over in 3 days! Nov 18 - Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty o $10m, $250,000 yearly o 40 mi. long, 10 mi. canal zone o U.S. has all rights within the zone Columbia hated US What do you think of TR's methods? Wilson approved the payment of $25 million to Columbia as an apology - 1921 - after TR's death C. Building the Canal Construction - the "moon shot" of its day o (U.S. supplied building machines, etc.) - led to a "boom", new technology Many problems - yellow fever cost $10 per mosquito killed, had to remove dirt - dams and filled swamps Walter Reed - proved yellow fever was caused by mosquitoes William Gorgas - drained the swamps George Goethals, an army engineer, took over and got it done! Aug 15, 1914 - opened same mo. and yr. as WWI Cost $375 million (most expensive at the time) 43,000 workers (5600 died), at 10 cents an hr.; temp. reached 120 by noon! D. Importance of the Canal - Significance - for world and U.S.? US gained reputation as a bully o built military bases in the Canal Zone o leased bases in Nicaragua Today o 1) Few changes (7 stories tall!) o 2) $20,000 to $40,000 to use it (bigger ships won't fit) o 3) 9 hrs. to pass (12 locks), 52 million gallons of water! o 4) 1977 - treaties to give it back at end of century! US purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917 for $25 million to keep Germany from gaining naval bases to use against us E. Policing Latin America - Expanding the Monroe Doctrine 1895 - Venezuela o Border dispute between Venezuela and GB (Br. Guiana) when gold discovered there o Pres. Cleveland sent letter to GB when it threatened war warning them of violating Monroe Doctrine o U.S. agreed to "arbitrate" a dispute between Venezuela and GB (Br. Guiana) GB got 90% of what it wanted! 1902 - Venezuela Debt Dispute o GB and Germany and Italy intervened in Venezuela over default a threat to the Monroe Doctrine Venezuela requested US arbitration TR sent Dewey and fleet to make a point! GB agree to arbitration (got money) many Latin American nations economically handicapped, made many bad debts Repercussions? we needed a L.A. policy for protection of the Panama Canal and to keep Europe out - collect L.A.'s debts caused the creation of the Roosevelt Corollary TR - Roosevelt Corollary o "policeman" of the western hemisphere o "international bill collector" o US would intervene in any LA nation whose stability was in question o 1905 - 1st used it in the Dominican Republic ($32m debt) U.S. took over customs houses, put DR on a budget! 55% of revenue used to repay debts in 2 years, Dom. Rep. on way to eco. recovery (there were repercussions) we stayed until 1941 o Never ratified by Congress (abrogated in late 20s) o It would serve as a "model" for the next President o intervened in Cuba - 1906 - 1909 Nicaragua Haiti B. The Open Door in Asia 1. In 1890, U.S. secretary of state John Hay sent the powers occupying China an “open door” note claiming the right of equal trade access for all nations that wanted to do business there. 2. In 1900, the United States joined a multinational campaign to break the Boxers’ siege of the diplomatic missions in Peking. 3. As long as the legal fiction of an independent China survived, so would American claims to equal access to the China market. 4. Britain, Germany, France, and Russia were strongly entrenched in East Asia and not inclined to defer to American interests. 5. Anxious to restore some semblance of power, Roosevelt mediated a settlement of the Russo-Japanese War in 1905; Japan emerged as the predominant power in East Asia. 6. A surge of anti-Asian sentiment in California complicated Roosevelt’s efforts to achieve Asian accommodation for American interests in the Pacific. 7. The Root-Takahira Agreement confirmed the status quo in the Pacific as well as the principles of free oceanic commerce and equal trade opportunity in China. 8. William Howard Taft hoped that with “dollar diplomacy” American capital would counterbalance Japanese power and pave the way for increased commercial activities. 9. When the Chinese Revolution of 1911 toppled the Manchu dynasty, Taft supported the victorious Chinese nationalists, and the United States entered a long-term rivalry with Japan. V. Involvement in Asia With acquisition of the Philippines, U.S. became more interested in affairs in Asia A. The China Trade - "sick man" of Asia Caleb Cushing - 1844 - first trade treaty between US and China B. Threats to China and the Chinese Burlingame Treaty - 1868 o We agreed to unlimited immigration from China - to build rr o we promised not to meddle in Chinese domestic affairs o owners approved o unions opposed Chinese Exclusion Act - 1882 o first real restrictions of foreign immigrants o ended in total ban on Chinese immigrants - 1902 o our racist attitudes offended Asians C. The Open Door Notes "spheres of influence" - areas in which each country had sole rights to trade o Japan - 1895 o Russia - 1896 o England - 1898 o Germany - 1898 o France - 1898 o this reduced our trade - would we be left out? o What would the U.S. do? Open Door Policy (John Hay) - McKinley o 1899 - sent "note" to all nations interested in China asked them to respect trading rights equal commercial opportunity for all Europeans did not accept this idea, but our newfound power made it difficult to openly say no D. Boxer Rebellion erupted in China while note circulating "Boxers" killed some 200 missionaries International rescue force (20,000, 5000 from U.S.) o Extracted $332 million indemnity from China ($24m for U.S.) o We used half the money to send Chinese students to American schools Hay sent second note - respect China's territorial integrity Was the use of force in China a good idea or bad idea? Why? E. Opening Japan 1854 - Matthew Perry - Japan Gentlemen's Agreement - 1907-1908 o 1906 - anti-Japanese racism in California caused anti-American riots to break out in Japan o Japanese agreed to limit immigration to the US o US - Japanese relations cold F. Russo - Japanese War Japan - became most imperialistic of the Asian nations Neither Japan nor Russia respected the Open Door Policy o 1904 - Japan attacked Russia over Manchuria (China's richest province) o Japan appeared to be winning, but at a terrible cost; asked U.S. to arbitrate! TR called the two to Portsmouth, NH (1905) o hoped to end the war with a "balance of power" in Asia! Russia gave up some territory, w/d from Manchuria - upset Japan did not get an indemnity - upset TR received the Nobel Peace Prize for his Treaty of Portsmouth o Caused a lot of anti-American hostility in Japan; we returned it! ("yellow peril") o 1907 - TR sent "Great White Fleet" on 14 month tour to impress the Japanese by now U.S. had second largest navy! Our new, steel, steam-powered battleships (16) Japan began plans to build a bigger navy also! o 1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement - maintain "status quo" in Asia o During WWI, we now become much stronger C. Wilson and Mexico 1. Woodrow Wilson opposed dollar diplomacy, which he believed bullied weaker countries financially and gave undue advantage to American business. 2. Wilson insisted that the United States should conduct its foreign policy in conformity with its democratic principles. 3. Porfirio Diaz, Mexico’s dictator, was overthrown by Francisco Madero, who spoke for liberty and constitutionalism much as did Wilson. 4. But before Madero could carry out his reforms, he was deposed and murdered in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta. 5. Although other powers were quick to recognize Huerta’s provisional government, Wilson abhorred him, and the United States did not recognize his government. 6. Wilson intended to force Huerta out and to put the Mexican revolution back on the constitutional path started by Madero. 7. Venustiano Carranza, leading a Constitutionalist movement in northern Mexico, did not want American intervention; he only wanted recognition so that he could purchase U.S. weapons. 8. In 1914, American weapons began to flow to Carranza’s troops; but as it became clear that Huerta was not going to fall, Wilson ordered the American occupation of the port of Veracruz. 9. Huerta’s regime began to crumble, yet Carranza nonetheless condemned the United States, and his forces came close to engaging the Americans. Carranza’s rival Pancho Villa did engage Americans, so Wilson sent troops under General John J. Pershing into Mexico, which further antagonized Mexico to the point that war was only narrowly averted. III. Dollars and Morals in Foreign Affairs A. Dollar Diplomacy - Taft Encouraged U.S. investment to replace European investment thus removing the need to use the Roosevelt Corollary o would protect investments with out marines if necessary in the Caribbean and China o Use peaceful intervention with "dollars instead of bullets" o Financial stability = political stability (or so we thought) o Benefits to both U.S. and the other country - keep Europe out Nicaragua offers best example of "dollar diplomacy" o Revolution inspired by American mining interests (1909) overthrew President Zelaya (installed Adolfo Diaz) o 1911 - defaulted on its foreign debt o U.S. bankers took control of the economy o When there was resentment, Taft sent in the marines to keep the peace (2500) They remained until 1933 Needed both dollars and bullets! Troops now sent to protect American lives and property instead of to keep Europe out our reputation declined Similar developments in Haiti, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala o intervened in Cuba - 1912 o and much investment in Asia, especially China small in comparison to European investment there failed to keep them out Investments reached the billions! What do you think of Dollar Diplomacy? Why? B. Moral Diplomacy - Wilson Attempts at morality o serve God and humanity; but it was "his" morality, his vision of right and wrong Wilson denounced both "dollar diplomacy" and "gunboat diplomacy". Wilson believed in "self-government" but his predecessors left a bad legacy in Latin America promised them that the U.S. would never again seek one additional foot of territory o 1914 - new Pan-American League (work at "good will") o 1914 - treaty with Colombia, giving them $25million for the way we got Panama - not paid till 1921 o 1917 - citizenship to island people of Puerto Rico o 30 "cooling off" treaties o Wilson improved our image in LA temporarily Gunboat Diplomacy o However, Wilson found it difficult not to intervene in Latin America Kept marines in Nicaragua 1915 - sent marines to Haiti -stayed till 1934 France, Germany, England threatened to take over the island (Pres. was pulled out of the presidential palace and torn limb to limb!) 2000 Haitians killed! 1916 - sent marines to the Dominican Republic to restore order there stayed till 1924 supervised economy till 1941 1917 - bought Virgin Islands (Denmark) for $25 million! (buffer for protection of Panama Canal) Secretary of State Seward had attempted to buy them in 1867 kept Germany from getting them 1917 - intervened in Cuba - stayed till 1922 It was easier to move from isolation to imperialism than it was to go back to isolation American businesses were already there and when American lives and property were threatened Wilson had little choice C. The Mexican Revolution - Watchful Waiting Wilson's dilemma over foreign policy is best seen in dealing with Mexico o (aftermath of its "Ragged Revolution", its civil war) 1911 - Porfirio Diaz overthrown (pro-American dictator, ruled since 1877) o U.S. had $2 billion invested in Mexico! o we owned 43% of all property in Mexico o 75% of mineral resources Francisco Madero took control of government (he was a reformer) o 1913 - he was arrested and executed by his former follower Victoriano Huerta (a dictator, but pro-foreign business) o Wilson refused to grant recognition not chosen by the people this represented a new policy D. Intervention in Mexico Revolt led by Venustiano Carranza (1913), resulting in civil war o Wilson decided on a policy of "watchful waiting" didn't want to use "gunboat diplomacy" Embargo on arms to Huerta - allowed weapons to reach Carranza Learned that Germany was supplying him Set up a blockade around Veracruz Tampico Incident o April 9, 1914 o Sailors from U.S.S. Dolphin arrested in Tampico! (sent ashore to buy gasoline) o Admiral Mayo demanded release and 21-gun salute! sailors quickly released 21-gun salute was designed to humiliate Mexico - they refused o Wilson ordered the bombardment of Veracruz 60 Am. killed, 500 Mexicans allegedly to stop arms shipment from Germany Mex. army resisted our trying to stop the German ship from landing even Carranza opposed our invasion - Wilson was surprise On verge of war! o ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) offered to mediate Niagara Falls, Canada Huerta agreed to abdicate Carranza recognized as President Pancho Villa, a follower of Carranza, also wanted to be Mexico's president o decided to force U.S. intervention and blame it on Carranza and to show that Carranza was not in charge of Mexico o Jan, 1916 - stopped train at Santa Ysabel in Northern Mexico killed 16 American engineers! o March - raided and burned Columbus, New Mexico 17 more Americans killed o Wilson sent 6,000 troops under General John Pershing Villa invaded the US again killing 3 soldiers and a boy US had several skirmishes with the Mexican Army Remained until he was recalled just prior to U.S. entry into World War I in Jan, 1917 (had 15,000 troops!) never captured Villa In 1917, Mexico concluded its revolution (peacefully) o drafted a constitution o Wilson granted Carranza "de jure" recognition D. The Gathering Storm in Europe 1. In Europe, there was rivalry between Germany, France, and Britain; in the Balkans, Austria-Hungary and Russia were maneuvering for dominance. 2. These conflicts created two groups of allies: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy made up the Triple Alliance, and France and Russia made up the Dual Alliance. 3. Britain reached an entente with France and Russia by 1907, laying the foundation for a Triple Entente; a war between two great European power blocs became more likely. 4. On becoming president, Roosevelt took a lively interest in European affairs, and as the head of a Great Power, he was eager to make a contribution to the cause of peace there. 5. At an international conference in 1906 at Algeciras, Spain, the U.S. role was defined: the United States would be the apostle of peace, distinguished by a lack of selfish interest in European affairs. 6. The Hague Peace Conference of 1899 offered a new hope for the peaceful settlement of international disputes in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. 7. Both Roosevelt and Taft negotiated arbitration treaties with other countries, only to have them crippled by a Senate afraid of any erosion of the nation’s sovereignty. 8. William Jennings Bryan’s “cooling off ”treaties with other countries were admirable but had no bearing on the explosive power politics of Europe. Results of Imperialism World War I will see an end to progressivism and imperialism. o Many would claim that World War I was the logical culmination of world imperialism. What did we learn from our venture in imperialism? Would we want to return to imperialism after the war? What were the effects of U.S. imperialism? Was imperialism the right course for the U.S. to follow? o Positive increased trade became a world power uplifted foreign populations med/tech advances o Negative expensive racism death and destruction image as defender of democracy replaced by image as a bully o Questions acquisition of territory democratic? military experience our business? enhanced nationalism - image of U.S.? IMPERIALISM Essays #1 - 1985 How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become a cornerstone of United States foreign policy by the late 19th c? #2 - 1986 "Both the Mexican War and the Spanish-American War were premeditated affairs resulting from deliberately calculated schemes of robbery on the part of a superior power against weak and defenseless neighbors." Assess the validity of this statement. #3 - 1992 Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the 1840's with those that took place in the 1890's, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras. #4 To what extent and in what ways would we consider our decision to switch from Isolation to Imperialism during the period 1898 - 1920 a good one?
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