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									Category    Object ID   primary name       alt name   Aicher
                                                      ref id
Aqueducts   AQ-001      Aqua Antoniniana              RA7c,
                                                      RA7.1,
                                                      RA7.2,
                                                      RA7.3,
                                                      RA7.4,
                                                      RA7.5,
                                                      RA7.6,
                                                      RA8c,
                                                      RA8.20,
                                                      RA8.21,
                                                      RA8.22,
                                                      RA8.23
Aqueducts   AQ-002      Aqua Appia                    RA7c,
                                                      RA7.1,
                                                      RA7.2,
                                                      RA7.3,
                                                      RA7.4,
                                                      RA7.5,
                                                      RA7.6,
                                                      RA8c,
                                                      RA8.1,
                                                      RA8.2,
                                                      RA8.19,
                                                      RA8.20,
                                                      RA8.21,
                                                      RA8.22,
                                                      RA8.23
Aqueducts   AQ-003      Aqua Claudia                  RA7c,
                                                      RA7.1,
                                                      RA7.2,
                                                      RA7.3,
                                                      RA7.4,
                                                      RA7.5,
                                                      RA7.6,
                                                      RA8c,
                                                      RA8.1,
                                                      RA8.14,
                                                      RA8.15,
                                                      RA8.16,
                                                      RA8.17,
                                                      RA8.18,
                                                      RA8.19,
                                                      RA8.20,
                                                      RA8.21,
                                                      RA8.22,
                                                      RA8.23
Aqueducts   AQ-004   Aqua Marcia   Aqua Marcia    RA7c,
                                   Iovia          RA7.1,
                                                  RA7.2,
                                                  RA7.3,
                                                  RA7.4,
                                                  RA7.5,
                                                  RA7.6,
                                                  RA8c,
                                                  RA8.20,
                                                  RA8.21,
                                                  RA8.22,
                                                  RA8.23



Aqueducts   AQ-005   Aqua Tepula   Aqua Marcia    RA7c,
                                   Tepula Julia   RA7.1,
                                                  RA7.2,
                                                  RA7.3,
                                                  RA7.4,
                                                  RA7.5,
                                                  RA7.6,
                                                  RA8c,
                                                  RA8.1,
                                                  RA8.9,
                                                  RA8.19,
                                                  RA8.20,
                                                  RA8.21,
                                                  RA8.22,
                                                  RA8.23
Aqueducts   AQ-006   Aqua Virgo                   RA7c,
                                                  RA7.1,
                                                  RA7.2,
                                                  RA7.3,
                                                  RA7.4,
                                                  RA7.5,
                                                  RA7.6,
                                                  RA8c,
                                                  RA8.1,
                                                  RA8.10,
                                                  RA8.11,
                                                  RA8.12,
                                                  RA8.19,
                                                  RA8.20,
                                                  RA8.21,
                                                  RA8.22,
                                                  RA8.23
Aqueducts       AQ-007   Anio Novus                      RA7c,
                                                         RA7.1,
                                                         RA7.2,
                                                         RA7.3,
                                                         RA7.4,
                                                         RA7.5,
                                                         RA7.6,
                                                         RA8c,
                                                         RA8.1,
                                                         RA8.14,
                                                         RA8.15,
                                                         RA8.16,
                                                         RA8.17,
                                                         RA8.18,
                                                         RA8.19,
                                                         RA8.20,
                                                         RA8.21,
                                                         RA8.22,
                                                         RA8.23
Aqueducts       AQ-008   Aqua Julia                      RA7c,
                                                         RA7.1,
                                                         RA7.2,
                                                         RA7.3,
                                                         RA7.4,
                                                         RA7.5,
                                                         RA7.6,
                                                         RA8c,
                                                         RA8.1,
                                                         RA8.20,
                                                         RA8.21,
                                                         RA8.22,
                                                         RA8.23
Walls & Gates   WG-001   Aurelian Walls   Muri Aureliani RA5c,
                                                         RA5.1,
                                                         RA5.2,
                                                         RA5.3,
                                                         RA5.4




Walls & Gates   WG-002   Porta Appia      Porta S.      RA5c
                                          Sebastiano

Walls & Gates   WG-004   Porta Asinaria


Walls & Gates   WG-006   Porta Flaminia   Porta del
                                          Popolo
Walls & Gates   WG-007   Porta Latina

Walls & Gates   WG-008   Porta Metrovia




Walls & Gates   WG-009   Porta Nomentana



Walls & Gates   WG-010   Porta Ostiensis



Walls & Gates   WG-011   Porta Pinciana




Walls & Gates   WG-012   Porta Portuensis


Walls & Gates   WG-013   Porta Salaria

Walls & Gates   WG-014   Porta Tiburtina                 RA8.6

Walls & Gates   WG-015   Porta Trigemina                 RA124,
                                                         RA126




Walls & Gates   WG-017   Porta Praenestina   Porta       RA8c
                                             Labicana,
                                             Porta
                                             Maggiore
Baths   BT-001   Baths of Agrippa     Thermae        RA88c,
                                      Agrippae       RA88.1,
                                                     RA88.2,
                                                     RA88.3,
                                                     RA88.4,
                                                     RA88.5,
                                                     RA88.6,
                                                     RA90.5,
                                                     RA92.3,
                                                     RA130c,
                                                     RA130.4,
                                                     RA130.5,
                                                     RA130.7




Baths   BT-002   Baths of Caracalla   Therma         RA130c,
                                      Antoninianae   RA130.1,
                                      (Caracallae)   RA130.2,
                                                     RA130.3,
                                                     RA130.4
Baths   BT-003   Baths of Constantine   Thermae       RA130.4
                                        Constantinian
                                        ae




Baths   BT-004   Baths of Decius        Thermae        RA130.4
                                        Decianae




Baths   BT-005   Baths of Diocletian    Thermae        RA56c,
                                        Diocletiani    RA130.4




Baths   BT-007   Baths of Nero          Thermae        RA130c,
                                        Neronianae,    RA130.7
                                        Thermae
                                        Alexandrinae
Baths     BT-009   Baths of Titus    Thermae Titi    RA68.6,
                                                     RA130c,
                                                     RA130.5,
                                                     RA130.7




Baths     BT-010   Baths of Trajan   Thermae         RA130c,
                                     Traiani         RA130.4,
                                                     RA130.7




Bridges   BR-001   Pons Aelius       Pons            RA97c,
                                     Hadriani,       RA97.1,
                                     Ponte S.        RA97.12
                                     Angelo, Pons
                                     S. Petri
Bridges   BR-002   Pons Aemilius     Pons            RA116.1
                                     Maximus,
                                     Pons
                                     Lapideus,
                                     Pons Lepidi,
                                     Pons S.
                                     Mariae, Pons
                                     Senatorum,
                                     Pons Maior,
                                     Ponte Rotto
Bridges   BR-003   Pons Agrippae     Pons Aurelius




Bridges   BR-005   Pons Cestius      Pons Gratiani, RA105c
                                     Ponte S.
                                     Bartolomeo


Bridges   BR-006   Pons Fabricius    Pons            RA105c,
                                     Iudaeorum       RA105.5
Bridges                        BR-007   Pons Neronianus       Pons
                                                              Triumphalis




Bridges                        BR-008   Pons Sublicius                       RA117.1,
                                                                             RA117.2,
                                                                             RA117.3,
                                                                             RA117.4




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-001   Basilica Aemilia      Basilica Paulli RA38c,
                                                                              RA38.1,
                                                                              RA38.2,
                                                                              RA39.4,
                                                                              RA40c,
                                                                              RA40.1,
                                                                              RA40.2,
                                                                              RA40.3,
                                                                              RA40.4,
                                                                              RA40.6,
                                                                              RA74.1
Civic and Military Buildings   CB-002   Basilica Argentaria                   RA38c,
                                                                              RA38.1,
                                                                              RA38.2,
                                                                              RA73c

Civic and Military Buildings   CB-003   Basilica of           Basilica Nova, RA38c,
                                        Constantine           Basilica of    RA38.1,
                                                              Maxentius      RA38.2,
                                                                             RA55c,
                                                                             RA55.1




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-004   Basilica Hilariana                   RA38c,
                                                                             RA38.1,
                                                                             RA38.2,
Civic and Military Buildings   CB-005   Basilica Julia                   RA34.1,
                                                                         RA38c,
                                                                         RA38.1,
                                                                         RA38.2,
                                                                         RA42.1,
                                                                         RA42.2,
                                                                         RA42.3,
                                                                         RA42.4




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-006   Basilica of Neptune   Basilica   RA38c,
                                                              Neptuni    RA38.1,
                                                                         RA38.2,
                                                                         RA88c,
                                                                         RA88.1,
                                                                         RA90.5



Civic and Military Buildings   CB-007   Basilica Ulpia                   RA38c,
                                                                         RA38.1,
                                                                         RA38.2,
                                                                         RA78c
Civic and Military Buildings   CB-009   Carcer                Carcer       RA11.3,
                                                              Tullianum,   RA11.7,
                                                              Carcer       RA20c,
                                                              Mamertinum   RA20.1,
                                                                           RA20.2,
                                                                           RA20.3,
                                                                           RA20.4,
                                                                           RA20.5,
                                                                           RA20.6,
                                                                           RA20.7,
                                                                           RA20.8




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-010   Castra Nova Equitum
                                        Singularium




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-011   Castra Misenatium




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-012   Castra Peregrina




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-013   Castra Praetoria
Civic and Military Buildings   CB-014   Castra Priora Equitum
                                        Singularium




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-016   Curia Julia                           RA26c,
                                                                              RA26.1,
                                                                              RA28.1,
                                                                              RA28.2,
                                                                              RA28.3,
                                                                              RA28.4,
                                                                              RA28.5,
                                                                              RA28.6
Civic and Military Buildings   CB-017   Diribitorium                          RA82c,
                                                                              RA84.1,
                                                                              RA84.2,
                                                                              RA84.3




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-018   Library of Palatine     Bibliotheca   RA63.2,
                                        Apollo                  Apollinis     RA63.3,
                                                                Palatini      RA63.7
Civic and Military Buildings   CB-020   Rostra of Augustus   Rostra        RA26c,
                                                             Augusti       RA26.1,
                                                                           RA30.1,
                                                                           RA30.2,
                                                                           RA30.3,
                                                                           RA30.4,
                                                                           RA43.10




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-021   Saepta Julia                       RA73.1,
                                                                           RA82c,
                                                                           RA83.1,
                                                                           RA83.2,
                                                                           RA83.3,
                                                                           RA83.4,
                                                                           RA83.5


Civic and Military Buildings   CB-023   Sessorium            Palatium
                                                             Sessorianum




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-024   Tabularium           Archives      RA17c,
                                                                           RA17.1,
                                                                           RA17.2




Civic and Military Buildings   CB-025   Paedagogium
Commercial Buildings   CO-001   Emporium              RA126C,
                                                      RA126.1,
                                                      RA126.2




Commercial Buildings   CO-002   Horrea Agrippiana




Commercial Buildings   CO-003   Horrea Galbae




Commercial Buildings   CO-004   Horrea Lolliana

Commercial Buildings   CO-005   Horrea Seiana




Commercial Buildings   CO-006   Macellum Liviae


Commercial Buildings   CO-007   Markets of Trajan




Commercial Buildings   CO-008   Mutatorium Caesaris
Fora   FR-001   Forum of Augustus   Forum          RA74c,
                                    Augusti,       RA74.1,
                                    Forum Martis   RA74.2,
                                                   RA74.3,
                                                   RA74.4,
                                                   RA74.5,
                                                   RA74.6,
                                                   RA74.7,
                                                   RA74.8,
                                                   RA74.9,
                                                   RA74.10,
                                                   RA74.11,
                                                   RA74.12,
                                                   RA74.13,
                                                   RA74.14,
                                                   RA74.15,
                                                   RA74.16,
                                                   RA74.17,
                                                   RA74.18,
                                                   RA74.19,
                                                   RA74.20




Fora   FR-002   Forum Boarium                      RA98c,
                                                   RA113c,
                                                   RA113.1,
                                                   RA113.2,
                                                   RA113.3
Fora   FR-003   Forum of Julius    Forum Iulium, RA73c,
                Caesar             Forum         RA73.1,
                                   Caesaris      RA73.2,
                                                 RA73.3,
                                                 RA73.4,
                                                 RA73.5,
                                                 RA73.6,
                                                 RA73.7,
                                                 RA73.8,
                                                 RA73.9,
                                                 RA73.10,
                                                 RA73.11,
                                                 RA73.12,
                                                 RA73.13,
                                                 RA73.14




Fora   FR-004   Forum Holitorium                RA106c,
                                                RA106.1




Fora   FR-005   Forum of Nerva     Forum         RA76c,
                                   Transitorium, RA76.1,
                                   Forum Nervae RA76.2,
                                                 RA76.3,
                                                 RA76.4,
                                                 RA76.5
Fora   FR-006   Roman Forum       Forum        RA21c,
                                  Romanum      RA21.1,
                                               RA21.2,
                                               RA21.2,
                                               RA21.3,
                                               RA21.4,
                                               RA21.5,
                                               RA21.6,
                                               RA21.7




Fora   FR-007   Forum of Trajan   Forum Trajani RA78c,
                                                RA78.1,
                                                RA78.2,
                                                RA78.3,
                                                RA78.4,
                                                RA78.5,
                                                RA78.6,
                                                RA78.7,
                                                RA78.8,
                                                RA78.9,
                                                RA78.10
Fora                              FR-008    Forum of Peace   Forum Pacis,   RA74.1,
                                                             Templum        RA75c,
                                                             Pacis, Forum   RA75.1,
                                                             of Vespasian   RA75.2,
                                                                            RA75.3,
                                                                            RA75.4,
                                                                            RA75.5




Fountains and other Water Features FT-002   Lacus Juturnae   Lacus          RA37c,
                                                             Iuturnae,      RA37.1,
                                                             Fountain of    RA37.2,
                                                             Juturna        RA37.3,
                                                                            RA37.4




Fountains and other Water Features FT-003   Meta Sudans
Fountains and other Water Features FT-004   Nymphaeum




Fountains and other Water Features FT-005   Nymphaeum of        Nymphaeum
                                            Alexander Severus   Alexandri




Fountains and other Water Features FT-007   Stagnum Agrippae    Pool of        RA88c,
                                                                Agrippa        RA88.6




Fountains and other Water Features FT-008   Septizodium         Septizonium,   RA65.6
                                                                Septisolium
Gardens   GD-001   Gardens of the Acilii   Horti
                                           Aciliorum,
                                           Horti Asiatici,
                                           Horti
                                           Luculliani


Gardens   GD-002   Gardens of Domitia      Horti Domitiae
                   Lucilla                 Calvillae



Gardens   GD-003   Gardens of Lamia        Horti Lamiani
Gardens   GD-004   Gardens of Lollius    Horti Lolliani




Gardens   GD-005   Gardens of Lucullus   Horti           RA83.2
                                         Luculliani,
                                         Horti Asiatici,
                                         Horti Aciliorum
Gardens            GD-006   Gardens of Maecenas Horti          RA48.5,
                                                Maecenatis,    RA72c,
                                                Horti          RA72.1,
                                                Maecenatiani   RA72.2,
                                                               RA72.3




Gardens            GD-008   Gardens of Sallust   Horti         RA64.5,
                                                 Sallustiani   RA94c




Houses & Palaces   HP-001   House of Vesta       Atrium Vestae RA49c,
                                                               RA50.1,
                                                               RA50.2,
                                                               RA50.3,
                                                               RA50.4,
                                                               RA50.5,
                                                               RA50.6,
                                                               RA50.7,
                                                               RA50.8,
                                                               RA50.9,
                                                               RA50.10,
                                                               RA50.11
Houses & Palaces   HP-003   Domus Augustana   Domus            RA65c,
                                              Augustiana,      RA65.1,
                                              Palatium,        RA65.2,
                                              Domus            RA65.3,
                                              Palatina,        RA65.4,
                                              Domus,           RA65.5,
                                              Flavia, Palace   RA65.6,
                                              of Domitian      RA65.7,
                                                               RA65.8




Houses & Palaces   HP-004   Domus Laterani    Laterani




Houses & Palaces   HP-005   Domus Tiberiana   Palace of        RA64c,
                                              Tiberius,        RA64.1,
                                              Tiberiana        RA64.2,
                                              domus            RA64.3,
                                                               RA64.4,
                                                               RA64.5,
                                                               RA64.6,
                                                               RA64.7,
                                                               RA64.8
Houses & Palaces              HP-006   House of Augustus   Domus           RA62c,
                                                           Augusti         RA62.1,
                                                                           RA62.2,
                                                                           RA62.3,
                                                                           RA62.4,
                                                                           RA62.5,
                                                                           RA62.6,
                                                                           RA62.7




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-001   Arch of Augustus    Arcus Augusti
Markers, & Statues
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-002   Arch of Constantine   Arcus            RA71c,
Markers, & Statues                                           Constantini      RA71.1,
                                                                              RA71.2




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-003   Arch of Dolabella and Arcus
Markers, & Statues                     Silanus               Dolabellae et
                                                             Silani


Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-004   Arch of Gallienus     Arcus Gallieni
Markers, & Statues
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-006   Arch of the Argentarii   Arcus         RA113c,
Markers, & Statues                                              Argentariorum RA114c,
                                                                ,             RA45c
                                                                Monumentum
                                                                Argentariorum




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-007   Arch of Tiberius         Arcus Tiberii
Markers, & Statues
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-008   Arch of Titus          Arcus Titi      RA57c,
Markers, & Statues                                                            RA57.1,
                                                                              RA57.2,
                                                                              RA57.3




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-009   Arch of Claudius on    Arcus Claudii
Markers, & Statues                     the Via del Nazareno
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-010   Arch of Claudius on    Arcus Claudii
Markers, & Statues                     the Via Lata




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-012   Arch of Diocletian     Arcus Novus
Markers, & Statues




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-013   Arches of Nero         Arcus
Markers, & Statues                                            Neroniani
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-014   Column of Antoninus   Columna        RA92c,
Markers, & Statues                     Pius                  Antonini Pii   RA92.3




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-015   Column of Marcus      Columna M.     RA92c,
Markers, & Statues                     Aurelius              Aurelii        RA93.1
                                                             Antonini




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-016   Trajan's Column       Columna        RA79.1,
Markers, & Statues                                           Traiani        RA79.2,
                                                                            RA79.3,
                                                                            RA79.4




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-017   Columnae Honorariae
Markers, & Statues
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-018   Colossus of Nero    Colossus      RA68.2,
Markers, & Statues                                         Neronis       RA69.1,
                                                                         RA69.2,
                                                                         RA69.3,
                                                                         RA69.4,
                                                                         RA69.5,
                                                                         RA69.6




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-019   Janus Quadrifrons
Markers, & Statues



Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-020   Arch of Septimius   Arcus Septimii RA45c,
Markers, & Statues                     Severus             Severi         RA45.1,
                                                                          RA45.2,
                                                                          RA45.3




Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-021   Milliarium Aureum   Golden        RA33c,
Markers, & Statues                                         Milestone     RA33.1,
                                                                         RA33.2,
                                                                         RA33.3,
                                                                         RA33.4,
                                                                         RA34.1


Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-022   Umbilicus Romae     Navel of      RA34c,
Markers, & Statues                                         Rome          RA34.1
Monumental Arches, Columns,   MA-023   Horologium of                    RA94c,
Markers, & Statues                     Augustus                         RA94.3




Porticoes                     PO-001   Crypta Balbi                     RA86.5




Porticoes                     PO-002   Hecatostylon       Porticus
                                                          Lentulorum,
                                                          Porticus ad
                                                          Nationes




Porticoes                     PO-004   Porticus Aemilia                 RA126c,
                                                                        RA126.1,
                                                                        RA126.2


Porticoes                     PO-005   Porticus           Porticus
                                       Argonautarum       Agrippiana
Porticoes   PO-006   Porticus Deorum
                     Consentium




Porticoes   PO-007   Porticus of Livia     Porticus
                                           Liviae


Porticoes   PO-008   Porticus Minucia      Porticus   RA86c,
                     Vetus                 Minuciae   RA86.4,
                                                      RA86.7




Porticoes   PO-009   Porticus of Octavia   Porticus   RA101c,
                                           Octaviae   RA101.1,
                                                      RA101.2,
                                                      RA101.3,
                                                      RA101.4,
                                                      RA101.5,
                                                      RA101.6,
                                                      RA101.7,
                                                      RA101.8




Porticoes   PO-010   Porticus Philippi                RA86.5
Porticoes                        PO-011   Porticus of Pompey   Porticus   RA87.6,
                                                               Pompei     RA87.7,
                                                                          RA87.8




Porticoes                        PO-013   Porticus Meleagri




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-001   Arx                  Citadel    RA9c,
Features                                                                  RA9.6,
                                                                          RA9.7,
                                                                          RA9.9,
                                                                          RA12.1,
                                                                          RA12.2,
                                                                          RA12.6

Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-002   Asylum                          RA9C,
Features                                                                  RA15c,
                                                                          RA15.1,
                                                                          RA15.2
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-003   Aventine Hill   RAIover,
Features                                                  RA4.2,
                                                          RA6.7,
                                                          RA98c,
                                                          RA121c,
                                                          RA121.1,
                                                          RA121.2,
                                                          RA121.3




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-004   Caelian Hill    RAIover,
Features                                                  RA4.2,
                                                          RA19.3
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-005   Campus Martius    Field of Mars    RA2.4,
Features                                                                     RA6.6,
                                                                             RA52.6,
                                                                             RA81c,
                                                                             RA81.1,
                                                                             RA81.2,
                                                                             RA105.1




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-006   Capitoline Hill   Capitolium,      RAIover,
Features                                                    Mons             RA4.2,
                                                            Saturnius,       RA9c.
                                                            Mons             RA9.1,
                                                            Tarpeius,        RA9.2,
                                                            Mons             RA9.3,
                                                            Capitolinus,     RA9.4,
                                                            Collis           RA9.5,
                                                            Capitolinus,     RA9.6,
                                                            Arx Capitolina   RA9.7,
                                                                             RA9.8,
                                                                             RA9.9,
                                                                             RA10.4,
                                                                             RA10.11,
                                                                             RA11.1,
                                                                             RA11.3,
                                                                             RA11.5,
                                                                             RA22.4,
                                                                             RA35.1

Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-007   Carinae                            RA48c,
Features                                                                     RA48.1,
                                                                             RA48.2,
                                                                             RA48.3,
                                                                             RA48.4,
                                                                             RA48.5
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-008   Circus Flaminius                  RA99c,
Features                                                                    RA99.1,
                                                                            RA99.2,
                                                                            RA99.3,
                                                                            RA99.4




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-009   Cispian Hill       Mons Cispius
Features
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-010   Esquiline Hill     Mons           RAIover,
Features                                                     Esquilinus     RA4.2,
                                                                            RA4.3,
                                                                            RA4.4,
                                                                            RA4.8,
                                                                            RA48.5
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-012   Oppian Hill        Mons Oppius
Features




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-013   Monte Testaccio                   RA126c
Features
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-014   Palatine Hill   Palatinus    RAIover,
Features                                                  Mons,        RA4.1,
                                                          Palatinus    RA4.2,
                                                                       RA6.3,
                                                                       RAVover
                                                                       , RA47.3,
                                                                       RA47.4,
                                                                       RA47.6,
                                                                       RA47.7,
                                                                       RA47.8,
                                                                       RA58c,
                                                                       RA58.1,
                                                                       RA64c,
                                                                       RA64.1,
                                                                       RA64.5,
                                                                       RA64.7




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-015   Pincian Hill    Pincius Mons, RA21c
Features                                                  Collis
                                                          Hortulorum

Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-016   Quirinal Hill   Quirinalis   RAIover,
Features                                                  Collis       RA4.2,
                                                                       RA4.3,
                                                                       RA4.4,
                                                                       RA52.1,
                                                                       RA52.2
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-017   Subura                        RA51.1,
Features                                                                RA52.6,
                                                                        RA76c,
                                                                        RA77.1,
                                                                        RA77.3,
                                                                        RA77.4,
                                                                        RA77.5,
                                                                        RA77.6,
                                                                        RA77.7,
                                                                        RA77.8
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-018   Tiber Island   Insula         RA2c,
Features                                                 Tiberina,      RA105c,
                                                         Insula         RA105.1,
                                                         Aesculapii,    RA105.2,
                                                         Insula         RA105.3,
                                                         serpentis      RA105.4
                                                         Epidaurii,
                                                         Insula inter
                                                         duos pontes
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-019   Tiber River                RAIover,
Features                                                             RA1.3,
                                                                     RA2c,
                                                                     RA2.1,
                                                                     RA2.2,
                                                                     RA2.3,
                                                                     RA2.4,
                                                                     RA2.5,
                                                                     RA2.6,
                                                                     RA2.7,
                                                                     RA2.8,
                                                                     RA2.9,
                                                                     RA2.10,
                                                                     RA2.11,
                                                                     RA3.1,
                                                                     RA10.16




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-021   Velabrum       Velabrum
Features                                                 Maius




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-022   Velia                      RA47.1
Features




Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-023   Viminal Hill   Viminalis   RAIover,
Features                                                 Collis      RA4.2,
                                                                     RA4.3
Hills, Regions, & Geographical   GF-024   Comitium             RA23.6,
Features                                                       RA26c,
                                                               RA26.1,
                                                               RA28.2




Roads, Streets, & Stairs         RS-001   Alta Semita




Roads, Streets, & Stairs         RS-002   Argiletum            RA76c




Roads, Streets, & Stairs         RS-004   Clivus Argentarius   RA73c




Roads, Streets, & Stairs         RS-005   Clivus Capitolinus




Roads, Streets, & Stairs         RS-006   Clivus Scauri




Roads, Streets, & Stairs         RS-009   Via Appia            RA8.2,
                                                               RA74.16
Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-010   Via Asinaria


Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-011   Via Aurelia            RA98c




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-012   Via Campana-
                                    Portuensis




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-013   Via Flaminia           RA99.2




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-014   Via
                                    Labicana/Praenestina




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-015   Via Lata               RA88c



Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-016   Via Latina




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-017   Via Merulana




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-018   Via Nomentana
Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-019   Via Nova          RAVover
                                                      ,
                                                      RA130c,
                                                      RA130.1


Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-020   Via Ostiensis


Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-021   Sacra Via         RA11c,
                                                      RA21.7,
                                                      RAVover
                                                      , RA56.3




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-022   Via Salaria       RA21c




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-024   Via Tiburtina




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-025   Via Triumphalis
Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-026   Vicus Jugarius                           RA12.3




Roads, Streets, & Stairs   RS-027   Vicus Tuscus




Temples & Shrines          TS-001   Aedes Tensarum           Temple of the
                                                             Sacred
                                                             Chariots,
                                                             Tensarium,
                                                             Thensarium



Temples & Shrines          TS-003   Arae Incendii
                                    Neroniani 1




Temples & Shrines          TS-004   Ara Incendii Neroniani
                                    2
Temples & Shrines   TS-005   Ara Pacis         Pax Augusta, RA95c,
                                               Ara Pacis    RA95.1,
                                               Augustae     RA95.2,
                                                            RA95.3,
                                                            RA95.4,
                                                            RA95.5




Temples & Shrines   TS-007   Templum Divorum   Porticus
                                               Divorum,
                                               Divorum
Temples & Shrines   TS-008   Lacus Curtius   Pool of       RA21.2,
                                             Curtius       RA21.6,
                                                           RA23c,
                                                           RA23.1,
                                                           RA23.2,
                                                           RA23.3,
                                                           RA23.4,
                                                           RA23.5,
                                                           RA23.6




Temples & Shrines   TS-009   Lapis Niger     Niger Lapis   RA25c,
                                                           RA25.1,
                                                           RA25.2
Temples & Shrines   TS-010   Pantheon   RA89.3,
                                        RA90c,
                                        RA90.1,
                                        RA90.2,
                                        RA90.3,
                                        RA90.4,
                                        RA90.5,
                                        RA90.6,
                                        RA90.7,
                                        RA90.8




Temples & Shrines   TS-011   Regia      RA49c,
                                        RA52.1,
                                        RA52.2,
                                        RA52.3,
                                        RA52.4,
                                        RA52.5,
                                        RA52.6
Temples & Shrines   TS-013   Shrine of Cloacina    Sacrum         RA21.2
                                                   Cloacina,
                                                   Venus
                                                   Cloacina,
                                                   Sacellum
                                                   Veneris
                                                   Cloacinae




Temples & Shrines   TS-015   Temple of             Aedes          RA105c,
                             Aesculapius           Aesculapius,   RA105.2,
                                                   Aedes          RA105.3
                                                   Aesculapii




Temples & Shrines   TS-016   Temple of Antoninus   Templum        RA53c,
                             Pius and Faustina     Antoninus et   RA53.1,
                                                   Faustina       RA53.2,
                                                                  RA53.3,
                                                                  RA53.4,
                                                                  RA53.5
Temples & Shrines   TS-017   Temple of Apollo    Aedes Apollo,   RA103.1,
                             Sosianus            Temple of       RA103.2,
                                                 Apollo          RA103.3,
                                                 Medicus         RA103.4,
                                                                 RA103.5




Temples & Shrines   TS-018   Temple of Bellona   Aedes Bellona RA74.16,
                                                               RA104c,
                                                               RA104.1,
                                                               RA104.2,
                                                               RA104.3,
                                                               RA104.4
Temples & Shrines   TS-020   Temple of Caesar   Temple of         RA43c,
                                                Deified Julius,   RA43.1,
                                                Aedes Divus       RA43.2,
                                                Iulius            RA43.3,
                                                                  RA43.4,
                                                                  RA43.5,
                                                                  RA43.6,
                                                                  RA43.7,
                                                                  RA43.8,
                                                                  RA43.9,
                                                                  RA43.10,
                                                                  RA43.11,
                                                                  RA43.12,
                                                                  RA43.13




Temples & Shrines   TS-021   Temple of Castor   Aedes             RA36c,
                                                Castoris,         RA36.1,
                                                Aedes             RA36.2,
                                                Castorum,         RA36.3,
                                                Aedes             RA36.4,
                                                Castoris et       RA36.5,
                                                Pollucis,         RA36.6,
                                                Templum           RA36.7,
                                                Castoris,         RA36.8,
                                                Temple of         RA36.9,
                                                Castor and        RA36.10,
                                                Pollux            RA36.11,
                                                                  RA36.12
Temples & Shrines   TS-023   Temple of Concord      Templum        RA31c,
                                                    Concordiae,    RA31.1,
                                                    Aedes          RA31.2,
                                                    Concordiae,    RA31.3,
                                                    delubrum       RA31.4,
                                                    Concordiae,    RA31.5,
                                                    Temple of      RA34.1,
                                                    Concordia      RA36.7




Temples & Shrines   TS-025   Temple of the Divine   Templum divi
                             Romulus                Romuli
Temples & Shrines   TS-026   Temple of          Temple of
                             Heliogabulus       Jupiter Ultor,
                                                Temple of
                                                Elagabulus,
                                                Templum
                                                Heliogabuli,
                                                Heliogabalium
                                                , Templum
                                                Solis Invicti
                                                Elagabali,
                                                Eliogaballium,
                                                aedes
                                                Eliogabali




Temples & Shrines   TS-027   Temple of Faunus




Temples & Shrines   TS-028   Temple of Fides    Sacrarium
                                                Fidei populi
                                                Romani,
                                                aedes Fidei
                                                populi
                                                Romani,
                                                aedes Fidei
                                                Publicae,
                                                aedes Fidei
Temples & Shrines   TS-029   Temple of Hadrian    Hadrianeum,    RA92c,
                                                  templum divi   RA92.1,
                                                  Hadriani       RA92.2,
                                                                 RA92.3




Temples & Shrines   TS-030   Aemilian Temple of   aedes
                             Hercules             Aemiliana
                                                  Herculis




Temples & Shrines   TS-031   Temple of Hercules                  RA100c,
                             Musarum                             RA100.1,
                                                                 RA100.2
Temples & Shrines   TS-032   Round Temple on the Hercules      RA120c,
                             Tiber               Victor,       RA120.1,
                                                 Hercules      RA120.3,
                                                 Olivarius,    RA120.4
                                                 Hercules
                                                 Victor ad
                                                 Portam
                                                 Trigeminam




Temples & Shrines   TS-033   Temple of Isis and   Iseum et       RA91c,
                             Serapis              Serapeum in RA91.1,
                                                  campo Martio, RA91.2
                                                  Isis
                                                  Campensis;
                                                  Temple of Isis




Temples & Shrines   TS-034   Temple of Juno                    RA18c,
                             Moneta                            RA18.1,
                                                               RA18.2,
                                                               RA18.3,
                                                               RA18.4,
                                                               RA18.5,
                                                               RA18.6,
                                                               RA18.7
Temples & Shrines   TS-035   Temple of Juno                    RA109c,
                             Sospita                           RA109.1,
                                                               RA109.2,
                                                               RA109.3




Temples & Shrines   TS-036   Temple of Divine   Templum Divi
                             Augustus           Augusti,
                                                Templum
                                                Novum Divi
                                                Augusti,
                                                Aedes Divi
                                                Augusti
Temples & Shrines   TS-037   Temple of Jupiter    Aedes Iovis   RA9.6,
                             Optimus Maximus      Optimi Maximi RA10c,
                                                  Capitolini    RA10.1,
                                                                RA10.2,
                                                                RA10.3,
                                                                RA10.4,
                                                                RA10.5,
                                                                RA10.6,
                                                                RA10.7,
                                                                RA10.8,
                                                                RA10.9,
                                                                RA10.10,
                                                                RA10.11,
                                                                RA10.12,
                                                                RA10.13,
                                                                RA10.14,
                                                                RA10.15,
                                                                RA10.16,
                                                                RA10.17,
                                                                RA10.18,
                                                                RA10.19,
                                                                RA11c,
                                                                RA11.1,
                                                                RA11.7,
                                                                RA70.8




Temples & Shrines   TS-039   Temple on the Via     Aedes Larum RA86c,
                             delle Botteghe Oscure permarinorum, RA86.6,
                                                   Aedes         RA86.7
                                                   Nympharum
Temples & Shrines   TS-040   Temple of Divine                   RA68.5
                             Claudius




Temples & Shrines   TS-041   Temple of Great    Magna Mater,    RA59.5,
                             Mother             Aedes           RA61c,
                                                Magnae          RA61.1,
                                                Matris, Aedes   RA61.2,
                                                Matris          RA61.3,
                                                Magnae,         RA61.4,
                                                Temple of       RA61.5,
                                                Cybele          RA61.6,
                                                                RA61.7,
                                                                RA61.8,
                                                                RA61.9,
                                                                RA61.10,
                                                                RA61.11,
                                                                RA61.12
Temples & Shrines   TS-042   Temple of Mars in the Mars in Circo,
                             Circus Flaminius      Aedes Martis
                                                   in Circo




Temples & Shrines   TS-043   Temple of Mars Ultor   Aedes Martis     RA74c,
                             in the Forum of        Ultoris, Mars    RA74.4,
                             Augustus               Ultor,           RA74.6,
                                                    Templum          RA74.9,
                                                    Martis Ultoris   RA74.10,
                                                                     RA74.11




Temples & Shrines   TS-044   Temple of Matidia      Templum
                                                    divae
                                                    Matidiae,
                                                    Aedes divae
                                                    Matidiae




Temples & Shrines   TS-045   Temple of Minerva,     Aedes
                             Aventine               Minervae
Temples & Shrines   TS-046   Temple of Minerva,   Aedes       RA76c,
                             Forum of Nerva       Minervae    RA76.2,
                                                              RA76.3




Temples & Shrines   TS-049   Temple of Apollo     Temple of   RA58c,
                             Palatinus            Apollo      RA63c,
                                                  Ramnusius   RA63.1,
                                                              RA63.2,
                                                              RA63.3,
                                                              RA63.4,
                                                              RA63.5,
                                                              RA63.6,
                                                              RA74.6




Temples & Shrines   TS-051   Temple of Portunus               RA115c,
                                                              RA115.1,
                                                              RA115.2,
                                                              RA115.3,
                                                              RA115.4
Temples & Shrines   TS-052   Temple of Quirinus




Temples & Shrines   TS-053   Temple on            Temple of
                             Montecavallo         Hercules and
                                                  Dionysus,
                                                  Aedes
                                                  Herculei et
                                                  Dionysi,
                                                  Aedes Salutis,
                                                  Templum
                                                  Salutis, Aedes
                                                  Serapidis,
                                                  Templum
                                                  Serapidis
Temples & Shrines   TS-054   Temple of Saturn   Aedes          RA34.1,
                                                Saturni,       RA35c,
                                                Templum        RA35.1,
                                                Saturni        RA35.2,
                                                               RA35.3,
                                                               RA35.4,
                                                               RA35.5,
                                                               RA35.6,
                                                               RA35.7,
                                                               RA35.8,
                                                               RA35.9,
                                                               RA35.10




Temples & Shrines   TS-055   Temple of Sol      Templum
                                                Solis, Aedes
                                                Solis
Temples & Shrines   TS-056   Temple of Sol and   Aedes Solis et
                             Luna                Lunae, Aedes
                                                 Solis,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Solis et
                                                 Lunae,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Solis,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Solis ad
                                                 Circum




Temples & Shrines   TS-057   Temple of Spes      Temple of        RA106c,
                                                 Hope, Aedes      RA110.1,
                                                 Spei,            RA110.2,
                                                 Templum Spei     RA110.3,
                                                                  RA110.4




Temples & Shrines   TS-058   Temple of Deified   Templum Divi RA78.7,
                             Trajan              Traiani, Aedes RA80.1,
                                                 Divi Traiani   RA80.2




Temples & Shrines   TS-059   Temple of Veiovis   Temple of        RA16c,
                                                 Vediovis,        RA16.1,
                                                 Aedes            RA16.2
                                                 Vediovis,
                                                 Aedes
                                                 Veiovis,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Veiovis,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Vediovis
Temples & Shrines   TS-060   Temple of Venus     Aedes Veneris   RA73c,
                             Genetrix            Genetricis,     RA73.4,
                                                 Templum         RA73.5,
                                                 Veneris         RA73.6,
                                                 Genetricis      RA73.8,
                                                                 RA73.9,
                                                                 RA73.11,
                                                                 RA73.12,
                                                                 RA73.13




Temples & Shrines   TS-061   Temple of Venus and Aedes Veneris   RA56c,
                             Rome                et Romae,       RA56.1,
                                                 Templum         RA56.2,
                                                 Veneris et      RA56.3
                                                 Romae




Temples & Shrines   TS-062   Temple of Venus     Aedes Veneris RA87.2,
                             Victrix             Victricis     RA87.4,
                                                               RA87.5,
                                                               RA128.9
Temples & Shrines   TS-063   Temple of Vespasian Templum Divi    RA34.1,
                             and Titus           Vespasiani,     RA44c,
                                                 Templum Divi    RA44.1,
                                                 Vespasiani et   RA44.2
                                                 Divi Titi,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Vespasiani,
                                                 Templum
                                                 Vespasiani et
                                                 Titi




Temples & Shrines   TS-064   Temple of Vesta     Aedes Vestae RA21c,
                                                              RA49c,
                                                              RA49.1,
                                                              RA49.2,
                                                              RA49.3,
                                                              RA49.4,
                                                              RA49.5,
                                                              RA98.1




Temples & Shrines   TS-065   Temple of Victory   Aedes           RA60.1,
                                                 Victoriae,      RA61.1,
                                                 Templum         RA62c
                                                 Victoriae
Temples & Shrines   TS-066   Shrine of Victory Virgo Auguratorium RA19c,
                                                                  RA19.1,
                                                                  RA19.2,
                                                                  RA19.3




Temples & Shrines   TS-067   Temples A-B-C-D of   Aedes          RA86c
                             Largo Argentina      Fortunae
                                                  Huisce Diei,
                                                  Templum
                                                  Fortunae
                                                  Huisce Diei




Temples & Shrines   TS-069   Temples of Juno      Aedes Iunonis RA54c
                             Regina and Jupiter   Reginae in
                             Stator               Campo,
                                                  Aedes Iunonis
                                                  Reginae ad
                                                  Circum
                                                  Flaminium,
                                                  Aedes Iovis
                                                  Statoris,
                                                  Aedes Iovis
                                                  Statoris ad
                                                  Circum,
                                                  Aedes Metelli,
                                                  Aedes
                                                  Metellina
Temples & Shrines   TS-070   Temple of Peace    Templum      RA74.1,
                                                Pacis, Forum RA75c,
                                                Pacis        RA75.1,
                                                             RA75.2,
                                                             RA75.3,
                                                             RA75.4,
                                                             RA75.5,
                                                             RA75.6,
                                                             RA95c




Temples & Shrines   TS-071   Three Temples of   Tres Aedes   RA86.8,
                             Fortuna            Fortunae,    RA86.9
                                                Aedes
                                                Fortunae
Temples & Shrines            TS-072   Altar of Hercules   Ara Maxima     RA119c,
                                                          Herculis       RA119.1,
                                                          Invicti, Ara   RA119.2,
                                                          Maxima         RA119.3,
                                                          Herculis       RA119.4,
                                                                         RA119.5




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-001   Amphitheatrum
Theaters                              Castrense




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-002   "Auditorium" of the Horti          RA72c
Theaters                              Gardens of Maecenas Maecenatis
                                                          Auditorium
Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-003   Circus Maximus                      RA66.2,
Theaters                                                                  RA70.7,
                                                                          RA94.4,
                                                                          RA128c,
                                                                          RA128.1,
                                                                          RA128.2,
                                                                          RA128.3,
                                                                          RA128.4,
                                                                          RA128.5,
                                                                          RA128.6,
                                                                          RA128.7,
                                                                          RA128.8,
                                                                          RA128.9,
                                                                          RA128.1
                                                                          0,
                                                                          RA128.1
                                                                          1,
                                                                          RA128.1
                                                                          2,
                                                                          RA128.1
                                                                          3,
                                                                          RA128.1
                                                                          4,
                                                                          RA128.1
                                                                          5,
                                                                          RA128.1
Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-004   Circus of Gaius and   Circus        6,
                                                                          RA66c,
Theaters                              Nero                  Vatincanus,   RA67c,
                                                            Gaianum       RA67.1,
                                                                          RA67.2,
                                                                          RA67.3
Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-005   Flavian Amphitheater Colosseum,   RA70c,
Theaters                                                   Amphitheatru RA70.1,
                                                           m            RA70.2,
                                                                        RA70.3,
                                                                        RA70.4,
                                                                        RA70.5,
                                                                        RA70.6,
                                                                        RA70.7,
                                                                        RA70.8,
                                                                        RA70.9,
                                                                        RA7010.,
                                                                        RA70.11,
                                                                        RA89.6




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-007   Ludus Dacicus
Theaters




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-008   Ludus Magnus
Theaters
Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-009   Ludus Matutinus
Theaters




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-011   Odeum of Domitian     RA89c,
Theaters                                                    RA89.2,
                                                            RA89.3,
                                                            RA89.4




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-012   Stadium of Domitian   RA89c,
Theaters                                                    RA89.1,
                                                            RA89.2,
                                                            RA89.3,
                                                            RA89.4,
                                                            RA89.5,
                                                            RA89.6,
                                                            RA89.7,
                                                            RA89.8,
                                                            RA89.9
Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-013   Theater of Balbus      Theatrum   RA85c,
Theaters                                                     Balbi      RA85.1,
                                                                        RA85.2,
                                                                        RA85.3,
                                                                        RA101.3




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-014   Theater of Marcellus   Theatrum   RA101.3,
Theaters                                                     Marcelli   RA102c,
                                                                        RA102.1,
                                                                        RA102.2,
                                                                        RA102.3,
                                                                        RA102.4,
                                                                        RA102.5,
                                                                        RA102.6




Amphitheaters, Stadiums, &   AS-015   Theater of Pompey      Theatrum    RA87c
Theaters                                                     Pompei,
                                                             Theatrum
                                                             Pompeium,
                                                             Theatrum
                                                             Pompeianum,
                                                             theatrum
                                                             magnum,
                                                             theatrum
                                                             marmoreum
Tombs & Mausolea   TM-001   Ustrinum of Antoninus Ustrinum
                            Pius                  Antonini Pii,
                                                  ara
                                                  consecrationis
                                                  Antoninorum,
                                                  Ustrinum
                                                  Antoninorum,
                                                  Divae
                                                  Faustinae
                                                  Maioris Ara




Tombs & Mausolea   TM-003   Mausoleum of          tumulus          RA96c,
                            Augustus              Augusti,         RA96.1,
                                                  tumulus          RA96.2,
                                                  Caesarum,        RA96.3,
                                                  tumulus          RA96.4,
                                                  Iuliorum,        RA96.5,
                                                  mausoleum        RA96.6,
                                                  Augusti,         RA96.7,
                                                  maesoleum        RA96.8,
                                                  Augusti,         RA96.9,
                                                  monumentum       RA96.10,
                                                  Augusti          RA96.11,
                                                                   RA96.12,
                                                                   RA96.13,
                                                                   RA96.14
Tombs & Mausolea   TM-004   Mausoleum of         Mausoleum         RA97c,
                            Hadrian              Hadriani          RA97.1,
                                                                   RA97.2,
                                                                   RA97.3,
                                                                   RA97.4,
                                                                   RA97.5,
                                                                   RA97.6,
                                                                   RA97.7,
                                                                   RA97.8,
                                                                   RA97.9,
                                                                   RA97.10,
                                                                   RA97.11,
                                                                   RA97.12




Tombs & Mausolea   TM-005   Meta Romuli          Sepulcrum
                                                 Romuli




Tombs & Mausolea   TM-006   Ustrinum of Marcus   ara
                            Aurelius             consecrationis
                                                 M. Aureli
                                                 Antonini,
                                                 ustrinum M.
                                                 Aureli Antonini
Tombs & Mausolea   TM-009   Terbentinum Neronis   Tibertinum
                                                  Neronis,
                                                  Terebinthus
                                                  Neronis


Tombs & Mausolea   TM-013   Pyramid of Gaius      Tomb of        RA127c,
                            Cestius               Gaius Cestius, RA127.1
                                                  meta Remi,
                                                  sepulcrum C.
                                                  Cestii




Obelisks           OB-001   Obelisks from the                   RA94c,
                            Temple of Isis                      RA94.2
                            Campensis [7]




Obelisks           OB-002   Augustan Obelisk                    RA94c,
                            from the Circus                     RA94.2,
                            Maximus                             RA94.3


Obelisks           OB-003   Obelisk from the                    RA94c,
                            Gardens of Sallust                  RA94.2,
                                                                RA94.5



Obelisks           OB-004   Obelisk/Gnomon of                   RA94c,
                            the Horologium of                   RA94.1,
                            Augustus                            RA94.2,
                                                                RA94.3
Obelisks   OB-005   Obelisks from the   RA94c,
                    Mausoleum of        RA94.2,
                    Augustus [2]        RA94.5
Latitude            Longitude           Description                          Icon

41.87573718753117   12.49403092764486 The Aqua Antoniniana dates to the      AQ.png
                                      time of Caracalla (emperor from A.D.
                                      211 to 217). It brought water to the
                                      Baths of Caracalla.




41.88343375154069   12.49022190371619 The first Roman aqueduct,              AQ.png
                                      constructed in 312 B.C. by the
                                      censors Appius Claudius Caecus and
                                      C. Plautius. For most of its length of
                                      16 kilometers, it ran underground,
                                      ending near the Porta Trigemina. It
                                      was restored three times.




41.88515374449651   12.4963917822454    This aqueduct was begun by Caligula AQ.png
                                        in A.D. 38 and completed by Claudius
                                        in 52. It shared its source with the
                                        Aqua Marcia, 68 kilometers from the
                                        city. In volume of water (184,000
                                        cubic meters per day) it was the third
                                        most capacious in the city after the
                                        Anio Novus and the Aqua Marcia. It
                                        provided water to most of the city.
                                        Impressive remains of its arches can
                                        be seen at the Parco degli Acquedotti.
41.89948630511937   12.50594154512352 This aqueduct, which brought 187,000 AQ.png
                                      cubic meters per day to the city, was
                                      constructed in 144‑140 B.C. by the
                                      urban praetor Q. Marcius Rex. The
                                      Roman aqueducts were a gravity-
                                      based system: the higher the altitude
                                      of the source of the water, the greater
                                      the water pressure. The source of the
                                      Marcia was from high up in the Anio
                                      River valley, 80 kilometers from
                                      Rome. This enabled its excellent
                                      drinking water to be delivered to high
                                      spots in the city, including the
                                      Capitoline Hill.

41.90056710464103   12.50642051910479 An aqueduct constructed in 125 B.C. AQ.png
                                      and restored by Augustus
                                      in 11‑4 B.C. Its source was 18
                                      kilometers from the city in the Alban
                                      Hills, where the water was tepid
                                      (hence its name, "Tepula"). In 33 B.C.
                                      Agrippa mixed its water with that of
                                      the Aqua Julia. This lowered its
                                      temperature and improved its taste.




41.89990547523252   12.4818567541803   This aqueduct, built by Agrippa in 19 AQ.png
                                       B.C., supplied 100,000 cubic meters
                                       of water per day to the city. It ran
                                       almost entirely underground, ending
                                       at the Baths of Agrippa in the Campus
                                       Martius. Restored in the eighteenth
                                       century, its water feeds the famous
                                       Trevi Fountain (1744).
41.88873128348289   12.5188002763268   Like the Aqua Claudia, this aqueduct AQ.png
                                       was begun by Caligula in A.D. 38 and
                                       completed by Claudius in 52. From
                                       the seventh milestone outside the city,
                                       it was carried on the arches of the
                                       Aqua Claudia. It provided more water
                                       (190,000 cubic meters per day) than
                                       any other aqueduct. The Roman
                                       aqueducts were a gravity-based
                                       system: the higher the altitude of the
                                       source of the water, the greater the
                                       water pressure. Because of the height
                                       of its source, it had enough pressure
                                       to deliver water to even the highest
                                       spots in the city.




41.89520975916727   12.5038142756254   This aqueduct, with a capacity of        AQ.png
                                       48,000 cubic meters of water per day,
                                       was built by Agrippa in 33 B.C. Its
                                       source, like that of the Tepula, was in
                                       the Alban Hills. On its last seven miles
                                       outside the city, it ran above ground
                                       on the arches of the Aqua Marcia. The
                                       Julia ended at the Nymphaeum
                                       Alexandri, an impressive ornamental
                                       fountain in the modern Piazza Vittorio
                                       Emanuele.


41.8881504663726    12.5181412176841   Fortification walls, about 19 kilometers   WG.png
                                       long, begun by Emperor Aurelian
                                       before A.D. 272 during a time of
                                       troubles and insecurity throughout
                                       Italy and the empire. They were
                                       restored and augmented several
                                       times in antiquity and are still well-
                                       preserved today. The walls were
                                       originally 3.5 meters thick, 8 meters
                                       high, and had a tower every 100 feet.
                                       They were punctuated by 17 major
                                       gates and a number of smaller
                                       openings.
41.8734515402418    12.5015375564994   A gate in the Aurelian Walls through       WG.png
                                       which the Via Appia passed (modern
                                       Porta S. Sebastiano).
41.8856553151261    12.5086575635354   A gate in the Aurelian Walls on the        WG.png
                                       Caelian Hill for the Via Asinaria near
                                       the Basilica of St. John Lateran.
41.9115007998657    12.4759685804479   A gate in the Aurelian Walls for the       WG.png
                                       Via Flaminia, an important road
                                       leading north out of the city. Nothing
                                       of the ancient fabric survives.
41.8765078385792   12.5024775534347   A gate in the Aurelian Walls for the       WG.png
                                      Via Latina.
41.8822447237207   12.4987902410816   This is the medieval name given to a       WG.png
                                      small gate in the Aurelian Wall. No
                                      important road ran to it from outside
                                      the city; inside the walls, it gave
                                      access to the Caelian Hill.
41.9085173968161   12.5022287696741   A gate in the Aurelian Walls through       WG.png
                                      which the Via Nomentana passed; it is
                                      very near the modern Porta Pia, just
                                      to the northeast.
41.8766461815076   12.4814799313614   A gate in the Aurelian Walls through       WG.png
                                      which the Via Ostiensis passed. The
                                      modern name is the Porta S. Paolo.

41.9094548925161   12.4881947197571   A gate in the Aurelian Walls.              WG.png
                                      Originally a small opening ("postern")
                                      in the wall, it was made into a
                                      monumental gate by Honorius (A.D.
                                      384-423).
41.8807928276963   12.4697784942026   A gate in the Aurelian Walls, rebuilt by   WG.png
                                      Honorius in A.D. 403. The Via
                                      Campana-Portuensis ran through it.
41.9106836590231   12.4981884287817   A gate in the Aurelian Walls where the     WG.png
                                      Via Salaria exited the city.
41.8974294970346   12.5102865569274   A gate in the Aurelian Walls where the     WG.png
                                      Via Tiburtina left the city.
41.8871292005064   12.4806326172064   An important gate in the Servian Wall,     WG.png
                                      frequently mentioned in ancient
                                      literature. It stood between the
                                      Aventine Hill and the Tiber River. No
                                      remains survive and its exact location
                                      is not known. Many scholars place it
                                      near the church of S. Maria in
                                      Cosmedin.
41.8915540678498   12.5153119718702   The present Porta Maggiore, a double       WG.png
                                      arch of the Aqua Claudia and Anio
                                      Novus, built by Claudius over the Via
                                      Praenestina and the Via Labicana and
                                      afterwards incorporated into the
                                      Aurelian Walls. The two roads
                                      separated just before passing under
                                      the aqueducts. The gate survives
                                      intact and reflects the "rusticated"
                                      style of masonry typical of public
                                      building in the age of Claudius. Just
                                      outside the gate stands the well-
                                      preserved Augustan tomb of the
                                      baker, Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces.
41.8969930644129   12.4768524014855   The earliest of the great public baths BT.png
                                      of Rome, these baths were built by
                                      Marcus Agrippa (63 B.C.-12 B.C.),
                                      stateman and general, in 25 B.C.
                                      They were regularly restored and
                                      remained in use until late antiquity.
                                      The baths, which were adorned with
                                      important works of art such as the
                                      Apoxyomenos of Lysippus, were fed
                                      by the Aqua Virgo, the aqueduct built
                                      by Agrippa. They were located
                                      adjacent to the Pantheon, which
                                      Agrippa also commissioned. Remains
                                      of the vaulting of a dome in the central
                                      bath block can be seen today in the
                                      Via Arco della Ciambella.


41.8788459746901   12.4924882661581   These baths built by Emperor            BT.png
                                      Caracalla (A.D.188-217) were inspired
                                      in their design by the Baths of Trajan.
                                      The enormous complex, which could
                                      hold up to 10,000 people at a time,
                                      was surrounded by a high wall and
                                      included a central bathing block
                                      surrounded by gardens. The bath
                                      block held an enormous swimming
                                      pool, exercise areas, and the usual
                                      warm and hot rooms. The complex
                                      was popular and was still in use in the
                                      time of Theodoric (A.D. 493-526). In
                                      the medieval period, the site was
                                      stripped of its valuable building
                                      materials. Under the Farnese Pope
                                      Paul III (mid-16th century), colossal
                                      statues such as the Hercules Farnese
                                      and the Farnese Bull were excavated
                                      from the baths and installed in the
                                      Farnese palace in Rome. They are
                                      now among the treasures of the
                                      National Archaeological Museum in
                                      Naples.
41.8981568595838   12.4874482226184   The last of the great baths of Rome, BT.png
                                      built by Constantine (A.D. 272 [?]-337)
                                      on the Quirinal Hill, probably before
                                      A.D. 315. Very little survives today
                                      except for a number of important
                                      statues that adorned the complex.
                                      These include the statues of
                                      Constantine and his son Constans
                                      (now on the balustrade on the western
                                      side of the Campidoglio); the Nile and
                                      Tiber river gods in front of the
                                      staircase leading up to the Palazzo
                                      Senatorio on the Campidoglio; and
                                      the bronze boxer now in the Palazzo
                                      Massimo museum.

41.882859413894    12.4811385694588   Built by the Emperor Decius (A.D. 201- BT.png
                                      251) on the Aventine Hill. Very little
                                      remains, and our main source of
                                      information about the baths is a plan
                                      made by the 16th-century architect
                                      Palladio. Like the other public baths in
                                      the city, the Decian Baths were
                                      adorned with great works of art. Two
                                      survive and are to be found in the
                                      Capitoline Museums: an infant
                                      Hercules carved in basalt; and a relief
                                      showing Endymion sleeping.

41.90333594435     12.4972665577488   These baths were erected by            BT.png
                                      Diocletian (A.D. 244-311) on the high
                                      ground to the northeast of the Viminal
                                      Hill. They were supplied with water by
                                      the Aqua Marcia. The complex,
                                      inspired (like the earlier Baths of
                                      Caracalla) by the design of the Baths
                                      of Trajan, is well-preserved and major
                                      parts have been repurposed. The core
                                      of the central bath block houses the
                                      Museo Nazionale Romano delle
                                      Terme di Diocleziano. In the 16th
                                      century, Michelangelo converted the
                                      tepidarium and frigidarium into the
                                      church of S. Maria degli Angeli.

41.9000107743895   12.4750125612234   These were the second public bathing BT.png
                                      establishment in Rome and were built
                                      by Nero (A.D. 37-68) in the Campus
                                      Martius not far from the Pantheon and
                                      the earlier Baths of Agrippa. The
                                      Baths of Nero were rebuilt in A.D. 227
                                      by Alexander Severus, after which
                                      they were called the Thermae
                                      Alexandrinae.
41.8915918632802   12.493877180118    These baths were built by Titus (A.D. BT.png
                                      39-81) at the time of the dedication
                                      (A.D. 80) of the Colosseum (Flavian
                                      Amphitheater). Both complexes
                                      returned to public use land seized by
                                      Nero for the "Golden House," his
                                      sumptuous and vast private palace in
                                      the heart of the city.


41.8921627991544   12.4959921953755   Built for Trajan (A.D. 53-117) by the BT.png
                                      architect Apollodorus of Damascus,
                                      these baths inspired the later Baths of
                                      Caracalla and Diocletian. Like the
                                      Baths of Titus, Trajan's public bath
                                      complex was built on land formerly
                                      occupied by Nero's sumptuous private
                                      palace, the "Golden House."
41.9018618853283   12.4664628925718   The modern Ponte S. Angelo, this         BR.png
                                      bridge was completed by Hadrian in
                                      A.D. 134. It served to link his
                                      mausoleum with the Campus Martius
                                      across the Tiber River.
41.8893260789993   12.4793599852537   Rome's first stone bridge across the BR.png
                                      Tiber, built by the censor M. Fulvius
                                      Nobilior in 179 B.C. The Ponte Rotto
                                      is the modern name for a small
                                      surviving section that stands isolated
                                      in the middle of the river just south of
                                      the Tiber Island.



41.8930634595854   12.4697276172598   Near the modern Ponte Sisto, this     BR.png
                                      bridge was built by the statesman and
                                      general Marcus Agrippa (63-12 B.C.).
                                      It linked the western Campus Martius
                                      to the area of Transtiber where
                                      Agrippa owned an impressive villa,
                                      the modern Villa of the Farnesina.

41.8899660723411   12.477241918829    This was the first stone bridge from     BR.png
                                      the Tiber Island to the right bank of
                                      the Tiber River. Probably first built in
                                      44 or 43 B.C., it is well-preserved and
                                      still in use.
41.8909970580594   12.4782193536925   This is the well-preserved stone         BR.png
                                      bridge between the left bank of the
                                      Tiber and the Tiber Island. It was
                                      named for its builder, L. Fabricius,
                                      curator viarum (official in charge of
                                      roads and bridges) in 62 B.C.
41.8997456075411   12.4634670408626   No longer extant, this bridge crossed BR.png
                                      the river immediately below the
                                      modern Ponte Vittorio Emanuele
                                      connecting the Campus Martius with
                                      the Vatican Hill. It was probably built
                                      by Nero (A.D. 37-68) or by Caligula
                                      (A.D. 12-41). Remains of the bridge
                                      survived until the nineteenth century,
                                      when they were removed as a hazard
                                      to boats using the Tiber.

                                      The first and most famous bridge of    BR.png
                                      ancient Rome, it was located just
                                      south of the Pons Aemilius and linked
                                      the area around the Forum Boarium
                                      and Porta Trigemina to Transtiberim.
                                      It was the scene of many dramatic
                                      events, including Horatius Cocles'
                                      heroic defense of the city against the
                                      Etruscan king Porsenna (ca. 500
                                      B.C.) and C. Gracchus' unsuccessful
                                      flight from the assassins pursuing him
                                      (121 B.C.).


41.8926097762632   12.4859494036094   Civic basilica on the north side of the CB.png
                                      Roman Forum, near the Curia Julia.
                                      The first version was contracted in
                                      179 B.C. by the censor M. Fulvius
                                      Nobilior. In 55 B.C. it was restored by
                                      the aedile L. Aemilius Paullus. Pliny
                                      the Elder considered it one of the
                                      most beautiful buildings in the world.



41.8941796070367   12.4843536612806   This is the name conventionally given CB.png
                                      to the double-aisled building and
                                      portico at the northwest corner of the
                                      Forum Julium. It was built in the time
                                      of Trajan (A.D. 98-117).
41.8917201068097   12.4882252838579   Begun by Maxentius (A.D. 278-312)      CB.png
                                      but completed in A.D. 312 by
                                      Constantine (A.D. 272?-337), this
                                      building was the last of the Roman
                                      civic basilicas. It housed a colossal
                                      statue of Constantine, the remains of
                                      which are in the courtyard of the
                                      Conservators' Palace of the Capitoline
                                      Museums.
41.8860486905679   12.4964826268862   A basilica built by the pearl dealer,  CB.png
                                      Manius Publicius Hilarus, on the
                                      Caelian in ca. A.D. 150. It was the
                                      headquarters of a sect devoted to the
                                      worship of the Great Mother.
41.8919814958853   12.4847756751204   Civic basilica, or law court, started in CB.png
                                      54 B.C. on the southwest side of the
                                      Roman Forum between the Vicus
                                      Tuscus and the Vicus Jugarius. The
                                      aedile L. Aemilius Paullus undertook
                                      the construction project on behalf of
                                      Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.). It was
                                      located on the site of an older basilica
                                      (the Basilica Sempronia, 179 B.C.).
                                      Completed by Augustus,it burned
                                      down and was rebuilt on a grander
                                      scale in 12 B.C. in the names of
                                      Gaius and Lucius Caesar (Augustus'
                                      adopted sons). It was damaged again
                                      in the fire of A.D. 283 and rebuilt. The
                                      remains seen today date from this
                                      phase. We hear of renovations as late
                                      as A.D. 416. In the lifetime of Pliny the
                                      Younger (A.D. 61?-113?) the basilica
                                      housed the centumviral court, which
                                      had jurisdiction in matters of wills and
                                      inheritances.


41.8979475589316   12.4768614339082   A well-preserved large hall abutting   CB.png
                                      the Pantheon on the south. Restored
                                      by Hadrian (A.D. 117-138) this
                                      structure has been identified as the
                                      Stoa of Poseidon, which Agrippa built
                                      in 25 B.C. and that burnt down in A.D.
                                      80. Despite its name, its use seems to
                                      have been commercial, not religious.

41.8955654570063   12.4845620328501   This basilica—the largest in the CB.png
                                      city—was part of Trajan's
                                      Forum and was probably completed
                                      in A.D. 112. It was rectangular in
                                      shape, had five aisles and apses at
                                      the short ends. The main entrance
                                      was on the facade of the building
                                      facing the open plaza of the forum.
                                      The façade was punctuated by
                                      three porches. Between the porches
                                      were three colossal statues of Trajan,
                                      of which two are preserved (one
                                      shows him as a general; the other as
                                      a magistrate).
41.8932143457697   12.4844842248284   The ancient state prison of Rome,       CB.png
                                      situated at the foot of the Capitoline
                                      Hill between the Temple of Concord
                                      and the Curia Julia. The subterranean
                                      part of the prison was called
                                      Tullianum. This was used to hold
                                      prisoners prior to execution and was
                                      the site of several notable executions.
                                      Enemy leader Jugurtha starved to
                                      death (104 B.C.) and the rebel leader
                                      Vercingetorix was beheaded (49 B.C.)
                                      inside the prison. This is where Cicero
                                      executed the Catilinarian conspirators
                                      (63 B.C.); and Sejanus, head of the
                                      Praetorian Guard, was strangled here.


41.8856349517329   12.505847005322    The new barracks of the equites         CB.png
                                      singulares, a select corps of cavalry
                                      that served as a bodyguard for the
                                      emperor. The older barracks (Castra
                                      Priora) were built under Trajan (ca.
                                      A.D. 100); these new barracks (Castra
                                      Nova) were added by Septimius
                                      Severus (ca. A.D. 200). Constantine
                                      (ca. A.D. 320) suppressed the guard,
                                      demolished the barracks, and used
                                      the land as the site of the first great
                                      Christian church in the city, the
                                      Basilica of St. John Lateran.

41.8905728467555   12.4958046159708   This was the camp for the detachment CB.png
                                      of sailors from the fleet stationed at
                                      Misenum. They were charged with
                                      rigging and manipulating the large
                                      awnings that covered spectators in
                                      the nearby Colosseum.

41.8842618364447   12.4967060501617   Located on the Caelian Hill, this      CB.png
                                      military camp housed the peregrini
                                      (soldiers detached for special service
                                      in Rome from the provincial armies).
                                      These soldiers principally comprised
                                      the frumentarii, who were originally
                                      employed on supply service but also
                                      used as military couriers.

41.9062682928495   12.50723991147     These were the barracks of the         CB.png
                                      Praetorian Guard (the imperial
                                      bodyguards), built under Tiberius
                                      in A.D. 21‑23. Many dramatic events
                                      occurred here, such as the rise and
                                      fall of emperors and conflicts between
                                      civilians and soldiers.
41.8893564921851   12.5072330768869   The barracks of the equites             CB.png
                                      singulares, a select corps of cavalry
                                      that served as a bodyguard for the
                                      emperor. The older barracks (Castra
                                      Priora) were built under Trajan (ca.
                                      A.D. 100); new barracks (Castra
                                      Nova) were added by Septimius
                                      Severus (ca. A.D. 200). Constantine
                                      (ca. A.D. 320) suppressed the guard,
                                      demolished the barracks, and used
                                      the land as the site of the first great
                                      Christian church in the city, the
                                      Basilica of St. John Lateran.

41.8929742398599   12.4854366590652   The new senate house begun by           CB.png
                                      Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., just before
                                      his assassination. Work continued
                                      under the triumvirs and the building
                                      was completed and dedicated
                                      in 29 B.C. by Augustus.


41.8959522185509   12.4780832813196   This building was located in the         CB.png
                                      Campus Martius south of the Saepta
                                      Julia. Here the diribitores (election
                                      officials) counted the votes cast by the
                                      people in the Saepta Julia (adjacent to
                                      the north). It was begun by Agrippa
                                      (63-12 B.C.) and finished after his
                                      death by Augustus in 7 B.C. Its
                                      famous roof, with 100-foot-long
                                      beams, burned down in the fire of
                                      A.D. 80. By late antiquity, the site
                                      seems to have hosted a bath
                                      complex.
41.8881203748006   12.4857048204032   This was established by Augustus in CB.png
                                      the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine.
                                      Augustus' learned ex-slave, C. Iulius
                                      Hyginus, served as librarian. Probably
                                      located off the porticus on the east of
                                      the temple, it was large enough for
                                      meetings of the senate. There were
                                      two parts in the library, one for Greek
                                      texts and one for Latin. Medallion
                                      portraits of famous authors decorated
                                      the walls.
41.8926176682895   12.4845454714216   The speakers' platform of the imperial CB.png
                                      period dominated the northwest end
                                      of the Roman Forum. Orators
                                      mounted its curved end via steps on
                                      the back (Capitoline) side and
                                      addressed citizens standing on the
                                      Forum plaza. The top of the structure
                                      hosted a number of monuments,
                                      including statues, honorary columns,
                                      the Umbilicus Urbis and the Milliarium
                                      Aureum.
41.8980038043078   12.4779563817283   This is a grand colonnaded plaza (310 CB.png
                                      x 120 m) that Caesar designed to
                                      replace the earlier Saepta, the
                                      republican voting precinct in the
                                      campus Martius. It was completed
                                      and dedicated by Agrippa in 26 B.C.
                                      As voting died out during the Empire,
                                      the plaza was used for public
                                      spectacles such as gladiatorial games
41.8888978988735   12.5162472321643   and mock navalpre-dating the
                                      A villa complex battles. In the        CB.png
                                      Aurelian Walls, which cut through it.
                                      The section outside the Aurelian
                                      Walls was destroyed when the walls
                                      were built. The remaining section
                                      became an imperial residence by the
                                      beginning of the fourth century A.D.,
                                      hence its name, Palatium
                                      Sessorianum. Constantine's mother
                                      Helena lived here. The fragment of
                                      the True Cross which she brought
                                      back from Jerusalem was dedicated in
                                      a basilical hall in the palace. This
                                      survives today as the Basilica S.
                                      Croce in Gerusalemme.

41.8929735261117   12.4836725544188   An enormous public building begun by CB.png
                                      Q. Lutatius Catulus in 78 B.C. on the
                                      south-east slope of the Capitoline Hill,
                                      stretching between the two peaks of
                                      the hill. It may have served as the
                                      state archive ("tabularium") and was
                                      designed to provide dramatic views of
                                      the Roman Forum adjacent to the
                                      east.
41.8876361345043   12.4853655066418   A school ("paedagogium") to train        CB.png
                                      young slaves for service in the
                                      imperial palace, which was located on
                                      the northern slope of the Caelian Hill.
                                      In this structure on the southern slope
                                      of the Palatine, graffiti were found
                                      dating to the third century A.D. Some
                                      scholars think they attest some
41.8810456503351   12.4735641362195   "The continents far and wide pour       CO.png
                                      forth an endless flow of goods to you,"
                                      exclaimed a visitor to Rome in the
                                      second century A.D. This is where
                                      merchandise was offloaded and
                                      stored after being shipped on river
                                      barges from Ostia, the port at the
                                      mouth of the Tiber. Located to the
                                      southwest of the Aventine, its
                                      development was started by the
                                      magistrates M. Aemilius Lepidus and
                                      L. Aemilius Paullus in 193 B.C. The
                                      area was filled with wharves and
                                      warehouses running along a road that
                                      connected the district to the Forum
                                      Boarium.
41.8906692534058   12.48509302996     Large warehouses, granary, and food CO.png
                                      market, presumably built by Marcus
                                      Agrippa (63 B.C.-12 B.C.), stateman
                                      and general under Octavian.

41.8798347876724   12.4753928754316   Servius Sulpicius Galba (praetor 187 CO.png
                                      B.C.) owned a large private estate
                                      which later became an imperial
                                      property. Over time, the area was
                                      occupied by large warehouses for the
                                      storage of the public grain supply,
                                      wine, oil, food, and other goods.

41.8771096202459   12.4725088032186   A warehouse on the bank of the Tiber. CO.png

41.8792111337563   12.4721496333947   A warehouse known from inscriptions CO.png
                                      and remains of walls found near the
                                      Tiber. It seems to have been south of
                                      the Emporium and near the river.

41.8967447768607   12.5020501918364   This was a market on the Esquiline      CO.png
                                      Hill, built by Augustus and named
                                      after his wife.
41.8956921527571   12.4862830757039   A well-preserved large shop complex CO.png
                                      constructed around A.D. 113. It was
                                      part of Trajan's grand building project
                                      in this part of the city.

41.8831046759095   12.4923151278964   Shown on the Marble Plan of Rome, CO.png
                                      this was an open area a block and a
                                      half east of the Via Appia, opposite
                                      the Baths of Caracalla. It may have
                                      been either a covered bazaar or a
                                      place where members of the imperial
                                      administration changed from the litters
                                      used within Rome to traveling
                                      carriages for trips beyond the city
                                      limits.
41.8941615988892   12.4865961767432   This forum was the second of the        FR.png
                                      imperial fora. It was built by Augustus
                                      (63 B.C.-A.D. 14) adjacent to the
                                      Forum of Julius Caesar. It included an
                                      open plaza lined on its long sides by
                                      colonnades off of which hemicycles
                                      opened on the northern ends. The
                                      back wall of the colonnades had
                                      niches in which were set statues of
                                      famous republican leaders as well as
                                      Augustus' own ancestors. Inscriptions
                                      below the statues—some of
                                      which survive—gave the
                                      highlights of the leaders' career. A
                                      colossal statue of the Genius of
                                      Augustus (14 meters high!) dominated
                                      a room decorated with colored
                                      marbles at the end of one of the
                                      colonnades. The northeastern end of
                                      the plaza was closed off by the
                                      Temple of Mars Ultor. It was
                                      dedicated to the war god in his aspect
                                      as the avenger of the assassination of
                                      Julius Caesar, Augustus' great uncle
                                      and adoptive father. A great wall of
                                      peperino stood behind the temple and
                                      separated the forum from the noisy
                                      lower-class residential area known as
                                      the Subura.



41.8888473703895   12.4814720410428   The name refers to a large area          FR.png
                                      between the Tiber and the Capitoline
                                      and Aventine Hills. The Romans
                                      attributed its name ("cattle forum") to
                                      the existence of a cattle market here
                                      in archaic times. The area was later
                                      used for other forms of commercial
                                      activity and as the site of gladiatorial
                                      contests. It contained a number of
                                      temples (including four dedicated to
                                      Hercules) and shrines. A large bronze
                                      statue of a bull decorated and
                                      symbolized the forum. It was brought
                                      back to Rome as war booty after the
                                      capture of Aegina by the consul P.
                                      Sulpicius Galba in 210 B.C.
41.8937749347692   12.4851161285938   This was the first of the so‑called     FR.png
                                      imperial fora, begun by Julius Caesar
                                      (100-44 B.C.) and completed by
                                      Augustus in 29 B.C. It was built on
                                      what had been very expensive private
                                      property. Caesar turned to the famous
                                      orator Cicero (106-43 B.C.) for help in
                                      persuading the owners to sell the
                                      land. The forum consisted of a large
                                      plaza surrounded by colonnades and
                                      ending on its northwest side with the
                                      Temple of Venus Genetrix. Rebuilt by
                                      Trajan in A.D. 113, the forum
                                      contained many works of art, including
                                      a cult statue of the goddess made by
                                      Arcesilas;a gold statue of Cleopatra;
                                      the equestrian statue of Caesar set
                                      upon Lysippus' statue of Alexander
                                      the Great's horse Bucephalas; and
                                      the statue group of the nymphs known
                                      as the Appiades, who decorated a
                                      fountain in front of the podium of the
                                      temple.

41.8913898203275   12.4803485772954   This was the vegetable market of        FR.png
                                      Rome, located along the Tiber just
                                      north of the Forum Boarium and south
                                      of the Circus Flaminius. The forum
                                      covered a small area and was
                                      dominated by the three temples of
                                      Janus, Spes, and Juno Sospita, which
                                      were positioned close together along
                                      the triumphal route which passed
                                      through the forum.
41.8936055038349   12.4870841703553   This was the fourth and smallest of     FR.png
                                      the imperial fora. Its construction was
                                      started by Domitian (A.D. 51-96), but
                                      it dedicated by Nerva (A.D. 30-98)
                                      in A.D. 97 after Domitian's
                                      assassination. The forum occupied
                                      the space between the fora of
                                      Augustus and Vespasian, an area
                                      through which the street called the
                                      Argiletum ran on its way from the
                                      Subura to the Roman Forum. The
                                      north end of the forum terminated with
                                      the Temple of Minerva. Substantial
                                      remains of the temple survived until
                                      1606, when Pope Paul V had them
                                      recycled for use to build his enormous
                                      Acqua Paola fountain overlooking the
                                      city from the Janiculum hill.
41.8923645205143   12.4852934504771   The Forum Romanum was ancient          FR.png
                                      Rome's city center. Its size was 250
                                      meters x 170 meters. Its main
                                      features included, on the west, the
                                      temples of Concord and of Vespasian;
                                      on the south, the Temple of Saturn,
                                      Basilica Julia, and Temple of Castor
                                      and Pollux; on the east, the Temple of
                                      Vesta and the Regia; and, on the
                                      north, the Basilica Aemilia and Curia
                                      Julia. The Forum was connected to
                                      the rest of the city by a number of
                                      streets, including the Argiletum,
                                      entering on the north side, the Vicus
                                      Jugarius and the Vicus Tuscus,
                                      entering on the south, and the Via
                                      Sacra running through the Forum in
                                      an east-west direction. In the
                                      republican period, the Forum provided
                                      space for political meetings, law
                                      courts, governmental institutions such
                                      as the treasury and archive, markets,
                                      religious cults, and entertainment.
                                      During the Empire, the Forum lost its
                                      use as an entertainment center, and
                                      the number of honorary monuments
                                      and buildings increased.


41.8951209954903   12.485071038126    The last, largest, and arguably the      FR.png
                                      grandest, of the imperial fora, it was
                                      built by Trajan (A.D.53-117) and
                                      designed by the architect Apollodorus
                                      of Damascus. Dedicated in A.D. 113,
                                      it celebrated the emperor's victories in
                                      the wars against the Dacians (A.D.
                                      101 and 106). The forum consisted of
                                      a large plaza, dominated by a large
                                      bronze equestrian statue of Trajan
                                      and lined on its long sides by
                                      colonnades. Closing the plaza on the
                                      north was the Basilica Ulpia. Beyond
                                      this stood Trajan's Column, 138 feet
                                      high and topped by a statue of the
                                      emperor that could be seen far and
                                      wide in the city. Flanking the column
                                      were Greek and Latin libraries. After
                                      his death, Trajan's cremated ashes
                                      were placed in a golden urn set in the
                                      base of the column. The fate of the
                                      urn is an unsolved mystery.
41.893030931074    12.4875449511176   The Temple, or Forum, of Peace was FR.png
                                      begun by Vespasian (A.D. 9-79) after
                                      the capture of Jerusalem in A.D. 71. It
                                      consisted of a large plaza, square in
                                      shape, which included plantings and
                                      was lined by colonnades on the east,
                                      north, and south. At the center of the
                                      eastern side was the Temple of
                                      Peace. It was flanked by two halls.
                                      One contained a public library; in the
                                      other, the Severan Marble Plan of
                                      Rome was installed in the early third
                                      century A.D. The latter was an
                                      enormously detailed map of the city,
                                      inscribed on 151 marble blocks
                                      decorating a high wall. The plan
                                      showed the roads and ground plans of
                                      buildings at a scale of 1:240. Starting
                                      from Vespasian's time, the complex
                                      was adorned by many works of art as
                                      well as treasures looted from the
                                      Temple in Jerusalem.


41.8916454162301   12.4859568141145   This was the spring of Juturna in the FT.png
                                      south corner of the Forum, at the foot
                                      of the Palatine, where Castor and
                                      Pollux were seen to water their horses
                                      after the battle of Lake Regillus
                                      (usually dated to 496 B.C.). The
                                      temple of Castor and Pollux was built
                                      on the west side of this spring. The
                                      healing cult of Juturna was brought to
                                      Rome from Lavinium. The fountain
                                      dates to the middle of the second
                                      century B.C. It consisted of a basin
                                      decorated with statues of Castor and
                                      Pollux and their horses. Fragments of
                                      the statues survive. Just to the south
                                      was a small shrine to Juturna.


41.8900799952294   12.4906756205971   A large cone-shaped fountain built         FT.png
                                      next to the Colosseum in the second
                                      half of the first century A.D. (probably
                                      by the Flavians). "Meta" refers to large
                                      goal-posts in the Circus and "sudans"
                                      means sweating, probably meaning
                                      that the water did not jet up into the air
                                      but ran down along the sides.
41.8939210843062    12.5118876380049    A large fountain on the Esquiline Hill FT.png
                                        between the Via Labicana and the
                                        Aurelian Walls. In the seventeenth
                                        century it was erroneously referred to
                                        as the Temple of Minerva Medica.

41.8952353609607    12.5036797391169    This was a monumental fountain, built FT.png
                                        by Alexander Severus (A.D. 208-235)
                                        and located at a fork between the
                                        Via Tiburtina and the Via Labicana.
                                        Substantial remains of brick-faced
                                        concrete can be seen in Piazza
                                        Vittorio Emanuele. The fountain is
                                        reconstructed as a two-storied
                                        façade with a wide central niche
                                        and arched openings on each side; its
                                        design thus evokes a triumphal arch.
                                        Statues occupied the niches. Two
                                        sculptures known as the "Trophies of
                                        Marius" still survive and can be seen
                                        atop the staircase leading up to the
                                        Piazza Campidoglio. They were
                                        recycled from an earlier triumphal
                                        monument built by Domitian.


41.89728779794601   12.47573118652189 Stagnum Agrippae was an artificial      FT.png
                                      pool of considerable size, constructed
                                      by Marcus Agrippa (63 B.C.-12 B.C.)
                                      by the side of his baths in the Campus
                                      Martius. This pool was fed by the
                                      Aqua Virgo, which Agrippa finished in
                                      19 B.C.
41.8855854196451    12.4886440559617 This was ancient Rome's equivalent TS.png
                                      of the modern Trevi Fountain. It was
                                      an enormous water feature erected by
                                      Emperor Septimius Severus (A.D. 145-
                                      211) in A.D. 203 at the foot of the
                                      southeast corner of the Palatine Hill.
                                      Its three stories probably soared to a
                                      height of 31.5 meters. Along its length
                                      you could see a profusion of columns,
                                      engaged columns, niches, and
                                      statues. Evidence of a water basin
                                      was found by archaeologists in the
                                      1980s. A large fragment of the
                                      façade—drawn by
                                      several artists—survived until
                                      the sixteenth century, when it was
                                      demolished.
41.9109995791976   12.479527513121    Gardens on the Pincian Hill which       GD.png
                                      were originally created by the
                                      politician and bon vivant Lucullus in
                                      the first century B.C. By the second
                                      century, the property had passed into
                                      the possession of the consular family
                                      of the Acilii Glabriones.
41.8859157344559   12.5020150337543   These extensive gardens on the          GD.png
                                      Caelian Hill were owned by Domitia
                                      Lucilla, the mother of Marcus Aurelius.
                                      The future emperor was born here on
                                      April 26, 121 A.D.
41.8920228769188   12.5039516934151   These gardens were near the Garden GD.png
                                      of Maecenas on the Esquiline.
                                      Originally private property of the
                                      powerful late-republican family of the
                                      Aelii Lamiae, they became an imperial
                                      property in the Julio-Claudian period.
                                      A number of structures belonging to
                                      the property were found in the 18th
                                      and 19th centuries. These included a
                                      building with a large fountain shaped
                                      as a theater; rooms painted with
                                      garden frescoes; a bath complex
                                      adorned with precious colored
                                      marbles; a richly decorated
                                      underground gallery 80 meters long.
                                      Its floor was paved with alabaster on
                                      which stood giallo antico columns
                                      whose bases and capitals were made
                                      of gilded plaster. The walls of other
                                      rooms were covered with slabs of
                                      black slate that were decorated with
                                      golden arabesque designs or inset
                                      with precious gems. Elsewhere was
                                      found was a rich deposit of sculptures,
                                      including a Venus Anadyomene (the
                                      "Esquiline Venus"), a statue group
                                      with tritons and a bust of Commodus
                                      depicted as Hercules, the head of a
                                      Centaur, and a reclining Dionysus.
                                      These can be seen in the Capitoline
                                      Museums.
41.9004           12.4982767607806   There gardens were located on the         GD.png
                                     Esquiline Hill near the modern railroad
                                     station (Stazione Termini). They were
                                     originally privately owned by the
                                     powerful family of Marcus Lollius
                                     Paulinus (consul in 21 B.C.). By the
                                     late Julian-Claudian period, they had
                                     become an imperial property. This
                                     perhaps happened in A.D. 49 when
                                     Lollia Paulina, Marcus'
                                     granddaughter, was convicted of
                                     black magic, losing her property and
                                     going into exile.
41.907240502118   12.4838177229478   These were the first luxury gardens in GD.png
                                     Rome. Located on the Pincian hill,
                                     they were laid out by the Lucius
                                     Licinius Lucullus (118 [?]-56 B.C.), a
                                     successful politician and famous bon
                                     vivant who left public life in 63 B.C.
                                     and spent his retirement enjoying this
                                     property and his two villas at Naples
                                     and Tusculum. Sources report that the
                                     gardens included a famous library and
                                     were adorned with sculpture. Most of
                                     the remains date to the 1st century
                                     A.D., when they were the scene of
                                     dramatic events. For a time they were
                                     owned by Valerius Asiaticus (consul in
                                     A.D. 46). Messalina, wife of the
                                     emperor Claudius, coveted them and
                                     brought a trumped-up charge of
                                     treason against Asiaticus, who
                                     committed suicide here in A.D. 47.
                                     Messalina was herself killed here the
                                     next year when her scandalous
                                     bigamous marriage to Gaius Silius
                                     came to the attention of Claudius, to
                                     whom she still married. In the next
                                     century, the gardens belonged to the
                                     Acilii Glabriones ("horti Aciliorum"). By
                                     late antiquity, they were once again an
                                     imperial property, known as the
                                     domus Pinciana.
41.8937230024068   12.5015217777294   Laid out over a former graveyard on GD.png
                                      the Esquiline Hill by Maecenas (ca.
                                      74- 8 B.C.), a wealthy knight, advisor
                                      of Augustus, and patron of poets such
                                      as Vergil and Horace. Ancient sources
                                      tell us that Maecenas had the first
                                      heated swimming pool in Rome; and
                                      that the gardens contained a tall
                                      tower. The so-called "Auditorium" is
                                      preserved and can be visited. After
                                      Maecenas' death, the gardens
                                      became an imperial property. Tiberius
                                      lived here when he returned to Rome
                                      in A.D. 2 from exile on Rhodes.


41.9066362555721   12.4949105565153   Laid out in the valley between the        GD.png
                                      Pincian and Quirinal Hills by the
                                      historian Sallust (86-34 B.C.), these
                                      gardens became imperial property,
                                      probably during the reign of Tiberius
                                      (42 B.C.-A.D. 37). They were much
                                      loved by the emperors: Nero,
                                      Vespasian, Nerva, Diocletian, and
                                      Constantine are reported to have lived
                                      here. Many famous works of
                                      sculpture were found here in modern
                                      times, including the Ludovisi Throne,
                                      the Ludovisi Gaul who kills his wife
                                      and himself, and the Dying Gaul. The
                                      obelisk now in front of the church of
                                      Trinità dei Monti originally stood in the
                                      gardens. The only remaining building,
                                      dating to the time of Hadrian, can be
                                      seen in Piazza Sallustio.


41.8914029416067   12.4865074761851   This well-preserved structure at the    HP.png
                                      foot of the Palatine, adjacent to the
                                      Temple of Vesta, included the living
                                      quarters of the Vestal Virgins. Most of
                                      the complex dates to the time of
                                      Trajan (A.D. 53-117).
41.8882924466992   12.4865277581521   This was the principal residence of the HP.png
                                      emperors in the city from the late first
                                      to the third centuries A.D. Covering an
                                      enormous area on the southeast
                                      sector of the Palatine, this well-
                                      preserved structure largely dates to
                                      the time of Domitian (A.D. 51-96) and
                                      was designed by his architect,
                                      Rabirius. It sits on massive terraces
                                      under which earlier structures, such
                                      as the House of the Griffins and parts
                                      of Nero's Domus Transitoria, were
                                      buried. The upper level contains
                                      public spaces such as reception and
                                      banquet halls. The lower level was
                                      devoted to the private quarters of the
                                      imperial family. Facing the south was
                                      a gently curved facade visible from
                                      the Circus Maximus in the valley
                                      below. To the east is the Hippodrome
                                      (also called Stadium), an enormous
                                      sunken garden in the form of a race
                                      track. Beyond the garden is a Severan
                                      extension of the palace toward the
                                      Septizodium.

41.8853189839387   12.5046856828034   Emperor Septimus Severus (A.D.193- HP.png
                                      211) gave this house to T. Sextius
                                      Laternus in 197. It may have been the
                                      house of consul Plautius Lateranus,
                                      confiscated in the first century A.D.
                                      when Nero accused him of treason.
                                      Since the time of Constantine the
                                      Great (A.D. 272?-337), it has been the
                                      site of the Basilica of St. John
                                      Lateran.
41.8900238770934   12.4861331703962   Despite its name, this palace on the   HP.png
                                      northwest sector of the Palatine was
                                      not erected by Tiberius but by his
                                      successors, Caligula and Nero. Very
                                      little is known about its design and
                                      phases because it is still buried
                                      beneath the Farnese Gardens, laid
                                      out in the 16th century by Cardinal
                                      Alessandro Farnese. The mad
                                      emperor Caligula, linked the palace to
                                      the Temple of Castor and Pollux by a
                                      bridge. The emperor would appear
                                      there and receive divine honors along
                                      with the cult statues of the Dioscuri.
                                      After Caligula's assassination,
                                      Claudius (10 B.C.-A.D. 54) removed
                                      the bridge.
41.8890003328968   12.4852957182837   Constructed on the south side of the HP.png
                                      Palatine during the reign of Augustus,
                                      this house became his chief
                                      residence. It was located in a
                                      symbolically significant site off the
                                      Scalae Caci, opposite the Hut of
                                      Romulus and next to the Temple of
                                      Apollo (also built by Augustus). In 36
                                      B.C. Augustus started to acquire
                                      property (notably of the famous orator,
                                      Hortensius) for his new house.
                                      Constructed at state expense, it
                                      became public property in 3 A.D.
                                      Substantial parts of the house were
                                      buried under a platform of Domitian's
                                      Domus Augustana. Their remains
                                      were excavated in the 1960s and can
                                      be visited.
41.8918868107989   12.4859757022363   One or possibly two arches were         MA.png
                                      erected in the Roman Forum to honor
                                      the Emperor Augustus. The earlier
                                      may have been erected in 29 B.C. to
                                      commemorate Augustus' triple
                                      triumph over Antony and Cleopatra
                                      (the so-called "Actian" arch); the
                                      second in 19 B.C. after the return of
                                      the standards captured by the
                                      Parthians (the "Parthian" arch).
                                      Foundations for one arch dating to the
                                      Augustan age were found to the south
                                      of the Temple of the Divine Julius
                                      Caesar. This is probably the
                                      monument from which the lists of
                                      consuls and triumphal generals (now
                                      displayed in the Capitoline Museums)
                                      comes. We do not know whether this
                                      was the so-called "Parthian" or
                                      "Actian" arch; and we do not know the
                                      location of a second Augustan arch in
                                      the Roman Forum. Some scholars
                                      speculate that there was only one
                                      arch, which commemorated both
                                      victories.
41.8897779375187   12.4906872840168   Erected by the senate in honor of       MA.png
                                      Constantine the Great (A.D. 272?-
                                      337) to commemorate his victory over
                                      the usurping emperor Maxentius
                                      in A.D. 312. The arch is well
                                      preserved and stands in the plaza to
                                      the west of the Colosseum. It is
                                      decorated with reliefs and statues
                                      reused from earlier imperial
                                      monuments (spolia) as well as with
                                      reliefs dating from the age of
                                      Constantine. The victory of
                                      Constantine gave a strong impetus to
                                      the Christianization of the Empire, but
                                      no reference to Christianity is to be
                                      found on the arch.

41.885614530832    12.4951941027123   This arch was built on the Caelian Hill, MA.png
                                      at the north corner of the site of the
                                      Castra Peregrina, erected by the
                                      consuls P. Cornelius Dolabella and
                                      C. Iulius Silanus in A.D. 10.
41.8957663746839   12.5013634138029   The arch was originally a simple gate MA.png
                                      in the Servian Wall.
                                      Later—probably under
                                      Augustus—it was enlarged and
                                      decorated with travertine as a triple
                                      arch. In the middle of the third
                                      century, a notable named Aurelius
                                      Victor erased the original inscription
                                      on the architrave and rededicated it to
                                      the emperor and empress of the time:
                                      Gallienus (A.D. 218-268) and
                                      Salonina (died in A.D. 268). The frieze
                                      above has no inscription: it was
                                      probably intended for a text honoring
                                      Gallienus' father, Valerian (A.D. 200?-
                                      260). But when in 260 Valerian was
                                      disgracefully defeated and captured
                                      by the Parthians, the space was left
                                      blank. Today, only the central arch
                                      survives, but from drawings we know
                                      that there were two side arches. They
                                      were demolished in the late 1400s.
41.8894276702785   12.483032527684    This well-preserved monument served MA.png
                                      as an entrance into the Forum
                                      Boarium. It was erected by bankers
                                      and cattle merchants in A.D. 203-204
                                      in honor of Emperor Septimius
                                      Severus and his two sons, Geta and
                                      Caracalla, Julia Domna (the
                                      empress), Plautianus (head of the
                                      Praetorian Guard and first cousin of
                                      Severus), and Plautilla (daughter of
                                      Plautianus and wife of Caracalla). The
                                      honorary inscription was changed
                                      three times as events made it
                                      necessary to erase some of the
                                      names of this dysfunctional family: in
                                      A.D. 205, when Plautianus
                                      unsuccessfully plotted to overthrow
                                      Severus and was executed; in 211,
                                      when the newly enthroned Caracalla
                                      murdered his wife, from whom he had
                                      been separated since her father's
                                      execution; and in 212, when Caracalla
                                      ordered his younger brother to be put
                                      to death.

41.8922753749935   12.4842642425862   This arch was erected in A.D. 16 to   MA.png
                                      commemorate the recovery of the
                                      standards which had been captured
                                      by the Germans at the defeat of Varus
                                      in A.D. 9. It stood on the Vicus
                                      Jugarius along the side of the Temple
                                      of Saturn at the north-west corner of
                                      the Basilica Julia.
41.8906876373973   12.4886094088095   This well-preserved single arch, made MA.png
                                      of white marble, was erected by
                                      Domitian (A.D. 51-96) after the death
                                      of Titus (A.D. 39-81) and celebrates
                                      his apotheosis. Thus, in the inscription
                                      he is called "divus" ("divine") and
                                      under the arch is a relief showing an
                                      eagle carrying a bust of Titus to the
                                      heavens. One of the two large reliefs
                                      on the sides of the arch shows Titus
                                      riding his chariot in triumph over the
                                      Jews; the panel opposite shows
                                      Roman soldiers carrying the treasures
                                      from the Temple in Jerusalem during
                                      the triumphal parade. The arch stood
                                      at a significant spot: it spanned the
                                      Sacred Way, over which Titus'
                                      triumph progressed; and it was also at
                                      the intersection with the Clivus
                                      Palatinus, the road rising up the
                                      Palatine to the facade of the palace of
                                      Titus' brother, the emperor Domitian.
                                      Titus also had a triumphal arch, which
                                      was erected at the curved (eastern)
                                      end of the Circus Maximus.


41.9026403639383   12.4838231744129   This arch carries the Aqua Virgo from MA.png
                                      the direction of the Pincian hill toward
41.8993644054273   12.4810908202953   Originally, this was an arch of the      MA.png
                                      Aqua Virgo that spanned the Via Lata
                                      (the modern Corso). In A.D. 51-52,
                                      the plain span of the aqueduct was
                                      monumentalized to serve as a
                                      triumphal arch celebrating Claudius'
                                      victory in A.D. 43 over the Britons.
41.8981222488978   12.4815408072073   A marble arch, adorned with trophies, MA.png
                                      that spanned the Via Lata, close to
                                      the northeast corner of the present
                                      day church of S. Maria in Via Lata. It
                                      was probably commissioned by
                                      Diocletian (A.D. 244-305).

41.8873239947621   12.5035588741514   This was a branch of the Aqua             MA.png
                                      Claudia built by Nero (A.D. 37-68)
                                      after the fire of A.D. 64. It runs from
                                      the Porta Praenestina (modern Porta
                                      Maggiore) to the Caelian Hill, where
                                      there was a collecting tank. It
                                      continued to the Palatine Hill. Later
                                      emperors strengthened the arches,
                                      and extensive tracts survive.
41.9017770513556   12.4775607400763   This monumental column of red         MA.png
                                      granite was erected in memory of
                                      Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161) by his
                                      two adopted sons, Marcus Aurelius
                                      and Lucius Verus. It stood in the
                                      Campus Martius. In the eighteenth
                                      century, it was damaged by fire, and
                                      surviving fragments were used to
                                      repair the obelisk from Augustus'
                                      Horologium (now in the Piazza di
                                      Montecitorio). The base survives.
                                      Beautifully sculpted with reliefs
                                      showing funeral rites and apotheosis
                                      of Pius and his wife Faustina, it can
                                      be seen in the Cortile della
                                      Pinacoteca in the Vatican Palace.

41.9008454896555   12.4799726992227   This well-preserved column was          MA.png
                                      erected between A.D. 176 and 193 to
                                      commemorate the victories of Marcus
                                      Aurelius over the Marcomanni and
                                      Sarmatians in 172‑175. Like the
                                      Column of Trajan, it is sculpted with
                                      reliefs showing scenes of warfare. But
                                      the reliefs on Marcus' monument are
                                      carved in higher relief and are taller,
                                      almost as if the artists were trying to
                                      make it easier for a viewer to follow
                                      the story than was possible on
                                      Trajan's Column.

41.8958198722978   12.4842569480555   This well-preserved column was built MA.png
                                      in A.D. 113 in a courtyard behind the
                                      Basilica Ulpia in Trajan's Forum. It is
                                      38 meters high and has a hollow shaft
                                      with a staircase leading to a platform
                                      on the top where a colossal statue of
                                      the emperor stood. The statue could
                                      be seen when you passed through the
                                      monumental propylon into the great
                                      plaza of the forum. On the surface of
                                      the column are ca. 2,500 figures
                                      sculpted in relief and illustrating the
                                      story of the two Dacian wars. Trajan
                                      appears 59 times.

41.8922366098901   12.4850737483699   Seven honorary columns were            MA.png
                                      erected parallel to the façade of
                                      the Basilica Iulia in the late third
                                      century A.D.
41.8907334622377   12.4909371119849   An enormous bronze statue of Nero. It MA.png
                                      was the work of Zenodorus, a Greek,
                                      and erected by Nero himself in the
                                      vestibule of the Domus Aurea (the
                                      "Golden House," Nero's large private
                                      palace in the center of the city). After
                                      Nero's death, it was changed to a
                                      statue of the Sun. Commodus (A.D.
                                      161-192) placed his own face on the
                                      statue. When Hadrian built the
                                      Temple of Venus and Rome in the
                                      area of the vestibule of Nero's now-
                                      demolished palace, he moved the
                                      statue next to the Colosseum. It is
                                      illustrated on ancient coins, but
                                      otherwise, except for the base, no
                                      trace survives of what must have
                                      been one of the city's most impressive
                                      and costly monuments.

41.8893549103314   12.4827350814915   A four-way arch of marble, standing     MA.png
                                      directly over the Cloaca Maxima (the
                                      main drain). It probably marked the
                                      line of separation between the Forum
                                      Boarium and the Velabrum.
41.8928395786368   12.4847365789793   A well-preserved triple arch erected in MA.png
                                      A.D. 203 in honor of Emperor
                                      Septimius Severus and his sons Geta
                                      and Caracalla, at the northwest corner
                                      of the Forum Romanum, in front of the
                                      Temple of Concord. Four large reliefs
                                      (two on the Forum side, two facing the
                                      Capitoline) recount Severus' victories
                                      against the Parthians. When
                                      Caracalla assumed the throne and
                                      had his younger brother killed in A.D.
                                      212, he also arranged for Geta's
                                      name to be erased from the
                                      dedicatory inscription.

41.8925699676956   12.4844656909774   A column covered with gilt bronze,    MA.png
                                      erected by Augustus in 20 B.C. It was
                                      regarded as the point of convergence
                                      of all the great roads running out of
                                      the city, and on it were engraved the
                                      names of the principal cities of the
                                      empire and their distances from
                                      Rome.
41.8927025715617   12.4845322002022   This was a monument erected not       MA.png
                                      earlier than the time of Septimius
                                      Severus (A.D. 193-211) on the north
                                      end of the hemicycle of the Rostra
                                      (the speaker's platform in the Roman
                                      Forum). It represented the central
                                      point of city and empire.
41.903153906199    12.4785372357515   A large sundial (160 x 75 meters)       MA.png
                                      erected by Augustus in the Campus
                                      Martius that served as both clock and
                                      calendar. The gnomon (the part that
                                      casts a shadow) was a tall obelisk
                                      transported from Egypt—the
                                      first to be brought to Rome. It now
                                      stands in the Piazza del Montecitorio.
                                      Pliny the Elder tells us that several
                                      decades after it was built, the massive
                                      clock no longer worked because its
                                      parts were out of alignment. Some
                                      scholars think that the Ara Pacis,
                                      which stood just to the east, was
                                      positioned so that the shadow of the
                                      setting sun cast by the gnomon fell on
                                      the middle of the altar's façade
                                      on Augustus' birthday (September
                                      23).

41.8943316292384   12.478429389641    This structure was a portico built by L.   PO.png
                                      Cornelius Balbus the Younger (a
                                      general under Augustus) in the
                                      years 19-13 B.C., the same time that
                                      the adjacent Theatrum Balbi was built.
                                      Roman theaters generally included a
                                      portico where, as the architect
                                      Vitruvius tells us, scenery could be
                                      stored and the public could take
                                      refuge in case of rain.
41.8958838820510   12.4767682698535   As the name suggests, this was a           PO.png
                                      portico of one hundred columns. The
                                      Severan Marble Plan (ca. A.D. 203-
                                      211) shows it running along the north
                                      side of the portico behind Pompey's
                                      Theater and the sacred area of Largo
                                      Argentina. It appears to have been a
                                      double colonnade.
41.8804079684401   12.4743341560256   This was a large warehouse built by        PO.png
                                      the aediles L. Aemilius Lepidus and
                                      L. Aemilius Paullus in 193 B.C. It is
                                      the earliest known use of concrete on
                                      a grand scale.
41.8979819025109   12.477383182728    The western colonnade of the Saepa         PO.png
                                      Julia, built by Agrippa in 25 B.C. It
                                      derived its name from the paintings on
                                      its walls showing the adventures of
                                      the Argonauts.
41.8925509370452   12.4837227286704   This portico may originally have been PO.png
                                      built in the second or third
                                      century B.C. but in its present form is
                                      due to one of the Flavian emperors.
                                      The statues of the dei consentes (the
                                      twelve counselor gods) probably
                                      stood in the intercolumniations of this
                                      colonnade.

41.893956210104    12.4958145001227   This portico was begun by Augustus PO.png
                                      in 15 B.C. and finished and dedicated
                                      to his wife Livia in 7 B.C.

41.8954329537272   12.4780072436895   This was built by M. Minucius Rufus, PO.png
                                      consul in 110 B.C., probably in one of
                                      two adjacent areas in the Campus
                                      Martius. Some scholars think that it
                                      ran along the east side of the ancient
                                      sacred area uncovered at the Largo
                                      Argentina. Others put the structure
                                      just to the east, surrounding the
                                      temple found in the Via delle Botteghe
                                      Oscure.
41.8925102395598   12.4785072537149   This portico was built in the Circus   PO.png
                                      Flaminius by Augustus and dedicated
                                      in the name of his sister Octavia
                                      sometime after 27 B.C It replaced the
                                      Porticus Metelli around the temples of
                                      Jupiter Stator and Juno. Remains of
                                      the monumental entrance (propylon)
                                      can be seen today in the Via del
                                      Portico d'Ottavia in the old Jewish
                                      Ghetto.




41.8930200531548   12.4776470489299   When Augustus' stepfather, L.          PO.png
                                      Marcius Philippus, rebuilt the temple
                                      of Hercules Musarum in the Circus
                                      Flaminius in 29 B.C., he also added
                                      this portico around the shrine. As
                                      Augustus' reign progressed, the area
                                      became densely packed with
                                      monuments built by Augustus and his
                                      followers, including the adjacent
                                      Porticus Octaviae to the south and the
                                      Theater of Marcellus. Ovid tells us
                                      that the portico housed some
                                      hairdressers' shops.
41.895257604297    12.4744578473312   This large portico (ca. 180 x 135      PO.png
                                      meters) ran behind Pompey's Theater
                                      toward the sacred area of Largo
                                      Argentina in the Campus Martius. Like
                                      the theater of which it was a part, it
                                      was built between 63 and 52 B.C. The
                                      architect Vitruvius reports that such
                                      porticoes were a standard feature of a
                                      Roman theater. They were used to
                                      store scenery and, in case of rain, to
                                      provide cover to the spectators in the
                                      adjacent open-air Roman theater.
                                      Pompey's portico included the famous
                                      Senate house where Julius Caesar
                                      was assassinated. Remains of this
                                      structure can be seen behind Temple
                                      B in the excavations of Largo
                                      Argentina. The rest of the portico is
                                      covered over in the modern city.


41.8980202335039   12.4785516280323   This is the eastern portico of the     PO.png
                                      Saepta Julia, and probably derived its
                                      name from a statue or painting of
                                      Meleager's famous hunt of the
                                      Calydonian boar.
41.8936619202484   12.4829711270785   This was the northern part of the      GF.png
                                      Capitoline Hill, separated from the
                                      southern part by a depression (the
                                      Asylum). It was the citadel of early
                                      Rome. It also had strong religious
                                      associations: the Temple of Juno
                                      Moneta and the auguraculum were
                                      major features on the Arx.
41.8931975295467   12.482540895625    This was originally a grove in the     GF.png
                                      depression between the two summits
                                      of the Capitoline Hill. Tradition
                                      recounted that city-founder Romulus
                                      received new settlers here, beginning
                                      Rome's policy of encouraging a
                                      diverse population. The Temple of
                                      Veiovis (of which substantial remains
                                      survive) was built in the Asylum.
41.8821264615997   12.4808795299588   Southernmost of the seven hills of         GF.png
                                      Rome, rising from the banks of the
                                      Tiber. It was outside the original city
                                      boundaries until Claudius (10 B.C.-
                                      A.D. 54), but was inside the Servian
                                      Walls built during the early Republic.
                                      The Aventine was the hill where
                                      Remus attempted to found his city,
                                      and here was located the Remuria, a
                                      site traditionally considered Remus'
                                      tomb. The archaic king Ancus Marcius
                                      (640-616 B.C.) first settled the hill with
                                      refugees from towns he had
                                      conquered near Rome. Throughout
                                      the Republic, the hill was associated
                                      with the plebs. In late antiquity, the
                                      character of the place changed as
                                      many upper-class residences were
                                      built here. Because the Aventine was
                                      originally outside the sacred boundary
                                      of the city (the "pomerium"), it was a
                                      suitable place to host foreign cults,
                                      and so a number of these were
                                      established on the hill, including the
                                      Italic goddess Juno Regina and the
                                      Etruscan deity Vortumnus.


41.8849807867741   12.4993530629617   The most southeastern of the seven GF.png
                                      hills of Rome, stretching from its
                                      junction with the Esquiline Hill near
                                      the Porta Maggiore in an irregular
                                      tongue about two kilometers long.
                                      According to tradition, the population
                                      of Alba Longa was transferred here by
                                      the Roman king Tullus Hostilius (673-
                                      641 B.C.). Livy attributes the hill's
                                      name to Caelius Vibenna, an
                                      Etruscan warlord from Vulci who
                                      supposedly settled here. Roman
                                      historians (including the emperor
                                      Claudius) differed about when this
                                      occurred but all agree that it
                                      happened during the age of the kings.
                                      In imperial times, the hill was
                                      dominated by the great Temple of the
                                      Divine Claudius built by Vespasian on
                                      the peak overlooking the valley of the
                                      Colosseum.
41.8989216529692   12.4754099800617   This was the level ground between       GF.png
                                      the slopes of the Capitoline, Quirinal,
                                      and Pincian hills and the Tiber River.
                                      It covered about 600 acres and was
                                      for a long time publicly owned. During
                                      the Republic, the area was used for
                                      training soldiers and for foot and
                                      horse races. The Villa Publica was
                                      located here: it was the place where
                                      foreign ambassadors were received
                                      and where returning generals waited
                                      to learn if they were to be awarded the
                                      honor of a triumph. The triumph
                                      started nearby and, as a result, many
                                      temples recording triumphs were built
                                      in the Campus. Somewhere near the
                                      Villa Publica was an Altar of Mars.
                                      During the Empire, the area took on a
                                      new role: it came to house large
                                      entertainment complexes as well as
                                      monuments honoring emperors and
                                      other members of the imperial families
                                      ruling Rome.


41.8922166819106   12.4817648164271   Smallest of the seven hills of Rome, GF.png
                                      the Capitoline was surrounded by
                                      steep cliffs on all sides except the
                                      southeast where it was accessible
                                      from the Roman Forum. Composed
                                      of tuff, it had two peaks, the Arx (on
                                      the north) and the Capitolium (south);
                                      in between was the saddle called the
                                      Asylum. The hill was covered with
                                      temples and shrines, including the
                                      Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus,
                                      dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and
                                      Minerva (the "Capitoline Triad").
                                      According to Roman tradition, the hill
                                      got its name from a enormous head
                                      (Latin "caput") found here in when the
                                      foundations were being dug for the
                                      temple of Jupiter.


41.8936428367268   12.4927598712284   This was the western end of the          GF.png
                                      southern spur of the Esquiline Hill,
                                      including the slope to the valley of the
                                      Subura on the north and that of the
                                      Colosseum on the south. It was a
                                      fashionable neighborhood: the most
                                      famous house belonged to Pompey
                                      the Great and was then taken over by
                                      Mark Antony after Pompey's defeat
                                      and death in the civil war.
41.8923149102362   12.477581953432    The southern part of the Campus          GF.png
                                      Martius, bounded on the east by the
                                      Capitoline Hill, on the south by the
                                      Forum Holitorium, and on the west by
                                      the Tiber River. In the Republic,
                                      games were held here, including
                                      horse (but not chariot) races. In the
                                      mid- to late-Republic, much of the
                                      area was occupied by triumphal
                                      temples. It takes its name from the
                                      C. Flaminius Nepos, who laid it out
                                      while censor in 221 B.C.
41.8955830506277   12.4961057987278   This small ridge is the northern spur of GF.png
                                      the Esquiline Hill.
41.8937533796966   12.5037198808240   One of the largest of the seven hills of GF.png
                                      Rome, the Esquiline is composed of
                                      tuff and lies between the Viminal Hill
                                      and the Caelian Hill. It has two main
                                      spurs, the Cispian and the Oppian.

41.8925168040791   12.497547299386    This is the southwestern spur of the    GF.png
                                      Esquiline Hill separated from the
                                      Caelian Hill on the south by the valley
                                      of the Colosseum. Nero's "Golden
                                      House" (Domus Aurea) was built here
                                      on confiscated property.

41.875854832053    12.475115828687    An artificial hill, south of the Aventine GF.png
                                      Hill and the Horrea Galbae. It rises to
                                      a height of 35 meters above the
                                      natural level and is composed entirely
                                      of millions of fragments of discarded
                                      amphorae (vessels used by the
                                      Romans to ship olive oil, wine, fish
                                      sauce, etc.). The amphorae found up
                                      to now date from the second and third
                                      centuries A.D. and mainly contained
                                      olive oil. The Romans did not throw
                                      away all such vessels but attempted
                                      to recycle as many as possible for
                                      reuse as shipping containers or (if
                                      damaged) building material or even
                                      flower pots.
41.8893351602606   12.4867016231172   The Palatine is made of tuff and sits in GF.png
                                      the middle of the hills of Rome.
                                      According to tradition, this is where
                                      Romulus founded his city (while his
                                      brother, Remus, unsuccessfully tried
                                      to found his on the Aventine). For
                                      centuries, a monument called the Hut
                                      of Romulus was lovingly maintained
                                      on the hill near the Scalae Caci. The
                                      Lupercal, a shrine commemorating
                                      the site (not yet been securely
                                      identified) where the wolf suckled the
                                      infants Romulus and Remus, was
                                      located in a cave somewhere at the
                                      foot of the hill. In the late Republic,
                                      property on the hill was among
                                      Rome's most expensive and
                                      desirable. It later became the site of
                                      emperors' residences, or
                                      "palaces"—a word whose
                                      etymology refers to this hill.

41.9107659664409   12.4790666770159   A hill to the north of Quirinal Hill. It  GF.png
                                      housed several famous gardens
                                      (including those of Lucullus and
                                      Pompey), and was for centuries
41.9008988321167   12.4871761251693   known asthe most northerly of the
                                      This was the Collis Hortulorum ("Hill GF.png
                                      seven hills of Rome. It is a narrow
                                      irregular tongue made of tuff,
                                      separated from the Viminal on the
                                      south by the depression now
                                      traversed by the Via Nazionale, and
                                      sloping off more gradually on the
                                      north and northwest to the Campus
                                      Martius. According to tradition, this is
                                      where the Sabines dwelled. In the
                                      imperial period, the hill was the site of
                                      many building projects like the Baths
                                      of Constantine and the unidentified
                                      sanctuary known in modern times as
                                      the Temple of Montecavallo. One of
                                      the projects transformed the
                                      geography of the hill: when Trajan
                                      built his forum, he removed a spur
                                      that linked the Quirinal to the
                                      Capitoline. The inscription on Trajan's
                                      128-foot high column states that its
                                      purpose was "to show how high a
                                      mountain had been cleared away."
41.8961483652697   12.4889344861532   The valley between the southern end     GF.png
                                      of the Viminal Hill and the western
                                      end of the Esquiline Hill. It was
                                      inhabited by a motley group people,
                                      including merchants, writers,
                                      politicians and many lower-class
                                      families.



41.8904228429243   12.4776516537848   The only island in the Tiber River in     GF.png
                                      Rome, it is located east of the
                                      Capitoline Hill, opposite the Circus
                                      Flaminius and the Forum Holitorium.
                                      After a plague in 293 B.C., an
                                      embassy was sent to Epidaurus to
                                      bring back the statue of the healing
                                      god Aesculapius. This embassy
                                      returned in 291 B.C., bringing not the
                                      statue but a serpent which, upon
                                      reaching Rome, abandoned the ship
                                      and swam to the island. Taking this as
                                      a positive sign, the Romans
                                      erected temple to the god on the
                                      island. The island itself was decorated
                                      to resemble a ship, with a stern
                                      sculpted from travertine and adorned
                                      with the head and serpent staff of
                                      Aesculpius. These survive today and
                                      can be visited. The island was linked
                                      to the city via ferry until the middle of
                                      the first century B.C., when two
                                      bridges were built (the Pons Cestius
                                      and the Pons Fabricius).
41.8884081339467   12.4796167167098   The most important river in central     GF.png
                                      Italy. It runs some 400 kilometers
                                      through a long valley running from
                                      Tuscany through Umbria, Latium, past
                                      Rome, to the Tyrhennian Sea at Ostia
                                      (literally, the "mouths" of the river).
                                      The river had a positive as well as
                                      negative impact on the development
                                      of Rome. Compared to transport by
                                      road, it provided an inexpensive and
                                      efficient way of moving goods shipped
                                      to the city from around the
                                      Mediterranean. The fact that the Tiber
                                      is navigable as far as the city meant
                                      that Rome could be built far enough
                                      from the coast as to be practically
                                      immune to naval attack or invasion.
                                      But before the embankment was built
                                      in modern times, the river frequently
                                      flooded the many low-lying areas of
                                      the city. The waters of the Tiber were
                                      not potable. Hence the Romans got
                                      their drinking water from wells and,
                                      eventually, from the great aqueducts
                                      with pure sources in the hills and
                                      mountains far from Rome.

41.8891348557898   12.4833086280287   The low ground between the               GF.png
                                      northwest slope of the Palatine and
                                      the Capitoline hills. It was an
                                      important center of industrial and
                                      commercial activity, in particular trade
                                      in food-stuffs, oil and wine.
41.8911261448469   12.4881104346551   The ridge or spur that stretched out     GF.png
                                      from the middle of the north side of
                                      the Palatine Hill towards the Oppius.
                                      In the republican period, its most
                                      important feature was the Temple of
                                      the Penates. In the imperial age, this
                                      was overshadowed by Hadrian's
                                      Temple of Venus and Rome, the
                                      largest temple of the state cult, and by
                                      the Basilica of Maxentius and
                                      Constantine.

41.8987029007904   12.4935453145602   The smallest of the seven hills of  GF.png
                                      Rome, extending south-west from the
                                      Esquiline plateau.
41.8928069243053   12.4844357547264   The place of political assembly in       GF.png
                                      republican Rome. The Comitium was
                                      a sacred plot of ground oriented
                                      according to the cardinal points. In the
                                      center of the north side was the
                                      original senate house (Curia Hostilia);
                                      on the west was the prison (Carcer);
                                      on the south were the Rostra and the
                                      Graecostasis. With the fall of the
                                      Republic, the Comitium was
                                      demolished and its memory survived
                                      only as a place name.

41.9025077386233   12.4915105625451   A major street along the spine of the RS.png
                                      Quirinal Hill, on the line of modern Via
                                      del Quirinale and Via Venti Settembre.
                                      Several important families had houses
                                      along this street.

41.8927224867513   12.4853569676842   The street between the Subura and   RS.png
                                      the Roman Forum. It was a main
                                      approach to the Forum, from between
                                      the Curia and the Basilica Aemilia.

41.8937237760756   12.4843708225462   This street formed the only immediate RS.png
                                      connection between the Roman
                                      Forum and the Campus Martius
                                      before the imperial fora were built. It
                                      left the Forum between the Curia and
                                      the Carcer, and ran along the slope of
                                      the Capitoline Hill.

41.892333950692    12.4834592114432   The principal approach to the Arx and RS.png
                                      Capitolium. It begins near the Arch of
                                      Septimius Severus and winds its way
                                      to the area Capitolina at the top of the
                                      Capitoline Hill.
41.886328722827    12.4916002388695   This was a street ascending from the RS.png
                                      depression between the Palatine and
                                      the Caelian hills, running east to the
                                      top of the latter hill. It branched off
                                      from the street connecting the Circus
                                      Maximus and Colosseum, just north of
                                      the Septizodium.

41.8767281622378   12.4995287539066   This "queen of roads" (Statius) was   RS.png
                                      built to Capua in 312 B.C. by the
                                      censor Appius Claudius Caecus. It
                                      was extended to Venusia (Venosa) in
                                      291 B.C. and then to Tarentum
                                      (Taranto) in 281 B.C. and Brundusium
                                      (Brindisi) in 264 B.C. It connected
                                      Rome with the southeastern portion of
                                      its territory and several ports.
41.8860736511326   12.5080783187332   This road issued from the Porta          RS.png
                                      Asinaria in the Aurelian Walls, and
                                      intersected with the Via Latina.
41.8891724183481   12.4764556342895   This road headed west out of Rome, RS.png
                                      crossing the Tiber River via the Pons
                                      Aemilius then continued up the
                                      Janiculum Hill and through the
                                      Aurelian Walls by the Porta Aurelia to
                                      Alsium. It then swung north up the
                                      coast.
41.882245576859    12.4720075809702   This road started from the Pons          RS.png
                                      Aemilius and passed through the
                                      Porta Portuensis. About a quarter
                                      mile later, it split into two roads, the
                                      Via Campana and the Via Portuensis.

41.9067523584522   12.4779635944464   This road was constructed in 220 B.C. RS.png
                                      during the censorship of C. Flaminius.
                                      It ran from a gate near the Capitoline
                                      Hill north across the Milvian Bridge to
                                      Ariminum (Rimini) on the Adriatic
                                      coast. Augustus restored it in 27 B.C.

41.8916660356243   12.5144755453263   This road branched to the right from RS.png
                                      the Via Praenestina just inside the
                                      Porta Praenestina (Porta Maggiore) of
                                      the Aurelian Walls. The Via Labicana
                                      connected Rome to Labici, 15 miles
                                      away, and then joined the Via Latina.

41.8974602596385   12.4818558329446   This was the name for the portion of RS.png
                                      the Via Flaminia inside the Aurelian
                                      Walls. It corresponds to the modern
                                      Via del Corso, Rome's main street.
41.8775813972277   12.5001534569316   This road passed through the Porta       RS.png
                                      Latina of the Aurelian Walls.
                                      Originally, it connected the city to the
                                      Alban Hills but later it was extended to
                                      Campania.
41.8894617599782   12.5025986817740   Not to be confused with the modern       RS.png
                                      street with the same name, this
                                      ancient road ran from the Campus
                                      Esquilinus and Gardens of Maecenas
                                      due south to the Neronian Arches of
                                      the Aqua Claudia on the Caelian Hill.

41.9077962494378   12.5010468857477   An extension of the Alta Semita on the RS.png
                                      Quirinal, this was a road which
                                      branched off the Via Salaria just
                                      outside the Porta Collina of the
                                      Servian Wall and soon passed
                                      through the Porta Nomentana of the
                                      Aurelian Walls. It led northeast to
                                      Nomentum, fourteen miles from
                                      Rome, and from there to Eretum.
41.8801065021744   12.4940475934036   This street was constructed by           RS.png
                                      Emperor Caracalla (A.D. 188-217). It
                                      ran parallel to the Via Appia, along the
                                      front of the Baths of Caracalla and
                                      down to the Circus Maximus.

41.8757684162634   12.4809487780906   This road led to Ostia (Rome's port at RS.png
                                      the mouth of the Tiber), sixteen miles
                                      away.
41.8912800364832   12.4878324437672   The oldest and most famous street in RS.png
                                      Rome. The Sacra Via ("Sacred Way")
                                      proper began at the top of the Velia
                                      and terminated at the eastern end of
                                      the Roman Forum in the religiously
                                      significant area of the Regia, the
                                      Temple of Vesta, and the House of
                                      the Vestals. Triumphal processions
                                      passed down the road. In early times,
                                      the road was lined with the houses of
                                      kings and aristocrats.

41.9094674038747   12.4983717024125   This was an ancient road, first used  RS.png
                                      by the Sabines to transport salt from
                                      the salt marshes at the mouth of the
                                      Tiber. It passed through the Porta
                                      Collina in the Servian Wall and the
                                      Porta Salaria of the Aurelian Walls.
                                      From here it ran north through Sabine
                                      territory to Reate (Rieti) and cut
                                      through the Apennines to end at the
                                      Adriatic coast.

41.897124544256    12.509152065905    This road led through the Porta          RS.png
                                      Tiburtina in the Aurelian Walls to Tibur
                                      (Tivoli), twenty miles east of Rome. In
                                      time, it extended to the Adriatic coast.
                                      The long section past Tibur was
                                      known as the Via Valeria.

41.9040798320344   12.4630815197459   The Via Triumphalis was a road           RS.png
                                      running northwards from the Pons
                                      Neronianus. Passing the Monte Mario,
                                      it ran north to join the Via Cassia just
                                      south of the old Etruscan city of Veii.
                                      It is not known why it is called the
                                      "Triumphal Road." An attractive recent
                                      theory attributes the name to a
                                      triumph celebrated in 396 B.C. by
                                      Camillus after he had destroyed Veii.
41.8910669496921   12.4816713769674   This was a street that led from the    RS.png
                                      Roman Forum, between the Basilica
                                      Julia and the Temple of Saturn, to the
                                      Porta Carmentalis in the Servian Wall
                                      not far from the Tiber.

41.8904893245807   12.4843172941407   This street issued from the Roman       RS.png
                                      Forum between the Basilica Julia and
                                      the Temple of Castor and ran south
                                      along the west side of the Palatine. It
                                      was the principal connector between
                                      the Forum and the Forum Boarium,
                                      the Circus Maximus, and the eastern
                                      boundary of the Velabrum.

41.8923341416463   12.4825013345836   A small temple in the Area Capitolina, TS.png
                                      located in the plaza to the right of the
                                      temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
                                      on Capitoline Hill. The silver and ivory
                                      cars (tensae) that carried symbols of
                                      the gods during the theater festivals
                                      and triumphs were stored here.

41.8837826467927   12.4849746833986   One of a series of altars erected in the TS.png
                                      time of Domitian in fulfillment of a vow
                                      made after the fire of A.D. 64 under
                                      Nero. This altar, discovered in 1618,
                                      stood on the Aventine Hill. The altars
                                      were the site of an annual sacrifice to
                                      ward off fire held during the festival of
                                      the Volcanalia (23 August).

41.9003831228858   12.4888722698528   One of a series of travertine altars     TS.png
                                      erected in the time of Domitian in
                                      fulfillment of a vow made after the fire
                                      of A.D. 64 under Nero. This altar,
                                      discovered in 1889, was erected in
                                      the middle of a large, paved sacred
                                      area surrounded by walls and located
                                      on the south side of the Alta Semita
                                      on the Quirinal. Here an annual
                                      sacrifice to ward off fire was held
                                      during the festival of the Volcanalia
                                      (23 August).
41.9029713282527   12.4793299823307   An 11 x 10 meter white marble altar, TS.png
                                      still largely extant, vowed by the
                                      senate in honor of the victorious
                                      return of Augustus from Spain and
                                      Gaul on July 4, 13 B.C. It was
                                      dedicated on January 30, 9 B.C.
                                      Magistrates, priests and Vestals
                                      offered annual sacrifices. This altar
                                      stood on the west side of the Via Lata.
                                      Some scholars believe that its
                                      position was deliberately chosen so
                                      that on Augustus' birthday (23
                                      September) the shadow cast at
                                      sunset by the obelisk serving as the
                                      pointer of the nearby Horologium
                                      Augusti hit the façade of the
                                      altar. In the 1930s it was moved to the
                                      Tiber banks next to the Mausoleum of
                                      Augustus, where it can still be seen
                                      today.
41.8966793530991   12.4797320020578   A large sacred area, 194 x 77 meters, TS.png
                                      built by Emperor Domitian in the
                                      Campus Martius, just east of the
                                      Saepta Julia, in honor of his father
                                      (Vespasian) and brother (Titus), both
                                      deified emperors. A triple arch on the
                                      north marked the entrance and the
                                      large plaza was flanked by
                                      colonnades. On the pavement stood
                                      two small temples. It may have
                                      occupied the area where the Villa
                                      Publica stood during the Republic. If
                                      so, the location was closely connected
                                      with the Roman triumph, an
                                      appropriate setting for the temples to
                                      these two successful generals.
41.892364135964    12.4850597927707   A monument in the middle of the           TS.png
                                      Roman Forum. There are three
                                      recorded explanations of the name:
                                      (1) in 362 B.C., a chasm suddenly
                                      opened in the middle of the Forum,
                                      and soothsayers said that the
                                      Romans needed to sacrifice what they
                                      held most dear, inspiring the youth
                                      Mettius Curtius to ride his horse into
                                      the opening, which promptly closed;
                                      (2) Sabine soldier Mettius Curtius
                                      accidentally rode his horse onto the
                                      swampy ground here when pursued
                                      by the Romulus's army; and (3)
                                      lightning struck here in 445 B.C., and
                                      the consul C. Curtius dedicated a
                                      sacred well-head to mark the spot.
                                      The fact that the Romans had three
                                      very different stories for this important
                                      feature of the Forum tells us a lot
                                      about their ability to tolerate
                                      uncertainty and ambiguity even about
                                      their most honored historic
                                      monuments. The same characteristic
                                      is attested in the stories the Romans
                                      told about other sites such as the
                                      Lapis Niger and the Temple of Juno
                                      Moneta.

41.8927474124734   12.4849811189709   This site went through two distinct       TS.png
                                      phases. In the imperial period, a small
                                      area on the pavement of the Roman
                                      Forum (4 x 3 meters) was paved in
                                      black marble and surrounded by a low
                                      balustrade of white marble. Several
                                      meters below the black marble,
                                      modern archaeologists found remains
                                      of a small sacred complex going back
                                      to the era of the kings and early
                                      Republic. The area included an altar,
                                      a column, an inscribed shaft, and
                                      votive offerings. It was located in the
                                      place of assembly (Comitium). In the
                                      imperial period, writers report that this
                                      was considered the spot where
                                      Romulus or a member of an early
                                      royal family was buried.
                                      Archaeologists found no burial, and
                                      the original significance of the sacred
                                      area is still debated. The recent
                                      suggestion that it was the Volcanal is
                                      not persuasive.
41.8985674394551   12.4768894226122   This is the most famous of all Roman TS.png
                                      temples and survives largely intact. In
                                      27 B.C., Marcus Agrippa (63 B.C.-12
                                      B.C.) built a temple near his public
                                      baths, as the inscription on the frieze
                                      of the façade relates. Agrippa's
                                      building burned in 80 A.D. and was
                                      restored by Domitian (A.D. 51-96).
                                      During Trajan's reign (A.D. 98-117), it
                                      was struck by lightning and burned
                                      again. After A.D. 126, Hadrian
                                      restored the temple leaving Agrippa's
                                      name on the dedicatory inscription but
                                      largely rebuilding it. Hadrian's
                                      Pantheon had a porch facing due
                                      north with eight gray granite columns
                                      in front and eight rose granite columns
                                      behind. The sanctuary is a rotunda
                                      (diameter: 43.2 meters). Buttressing
                                      the building on the south is the
                                      Basilica Neptuni. In A.D. 609, the
                                      building was converted into the church
                                      of S. Maria ad Martyres, which helped
                                      ensure the structure's survival through
                                      the ages.


41.8919049227229   12.4863236654376   A small building on the Via Sacra      TS.png
                                      across the street from the Temple of
                                      Vesta. Its construction was attributed
                                      to Numa (715-673 B.C.), Rome's
                                      second king. Hence the name "regia
                                      domus," the king's house. It contained
                                      small shrines to Mars and Ops. During
                                      the Republic, it served as the
                                      headquarters of the Pontifex Maximus
                                      (the head of the state cults). The
                                      annals were kept here, recording
                                      important events and the names of
                                      magistrates. Every year on October
                                      15 a two-horse chariot race, sacred to
                                      Jupiter, took place in the Campus
                                      Martius. The tail of one of the
                                      victorious horses was brought to the
                                      Regia and its blood was sprinkled on
                                      the sacred hearth.
41.8924648871457   12.4855734357318   The goddess Cloacina was identified TS.png
                                      with Venus. This was a small shrine
                                      set in front of the south side of the
                                      Basilica Aemilia over a section of the
                                      Cloaca Maxima, the great sewer that
                                      ran under the basilica and to the river.
                                      Its design was simple: a circular
                                      marble base topped by a balustrade,
                                      inside of which were two female
                                      statues. A dramatic event of Roman
                                      history occurred here in 449 B.C.: to
                                      save the honor of his daughter,
                                      Verginia, from the machinations of the
                                      lustful Appius Claudius, Verginius
                                      stabbed her to death before the
                                      shrine.
41.8901710337155   12.4784601420118   This temple was dedicated on the         TS.png
                                      Tiber Island on January 1, 291 B.C.
                                      After a plague in Rome in 293 B.C.,
                                      ambassadors were sent to the city of
                                      Epidaurus in Greece (a well-known
                                      center for healing). They were
                                      supposed to bring back the image of
                                      the god Aesculapius, the Greek god
                                      of healing, who had a large sanctuary
                                      in the town. When the ambassadors
                                      returned to Rome, they brought not
                                      the image but a serpent, the symbol of
                                      the god. The serpent abandoned the
                                      ship upon arrival in Rome and swam
                                      to the island. This was taken as a
                                      good omen. The entire island was
                                      consecrated to Aesculapius and a
                                      temple to the god was built on its
                                      southeast end.

41.8922269511398   12.4867528832668   A temple built by emperor Antoninus TS.png
                                      Pius (A.D. 86-161) on the north side
                                      of the Sacra Via at the entrance to the
                                      Forum, in honor of his deified wife, the
                                      empress Faustina (who died in A.D.
                                      141). After Antoninus died, the temple
                                      was dedicated to both. The temple is
                                      well preserved because it was
                                      converted into a church in the middle
                                      ages.
41.8924783174998   12.4795554878104   Vowed to Apollo Medicus (the healer) TS.png
                                      in 433 B.C. because of a plague, and
                                      dedicated two years later, this was the
                                      only temple of the Greek god Apollo in
                                      Rome until Augustus built one on the
                                      Palatine. An elegant restoration of the
                                      temple was begun in 32 B.C. by the
                                      consul Gaius Sosius (hence its name,
                                      "Sosianus"). Ancient reports tell us
                                      that the temple was filled with famous
                                      statues and paintings. The temple's
                                      pedimental sculpture showing an
                                      Amazonomachy, sculpted in Greece
                                      in the fifth century B.C., is well
                                      preserved can be seen in the
                                      Montemartini Museum. The temple's
                                      location outside the sacred boundary
                                      of the city made it a good place for the
                                      senate to deliberate about conferring
                                      triumphs on returning generals, who
                                      had to lay down their arms before
                                      entering the city.


41.8924480890057   12.4799321392368   Bellona, whose holiday fell on June 3, TS.png
                                      was a war goddess and companion of
                                      Mars. Her temple was vowed by
                                      Appius Claudius Caecus in 296 B.C.
                                      after a victory over the Etruscans and
                                      Samnites. It remained closely
                                      associated with the Claudii. Like the
                                      neighboring temple of Apollo
                                      Sosianus just to the west, it was
                                      oriented toward the south. Its location
                                      outside the sacred boundary of the
                                      city made it a suitable place for the
                                      senate to meet returning generals,
                                      who had to lay down their arms before
                                      entering the city. Over a dozen senate
                                      meetings are recorded here at which
                                      triumphs were conferred on victorious
                                      generals.
41.8920010564805   12.4861051939754   On the Ides (15th) of March, 44 B.C., TS.png
                                      the dictator Julius Caesar was
                                      assassinated in the senate house of
                                      Pompey the Great's theater in the
                                      Campus Martius. Like many great
                                      leaders before him, Caesar was given
                                      a public funeral in the Roman Forum.
                                      The rites ended unexpectedly when
                                      the crowd, inflamed by Mark Antony's
                                      funeral oration, cremated Caesar's
                                      body. This temple, erected on the
                                      same spot, was built to house the cult
                                      that developed shortly after Caesar's
                                      death. The building was authorized by
                                      the triumvirs in 42 B.C. and was
                                      completed by Caesar's adopted son,
                                      Augustus, and dedicated on August
                                      18, 29 B.C. Caesar's cult started a
                                      tradition of building temples in Rome
                                      (first in the Roman Forum and then,
                                      when it filled up, elsewhere) to
                                      deceased rulers deemed particularly
                                      worthy of divine honors.



41.891677770452    12.4855972039185   A temple dedicated to Castor and         TS.png
                                      Pollux at the south-east corner of the
                                      Roman Forum. It was vowed on July
                                      15, 499 or 496 B.C. by the dictator
                                      Postumius, when the semi-divine pair
                                      of twins appeared and led a charge
                                      against the Latins in the Battle of Lake
                                      Regillus. The twins also appeared
                                      near their future temple at the
                                      Fountain of Juturna to announce that
                                      the Roman forces had won the battle.
                                      The temple was dedicated on January
                                      27, 484 B.C. by Postumius' son.
                                      Restored several times, it was rebuilt
                                      by Tiberius in A.D. 6. Emperor
                                      Caligula (A.D. 12-41) converted the
                                      temple into the vestibule to his palace
                                      on the Palatine Hill. He reportedly
                                      stood between the cult statues and
                                      had himself worshipped as a third
                                      god. His sober successor Claudius
                                      (10 B.C.-A.D. 54) removed the
                                      connection between the temple and
                                      the palace.
41.8929707609606   12.4840682983888   This great temple, of which little       TS.png
                                      survives, was located on the
                                      northwest side of the Roman Forum. It
                                      was dedicated to the goddess
                                      Concordia and its festival day was
                                      July 22. A temple to the goddess was
                                      vowed by Camillus in 367 BC on the
                                      occasion of the Licinian-Sextian laws
                                      expanding the civil rights of the plebs.
                                      At first, only an altar seems to have
                                      been built. The first temple was
                                      constructed in 121 B.C. by L.
                                      Opimius, who, as consul, killed the
                                      tribune C. Gracchus. In the Republic,
                                      it symbolized harmony between the
                                      social classes; in the Empire, between
                                      members of the imperial family. The
                                      senate often met here. Tiberius
                                      restored the building. Its design was
                                      unusual in having its façade on
                                      the long side. Ancient coins illustrate
                                      the temple, showing a riot of statuary.
                                      Literary sources mention that many
                                      works of art decorated the building,
                                      making it a veritable "temple-
                                      museum."


41.891891639524    12.4872249459124   A domed structure on the Sacra Via     TS.png
                                      between the Basilica of Maxentius
                                      and the Temple of Antoninus and
                                      Faustina. The well-preserved
                                      façade was built of recycled
                                      architectonic elements (spolia). The
                                      building dates to the early fourth
                                      century A.D. and has been variously
                                      identified. Coins showing a similar
                                      building issued by Maxentius (A.D.
                                      278?-312) in memory of his son
                                      Romulus, who died in A.D. 309,
                                      explain the identification as the
                                      Temple of Romulus. If this is correct,
                                      Constantine must have rededicated it,
                                      since an inscription with his name was
                                      seen on the porch until the 16th
                                      century.
41.8895503286912   12.4887744663193   This temple was dedicated to the        TS.png
                                      Syrian Sun-god, Heliogabulus (El-
                                      Gabal). It was built near the imperial
                                      palace on the Palatine by the emperor
                                      Elagabulus (A.D. 203?-222).
                                      Elagabulus, whose religious
                                      innovations (such as his marriage to a
                                      Vestal Virgin) caused much
                                      consternation, provided the sacred
                                      stone of the god from his chief
                                      sanctuary in Emesa, Syria. He also
                                      reportedly moved sacred objects from
                                      Roman temples here, including the
                                      fire of Vesta, the Palladium, and the
                                      "ancilia" (twelve archaic shields
                                      sacred to Mars). After the emperor's
                                      assassination, organized by his own
                                      grandmother and members of the
                                      imperial guard, his cousin and
                                      successor Alexander Severus (A.D.
                                      208-235) rededicated the temple to
                                      Jupiter Ultor (Jupiter "the Avenger").
41.8910074963868   12.4762406436797   The only known Temple of Faunus in TS.png
                                      Rome is situated at the north end of
                                      the Tiber Island. It was vowed in 196
                                      B.C. by the aediles Cn. Domitus
                                      Ahenobarbus and C. Scribonius
                                      Curio.
41.891363917348    12.4816199478581   On October 1 in the 250s or 240s        TS.png
                                      B.C., A. Atilius Calatinus (or
                                      Caiatinus) dedicated this temple to the
                                      goddess Fides populi Romani ("the
                                      Good Faith of the Roman People" ). It
                                      was located on the southwest side of
                                      the Capitoline Hill. The cult was
                                      attributed to Rome's pious second
                                      king, Numa. It had some colorful,
                                      archaic features such as the
                                      requirement that before sacrificing,
                                      the priests had to wrap their hands as
                                      far as their fingers to symbolize the
                                      sacred nature of oaths. The senate
                                      sometimes met here; copies of
                                      treaties were posted on its walls. The
                                      sanctuary was richly decorated with
                                      statues and paintings.
41.899923781569    12.4791541367034   This was a temple of the deified        TS.png
                                      Hadrian (A.D. 76-138) in the Campus
                                      Martius, dedicated by his successor
                                      Antoninus Pius in A.D. 145. Eleven
                                      fluted columns of the north side of the
                                      sanctuary still stand in Rome in Pza.
                                      di Pietra, and the building itself has
                                      been incorporated into the modern
                                      Stock Exchange. A series of bas-
                                      reliefs with trophies and
                                      personifications of the Roman
                                      provinces survives from the interior of
                                      the temple. Many can be seen in the
                                      courtyard of the Conservators' Palace
                                      of the Capitoline Museums.

41.8881228202089   12.4820788074872   The Roman historian Livy mentions a TS.png
                                      round temple in the Forum Boarium,
                                      identified with a round shrine that
                                      stood just north-east of the church of
                                      S. Maria in Cosmedin until the
                                      fifteenth century. An ancient source (if
                                      correctly emended) identifies this with
                                      a shrine dedicated to Hercules by P.
                                      Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
                                      Minor. "Scipio the Younger" was a
                                      successful general who destroyed
                                      Carthage in 146 B.C. and Numantia
                                      (Spain) in 133 B.C. He was also a
                                      man of culture who befriended the
                                      leading poets, historians, and
                                      philosophers of his day.


41.8934292653207   12.4779219201278   This was a temple of Hercules and the TS.png
                                      Muses, erected by M. Fulvius Nobilior
                                      in the Circus Flaminius after his
                                      capture of Ambracia in 189 B.C., and
                                      probably after his triumph in 187 B.C.
                                      Its festival was held each year on
                                      June 30. The temple was round (like
                                      many temples of Hercules) and
                                      contained many statues, including
                                      Hercules playing the lyre and the nine
                                      Muses. It was restored in 29 B.C.
                                      Cicero aptly said that the temple
                                      illustrated how a victorious general
                                      could also honor the arts of peace.
41.8887253355361   12.4807828088243   This famous, well-preserved round          TS.png
                                      temple in the Forum Boarium is
                                      sometimes erroneously called the
                                      "Temple of Vesta." Its identification is
                                      unknown but the probability favors a
                                      dedication to Hercules, who had three
                                      temples in this area of the city. The
                                      building is the oldest preserved in the
                                      city built of marble, dating to the
                                      second century B.C. It was restored
                                      under Tiberius. It still exists because it
                                      was converted into the church of S.
                                      Stefano in the middle ages.

41.8977509951262   12.4789913467259   The temple of Isis and Serapis is the TS.png
                                      most important of several temples in
                                      the city dedicated to these Egyptian
                                      deities. Located in the Campus
                                      Martius, it was next to the Saepta
                                      Julia and the Porticus Divorum. It was
                                      restored by Emperor Domitian after
                                      the fire of A.D. 80. Some of the
                                      statues found here can be seen on
                                      display in the Louvre and in the
                                      Capitoline Museums. At the end of the
                                      Via di S. Stefano del Cacco, you can
                                      see an enormous sandaled foot,
                                      which is all that remains of a colossal
                                      statue from the sanctuary.

41.8935642966690   12.4837309652684   This temple to Juno "who warns"          TS.png
                                      ("Moneta") was vowed by M. Furius
                                      Camillus during a war in 345 B.C. It
                                      was dedicated on June 1, 344 B.C.,
                                      on the Arx, one of the Capitoline Hill's
                                      two peaks. There were two
                                      explanations of the name "moneta":
                                      one is that during the Gauls' sack of
                                      Rome in 390 B.C., Juno's sacred
                                      geese woke up a Roman soldier when
                                      the enemy tried to make a night
                                      assault on the camp here, and the
                                      other is that during an earthquake a
                                      voice from the temple warned the
                                      Romans to do penance. From the
                                      third century B.C., the Roman mint
                                      was located here, giving rise to the
                                      English word "money." The church of
                                      S. Maria in Aracoeli has occupied the
                                      site since the middle ages.
41.8910969976539   12.4800289339069   This temple to Juno the Savior           TS.png
                                      ("Sospita") was vowed in 197 B.C. by
                                      the consul C. Cornelius Cethegus
                                      during a war, and dedicated on
                                      February 1, 194 B.C.. The senate had
                                      it rebuilt in 90 B.C. when it was
                                      reported that Caecilia, the daughter of
                                      a censor, dreamt that it had been
                                      defiled. Located in the Forum
                                      Holitorium, it is identified with the
                                      central of the three temples that stood
                                      side by side on the site of the present
                                      church of S. Nicola in Carcere. The
                                      other two are the temples of Spes and
                                      Janus.
41.8913323521956   12.4841602955580   When Rome's first emperor,               TS.png
                                      Augustus, died on August 19 of A.D.
                                      14, the senate voted him divine
                                      honors. He was buried in his great
                                      mausoleum in the Campus Martius.
                                      His successor Tiberius (43 B.C.-A.D.
                                      37) built a temple to house the cult; it
                                      took many years to complete and was
                                      finally dedicated by Caligula (A.D. 12-
                                      41). The site has never been found,
                                      though we know it was located
                                      somewhere between the Vicus
                                      Tuscus and Vicus Jugarius in the area
                                      called the Graecostadium behind the
                                      Basilica Julia in the Roman Forum. It
                                      was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian.
41.8923928701172   12.4818751436173   This was the great temple on the          TS.png
                                      Capitolium, one of the two peaks of
                                      the Capitoline Hill. It was dedicated
                                      the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter, Juno and
                                      Minerva. Tarquinius Priscus (reigned
                                      616-578 B.C.) vowed this temple, but
                                      tradition states that a large part of the
                                      work was done by Tarquinius
                                      Superbus (reigned 535-510 B.C.).
                                      With his overthrow in 509 B.C., the
                                      first consul of the new Republic
                                      dedicated it on September 13. Here
                                      on each January 1 the new consuls
                                      took office in a colorful ceremony.
                                      Each month on the Ides, a white
                                      sheep was sacrificed to Jupiter. On
                                      the special Ides of
                                      September—the temple's
                                      annual festival—there was a
                                      great banquet for the people of Rome
                                      in which the statues of the three gods
                                      participated. It was prone to disaster,
                                      burning down in 83 B.C., A.D. 69, and
                                      80. The last rebuilding occurred under
                                      Domitian (A.D. 51-96). Impressive
                                      remains of the temple can be seen
                                      today in and around the Conservators'
                                      Palace.




41.8951213766431   12.4782195753650   There are substantial remains of a     TS.png
                                      temple in the Campus Martius along
                                      the modern Via delle Botteghe
                                      Oscure. In identifying it, scholars
                                      waver between two theories. (1) It was
                                      dedicated to the Lares Permarini, who
                                      protected sailors. This was vowed by
                                      the praetor L. Aemilius Regillus while
                                      engaged in a naval battle against the
                                      fleet of Antiochus the Great
                                      in 190 B.C., and was dedicated by the
                                      censor M. Aemilius Lepidus in 179
                                      B.C. (2) The temple was dedicated to
                                      the Nymphs, whose annual festival fell
                                      on August 23. The sanctuary in the
                                      modern Via delle Botteghe Oscure
                                      probably housed the cult of one of
                                      these deities and the so-called
                                      "Temple D" of Largo Argentina
                                      probably housed the other.
41.8880159759302   12.4929804620622   When Emperor Claudius died in A.D. TS.png
                                      54, the senate bestowed divine
                                      honors on him. A temple on the
                                      Caelian was begun by his widow,
                                      Agrippina, but the project stalled after
                                      Nero (A.D. 37-68) had his mother
                                      Agrippina killed in A.D. 59. Perhaps
                                      Nero was influenced by his tutor and
                                      advisor, Seneca, who wrote a satire
                                      on Claudius' divinization, which he
                                      called a "pumpkinification." The
                                      temple was completed by Vespasian
                                      (A.D. 9-79). It was enormous,
                                      practically covering the entire hilltop.
                                      In addition to the standard temple and
                                      porticoes, it contained a large garden.
                                      A surviving section of the arcaded
                                      terrace can be seen near the church
                                      of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.

41.8895406265313   12.4850016330034   The Great Mother (Magna Mater,          TS.png
                                      Cybele) was associated with Aeneas,
                                      the legendary Trojan prince and
                                      ancestor of the Romans. Her temple
                                      on the Palatine was begun in 204 B.C.
                                      during the Hannibalic War. A Roman
                                      embassy brought from Pessinus
                                      (Turkey) the goddess's remarkable
                                      image: a black stone. The temple was
                                      dedicated in 191 B.C. Augustus rebuilt
                                      it after a fire in 3 B.C. Each April 4,
                                      the temple hosted a theater festival.
                                      The priests, called "Galli," were
                                      eunuchs. Until Claudius (10 B.C.-54
                                      A.D.), they had to be foreigners. On
                                      festival days, they paraded the cult
                                      statue through the city. Some
                                      chanted, others played cymbals and
                                      timbrels or blew horns. The statue of
                                      the goddess found here can be seen
                                      in the Palatine Museum.
41.8936498655437   12.4739172284354   Remains of a temple found here in the TS.png
                                      19th century have been identified as
                                      the Temple of Mars in the Circus
                                      Flaminius, built after 133 B.C. for the
                                      triumphator, D. Junius Brutus
                                      Callaicus, by the architect
                                      Hermodorus of Salamis. In the
                                      vestibule were inscribed some lines of
                                      the poet Accius in the Saturnian
                                      meter. Ancient sources tell us that the
                                      temple contained two statues by the
                                      famous Greek sculptor Scopas: a
                                      colossal statue of Mars, and a nude
                                      Venus said to excel the Cnidian
                                      Venus of Praxiteles.
41.8943266635197   12.4869002997606   The fairly well-preserved Temple of      TS.png
                                      Mars Ultor dominated the main axis of
                                      the Forum of Augustus. It was built for
                                      two reasons: to fulfill a vow made by
                                      Augustus before the Battle of Philippi
                                      in 42 B.C.; and to celebrate the return,
                                      in 19 B.C., of the Roman legionary
                                      standards taken by the Parthians as
                                      booty after the disastrous defeat of
                                      Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53
                                      B.C. The senate met here to consider
                                      declaring war or awarding triumphs.
                                      Ceremonies were held here for boys
                                      assuming the adult toga and for
                                      commanders going off to the
                                      provinces.

41.8999456092824   12.4775961567526   This was a temple of the deified        TS.png
                                      Matidia (A.D. 68-119), Hadrian's
                                      mother-in‑law, who died in A.D. 119.
                                      A few remains of this temple survive
                                      in the Vicolo della Spada d'Orlando; it
                                      filled the area in the Campus Martius
                                      between the Pantheon and the
                                      Temple of the Divine Hadrian.

41.8843861849441   12.4807416349311   This was a temple whose annual         TS.png
                                      festival fell on March 19. It was
                                      located on Aventine Hill just north of
                                      the Temple of Diana. The date and
                                      occasion for its founding are
                                      unknown; it was restored by
                                      Augustus. The earliest mention dates
                                      to the second century B.C., when it
                                      was used by a guild of writers and
                                      actors. This is not surprising since
                                      Minerva (Greek Athena) was the
                                      patron of the arts and crafts.
41.8936887107146   12.4873010232470   After the pattern set in the other    TS.png
                                      imperial fora, Domitian (A.D. 51-96)
                                      built a temple dedicated to Minerva
                                      along the main axis of his forum
                                      (Forum of Nerva or Forum
                                      Transitorium). After Domitian was
                                      assassinated, the forum was
                                      dedicated by Nerva (A.D. 30-98). The
                                      temple was well preserved until 1606,
                                      when Pope Paul V had it demolished
                                      to supply building materials for the
                                      Acqua Paola on the Janiculum.

41.8887771965658   12.4856481182217   This was the second and by far the     TS.png
                                      most famous temple of Apollo in
                                      Rome. It was located on the Palatine
                                      within the sacred boundary of the city
                                      (the pomerium), on ground that had
                                      been struck by lightning and therefore
                                      made public property. It was vowed by
                                      Augustus in 36 B.C. and dedicated on
                                      October 9, 28 B.C. Located next to
                                      Augustus' house, the sanctuary
                                      contained a famous library, celebrated
                                      by the Augustan poets. Many famous
                                      statues by Greek masters were on
                                      display in and around the temple.
                                      Very little remains of the structure;
                                      surviving works of art can be seen in
                                      the nearby Palatine Museum.


41.8892351617471   12.4808852741563   The Temple of Portunus, named after TS.png
                                      the tutelary deity of the port, is located
                                      in the Forum Boarium, next to the
                                      Tiber. It is very well preserved
                                      because it was converted into the
                                      church of S. Maria Egiziaca. It is
                                      sometimes, but mistakenly, called the
                                      Temple of Fortuna Virilis.
41.90250243726     12.4907087301571   Tradition tells us about a cult           TS.png
                                      commemorating Romulus, founder of
                                      the city, as the god Quirinus. It was
                                      located on Quirinal Hill and its festival
                                      fell on the Quirinalia, February 17.
                                      The exact location is not known.
                                      Recently, it has been associated with
                                      remains found to the east of the Via
                                      Quattro Fontane on the north side of
                                      the ancient Alta Semita. After going
                                      through various remodelings during
                                      the Republic, it was rebuilt in 16 B.C.
                                      by Augustus (63 B.C.-A.D. 14). He is
                                      known to have felt a strong
                                      attachment to the figure of Rome's
                                      founder. The temple had 76 columns,
                                      which one ancient writer took as
                                      predicting the years of Augustus' life.

41.8987341093696   12.4856862949343   Remains of a large temple stood on      TS.png
                                      the northwestern edge of the Quirinal
                                      Hill until the seventeenth century. For
                                      the past century, scholars have
                                      debated how to identify the complex.
                                      Suggestions include a Temple of
                                      Salus, which existed somewhere in
                                      this area since its erection by C.
                                      Junius Bubulcus Brutus in the late
                                      fourth century B.C.; a temple of
                                      Serapis that is known to have stood
                                      near the Temple of Salus; and the
                                      Temple of Hercules and Dionysus,
                                      which was built in this general area by
                                      Septimius Severus (145-211 A.D.).
                                      The mystery of its identification
                                      remains unsolved.
41.8924235294889   12.4841099528778   Dedicated in the 490s B.C., the         TS.png
                                      Temple of Saturn is the oldest sacred
                                      place in Rome after the Temples of
                                      Vesta and Jupiter. It was rebuilt in 42
                                      B.C. and again, in the fourth century
                                      A.D. The temple's high podium and
                                      the columns of the porch can still be
                                      seen. The state treasury was located
                                      here. Saturn's cult statue was filled
                                      with oil and bound with woolen bonds.
                                      The festival of the cult was held each
                                      year on December 17, the Saturnalia.
                                      The woolen bonds were taken off,
                                      public gambling was allowed, and a
                                      public banquet was held, ending with
                                      a shout of "Io Saturnalia!" In Roman
                                      homes, slaves and masters reversed
                                      roles at meal-time, with the masters
                                      waiting on the slaves. The holiday,
                                      which lasted for seven days, has been
                                      called Rome's most popular.


41.9035664888418   12.4803563204469   This was a temple to the Sun god,      TS.png
                                      built by Aurelian (A.D. 214/15-275)
                                      after his return from a victorious
                                      military campaign against Palmyra in
                                      A.D. 272. The emperor instituted a
                                      new priesthood as well as races
                                      dedicated to the Sun. The races took
                                      place in the Circus Maximus, already
                                      a place with strong associations with
                                      the cult of the Sun. Aurelian's temple
                                      was famous for its magnificent
                                      treasure and art works. One of these
                                      was a silver statue of Aurelian,
                                      dedicated in A.D. 275 after his death
                                      by his successor Tacitus (A.D. 200-
                                      276). Aurelian's mother would have
                                      been proud: she was a priestess of a
                                      solar god in her native town of
                                      Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica,
                                      Serbia).
41.8847280863655   12.4862745663514   This was an ancient temple to the Sun TS.png
                                      and Moon built into the seating area
                                      on the south side of the Circus
                                      Maximus. A statue of the Sun,
                                      probably driving a chariot, topped the
                                      structure. The Egyptian obelisks,
                                      added to the median strip (spina) by
                                      Augustus (63 B.C.-A.D. 14) and
                                      Constantius II (A.D. 317-361), were
                                      also elements in the Circus honoring
                                      the Sun. For the Egyptians and
                                      Romans, obelisks symbolized
                                      sunbeams. The temple's festival day
                                      was August 28.

41.8910095449214   12.4801023517439   Under the present church of S. Nicola TS.png
                                      in Carcere are the ruins of three
                                      temples, standing side by side with
                                      the same orientation and facing the
                                      Forum Holitorium. The temple on the
                                      south is assigned to Spes (Hope). It
                                      was vowed by A. Atilius Caiatinus
                                      during the First Punic War (264-241
                                      B.C.). Damaged and remodeled at
                                      various times, it was finally rebuilt in
                                      A.D. 17 by Germanicus (16/15 B.C.-
                                      A.D. 19). August 1 was its festival
                                      day.
41.8960395077961   12.4840290476297   Ancient evidence records that Hadrian TS.png
                                      (A.D. 76-138) built a temple to his
                                      predecessor Trajan. The location of
                                      the temple is controversial, though
                                      scholars agree it was somewhere in
                                      the area of Trajan's Forum. We are
                                      told that this was the only building in
                                      Rome on which Hadrian put his name.

41.8929385491004   12.4833665660713   The temple of Veiovis (or Vediovis) on TS.png
                                      the saddle (Asylum) of the Capitoline
                                      Hill was dedicated on March 7, 192
                                      B.C. It was restored by Emperor
                                      Domitian (A.D. 51-96) after a fire. The
                                      original cult statue, made of cypress
                                      wood, apparently burnt in the fire and
                                      was replaced by one of marble, a
                                      large fragment of which survives and
                                      is displayed in the Capitoline
                                      Museums. Like the Temple of
                                      Concordia, this temple had a rare
                                      design with the cella wider than the
                                      front porch. A second temple to the
                                      god was located on the Tiber Island.
41.8941829616754   12.4847629806617   The night before the battle of          TS.png
                                      Pharsalus (48 B.C.), Julius Caesar
                                      (100-44 B.C.) vowed a temple to
                                      Venus Genetrix, the mythical
                                      ancestress of his family. It was
                                      inaugurated in 46 B.C. The Forum of
                                      Julius Caesar, in which the temple
                                      stands, was finished by Augustus (63
                                      B.C.-A.D. 14) in 29 B.C. The cult
                                      statue was sculpted for Caesar by
                                      Arcesilas, and there were other
                                      statues and precious objects on
                                      display here. Trajan (A.D. 53-117)
                                      rebuilt the temple, which also had to
                                      be restored after the fire of A.D. 283.
                                      On this occasion, the front porch was
                                      enclosed in a brick wall, giving the
                                      façade its (for a temple) strange
                                      appearance.

41.890871051491    12.4896834892185   The largest of Rome's temples, this       TS.png
                                      was a double temple, with back-to-
                                      back halls where each of the two
                                      goddesses was worshipped: Venus in
                                      the eastern hall, Roma in the western.
                                      Designed by Hadrian (A.D. 76-138)
                                      himself, it was inaugurated on the
                                      Parilia festival (April 21) in A.D. 121
                                      and was dedicated in 135. Hadrian's
                                      design was criticized by Trajan's
                                      architect, Apollodorus of Damascus.
                                      The angry emperor is said to have put
                                      the architect to death, though scholars
                                      have doubted the story. The temple
                                      was located on the site occupied by
                                      the vestibule to Nero's Golden House.
                                      The colossal statue of Nero standing
                                      here had to be moved to a site next to
                                      the Colosseum. Maxentius (A.D. 278-
                                      312) rebuilt it after a fire in A.D. 307.
                                      Substantial remains can still be seen.


41.8953612229568   12.4730211901256   Pompey built this temple somewhere TS.png
                                      along the top of the seats of his
                                      theater in the Campus Martius. It was
                                      dedicated on August 12, 52 B.C.
                                      Other gods (Honos, Virtus, Felicitas,
                                      and one whose name began with a V)
                                      also had shrines on the upper level of
                                      the theater.
41.8927399078269   12.4838566761525   A temple in the Roman Forum begun TS.png
                                      by Titus (emperor from A.D. 79 to 81)
                                      and completed by his brother
                                      Domitian (emperor from A.D. 81 to
                                      96). It was restored in the early third
                                      century A.D. The podium and three
                                      columns survive, and a well-preserved
                                      block of the entablature can be seen
                                      in the Capitoline Museums. By
                                      Vespasian's day, declaring a
                                      deceased emperor to be divine was
                                      the expected outcome of a reign that
                                      did not end in disgrace. Vespasian,
                                      famous for his sense of humor, could
                                      not resist joking on his death bed, "Oh
                                      my! I think I'm becoming a god!"


41.8917053767949   12.4861799484451   The small round Temple of Vesta was TS.png
                                      located at the east end of the Roman
                                      Forum. The site was a holy spot since
                                      the earliest times; the temple was
                                      rebuilt several times. Six Vestal
                                      Virgins were priestesses of the cult.
                                      Vesta's festival, the Vestalia, took
                                      place each June 9. The shrine
                                      contained the sacred hearth of the
                                      goddess, and its fire had to be re-lit by
                                      the Vestals each March 1 by rubbing
                                      two sticks together. Here the Vestals
                                      also kept sacred water and the sacred
                                      cake (mola salsa) used in many rites
                                      of the state religion. The building
                                      contained holy objects, including the
                                      Palladium, a statue of Pallas Athene
                                      which the Romans believed had been
                                      rescued by Aeneas from the flames of
                                      Troy.

41.8894116113557   12.4852727486474   This was a temple on the Palatine Hill TS.png
                                      on a site just to the east of the Temple
                                      of the Magna Mater. Remains of the
                                      foundations have been found. It was
                                      begun by the general L. Postumius
                                      Megellus using his share of the booty
                                      from the victory over the Samnites in
                                      307 B.C. Finished in 294 B.C., it was
                                      rebuilt in the first century B.C. The
                                      festival day was August 1.
41.889498088439    12.4851713029146   After earning a triumph for his military TS.png
                                      successes in Spain in 194 B.C., Cato
                                      the Elder (234-149 B.C.) dedicated
                                      the shrine of Victoria Virgo on the
                                      Palatine in 193 B. C. It shared the
                                      same festival day of August 1 with the
                                      bigger Temple of Victory adjacent on
                                      the east.
41.895486369788    12.4768374541294   This sacred area contains four           TS.png
                                      republican temples (labeled A to D,
                                      from north to south). The best
                                      preserved is Temple A, dating to the
                                      third century B.C., because it was
                                      once incorporated into a medieval
                                      church. Temple B is circular and was
                                      the last to be built, dating to 101 B.C.
                                      The first phase of Temple C dates to
                                      the third century B.C., but much of
                                      what is preserved dates after the fire
                                      of A.D. 80. D is the largest temple and
                                      still mostly unexcavated. B is the only
                                      shrine that can be securely identified:
                                      it was the Temple of Fortuna Huiusce
                                      Diei (Good Fortune on This Day).
                                      Remains of the colossal, 8-meter cult
                                      statue of Fortuna can be seen in the
                                      Montemartini Museum.

41.8926444216711   12.478588873089    After his triumph in 146 B.C., Q.        TS.png
                                      Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus built
                                      the Temples of Jupiter Stator and of
                                      Juno Regina, enclosing them with a
                                      portico (Porticus Metelli): Juno's
                                      temple was to the north, Jupiter's to
                                      the south. After 14 B.C., Augustus
                                      rebuilt the portico and renamed it the
                                      Porticus Octaviae. The temples are
                                      famous for the many important works
                                      of art that they contained; Jupiter's is
                                      also noteworthy because it was the
                                      first temple built of marble in Rome.
41.8924163701096   12.4879647367567   The Temple (or Forum) of Peace was TS.png
                                      built by Vespasian with the spoils of
                                      the Jewish War that he brought to
                                      Rome after the fall of Jerusalem
                                      in A.D. 71. Dedicated in 75, it was one
                                      of the most impressive monuments in
                                      the city. It stood to the north of the
                                      Basilica Aemilia in an area that still
                                      had not recovered from the great fire
                                      of A.D. 64. The complex included a
                                      plaza with garden, a temple, and a
                                      library within which were placed many
                                      of the treasures captured in
                                      Jerusalem. Ancient writers marveled
                                      at the number of important works of
                                      art installed here; the core of the
                                      collection had been brought to Rome
                                      by Nero from around the empire to
                                      decorate the Golden House.
                                      Vespasian made these available for
                                      the enjoyment of the public.


41.9072635388342   12.497577462075    Fortuna ("Good Luck") was the             TS.png
                                      goddess who brought increase and
                                      prosperity to individuals or to the state
                                      as a whole. Ancient sources record
                                      that three temples dedicated to the
                                      goddess stood close together on the
                                      northeast end of the Quirinal, just
                                      inside the porta Collina. Except for
                                      their names, little about the cults is
                                      known: Fortuna Primigenia ("first-born
                                      daughter of Jupiter"), Fortuna Publica,
                                      and Fortuna Publica Citerior (i.e.,
                                      "nearer the city"). In the 1880s,
                                      remains of one of the temples were
                                      found, but nothing was published and
                                      we cannot be certain which of the
                                      three temples it was.
41.88793273686     12.4815628533606   Located in the Forum Boarium, this        TS.png
                                      altar of "Unconquered Hercules" was
                                      the earliest cult-center of the hero in
                                      Rome. According to tradition, it was
                                      erected by King Evander after
                                      Hercules had slain the legendary
                                      monster, Cacus, who had stolen
                                      Hercules' cattle. The festival day was
                                      August 12. At first the cult was private,
                                      under the control of the families of the
                                      Potitii and Pinarii. In 312 B.C., the
                                      state took it over. Women could not
                                      take part in the cult, which especially
                                      appealed to businessmen and traders.
                                      Dogs were not allowed into the
                                      precinct. The exact design of the altar
                                      is not known. Remains of the
                                      pavement survive in the crypt and
                                      behind the church of S. Maria in
                                      Cosmedin.
41.8875932428167   12.5150768760445   A small amphitheater, later               AS.png
                                      incorporated into the Aurelian Walls,
                                      which helps to explain why a large
                                      section survives. It was part of the
                                      imperial property called the
                                      Sessorium, which was built by the
                                      emperor Elagabalus (A.D. 203?-222).

41.8939791951554   12.5011999378916   The modern name of a private              AS.png
                                      building from the time of Augustus (63
                                      B.C.-A.D. 14) in the area of the
                                      Gardens of Maecenas. Maecenas (70-
                                      8 B.C.) was a wealthy supporter of
                                      Augustus and patron of the arts. The
                                      form recalls a large triclinium (banquet
                                      hall): a rectangular hall with a semi-
                                      circular apse at the west end. A Greek
                                      epigram celebrating wine and love
                                      reinforces this interpretation. The floor
                                      and steps of the apse were covered
                                      with marble. After Maecenas' death,
                                      garden scenes were painted in the
                                      niches with extensive use of the
                                      expensive red pigment, cinnabar. This
                                      may date to the period when Tiberius
                                      (42 B.C.-A.D. 37) lived in the Gardens
                                      of Maecenas, after returning in A.D. 2
                                      from seven years of exile on the
                                      island of Rhodes.
41.8863884883787   12.4850506211963   Rome's first and largest circus (track AS.png
                                      for chariot races). It was 620 meters
                                      long and was built in the valley
                                      between the Palatine and Aventine
                                      hills. Here, according to tradition,
                                      Romulus staged the first horse races.
                                      The event was a ruse to enable the
                                      men of his new village to kidnap the
                                      young women of the neighboring
                                      Sabines ("the Rape of the Sabine
                                      Women"). For centuries, the circus
                                      was constructed of wood. The first
                                      stone version was built in the second
                                      century B.C. It was rebuilt and
                                      modified many times. By the high
                                      Empire, the racetrack could hold an
                                      estimated 150,000 spectators. The
                                      median strip was decorated with many
                                      monuments, including a fountain with
                                      seven bronze dolphins, seven
                                      enormous eggs used to indicate how
                                      many laps had been completed, and
                                      two Egyptian obelisks. There were
                                      turning-posts (metae) at each end.
                                      Set within the seating on the southern
                                      side was the Temple of the Sun and
41.9021025908488   12.4540259075812   Moon. At the western end A.D. 40.
                                      This circus was built circa of the     AS.png
                                      Both Gaius (Caligula) and Nero
                                      participated in the races held here.
                                      Several of Christian martyrdoms are
                                      said to have occurred here, and it is
                                      the present location of St. Peter's
                                      Basilica. The obelisk brought to Rome
                                      by Caligula to adorn the circus now
                                      stands in the middle of St. Peter's
                                      Square.
41.8901680113815   12.4923568780572   Known since the middle ages as the AS.png
                                      "Colosseum" because of the 100-foot-
                                      tall statue of the Sun god moved next
                                      to it by Hadrian (A.D. 76-138), this
                                      amphitheater was built by Vespasian
                                      in the valley between the Velia, the
                                      Esquiline and the Caelian Hills. The
                                      area had been a pond in the private
                                      gardens of Nero's Golden House.
                                      Vespasian restored it to public use for
                                      the popular animal hunts and
                                      gladiatorial games. The complex,
                                      which could hold ca. 45-50,000
                                      spectators, replaced an earlier
                                      amphitheater elsewhere in the city
                                      that was destroyed in the great fire of
                                      A.D. 64. Despite the protest of
                                      Christian thinkers, the gladiatorial
                                      fights continued until well into the
                                      Christian period, ending in the fifth
                                      century A.D. The animal hunts
                                      continued a century longer.

41.8908684214321   12.4950638021423   One of four training camps for          AS.png
                                      gladiators built by Domitian (A.D. 51-
                                      96) in the area around the
                                      Colosseum. Why it had the name
                                      "Dacian" is unclear: perhaps the
                                      earliest gladiators housed here were
                                      slaves captured from Dacia, which
                                      was conquered by Trajan (A.D. 53-
                                      117). It consisted of an oval arena for
                                      training and a surrounding courtyard
                                      off of which were rooms to house the
                                      men and their trainers. It was smaller
                                      than the Ludus Magnus, located not
                                      far away to the south.

41.8899420268681   12.4949011886888   This was the main training camp for       AS.png
                                      Rome's gladiators. One of four such
                                      facilities built by Domitian (A.D. 51-96)
                                      in the area of the Colosseum, it is the
                                      only one still visible today. In the
                                      center was an oval arena for training,
                                      surrounded by a courtyard with rooms
                                      for the gladiators and their trainers.
                                      The camp was linked to the
                                      Colosseum by a tunnel that still exists
                                      today.
41.8887812802464   12.4942113028394   One of four training camps for         AS.png
                                      gladiators built by Domitian (A.D. 51-
                                      96) in the area around the
                                      Colosseum. It was called "Matutinus"
                                      ("Morning") because it was where the
                                      animal hunters trained, and their
                                      events took place in the morning. In
                                      the center was an oval arena where
                                      the hunters could train; around that
                                      was a courtyard and rooms for
                                      hunters and their trainers.

41.8971497510916   12.4736117838059   This was a building erected by          AS.png
                                      Emperor Domitian (A.D. 51-96) in the
                                      Campus Martius as part of an
                                      entertainment complex (that included
                                      the Stadium). An odeum was smaller
                                      than a theater and was used for
                                      musical concerts and for recitations of
                                      poetry or show declamations.
                                      Domitian's could hold ca. 10,000
                                      spectators. In the Renaissance, the
                                      Palazzo Massimo "alle Colonne" on
                                      the Corso Vittorio Emmanuele II was
                                      built into the Odeum. Its curved
                                      façade still preserves the form
                                      of the ancient building. Behind the
                                      palazzo, in the Piazza dei Massimi,
                                      one of the surviving columns has
                                      been re-erected.

41.8989954014155   12.4730656315883   This stadium was used for foot races AS.png
                                      and other Greek athletic competitions.
                                      It was part of the entertainment
                                      complex built by Domitian (A.D. 51-
                                      96) in the Campus Martius next to the
                                      Baths of Agrippa and north of the
                                      Theater of Pompey. Built in A.D. 86, it
                                      was probably on land earlier occupied
                                      by wooden structures used for similar
                                      purposes. When the Colosseum was
                                      closed for repairs in the long period
                                      A.D. 217-228, the gladiatorial games
                                      were staged here. The modern-day
                                      Piazza Navona—one of Italy's
                                      most beautiful public
                                      spaces—occupies this site.
                                      The buildings of the piazza sit atop
                                      the ruins of the stadium, one section
                                      of which can still be seen on the
                                      northern, curved end.
41.8943421289952   12.4777527849478   L. Cornelius Balbus ("Minor") lived in AS.png
                                      the Augustan age. Born in Spain, he
                                      obtained Roman citizenship in his
                                      youth and was the first naturalized
                                      citizen and last private person to
                                      celebrate a triumph (19 B.C.). With
                                      the spoils he won, he built a theater in
                                      the Campus Martius. Dedicated in 13
                                      B.C., it was damaged in the fire of
                                      A.D. 80 and was restored shortly
                                      afterwards. It stood west and adjacent
                                      to the Crypta Balbi. By chance, when
                                      the day came to dedicate the complex
                                      in 13 B.C., the Tiber flooded, and
                                      Balbus and the other participants in
                                      the ceremony had to arrive by boat.


41.8917880353778   12.4793444747602   The theater, between the Forum       AS.png
                                      Holitorium and the Circus Flaminius,
                                      seated over 20,000 spectators and
                                      was originally planned by Julius
                                      Caesar (100-44 B.C.). It was
                                      completed between 13 and 11 B.C. by
                                      Augustus (63 B.C.-A.D. 14), who
                                      dedicated it to the memory of his
                                      nephew, Marcellus. In the middle
                                      ages, it was converted into a palace
                                      and thus is well-preserved.



41.8952711701139   12.4736048670304   The biggest and first permanent         AS.png
                                      theater in Rome, started by Pompey
                                      the Great (106-48 B.C.) in the
                                      Campus Martius after his triumph in
                                      61 B.C. and inaugurated in 55 B.C.
                                      but not completely finished until
                                      several years later. There were
                                      several shrines or temples (including
                                      one to Venus Victrix) atop the seating.
                                      Behind the stage was a large
                                      colonnaded garden (Porticus of
                                      Pompey), which included, on the east
                                      end, the Senate House of Pompey
                                      where Julius Caesar was
                                      assassinated in 44 B.C. Often
                                      restored, it was last repaired at the
                                      beginning of the sixth century A.D.
                                      Large sections survive today because
                                      they were incorporated into medieval
                                      palaces.
41.9010785986427   12.4774494169106   An "ustrinum" (also: "ustrina") is a   TM.png
                                      place in a Roman cemetery where
                                      bodies were cremated. This
                                      monumental structure could not have
                                      been an ustrinum, but it may have
                                      been erected on the site where the
                                      bodies of the Empress Faustina Maior
                                      (A.D. 100?-141) and her husband
                                      Antoninus Pius (A.D. 86-161) were
                                      cremated. It consisted of three square
                                      enclosures, one within the other and
                                      was located just to the south of the
                                      Column of Antoninus Pius. The
                                      column no longer survives, but the
                                      sculpted base commemorating the
                                      deification of Antoninus and Faustina
                                      can be seen in the Vatican Museums.


41.9060164165056   12.4764300874228   This mausoleum in the Campus           TM.png
                                      Martius on the Tiber River was
                                      erected sometime in the 20s B.C. as a
                                      dynastic monument by Augustus (63
                                      B.C.-A.D. 14) for himself, his family,
                                      and his successors. It is well
                                      preserved as are a remarkable series
                                      of inscriptions concerning members
                                      of the imperial families. The "bad"
                                      emperors Caligula, Nero, and
                                      Domitian were not buried here. As its
                                      most common Latin name ("tumulus")
                                      indicates, this large, round structure
                                      evoked the great heroic mound burials
                                      of Italy and Greece. It was topped by
                                      trees and a colossal statue of
                                      Augustus. By the time of Hadrian, it
                                      had filled up and so had to be
                                      supplemented by the Mausoleum of
                                      Hadrian on the other bank of the
                                      Tiber.
41.9029874553951   12.4664152191932   When Augustus' Mausoleum was full, TM.png
                                      Hadrian (A.D. 76-138) had to
                                      construct a new imperial tomb in the
                                      130s A.D. Imitating but also enlarging
                                      Augustus' monument on the left bank
                                      of the Tiber, he designed it with a
                                      circular plan and located it on the
                                      opposite bank of the river. The
                                      emperors down to Caracalla (A.D. 188-
                                      217) were buried here. The tomb was
                                      topped by a statue showing Hadrian
                                      riding a four-horse chariot. A bronze
                                      fence marked the area; two bronze
                                      peacocks decorating it survive and
                                      can be seen in the Courtyard of the
                                      Pigna in the Vatican Museums. The
                                      tomb (known today as the Castel S.
                                      Angelo) was converted into a fortress
                                      in the middle ages and can be visited
                                      by the public.

41.9025126723407   12.4634257322726   This is the medieval name given to a TM.png
                                      pyramidal funerary monument that
                                      stood between the mausoleum of
                                      Hadrian and the Vatican Hill. No
                                      longer extant, it was described as
                                      larger than the pyramid of Cestius and
                                      of great beauty. The marble slabs
                                      covering the monument were
                                      removed in the tenth century and
                                      used to pave the Paradiso of S.
                                      Peter's and the steps of the basilica. It
                                      stood at the intersection of the Via
                                      Cornelia and the Via Triumphalis. The
                                      person buried here is unknown. The
                                      medievals thought that this pyramid
                                      was the tomb of Romulus (Meta
                                      Romuli), and that the pyramid of
                                      Cestius across town was the tomb of
                                      Remus (Meta Remi).

41.90166001        12.47851002        An "ustrinum" (also: "ustrina") is a  TM.png
                                      place in a Roman cemetery where
                                      bodies were cremated. This
                                      monumental structure, located under
                                      the modern Parliament building, could
                                      not have been an ustrinum, but it may
                                      have been erected on the site where
                                      the body of the emperor Marcus
                                      Aurelius (A.D. 121-180) was
                                      cremated. The column symbolizing
                                      the emperor's deification stands
                                      nearby just to the southeast.
41.9029340052951   12.4631835726016   A sepulchral monument shaped            TM.png
                                      something like an obelisk was known
                                      in the middle ages as the obeliscus
                                      Neronis or terebinthus Neronis and
                                      was situated not far from the Meta
                                      Romuli.
41.8764451218444   12.480900168983    This well-preserved tomb has the        TM.png
                                      shape of a pyramid, 36.8 meters high
                                      and covered with white marble slabs.
                                      It was constructed before 12 B. C. by
                                      the praetor and priest, C. Cestius,
                                      and, centuries later was incorporated
                                      into the Aurelian Walls. According to
                                      an inscription, Cestius' heirs finished
                                      building the tomb just 330 days after
                                      his death. The choice of an Egyptian
                                      form for the tomb recalls the
                                      "Egyptomania" that occurred in Rome
                                      after Augustus (63 B.C.-A.D. 14)
                                      incorporated Egypt into the Roman
                                      empire in 30 B.C.

41.8979216270232   12.4789950991728   These were small obelisks found at     OB.png
                                      different times near the church of S.
                                      Maria sopra Minerva. They were
                                      probably brought to Rome during the
                                      first century and grouped in pairs at
                                      the entrances of the Temple of Isis in
                                      the Campus Martius.
41.8861898440671   12.4855061921876   Augustus (63 B.C.-A.D.14) brought      OB.png
                                      this obelisk to Rome from Heliopolis
                                      (Egypt). It was dedicated to the Sun
                                      and erected on the spina of the Circus
                                      Maximus.
41.9091636050047   12.4918132518174   This obelisk was brought to Rome at OB.png
                                      some point after Augustus (63 B.C.-
                                      A.D. 14) and was erected in the
                                      Gardens of Sallust. It now stands in
                                      the Piazza della Trinità dei Monti.

41.902612464161    12.4782915775845   This obelisk was originally erected at OB.png
                                      Heliopolis in the seventh century B.C.
                                      It was brought to Rome in 10 B.C. by
                                      Augustus and set up in the Campus
                                      Martius near the Ara Pacis Augustae.
                                      It was used as the gnomon (or needle)
                                      of the Horologium, a great sundial and
                                      calendar.
41.9054027519852   12.4763372691709   Two red granite obelisks stood at the OB.png
                                      entrance of Augustus' Mausoleum.
                                      One was moved in 1587 to a position
                                      behind the church of S. Maria
                                      Maggiore, and the other was added in
                                      1786 to the fountain of the Dioscuri in
                                      front of the Quirinal Palace.
Platner-Ashby   Wikipedia      FUR          DAI




Aqua_Appia      Aqua_Appia




Aqua_Claudia    Aqua_Claudia   4a, 4b, 8i
Aqua_Marcia   Aqua_Marcia   Aqua+marcia




Aqua_Tepula   Aqua_Tepula




Aqua_Virgo    Aqua_Virgo    Aqua+virgo
Anio_Novus       Anio_Novus      Anio+Novus




Aqua_Julia       Aqua_Julia      Aqua+Julia




Muri_Aureliani   Aurelian_Wall   Muri+Aureliani




Porta_Appia      Porta_Appia     Porta+Appia


Porta_Asinaria


Porta_Flaminia                   Porta+Flaminia
Porta_Latina       Porta_Latina       Porta+Latina

Porta_Metrovia




Porta_Nomentana                       Porta+Nomentan
                                      a


Porta_Ostiensis    Porta_Ostiensis



Porta_Pinciana     Porta_Pinciana     Porta+Pinciana




Porta_Portuensis   Porta_Portuensis


Porta_Salaria      Porta_Salaria      Porta+Salaria

Porta_Tiburtina    Porta_Tiburtina    Porta+Tiburtina

Porta_Trigemina    Porta_Trigemina    Porta+Trigemina




Porta_Praenestina Porta_Maggiore      Porta+Maggiore
Thermae_Agrippa Baths_of_Agrippa      38 baths+of+Agrippa
e




Thermae_Antonini Baths_of_Caracalla     baths+of+caracall
anae                                    a
Thermae_Constan Baths_of_Constantine_%2   baths+of+consta
tinianae        8Rome%29                  ntine




Thermae_Deciana                           baths+of+decius
e




Thermae_Diocleti Baths_of_Diocletian      baths+of+diocleti
an                                        an




Thermae_Neronia                           baths+of+nero
na
Thermae_Titi      Baths_of_Titus    110, 113          baths+of+titus




Thermae_Trajani   Baths_of_Trajan   10i, 10lm,        baths+of+trajan
                                    10opqr, 10s,
                                    10wxy, 10z, 12,
                                    13q, 13r, 13s,
                                    565



Pons_Aelius       Pons_Aelius




Pons_Aemilius     Pons_Aemilius     621abcd, 621e,
                                    621f




Pons_Agrippae                                         pons+agrippae




Pons_Cestius      Pons_Cestius




Pons_Fabricius    Pons_Fabricius                      Pons+Fabricius
Pons_Neronianus




Pons_Sublicius       Pons_Sublicius          574ab   Pons+Sublicius




Basilica_Aemilia     Basilica_Aemilia        16e     Basilica+Aemilia




Basilica_Argentari
a



Basilica_Constanti Basilica_of_Constantine
ni




basilicae.html#Hil                                   Basilica+Hilarian
ariana                                               a
Basilica_Julia      Basilica_Julia   18b, 18bc, 18d   Basilica+Julia




basilicae.html#Ne                                     Basilica+Neptuni
ptuni




basilicae.html#Ulp Basilica_ulpia    29a, 29bcd, 29e, Basilica+Ulpia
ia                                   29f, 29h
Carcer             Mamertine_Prison        carcer




                                      6a




Castra_Peregrina                           Castra+Peregrina




Castra_Praetoria   Castra_Praetoria        Castra+Praetoria
Curia_Julia          Curia_Julia                   Curia+Julia




Diribitorium         Diribitorium   35lpqr, 35hh   Diribitorium




bibliothecae.html#                                 Bibliotheca+Apoll
Apollinis_Palatini                                 inis+Palatini
Rostra_Augusti   Rostra




Saepta_Julia     Saepta_Julia   35lpqr, 35nozaa,
                                35uv, 35bb,
                                35gg, 35hh, 36a




Sessorium                                          Sessorium




Tabularium       Tabularium                        Tabularium




                                                   Paedagogium
Emporium                                 24c, 24d         Emporium




horrea.html#Agrip                                         Horrea+Agrippian
piana                                                     a



Horrea_Galbae        Horrea_Galbae       24A, 24a, 24B,
                                         24c




horrea.html#Lollia                       25a, 25b
na
horrea.html#Seian
a



Macellum_Liviae      Macellum_Liviae     157a, 157bc


                     Markets_of_Trajan                    Markets+of+Traja
                                                          n



                                         1abcde
Forum_Augustum Forum_of_Augustus   16a, 16b, 16c,   Forum+Augustu
                                   16d              m




Forum_Boarium   Forum_Boarium                       Forum+Boarium
Forum_Julium     Forum_of_Caesar                Forum+Iulium




Forum_Holitorium Forum_Holitorium   31h, 31il   Forum+Holitoriu
                                                m




Forum_Nervae                        16a         Forum+Nervae
Forum_Romanum Roman_Forum          18a, 18b, 18bc,   Roman+Forum
                                   18d, 19, 212ac,
                                   212b




Forum_Trajani   Trajan%27s_Forum   29a, 29bcd, 29e, Forum+Trajan
                                   29f, 29g, 29h,
                                   517abcdef
fora.html#Pacis                    15ab, 15c, 16a   Forum+Pacis




                  Lacus_Juturnae                    Lacus+Juturnae




                  Meta_Sudans                       Meta+Sudans
Nymphaeum.html                                  Nymphaeum
#Nymphaeum_2




Nymphaeum.html
#Nymphaeum_Ale
xandri




Thermae_Agrippa
e




Septizonium       Septizodium   7abcd, 8a, 8bde septizodium
Horti_Aciliorum




horti.html#Domitia
e_Calvillae



Horti_Lamiani        Horti_Lamiani   Gardens+of+Lam
                                     ia
horti.html#Lolliani




Horti_Luculliani      Horti+Luculliani
Horti_Maecenatis Gardens_of_Maecenas       10abcde, 10tu,   Horti+Maecenatis
                                           10v




Horti_Sallustiani   Gardens_of_Sallust                      Gardens+of+Sall
                                                            ust




Atrium_Vestae       House_of_the_Vestals                    Atrium+Vestae
Domus_Augustian   Domus+Augusta
a                 na




                  Domus+Laterani




Domus_Tiberiana   Domus+Tiberiana
Domus_Augusti                           House+of+Augus
                                        tus




Arcus_Augusti   Arch_of_Augustus%2C_R   Arch+of+Augustu
                ome                     s
Arcus_Constantini Arch_of_Constantine   Arch+of+Constan
                                        tine




arcus.html#Dolab
ellae_et_Silani



arcus.html#Gallien Arch_of_Gallienus
i
Arcus_Argentarior Arcus_Argentariorum   Arch+of+the+Arg
um                                      entarii




Arcus_Tiberii    Arch_of_Tiberius
Arcus_Titi         Arch_of_Titus      7abcd    Arch+of+Titus




Arcus_Claudii                                  Arch+of+Claudiu
                                               s
Arcus_Claudii      Arch_of_Claudius            Arcus+Claudii




arcus.html#Novus




Arcus_Neroniani                       4a, 4b   arch+of+nero
Columna_Antonini Column_of_Antoninus_Piu   Column+of+Anto
_Pii             s                         ninus+Pius




Columna_M.Aureli Column_of_Marcus_Aureli   Column+of+Marc
i                us                        us+Aurelius




Forum_Trajani.ht   Trajan%27s_Column       Trajan%27s+Col
ml#Trajans_Colu                            umn
mn
                 Colossus_of_Nero              colossus+of+nero




Janus_Quadrifron Arch_of_Janus                 arch+of+janus
s



Arcus_Septimii_S Arch_of_Septimius_Sever   687 Arch+of+Septimi
everi            us                            us+Severus




Milliarium_Aureum Milliarium_Aureum




Umbilicus_Romae Umbilicus_Romae                Umbilicus+Roma
                                               e
Obeliscus_Augusti




Crypta_Balbi        30abc, 31dd,   Crypta+Balbi
                    35dd




                                   Porticus+Lentulor
                                   um




Porticus_Aemilia    23, 24b, 24c   Porticus+Aemilia




Porticus_Argonaut   35hh           Porticus+Argona
arum                               utarum
Porticus_Deorum_
Consentium




Porticus_Liviae                      10lm, 10opqr,      Porticus+Liviae
                                     11a


Porticus_Minucia                     35dd, 35ff, 37a,   Porticus+Minucia
                                     37b, 37c, 37d




Porticus_Octaviae Porticus_Octavia   31u, 31vaa,        Porticus+Octavia
                                     31bb, 31cc,        e
                                     31dd, 31ggz




porticus.html#Phili                  31bb, 31cc,        Porticus+Philippi
ppi                                  31dd, 31eeff,
                                     31ggz, 31hh
Porticus_Pompei                       37a, 37b, 37d,    Porticus+Pompei
                                      37e, 37l, 39ac,
                                      39b, 39de, 39g




porticus.html#Mel                     35nozaa, 35uv,
eagri                                 36a



Arx                 Arx_%28Roman%29                     arx




Asylum                                                  Asylum
Forum_Trajani.ht   Aventine_hill   22a, 22b, 421ab,
ml#Trajans_Colu                    421c, 421d
mn




Caelius_Mons       Caelian_Hill    200a, 200b,        Caelius+Mons
                                   674ac, 674b
Campus_Martius   Campus_Martius    37Am, 37f, 37h,   Campus+Martius
                                   40ai, 40b,
                                   40cdefgh




Capitolinus      Capitoline_Hill   31a, 31b, 31c,    Capitolinus+Colli
                                   499               s




Carinae          Carinae                             Carinae
                 Circus_Flaminius   31cc, 31ii, 31u   circus+flaminius




                 Esquiline_Hill                       Esquiline+Hill




Oppius_Mons      Oppian_Hill                          Oppius+Mons




Testaceus_Mons   Monte_Testaccio                      Monte+Testaccio
Palatinus      Palatine_Hill   20a, 20b, 20c,    Palatinus+Mons
                               20d, 20e, 20fg,
                               20h, 70a, 70b,
                               70c, 103




Pincius_Mons   Pincian_Hill




Quirinalis     Quirinal_Hill   538abdefg,        Quirinal+Hill
                               538chijklmno
Subura            Subura         10Aab, 10abcde, Subura
                                 10f, 10g, 10h,
                                 10lm, 10n,
                                 10opqr, 10tu,
                                 10v, 10aa, 11a,
                                 11b, 11c, 11d,
                                 26, 483ab



Insula_Tiberina   Tiber_Island   32a, 32b, 32cde, Insula+Tiberina
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Tiberis     Tiber_River        24c. 24d. 25a,    Tiber+River
                               25b, 27b, 27c,
                               27de, 27f, 28a,
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                               37gi, 37h, 92,
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Velabrum    Velabrum                            Velabrum




Velia       Velia_%28hill%29                    Velia




Viminalis   Viminal_Hill       11fgh, 216
Comitium             Comitium                   Comitium




Alta_Semita                                     Alta+Semita




Argiletum                                       Argiletum




Clivus_Argentariu                               Clivus+Argentari
s                                               us




Clivus_Capitolinus




Clivus_Scauri                    5Aab, 5Abcd,   Clivus+Scauri
                                 5Af




Via_Appia            Via_Appia   1abcde         Via+Appia
Via_Asinaria


Via_Aurelia         Via_Aurelia                          Via+Aurelia




Via_Portuensis      Via_Portuensis      28a, 28b, 28c,   Via+Portuensis
                                        138a, 138bcde,
                                        138f, 150,
                                        574ab, fn23


Via_Flaminia        Via_Flaminia                         Via+Flaminia




Via_Labicana        Via_Labicana                         Via+Labicana




Via_Flaminia.html Via_Lata_%28Rome%29                    Via+Lata
#Lata


Via_Latina          Via_Latina                           Via+Latina




viae.html#Merulan                                        Via+Merulana
a




Via_Nomentana       Via_Nomentana                        Via+Nomentana
Nova_Via                          1abcde     Nova+Via




Via_Ostiensis     Via_Ostiensis


Sacra_Via         Via_Sacra                17 Sacra+Via




Via_Salaria       Via_Salaria                Via+Salaria




Via_Tiburtina     Via_Tiburtina              Via+Tiburtina




Via_Triumphalis                              Via+Triumphalis
Vicus_Jugarius                              Vicus+Jugarius




Vicus_Tuscus     Vicus_Tuscus   18b, 18bc   Vicus+Tuscus
Ara_Pacis          Ara_Pacis   Ara+Pacis




Divorum.html#tem               Divorum
plum
Lacus_Curtius   Lacus_Curtius   Lacus+Curtius




                Lapis_Niger     Lapis+Niger
Pantheon   Pantheon%2C_Rome     Pantheon




Regia      Regia              17 Regia
Sacrum_Cloacina Shrine_of_Venus_Cloacin   Venus+Cloacina
e               a




Aedes_Aesculapii.
html#aedes




Templum_Antonin Temple_of_Antoninus_and
i-Faustinae     _Faustina
Aedes_Apollinis_i Temple_of_Apollo_Sosian 31fg
n_Campo_M         us




Bellona          Temple_of_Bellona_%28R 31d, 31eno   Temple+of+Bello
                 ome%29                              na
Aedes_Divi_Juli   Temple_of_Caesar




Aedes_Castoris                       temple+of+castor
                                     +and+pollux
Concordia.html#5 Temple_of_Concord   19 Aedes+Concordi
                                        ae
                    Heliogabalium




Aedes_Fidei   499
Hadrianeum   Temple_of_Hadrian                   Hadrianeum




                                                 aedes+Aemiliana
                                                 +Herculis




                                 31bb, 31eeff,   Hercules+Musaru
                                 31ggz, 31hh     m
Aedes_Herculis_V Temple_of_Hercules_Victo   Round+Temple+
ictoris          r                          on+the+Tiber




Aedes_Junonis_M                             Juno+moneta
onetae
Juno_Sospita      Temple_of_Juno_Sospita   31h   Juno+sospita




Templum_Augusti                            18e
Aedes_Jovis_Capi Temple_of_Jupiter_%28C   Temple+of+Jupit
tolini           apitoline_Hill%29        er+Optimus+Maxi
                                          mus
Templum_Claudii                         4b, 5a, 5b, 5c,   Templum+Claudii
                                        5dg, 5e, 5f, 5h




Aedes_Matris_De Temple_of_Cybele_%28P                     Magna+mater
um.html#3       alatine%29
Aedes_Martis.html                      238a, 238b      Mars+in+Circo
#in_circo_Flamini
o




Forum_Augustum. Temple_of_Mars_Ultor   16b, 16c, 16d   Temple+of+Mars
html#Aedes_Marti                                       +Ultor
s_Ultoris




Templum_Matidia                        36b
e.html#templum




Aedes_Minervae.                        22b             Aedes+Minervae
html
                                          16a




Aedes_Apollinis_ Temple_of_Apollo_Palatin 20e, 20fg, 20h
Palatini         us




Portunium        Temple_of_Portunus                        Portunus
Quirinus.html#aed   Temple+of+Quiri
es                  nus
                Temple_of_Saturn   18d, 19   Temple+of+Satur
                                             n




Templum_Solis                                Templum+Solis
                    Aedes+Solis




Temple_of_Spes




                    Templum+Divi+T
                    raiani




Temple_of_Veiovis
Forum_Julium.htm Temple_of_Venus_Genetri               Temple+of+Venu
l#Venus_Genetrix x                                     s+Genetrix




Templum_Veneris Temple_of_Venus_and_R                  Temple+of+Venu
_et_Romae       ome                                    s+and+Rome




Venus_Victrix                              39de, 39f
Templum_Vespasi Temple_of_Vespasian_an   19 Templum+Divi+V
ani             d_Titus                     espasiani




Atrium_Vestae    Temple_of_Vesta           Aedes+Vestae




Templum_Victoria Temple_of_Victory         Temple+of+Victor
e                                          y
                                                       Auguratorium




              Largo_di_Torre_Argentina 37a, 37b, 37d




Juno_Regina   Temple_of_Jupiter_Stator 31u, 31vaa,
              _%282nd_century_BC%29 31bb, 31ggz
Templum_Pacis   Temple_of_Peace%2C_R 15ab, 15c, 16a   Templum+Pacis
                ome




Tres_Fortunae                                         Aedes+Fortunae
Ara_Maxima_Herc Great_Altar_of_Hercules   Altar+of+Hercule
ulis                                      s




Amphitheatrum_C Amphitheatrum_Castrense   Amphitheatrum+
astrense                                  Castrense




Auditorium_Maec
enatis
Circus_Maximus   Circus_Maximus   7abcd, 7e, 8bde, Circus+Maximus
                                  8c, 8fg, 8h, 9,
                                  351, fn9




G.html#Gaianum   Circus_of_Nero
Amphitheatrum_Fl Colosseum      13ac, 13b, 13de, Colosseum
avium                           13f, 13g, 13hi,
                                13l, 13m, 13n,
                                13o




ludi.html#Dacicus               6g, 13p




ludi.html#Magnus Ludus_Magnus   6bcdf, 6c, 6e   Ludus+Magnus
ludi.html#Matutinu
s




Stadium_Domitian
i
Theatrum_Balbi   Theater_of_Balbus       30abc, 31dd,    Theatrum+Balbi
                                         35dd




Theatrum_Marcelli Theater_of_Marcellus   31eno, 31il,     Theatrum+Marcel
                                         31mt, 31p, 31qrs l




Theatrum_Pompei Theater_of_Pompey        39de, 39f       Theater+of+Pom
                                                         pey
Ustrinum_Antonin
orum




Mausoleum_Augu Mausoleum_of_Augustus   Mausoleum+of+A
sti                                    ugustus
Mausoleum_Hadri Mausoleum_of_Hadrian   41abc
ani




Meta_Romuli
Sepulcrum_C.Ces Pyramid_of_Gaius_Cestiu   Pyramid+of+Gaiu
tii             s                         s+Cestius




Obeliscus_Isei_C Obelisks_in_Rome
ampensis




                  Obelisks_in_Rome
Obeliscus_Circi_Maximi




Obeliscus_Hortoru Obelisks_in_Rome
m




Obeliscus_Augusti Obelisks_in_Rome
obelisci.html#Mau Obelisks_in_Rome
solei_Augusti

								
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