Communication Theory and Schema by linzhengnd

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									COMMUNICATION
   & SCHEMA
THE COMMUNICATION MODEL




SENDER   MESSAGE       RECEIVER




         INTERACTION
         THE SENDER



SENDER     MESSAGE       RECEIVER




           INTERACTION
         THE MESSAGE



SENDER      MESSAGE      RECEIVER




           INTERACTION
           THE INTERACTION



SENDER                   MESSAGE                    RECEIVER




                        INTERACTION

  How does the message get from me to you?
                   First I start with a thought…

Then I externalize it using some code (English) and symbols (words).
           THE INTERACTION



SENDER                   MESSAGE                    RECEIVER




                        INTERACTION

  How does the message get from me to you?
                   First I start with a thought…

Then I externalize it using some code (English) and symbols (words).
             THE RECEIVER



SENDER               MESSAGE                    RECEIVER




                    INTERACTION

                What must you do?
   You have to break the code and interpret the symbols.
             THE RECEIVER



SENDER               MESSAGE                    RECEIVER




                    INTERACTION

                What must you do?
   You have to break the code and interpret the symbols.
         THE MEANING



SENDER         MESSAGE           RECEIVER




              INTERACTION

         Where is the meaning?
         THE MEANING



SENDER         MESSAGE           RECEIVER




              INTERACTION

         Where is the meaning?
                                  P
            E                              D
                                  A
            N                              E
                                  C
            C                              C
                                  K
  SENDER    O WORDS     MESSAGE            O
                                  A MEDIUM     RECEIVER
            D ACTIONS                      D
                                  G
            I                              I
                                  I
            N                              N
                                  N
            G                              G
                                  G


ENCODING PROCESS: words, actions
PACKAGING: THE MEDIUM: message delivery system
DECODING:
DECODING:

NO INPUT
                 Can you see sound?    Can you hear sign language?
NO MEANING


INPUT
                 What about opening IBM files on a Mac?
NO MEANING


WRONG MEANING What about language learning?
DECODING:

NO INPUT
                 Can you see sound?    Can you hear sign language?
NO MEANING


INPUT
                 What about opening IBM files on a Mac?
NO MEANING


WRONG MEANING What about language learning?
THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
                         OUR CONTEXT




                                   P
           E                                    D
                                   A
           N                                    E
                                   C
           C                                    C
               WORDS               K
           O                                    O
  SENDER       ACTIONS   MESSAGE   A   MEDIUM     RECEIVER
           D                                    D
                                   G
           I                                    I
                                   I
           N                                    N
                                   N
           G                                    G
                                   G




                         OUR CONTEXT
When the source and the recipient share the same
context they encode and decode the message
with the same program.
What garbles the message?
                              OUR CONTEXT


                                 Noise



                                         P
                E                                     D
                                         A
                N                                     E
                                         C
                C                                     C
                    WORDS                K
                O                                     O
      SENDER        ACTIONS   MESSAGE    A   MEDIUM     RECEIVER
                D                                     D
                                         G
                I                                     I
                                         I
                N                                     N
                                         N
                G                                     G
                                         G




                              OUR CONTEXT

  * Radio * Stress * Boredom * Temperature * Mannerisms * Traffic *
What is going on with the receiver?

INTERPRETING

CONSTRUCTING MEANING
                                                         D
GRANTING OR WITHHOLDING PERMISSION                       E
                                                         C
                                                         O
EVALUATING                                               D
                                                           RECEIVER
                                                         I
                                                         N
MAINTAINING RELATIONSHIPS                                G


PROVIDING FEEDBACK

MAKING DECISIONS
        THE CREDIBILITY OF THE MESSENGER * THE TOLERANCE OF THE TOPIC
                        THE ACCEPTIBILITY OF THE LANGUAGE
What are the receiver‟s response options?


SINCERE ACCEPTANCE

STRAIGHTFORWARD REJECTION
                                                     D
                                                     E
UNCONSCIOUSLY FITS INTO BELIEF SYSTEM                C
                                                     O
                                                       RECEIVER
SYNCRETISM                                           D
                                                     I
                                                     N
DELAYS THE DECISION                                  G


SYMBIOSIS -                             Feedback
 “This isn‟t for me but I won‟t stand in the way…”
   What happens when you take this process

           CROSS CULTURALLY?


     “OUR” CONTEXT                      “THEIR” CONTEXT


     S     M     R                      S     M     R




YOU HAVE DIFFERENT CONTEXTS AND DIFFERENT OPERATING SYSTEMS.

THE MESSAGE IS PACKAGED AND SENT BY ONE SET OF STANDARDS,
     BUT IS UNWRAPPED AND RECEIVED BY ANOTHER.
             G   N
GOD‟S
UNCHANGING
TRUTH
             O   E
             O   W
             D   S
               G   N
GOD‟S
UNCHANGING
TRUTH
               O   E
MY CONTEXT /
FORMATTING
STYLE
               O   W
               D   S
               G   N
GOD‟S
UNCHANGING
TRUTH
               O   E
MY CONTEXT /
FORMATTING
STYLE
               O   W
“THEIR”
CONTEXT /
FORMATTING
STYLE
               D   S
                             G          N
GOD‟S
UNCHANGING
TRUTH
                             O          E
MY CONTEXT /
FORMATTING
STYLE
                             O          W
“THEIR”
CONTEXT /
FORMATTING
STYLE
                             D            S
THERE ARE THINGS WHICH COLOR THE MESSAGE AND RESHAPE IT
SCHEMATA AND SCHEMA
   The Importance of Context
                       OUR CONTEXT




                                 P
         E                                    D
                                 A
         N                                    E
                                 C
         C                                    C
             WORDS               K
         O                                    O
SENDER       ACTIONS   MESSAGE   A   MEDIUM     RECEIVER
         D                                    D
                                 G
         I                                    I
                                 I
         N                                    N
                                 N
         G                                    G
                                 G




                       OUR CONTEXT
     Cross-Cultural Communication



“OUR” CONTEXT                    “THEIR” CONTEXT


S     M    R                      S    M        R




    COMMUNICATION DEPENDS HEAVILY ON CONTEXT…
       “Nine Men Died on Base Today”




TO A BASEBALL FAN IT MEANS ONE THING…
TO AN AIR FORCE OFFICER IT MEANS ANOTHER.

    It is very difficult to „access‟ the local contextual „shareware‟.

    Cultures leave much unstated, depending instead on the shared
    context to convey meaning.

    In print cultures we „spell out the details‟ when we recognize
    that others don‟t share our mental „shareware‟.
           An Ancient Proverb Says

    “Even if a stick stays in the water,
     it does not become a crocodile.”

LIVING IN A CULTURE DIFFERENT FROM OUR OWN DOES NOT MAKE
US A CHILD OF THAT CULTURE…

OBSERVING AND RECORDING BEHAVIOR IN A CULTURE DOES NOT
MEAN WE UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMTIONS ABOUT REALITY THAT
UNDERLINE THOSE BEHAVIORS…

REALITY LIES IN THE SYSTEMS OF KNOWLEDGE FOUND IN THE
MINDS OF A PEOPLE…
We Acquire Knowledge In Different Ways

 * PERSONAL EXPERIENCE * OBSERVATION * SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION *
            CONVERSATION * READING * MODELING *



 Culture is the accumulation of this knowledge
 which enables a people to             function
 effectively in their
 environment.
             This Knowledge Is Called




   And Is Stored In Cognitive Frameworks
Schemata contain our knowledge of the
physical and its culturally determined
categories...
             They contain the abstract,
             such as guides for social
             interaction and discourse...
AMERICANS HAVE A „SCHOOL‟ SCHEMA. ONE CAN SAY TO
ANOTHER, “I WENT TO SCHOOL IN TEXAS” WITHOUT HAVING TO
EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF WHAT IT MEANS TO GO TO SCHOOL.

IF ANOTHER SAYS, “I WAS HOME SCHOOLED,” THE LISTENER‟S
MIND SWITCHES TO THE APPROPRIATE SITUATION.

WITHIN THE „SCHOOL‟ SCHEMA THERE ARE SUB-SCHEMATA:
    * HOMEWORK * TESTS * TEXTBOOKS * LECTURES *

„GOING TO SCHOOL‟ IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD MAY HAVE
DIFFERENT SCHEMA. IT MAY MEAN CHANTING THE KORAN AND
WRITING ARABIC ON A WOODEN BOARD WITH CHARCOAL.
COGNITIVE SHEMATA WORK TOGETHER AS A TYPE OF
INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM. THEY ASSIMILATE INCOMING
INFORMATION, WORKING TO „DECODE‟ IT, WE MIGHT SAY.


        IN MEMORARY THEY ORGANIZE DATA FOR
        STORAGE IN THE „MEMORY BANKS‟.


                       IN RECALL - IF SOME INFORMATION IS
                       MISSING - THEY FILL IN THE BLANKS
                       WITH WHAT „PROBABLY‟ SHOULD BE
                       THERE!
  Schemata work on
 FULLY AUTOMATIC
   when it comes to
information processing
   within our minds.
THOSE WITHIN A „FOREIGN‟ ENVIRONMENT CARRY
THEIR OWN CONSTRUCTS OF CULTURE, WORLDVIEW,
AND SCHEMATA WITH THEM.

AS THEY COME UP AGAINST A SCHEMA DIFFERENT
THAN THEIR OWN THEY EITHER REJECT IT, ASSIMILATE
IT, OR REPLACE IT WITH THE NEW.
SCHEMATA ARE DEPENDENT UPON ONE‟S
EXPERIENCE AND CULTURE. THE MORE INPUT ONE
RECEIVES, THE MORE ONE EXPERIENCES, THE MORE
SCHEMATA MUST BE FORMED TO PROCESS THE
INFORMATION AND EXPERIENCES.

WHEN FACED WITH A SITUATION FOR WHICH THERE IS
NO SCHEMATA, THE NORMAL REACTION IS CONFUSION
AND FEAR.
            THEN ASSIMILATION INTO AN
            EXISTING SCHEMA IS ATTEMPTED
            NEXT IS ACCOMODATION OF THE
            EXPERIENCE BY CHANGING AN EXISTING
            SCHEMA OR FORMING A NEW ONE.
CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION TEACHES THAT IT IS THE
RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SENDER TO ASSURE THAT THE
MESSAGE IS UNDERSTOOD BY THE RECEIVER.

IT IS ALSO THE
                         TO MINIMIZE THE IMPACT HIS OR HER
RESPONSIBILITY OF
                         SCHEMATA HAVE ON THE MESSAGE
THE SENDER
                          TO UNDERSTAND THE SCHEMATA OF
                          THE RECEIVER
                          TO PUT THE MESSAGE IN A FORM THAT
                          IS ACCESSIBLE TO THE RECEIVER

      PREFERRED LANGUAGE * PREFERRED LEARNING STYLES
            PREFERRED COMMUNICATION PATTERNS
     Unfortunately our own
UNMODIFIED / NON-UPGRADED
  schemata have little value in
working with many of the world’s
   people groups and cultures.
It has been said that people
 differ not so much in their
reasoning powers as in their
       starting points.
These STARTING POINTS are
 schemata which have been
    formed in their lives.
As we seek to communicate the
 GOOD NEWS to others, it is
     important that THEIR
schemata are not replaced with
 OUR schemata, but with the
  schemata of GOD’S WORD.
        Another Ancient Proverb Says

  “A wise child is talked to in proverbs.”

              We leave you with this:

GO TO THE PEOPLE,            BUT OF THE BEST TEACHERS,
LIVE AMONG THEM.             WHEN THEIR TASK IS ACCOMPLISHED,
LEARN FROM THEM.             THEIR WORK IS DONE,
L0VE THEM.                   THE PEOPLE WILL REMARK,
START WITH WHAT THEY KNOW,   “WE HAVE DONE IT OURSELVES.”
BUILD ON WHAT THEY HAVE.        An Old Chinese Poem

								
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