THE COLONIES EMERGE & THE COLONIES COME OF AGE
At the end of these chapters, students will be able to answer the following:
1. What ideas of representative government and religious toleration did the colonies
implement in the New World? How did they evolve?
2. What immigrants settled in what colonies and why?
3. What were the social, cultural, and economic similarities and differences among the New
England, Middle, and Southern colonies?
4. Why was slavery introduced into the colonies and how did it influence European and
African life in the colonies?
5. How did slavery and indentured servitude differ?
HMMMMM . . . .in which region would you have chosen to live if you were alive during
the 1600’s-1700’s in colonial America? Think about it, write it down and why - then we will 4
The English had actually attempted to colonize the New World in 1587. Sir Walter
Raleigh sponsored a colony on Roanoke Island (part of present day North Carolina). Historians
often refer to this as the Lost Colony, because by 1590 the colony had completely disappeared.
In 1607 the English tried again, this time in Jamestown, Virginia. Jamestown was
funded by the Virginia Company, a joint stock company – where a group of investors paid the
king to allow them the right to settle their colony. Joint stock companies were common ways
to fund journeys to the New World, and the area around Jamestown settlement took its name
from the joint stock company that funded it, hence the state of Virginia. Jamestown struggled
in its early years, and nearly disappeared like the Lost Colony.
The Jamestown colony did eventually succeed due to 2 major factors. First, the leader
of the Powhatan Confederacy, an alliance of Indian tribes in the area, decided to help the
settlers. Powhatan, a member of the Algonquian tribe and head of the confederacy, led his
tribesmen to teach the Jamestown colonists which crops would grow well in the Virginia soil and
how best to cultivate these crops. The second factor was the settlers’ decision to plant
tobacco. John Rolfe, who married Pocahontas, thought to import the tobacco from the West
Indies. Tobacco quickly became their number one export.
Unlike those who flocked to the Chesapeake seeking financial gain, the English settlers
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (MBC) came to America for religious reasons. The Puritans
wished to reform, or “purify” the Anglican Church, and then to separate entirely from the
Anglican Church. Persecuted by non-Puritans, the Puritans chose to leave England. They first
went to Holland, but eventually made their way to America. Because they traveled for religious
reason, we call them the Pilgrims.
The Pilgrims raised money for their journey by promising sympathetic merchants that
they intended to go to the Chesapeake region where so many others were beginning to thrive.
Historians differ on whether this was purposeful or not on the Pilgrims’ part, but the Mayflower
veered off course and they landed in present day Massachusetts. Unlike the initial settlers in
Jamestown, the Pilgrims were prepared to work hard together to create a successful colony.
Before they landed at Plymouth, they had forged an agreement on their boat. This Mayflower
Compact established 2 things:
Basic political and legal rules for the colony
The idea that the power to govern generates from the consent of the
majority of the people – the ideal that would later serve as the
foundation for the Declaration of Independence
In 1630, a larger, more powerful colony was established in Massachusetts by the
Puritans. These Puritans differed from the Pilgrims in that they had chosen not to leave the
Anglican Church entirely, but to purify it by beginning their own settlement as a model – “a city
upon a hill”- as their leader, John Winthrop called it. More than 900 Puritans boarded 11 ships
to cross the Atlantic, and many colony laws were determined by church laws. To keep their
colony pure, the Puritans allowed only Anglican Church members in good standing to vote and
take part in political matters. Additionally, the Bible was used as the basis for many court
judgments and policy decisions.
ASSIGNMENTS FOR CHAPTERS 2 AND 3
1. Vocabulary (57 points):
a. define the following terms:
3. Headright system
4. indentured servant
5. middle passage
6. royal colony
7. corporate colony
9. cash crop
10. triangular trade
11. Halfway Covenant
12. Fundamental Orders
b. State the Historical Significance of the following
2. Nathanial Bacon and his Rebellion
3. John Winthrop
4. Mayflower Compact
6. Navigation Acts
7. Salutary Neglect
8. Jonathan Edwards
9. Salem Witch Trials
2. As you read about New Netherlands and Pennsylvania, complete the following (16
3. Relations with Native Americans?
4. Relations with England?
4. Relations with Native Americans?
3. Mercantilism Reading
The Founding of the 13 Colonies
a. Let’s do watch some video first. When the video is over, I will ask you a few
b. Problem solving! We will now complete 2 activities on the founding of the colonies.
You will work both alone and in groups. Listen as to how we will move every so
c. THE INVESTIGATION! We will now move into new groups for our next activity.
Each group will be assigned a different colonial region. It is the job of each group
to research and investigate the following:
a. Why were the colonies founded?
b. Who were the founders?
c. What were the economic and political aspects of that region?
i. What was their economic success based on?
ii. How did geography impact the economy?
iii. How was the government organized?
d. What was the prominent religion…if any?
e. Were there any interactions with Native Americans? Describe these.
f. How was the social classes structured within the region? Did you have
g. Was there an education system?
h. What did people do for fun?
i. Was your area more rural or urban?
After you have answered the questions above, each group will create a HUGE map.
This needs to visually include all the above information as well as the colonies
themselves. Your classmates will view these HUGE maps – make them readable!
But they will also be given time to ask you questions. You will record other groups’
info onto the attached chart.
d. Let’s go to the Salutary Neglect and Mercantilism Handout – read and answer the
questions. We will then discuss!
More info for you!
“FFV” First Families of Virginia – the largest landowners, earliest settlers, usually political
leaders, married each other
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Released Indentured Servants were forced to move out to the Virginia
Frontier – all the good land was taken by the FFV’s. This put the former indentured servants
in close, and unfriendly, contact with the Native Americans. As violence increased between the
FIS and NA, the FIS demanded protection from the Jamestown government. As the FIS did
not have representation in the House of Burgesses, they were ignored. Nathanial Bacon led a
rebellion of FIS, and marched on Jamestown, burning buildings and demanding their rights be
respected. When Bacon died of dysentery, the rebellion was put down, and the rebels put to
death. As the need for increased power over servants increased, Virginia looked away from
indentured servants and increased the number of slaves.
JP Zenger (1735) a New York newspaper editor who was sued for libel by the crown appointed
governor. Apparently this governor liked to dress up in women’s clothing – and did no govern
all that much. Zenger wrote about this, was sued and jailed. He sued back, voicing his
“rights as an Englishman” and his right to freedom of speech and press. He won, and thus
established the US precedent of these freedoms.
Society overall - population was constantly growing, due to both immigration and an extremely
high birth rate! In 1700, there were 300,000 inhabitants of the British colonies, by 1775 – 2.5
million. The population was doubling every 25 years. Beside the British, the population
consisted of Scotch-Irish (7%), Germans (6%), other Europeans
(5%) and Africans (20%). The largest colonies, in order, were
Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, with the largest cities
being Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charleston.
The Middle Passage was part of the journey of slaves from
Africa to the Americas. It was a part of the Columbian
Exchange. Slaves were forced onto ships and sent across the
Atlantic. Their living
conditions were horrific
and stuffed onto ships. Thousands died on this journey, and those that lived were sold into
slavery when they reached the Americas.
HMMMM again . . .NOW where would you want to live? Why? 4 corners again!
Processing activity #1: Answer the following by providing 5 solid facts for each:
1. Religion played a dominant role in the establishment and lifestyle of many of the
2. The factors which made the colonies economically successful were largely determined
3. The quality of life in the southern colonies was very different from that in the Northern
4. The degree of democracy experienced by an individual in the colonies depended on
who they were and where in the colonies the lived.
Processing Assignment #2: BUMPER STICKER ASSIGNMENT – in class, in groups
Each group will create bumper stickers reflecting the 13 colonies. Students will create 2
bumper stickers – 1 reflecting the region or colony in which they would have most wanted
to have lived, and 1 about the colony where they would not wanted to have lived. The
bumper stickers must reflect the culture, economy, or the geography of the area. Excellent
bumper stickers will have all these attributes:
1. All must be 8 words or less
2. Must be appropriate and not contain any profanity
3. Should be colorful, and may contain drawings
1. “You’ve got a friend in Pennsylvania”
2. “South Carolina: Swampy, Sweaty, Sickly”
HMMMM again . . .NOW where would you want to live? Why? 4 corners again!
Take the following PEV’s and make then connect in terms of colonization.
Southern Middle New England
Rural or Urban
CHAPTERS 2 & 3 EXTENSION
30 Possible Points
For these next chapters, we will once again be working from the Internet. Students choosing to
do this activity will be creating a PowerPoint on Colonial Architecture. Using the Websites listed
below (and any others that you find useful), students will learn about the following types of
architecture during the colonial period: Medieval, New England Colonial, Georgian, and Federalist
(sometimes referred to as Adams). For each of the 4 types, students will need to provide the
o List of the features
o 1 descriptive paragraph
Architects (try for at least 2 per type)
o Influence on other architects
o At least 5 per type
o Try to show a variety (Houses, Churches, Commercial/Industrial)
Please include 1 slide with your bibliographic information.
Create a PowerPoint presentation that includes that above info. The more visuals, the better.
Remember, when you create the slides, the pictures and the info can be included in the same
slides (ex. Some features listed with a picture of that type). When you have completed it, e-mail
it to me at Lynn.Davies@loudoun.k12.va.us.
Old Lights vs. New Lights Questions
1. Name at least 3 spiritual beliefs that Charles Chauncy considers to be dangerous.
2. What 2 objections to “religious affection” does Edwards discuss in his essay?
3. Which view of religion – that it is “a sober, calm, reasonable thing”, as Chauncy
believed, or that it “has its seat chiefly in the heart, rather that in the head,” as
Edwards believed – seems to have prevailed in American culture? Explain your answer.
4. Jonathan Edwards and other New Lights based their theology and their preaching on
strong assumptions about the nature of God and the nature of human beings.
Essentially, what were those assumptions? Use some quotations to illustrate your point.
5. The Great Awakening produced a number of new sects and denominations, weakening
the tradition of having one official state church to which people were required to belong.
What consequences was this likely to have in 1789 when the Americans were deciding
on the relationship of church and state in their new government?