Basic Computer Concepts by 67mz2pF


									Course 101 -

  Basic Computer Concepts
               Presented by
How Do I Connect My New
                                            How Do I Connect My New Computer?

Connect only one keyboard and one mouse.
If you have a wireless keyboard or mouse,
see the setup diagram supplied with those
devices for setup instructions.
                                  How Do I Connect My New Computer?

Align and gently insert the
monitor cable connector.
Do not bend the connector pins.
Tighten the thumbscrews firmly.
                                                              How Do I Connect My New Computer?

Modem Option: Insert the modem connector until it clicks. You can attach
a phone to the connector next to the LINE IN connector. If you have DSL
service, see your DSL setup guide for DSL and modem setup instructions.

A microphone is only available with certain modems.
                                                     How Do I Connect My New Computer?

Speaker Option: See the setup diagram
supplied with the speakers for setup instructions.
                                   How Do I Connect My New Computer?

Connect the monitor, computer,
and speaker system to electrical
                                          How Do I Connect My New Computer?

Press the power buttons to turn on
your computer and monitor. Then
turn on the speakers and/or subwoofer
(if necessary). Follow the instructions
on the screen to complete the Microsoft
Windows operating system setup.
                                           How Do I Connect My New Computer?

See the documentation supplied
with the printer for setup instructions.
See the computer’s owners manual for
more information on installing printers.
Power Considerations
                                                                                                Power Considerations

It is obvious from the number of cables running around that there is a lot of electricity involved in a computer system. The
power in electrical lines is not as steady as you might think. It varies as demand peaks and wanes, as lightning strikes near
power lines, as equipment is brought on line or taken off. This exposes the system to three kinds of damage:

(1) Fried Parts
A power spike is a huge jump that lasts for fractions of a second.
              One large spike can destroy the CPU and other chips on the motherboard.

To block these fluctuations, a computer and all it's accessories should be plugged into a surge protector. These come with
different protection levels for different loads, and therefore different prices. You'll have to decide how much protection you
are willing to pay for.

Not all devices that look alike actually are alike. Power outlet strips look very much like the strip-style surge protectors but
give no surge protection at all. They are just a way to connect multiple devices to a single wall outlet.

Under-the-monitor styles also can be merely a convenient way to plug everything in, with no protection. So check carefully
that you are buying what you think you are buying!
                                                                                             Power Considerations
(2) Accelerated Aging
A power surge sends more electricity through the line than normal for several seconds. A brownout is a period of lower
voltage. It causes lights to dim but it may not be low enough for devices to shut down.

When the voltage fluctuates in your power line, over time the repeated small peaks and dips shorten the life span for
computer parts. They wear out sooner. So, in addition to blocking high voltages, you need the ability to smooth out these
variations by pumping up the voltage when it drops and stepping it down when it's too high. This is called conditioning.

Most protection devices also have noise filters to remove the interference caused by the magnetic fields of nearby devices.
You may have seen the speckles and lines in a TV picture when a vacuum cleaner or refrigerator motor starts up. All electrical
devices have magnetic fields. Electric motors, sound speakers, and low-flying airplanes are among the worst offenders at
generating interference.

(3) Dead Data
If the voltage drops too low, the computer shuts down without warning. A voltage drop that makes your lights blink and the
TV flicker can make the computer stop in its tracks. All unsaved changes to your documents and data are lost. You can
actually damage, or corrupt, files this way. If the computer was in the act of saving data to the hard drive, the hard drive may
be ruined.

You need a guaranteed source of power. An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a combination of surge protector,
power line conditioner, and battery power supply. The least expensive ones will power your computer for 5 or 10 minutes. So
in a power outage you have the time to save your work and close everything down properly. A much more expensive UPS
setup can keep your network running all day when the power is completely out. If there is a brownout, the UPS cuts on
instantly and keeps the computer running as if nothing had happened. When the power is stable again, it cuts itself off.

Computers are showing up everywhere you look, and even in places you can't see. Computers check out your groceries,
pump your gas, dispense money at the ATM, turn the heat on and off, control the way your car runs. They're everywhere! In
fact, the computer is rapidly becoming as tightly woven into the fabric of our lives as the automobile. There are different
kinds of computers for different purposes. They are just as varied in size, expense, and ability as our more familiar 4-wheeled
vehicles are.

What is a computer?
A computer is an electronic device that executes the instructions in a program. A computer has four functions:

             a. accepts data             - Input
             b. processes data           - Processing
                                                           The Information Processing Cycle
             c. produces output          - Output
             d. stores results           - Storage

Some beginning terms:

             Hardware                    the physical parts of the computer
             Software                    the programs (instructions) that tell the computer what to do
             Data                        individual facts like first name, price, quantity ordered
             Information                 data which has been massaged into a useful form, like a complete mailing address
             Default                     the original settings; what will happen if you don't change anything.

Descriptions of Personal Computers
When talking about PC computers, most people probably think of the desktop type, which are designed to sit on your desk.
(Bet you figured that one out!) The tower and the smaller mini-tower style cases have become popular as people started
needing more room for extra drives inside. Repairmen certainly appreciate the roominess inside for all the cables and circuit
boards ... and their knuckles.

A workstation is part of a computer network and generally would be expected to have more than a regular desktop PC of
most everything, like memory, storage space, and speed.

The market for the smallest PCs is expanding rapidly. Software is becoming available for the small types of PC like the
palmtop (PPC) and handheld (HPC). This new software is based on new operating systems like Windows CE (for
Consumer Electronics). You may find simplified versions of the major applications you use. One big advantage for the newer
programs is the ability to link the small computers to your home or work computer and coordinate the data. So you can carry
a tiny computer like a PalmPilot around to enter new phone numbers and appointments and those great ideas you just had.
Then later you can move this information to your main computer.

With a Tablet PC you use an electronic stylus to write on the screen, just like with a pen and paper, only your words are in
digital ink. The Tablet PC saves your work just like you wrote it (as a picture), or you can let the Hand Recognition (HR)
software turn your chicken-scratches into regular text.

Mainframe Computers
The mainframe is the workhorse of the business world. A mainframe is the heart of a network of computers or terminals
which allows hundreds of people to work at the same time on the same data. It requires a special environment - cold and

The supercomputer is the top of the heap in power and expense. These are used for jobs that take massive amounts of
calculating, like weather forecasting, engineering design and testing, serious decryption, economic forecasting, etc.

The term server actually refers to a computer's function rather than to a specific kind of computer. A server runs a network
of computers. It handles the sharing of equipment like printers and the communication between computers on the network.
For such tasks a computer would need to be somewhat more capable than a desktop computer. It would need:

                more power
                larger memory
                larger storage capacity
                high speed communications

The minicomputer has become less important since the PC has gotten so powerful on its own. In fact, the ordinary new PC
is much more powerful than minicomputers used to be. Originally this size was developed to handle specific tasks, like
engineering and CAD calculations, that tended to tie up the mainframe.

Windows is simply another computer program. It is similar to other programs you may have on your computer with
one large difference. Windows is the program that manages all the other programs, kind of like the boss. Your boss
gives out assignments, allocates resources to projects he thinks are worthwhile, and checks up on your activities.
Similarly, Windows knows which file to open when you double-click on an icon on the desktop. Windows also knows
how much of your computer’s memory (or resources) to give to each open program, so you can be doing many
different things on your computer at once. Even when the files ("employees") start fighting for more resources
(even computers play office politics), Windows ("the boss") keeps everything in order.

Also known as software or application. A program is simply something that allows you to work or play on the
computer. A game is a program, a word processor is a program, Windows is a program.

Programs are used to create documents and files for the user, or to just have fun. Programs are what actually put
your computer to good use. Without a program, your computer is impotent.

GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A Graphical User Interface (GUI - sometimes pronounced GOO-ee) uses pictures to make it easier for the user.
It is more user friendly. The next slide provides more information on GUI interfaces.

Common features of a graphical interface:

                                  Window    Menu   Button   Icon
Keyboard Functions In Windows
                                                                       Keyboard Functions In Windows
The Shift Key: Used exactly the same as a typewriter in Windows. Makes capital letters and allows you to use the
"cursing symbols" such as @#$%. The Shift Key can also be used to highlight text, like you would do with your
mouse. Try it. Hold down the shift key (don't release it), now move your cursor with the arrow keys. You should be
able to highlight text this way.

The Alt Key: The ALT key stands for "Alternate." When you push this key in Windows, the cursor moves to the
menu bar at the top of the screen. It's the same as clicking your mouse on the "File" Menu above. From there you
can use the arrow keys to select menu options. This is useful if you don't like switching between your mouse and
keyboard often. Press "Alt" again to move the cursor back off of the menu bar.

The Windows Key: This key opens the "Start Menu" at the lower left corner of your screen. It has the same effect
as you clicking the "Start" button with your mouse.

The CTRL Key: The CTRL key stands for "Control." This key is used in combination with other keys to perform
specific tasks, often called shortcuts. A list of common Windows Keyboard Shortcuts is included in this presentation.
One example is "CTRL+P." Often times programs automatically print the document you are using if you push the
Control button and the "P" key at the same time. If you are using Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer to view a
web page, you can bookmark the page using the keyboard shortcut "CTRL+D." Try it out!

The Delete Key: This key erases the character directly to the right of your cursor. If you have text or graphics that
are highlighted, those are erased by pushing this key as well.

The Backspace Key: This key erases the character directly to the left of your cursor. If you have text or graphics
that are highlighted, those are erased by pushing this key as well.
                                                                        Keyboard Functions In Windows
Enter: The Enter key works very much like the "Return" key on a typewriter. However, do NOT press enter after
every line when you are typing a document. Windows knows when you are reaching the end of a line, and will
automatically go to the next line. If you do press enter after each line, and then attempt to change the font or size
of the document, you'll see some strange results! Pressing enter also usually agrees to a question that Windows
asks you, similar to pressing an "OK" button, or a "Yes" button.

Tab: Similar to a typewriter, the Tab key will insert indentation into a document. It also jumps from box to box when
entering a form online, or in Windows.

Insert: The insert mode toggles between the Insert Mode, and the Overwrite Mode. The Insert Mode will insert text
where the cursor is when you type. For example, if you earlier typed the phrase "Windows is Fun", then moved your
cursor between "is" and "Fun" and typed "REALLY", the result would be "Windows is REALLY Fun“. However,
Overwrite Mode simply writes over anything in its path. In our last example, the word "Fun" would have been
written over by "REALLY", making the sentence read "Windows is REALLY.“

Num Lock: If you look at your Numeric Keypad (that group of keys to the right with all the numbers on it), you'll
see that there are arrows and words under most of the numbers. When Num Lock is turned on, you can use those
keys to enter numbers (instead of using the row right above the keyboard letters). When Num Lock is turned off,
you can use the arrows and commands printed below the numbers.

Home / End / Pg Up / Pg Down: Often the Home key is used to move your cursor to the beginning of a line, and
the End key is used to move it to the end of a line. Page Up and Page Down are slightly misleading. Often, the Page
Down key won't move your cursor from Page 2 to Page 3, like you would think it would. Instead, they often move
the cursor up/down one "screen-length", meaning that if you push the Page Down key, the top of the screen
becomes what was just after the bottom of the screen before you pressed the key. That's hopelessly confusing, so
try it out yourself. I personally use these four keys very often to navigate quickly around a document.
Windows Keyboard Shortcuts
                                                      Windows Keyboard Shortcuts

Ctrl + A Select All          [Alt] and [Esc] Switch between running applications
Ctrl + B Bold                [Alt] and [Tab] Toggle between running applications
Ctrl + D Duplicate           [Alt] and letter Select menu item by underlined letter
Ctrl + F Find                [Ctrl] and [Esc] Open Program Menu
Ctrl + G Go To Page          [Ctrl] and [F4] Close active document or group windows (does not work
Ctrl + H Replace             with some applications)
Ctrl + I Italic              [Alt] and [F4]Quit active application or close current window
Ctrl + J Justify Text        [Alt] and [-] Open Control menu for active document
Ctrl + L Left Align Text     [Alt] and [Spacebar] Open Control menu for active application
Ctrl + N Open New document   [Ctrl] Lft., Rt. Arrow Move cursor forward or back one word
Ctrl + O Open                [Ctrl] Up, Down arrow Move cursor forward or back one paragraph
Ctrl + P Print               [Ctrl] and X Cut selected text or object(s)
Ctrl + Q Quit                [Ctrl] and C Copy selected text or object(s)
Ctrl + R Right Align Text    [Ctrl] and V Paste copied text or object(s)
Ctrl + S Save                [F1] Open Help for active application
Ctrl + U Underline           Windows+E Open Windows Explorer
Ctrl + V Paste               Windows+F Open Find
Ctrl + W Close document      Windows+M Minimize all open windows
Ctrl + X Cut                 Shift+Windows+M Undo minimize all open windows
Ctrl + Z Undo                Windows+R Open Run window
                             Windows+F1 Open Windows Help
                             Windows+Tab Cycle through the Taskbar buttons
                             Windows+Break Open the System Properties dialog box
Text Selection Shortcuts
                                                        Text Selection Shortcuts

One character right - SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
One character left - SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
To end of a word - CTRL+SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
To beginning of a word - CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
To end of a line - SHIFT+END
To beginning of a line - SHIFT+HOME
One line down - SHIFT+DOWN ARROW
One line up - SHIFT+UP ARROW
To the end of a paragraph - CTRL+SHIFT+DOWN ARROW
To the beginning of a paragraph - CTRL+SHIFT+UP ARROW
One screen down - SHIFT+PAGE DOWN
One screen up - SHIFT+PAGE UP
To the end of a window - ALT+CTRL+PAGE DOWN
To the beginning of a document - CTRL+SHIFT+HOME
To include the entire document - CTRL+A
General Keyboard Information
                                                                          General Keyboard Information

What's the Difference Between the Backspace and Delete Key?
Both keys essentially do the same thing, with one major difference. The backspace key deletes to the left of the
cursor, and the delete key deletes to the right of the cursor.
For instance if I had the word "trick" on my screen, with the cursor between the "i" and the "c" and pushed delete, I
would end up with "trik." Conversely, if I hit backspace, the screen would read "trck.“

What does the Print Screen Key do?
In old DOS programs, the Print Screen key used to do just that... Print a copy of whatever was on the screen at that
time. However, it didn't work with graphics, so if there were any graphics on the screen at the time, you would get a
garbled mess from your printer.
When Windows came along and brought pictures and icons along with it, this created a problem. Now, the Print
Screen key copies a picture of whatever is on your screen to the clipboard. Then you can use Microsoft Paint, or
another graphics editor to paste it and print it, or put it on your web page.
Mouse Essentials
                                                                                           Mouse Essentials

In order to use Windows and other programs you need to know how to use a mouse. Let’s take a break from the
presentation and try some exercises.

               Click on the Mouse Tutorial link in the column to the left

General Information
                                                                                             General Information
A file is a collection of information that a computer uses. It is always in a particular format. For example, if you
created a Microsoft Word document, the file is saved so that Microsoft Word can read it and open it. Often files
cannot be opened to read, they are simply data files the computer and techno-weenies understand. Files are made
up of the filename, and the extension.

A document is a file that contains information that the user (you) can view or hear. It is most often a word
processed letter, a picture, a sound byte, or something similar. Documents are usually created and edited using
programs such as Microsoft Word, or Adobe Photoshop.

File Name
The file name is the first part of the file, and is sometimes referred to as just the "name." This name can be up to
255 characters in Windows 95, 98, or 2000, as opposed to 8 characters in Windows 3.x and DOS.
This name is set by the computer user (you). It should be descriptive of what the particular file or document
consists. For example, if the document is a Birthday Card for Mikey's 9th birthday, set the file name equal to "Mikey's
9th Birthday Card". The second part of the file is the extension.

The extension is the second part of the name of the file. It is often three characters long, but can be longer. The
extension tells the computer which program, or application, to associate the file with.
For example, if you create a document in Microsoft Word, the computer automatically assigns that file the extension
"doc". That code tells the computer that it is an MS Word document, and should be opened using Word. The first
part of the file is the filename.
Backing Up Your System
                                                                                    Backing Up Your System

Because your computer has many important personal files on its hard drive, if they all disappeared one day, you
would probably be devastated. Hard drives don’t live forever, as some people seem to think, therefore it’s important
to back up your personal hard drive files regularly.

Our first recommendation is to buy a good backup program, or use Microsoft Backup that comes with Windows.
There are several good programs out there that will do the job, but make sure that you buy one that is current for
your version of Windows. A backup system designed for Windows 98 may not be reliable for Windows 2000 or
Windows XP.

There are many mediums on which you can backup your information. The most common right now are CD-
Rewritable Drives, Zip Drives, and Flash Drives. CD-Rewritable Drives are different than CD-Writeable drives, the
difference being that with Rewritables, you can erase and copy over the same CD, much like you can with a floppy
disk. Zip disks look like over sized floppy disks, and can hold about 100 MB of information each. CDs can hold about
700 MB of information each. Flash drives vary, but the most popular ones hold between 128MB and 2GB of data.

Others use less popular mediums such as tape backup units (computerized tape recorder) or even using many
floppy disks. If you use either of these methods, only backup your essentials. Floppy disks only hold 1.44 MB of
information, and therefore will take all Saturday afternoon and a thousand disks to back up even a small hard drive.
File Size Information
                                                                                           File Size Information
Computer files are measured in units called "bytes" (pronounced "bites"). A byte roughly translates into a character
or letter. For example, if I type "Love & War", I have typed in 10 bytes (7 letters, 1 symbol, 2 spaces). Special
formatting codes such as Bold, Italics, or Underline add bytes to the document, as well as different fonts or font

Bytes are measured in the metric system, which won't be unfamiliar to you if you live outside the US. But for those
of you that are confused when you buy a 2-Liter from the grocery store, this table may help you figure out what
people are talking about when they refer to a Megabyte.

Floppy Disks hold about 1.44 MB. CD's hold about 600-700 MB. Hard Drives hold anywhere from 800 MB to 400+
GB. Flash drives hold anywhere from 128MB to 10GB. Text is not the only information that takes up room on your
disk. Images and Graphics are recorded in bytes as well.
                                                                                             File Size Information

How to Determine a File's Size in Windows
There are a couple ways to determine a file's size in Windows.

If the file you are trying to open is a document, usually you can open the document, click on the File menu, and
choose the "Properties" selection. This will normally give you the size of your file.

If that doesn't work, open Windows Explorer. Once Explorer is open, find the file that you are wanting to check.
Once you find the file, open the directory (or folder) that contains it in Windows Explorer. You should see every file
in that folder on the right side of the screen. Click the "View" menu, and select "Details." All the file sizes should

How to Open Windows Explorer
There are two ways to open Explorer in Windows. The first way is to right-click the Start Button at the bottom-left
corner of the screen. You should see an option which says "Explore." Click on this to bring up Windows Explorer. The
second way also involves the Start Button. This time, left-click on the Start Button to bring up the Start Menu. In the
Start Menu, hover your cursor over the Programs option. You should see an option for Windows Explorer.

A directory is often referred to as a folder in newer versions of Windows. Just like in a file cabinet, your computer
divides up files into folders (or directories) to organize them and make them easily accessible.
For instance, if you had a "Fruit" folder, you may have files in it called "Peach" and "Grape". Folders can have sub-
folders as well for further organization. You may put a “Living Room” sub-folder inside your “House” folder.
Finding Files
                                                                                                             Finding Files

Missing Files!
Have you ever needed a file on your computer that you never thought you would use again? Maybe you wrote a
letter to someone, and need to see exactly what you said. Or maybe you have saved old reports from your job
somewhere on your computer, and are now frantically trying to find them. If this hasn't happened to you yet, it will
eventually, and that is why it's helpful to know how to find files on your computer's hard drive using Microsoft

There are two ways to find a file in Windows. The easiest way is by clicking the "Start" button at the bottom-left of
your screen and hovering over the word “Search”. There are several options that will appear next to the word
Search, including “For Files or Folders”. Choose this option.

Click on the “All Files and Folders" option. A screen comes up, as shown below asking you to provide the computer
with information about the file you are searching for. There are several things that you can tell the computer to do.
First of all, if you know what the file was called, simply type it in and the computer will find it. But we all know that
most of the time we just know that the "file starts with the letter B" or "I know it's a Microsoft Word file, but I don't
remember anything else!" In order to find files with limited information, you must know a little bit about the file
names themselves.

Your computer's files have names like myletter.doc or finance.xls. The part before the "dot" (such as myletter) is
your description of the file. The part after the "dot" (such as doc) is called the extension. It tells the computer which
type of file it is. Because myletter.doc has the extension of doc, the computer knows it is a Microsoft Word file,
because doc is the extension associated with Microsoft Word.
Finding Files
                                                                                                                Finding Files

Using “Wildcards”
You may be asking, what does playing cards have to do with computers (besides the Solitaire game, that is)? Wild
cards are used in a similar way on computers that they are in playing cards. For instance, if in the Search Box that
we opened earlier we placed our cursor in the file name field and typed B*.* you would find every file that started
with the letter B. "Wait a minute!" you say. "How did you figure that out?“

The * (located above the 8) is the character that Windows interprets as "one or more characters". Therefore, by
saying B*.* we're telling the computer to find files that start with B, and have one or more characters (such as A-Z
or numbers, etc.) after that B. Then the dot comes. The last * is the extension. Do you remember from the last
page? The * after the dot tells the computer that any extension is O.K.

For instance, if you asked the computer to find files named B*.doc the computer will try to find all files that start
with B, and have the extension doc.

If you ask the computer to find the files Bulldog.* your computer will search for all files named Bulldog (exactly,
because there is no * before the dot) that have any extension (because of the * after the dot).

If you ask the computer to find Bulld*.* it will find all files that start with Bulld and have any extension.

NOTE: One thing to remember. Wild cards are not always necessary, but they will be to perform certain searches.
You should have a basic knowledge of how they work, and when to use them. We will discuss this more in the pages
to come.
Folder System / Directory System
                                                                     Folder System / Directory System
Have you ever wondered where a file comes from? You load a program and try to open a file you saved earlier, but
you don't understand all the folders on the screen. This section will help explain Windows Explorer and the folder
system your computer uses to keep track of files. It's really a lot easier than you may now think, and hopefully we'll
discover some answers to your computer questions. This section will focus on how to organize your computer so you
can find files in the future with ease. We'll start with the basics!

Windows Explorer
At the bottom left of your screen, there is the "Start" button. Use the Right button of your mouse to click on that
button, and then left-click on "Explore“. Windows Explorer is the software program that best lets you manage your
computer's files. It represents your computer as one big filing cabinet. We'll use that analogy as we continue.

As you view Windows Explorer, you see the screen broken into two halves. One side contains the folders, or
directory tree. The other side shows the files and folders inside the folder selected. This will be explained in more
detail later. The view above is of the left half. It shows a few of the drives on the computer. The diskette drive is
usually labeled the "A drive" (A:). The hard drive is usually labeled the "C drive" (C:). CD Rom drives can be any
number of other letters such as D, E, F, G, H, etc. My "C Drive" is labeled "Jerel" above, but yours can be labeled
anything you wish to call it. Notice how both the A: and the C: are located under "My Computer". That makes sense
when you think about it, because both of the drives are in the computer.
                                                                         Folder System / Directory System
Recall the diagram on the last page...

    Just as the two drives are in "My Computer", the C: drive has folders in it as well. The folders "~mssetup.t",
    "Acrobat3", "All Documents", etc. are all contained within C:. This is where we draw the analogy of a filing cabinet.
    You have the Cabinet as a whole (My Computer), then you have Drawers (C: and A:). Inside the drawers are folders
    (Acrobat3, All Documents), and inside the folders may be sub-folders or the papers themselves (files).
    Notice the plus (+) signs by certain folders in the diagram above. Those indicate the folder has other sub-folders
    contained within. Click on the plus sign, and the tree will expand further. See the next page for more detail.
                                                                            Folder System / Directory System
Let's expand our diagram to include the right side of Windows Explorer...

     As you can see, I clicked on the plus sign to the left of the "Acrobat3" folder, and it showed me a sub-folder named
     "Reader". "Reader" also has its own sub-folders, as the plus sign to the left of it shows. Windows Explorer shows the
     sub-folders of "Acrobat3" and the files within on the right side. Readme.txt is the only file contained in the
     "Acrobat3" folder.

     Now you have the tools to organize the files on your hard drive. The main reason people lose files on their computer
     is because they don't remember which folder they saved it under.

     You can now easily create your own folder system, and save files under appropriate headings. For instance, you
     might create two folders, "Business", and "Personal". In the "Personal" folder, you may have the sub-folders
     "Budget", and "Home Inventory". You'll never have to lose files again.

     If you have lost some files recently, refer back to the Finding Files section.
The Internet
                                                                                                         The Internet

What is the Internet?
A global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news
and opinions. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each
Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which
local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works
exceedingly well.

There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to
some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP).

The Internet is not synonymous with World Wide Web     .
                                                                                                           The Internet

The Difference Between the Internet and the World Wide Web
Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (a.k.a. the Web) interchangeably, but in fact the two
terms are not synonymous. The Internet and the Web are two separate but related things.

The Web is that part of the Internet that uses hypertext documents, also called Web documents or Web
pages. Words in hypertext are generally underlined and in a special color, like this. They have an address attached
to them so that clicking on the hypertext accesses the file at that address. The file can be one that is on the viewer's
own computer (like C:\My Documents\letters\5-10-98 to mother.doc) or halfway around the world (like Such text is called a hypertext link, hyperlink, or just a link. Web
pages have come a long way from the original plain text documents. Now they can show movies, play songs, and
react to what the user clicks on in many imaginative ways.

It was only in 1989 that development began by CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) on the
beginnings of what became the World Wide Web. The physicists wanted the ability to handle all Internet work
though a single interface, to simplify the sharing of documents between their widely scattered sites. By 1992 the
system was functioning well enough to publicize and invite others to move to the new approach. Very quickly
numerous browsers were developed for a variety of operating systems. The Web soon became the most popular way
to access the resources on the Internet.
                                                                                                           The Internet

Hypertext documents are written in HTML (HyperText Markup Language), a coding language that does much more
than just create hyperlinks. HTML code puts special marks in a text document to tell browser software how to
display the text. For example <FONT FACE=ARIAL COLOR=#FF0000> means to use the font Arial and the color red
when displaying the text. The language's instructions are based on English. Each new version of the HTML standards
adds more formatting choices and the ability to do other things like playing sounds and running animations.

One of the unique features of HTML documents is that the text wraps to the size of the window. In a word processor
the text will wrap to the size of the paper page. So a web page can fit in a wide variety of window sizes, monitor
sizes, and resolutions without making you scroll across the page.

Most people like to point and click on a hyperlink better than to type long addresses. They like pictures better than
plain text. This explains why the Web has rapidly become so popular.

The Language Of The Web
Did you notice that the address extensions are based on English, and the HTML code uses English terms? Many
English terms and phrases have been adopted as the standard names for things having to do with the Internet,
especially in HTML and in coding languages like JavaScript. It is another special area of learning. In ballet the terms
are French. In music the terms are Italian. In computing most of the terms are English.

You can find more materials on the Web in English than in any other language. Major sites are rapidly building
versions in the major languages of the world. But the primary language of the Internet is English and many sites are
available only in English. The more English at your command, the more resources there will be that are available to
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Web Page Addresses
Each web page has a unique address called a URL, or Universal Resource Locator, which tells where a file is located among
all the computers that are part of the Internet. A URL usually has three parts: protocol://domain/path

Protocol: tells the computer what kind of coding to expect. For non-secure web pages the address always starts with
http:// which stands for hypertext transfer protocol. For secure web pages the address SHOULD always start with
https://. For a site that just downloads files you might use ftp:// which stands for file transfer protocol. There are other
protocols that you are less likely to use.

Domain: the unique name for the computer to which you are connecting. All domain names have a 4-part number address
like but most have a name using letters, too, like (which is much easier to
remember!). A dot character always separates the parts of a name. The www stands for World Wide Web and is used for
most web pages as the first part of the domain name. The com part stands for "commercial" and is one of several extensions
allowed for the top level domain. Others include gov for government, edu for educational institution, org for organization,
mil for military, and net for network. It is common in many countries to include the country identifier in the domain, such as
.us for the United States, .fr for France, or .ar for Argentina.

Path: is the list of folders on the computer, down to the actual file, like /windows/downloads/default.asp If no file
name is listed at the end of the path, the browser will look for the default file, usually named index.html . If no such file is
found, the browser will try to show a list of the files in the last folder in the path. It may find that it needs special permission
or a password to show the list of files.
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You can expect to see htm or html as the extension for most web pages. The extension asp (Active Server Page) is used
for a page that uses special codes from Microsoft in addition to HTML. There are numerous other extensions, including php,
cgi, js, swf, pdf, etc.

NOTE: The spelling and punctuation of an Internet address must be exactly right, including the use of upper case letters.
Many servers that handle web pages use the operating system UNIX, for which myfile.htm, MyFile.htm, myfile.HTM are
all different names. Type carefully! A forward slash / is not the same as a back slash \. A colon : and a semicolon ; are not
the same. A comma , is not the same as . the dot character.

Connecting To The Web
In order to join the flood of people getting connected to the Web, you need some hardware and some software. Exactly what
you need depends on what you want to do and how much you can afford to pay to do it. To play games over the Internet
requires a much faster computer system and a faster connection than just about anything else. A 3D-video card and superior
speakers are important for top quality gaming also. But for basic access, a fairly ordinary computer (by today's standards!)
and a moderate connection speed will enable you to meet and greet all over the world.

The next slide will explain what hardware and software is needed to access the web.
                                                                                                           The Internet
     1. A computer: Of course! You'll need empty hard drive space for the software you will install. You'll need to have
     enough memory to run the software. A computer that can run Windows XP will work well.

      2. A connection: You need some way to connect to the Internet from that computer.

             A. Network: If your computer is connected to a network, you may not need any more hardware. Many
                           networks are permanently connected to the Internet.
             B. ISP: If your computer is not on a connected network, you must sign up with an Internet Service
                     Provider (ISP) or with an online service. In addition to the connection, an online service, like
                     America OnLine, provides content like discussion forums, information articles, and other web pages
                     and services. Usually you use a telephone line and a modem to connect your computer to the ISP's
                     server computer, which is connected to the Internet. Costs vary widely. Different accounts at the
                     same ISP provide different services and different amounts of time online. There is no standard
                     pricing. Your ISP will tell you how to configure your computer to connect. It involves some scary
                     sounding settings and you may need to install some more things from your Windows installation CD.
                     Just follow all the directions from your ISP. It's not really that hard to do.

      3. A Connection device: The device must match the type of connection you have arranged.

             A. Modem: connects your computer to your ISP or online service over a regular telephone line. Modems
                         come in several different speeds. Do not settle for 28.8 Kbps if your ISP can handle higher
                         rates. Be careful that your kind of modem works well with the kind that your ISP uses.
             B. ISDN terminal adapter: a digital device that works in an entirely different way from a modem, but it is
                                          often called a modem anyway. ISDN requires a special kind of connection with
                                          your telephone company. This will cost extra. The advantage is a much higher
                                          speed of data transfer than with a modem.
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Hardware (continued)

           C. Cable modem: uses the your cable TV wire to send data at very high rates, but the speed depends on how
                             many other cable TV users are using their cable modems when you are. No need to dial! A
                             permanent connection.
           D. DSL: (Digital Subscriber Line): allows your computer to be permanently connected to the Internet using
                                              telephone lines. No more dialing! There are a number of different types of
                                              DSL connection. All will be available at a higher cost and only in areas that
                                              are fairly close to the telephone company's transmission center.

     1. Browser: handles the display of the data that the modem or network connection brings to your computer.
                  Netscape and Internet Explorer are the most popular browsers and are both free now, but there are
                 many other good browsers out there. Older browsers may be text only. An online service may provide
                 its subscribers with a browser with a special interface.

     2. Email: handles the creating, sending, receiving, and storing of email messages.

     3. Other useful software:
           A. FTP program- for file transfers
           B. IRC (chat) or instant messaging program- for discussions and general conversation using text.
           C. Newsgroup program - for exchanging messages about a particular topic, like Windows
                                          installation problems.
           D. HTML editor - Writing your own web pages can be done with just a text editor like Notepad,
                               but it's easier with an HTML editor. FrontPage Express is a WYSIWYG (sort of)
                               editor and can get you started, but it is quite limited. Microsoft FrontPage is a
                               more advanced editor.
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Software (continued)

If you install the complete set of programs that come with Internet Explorer, or the programs that are available as additions,
       you will have IE as your browser, Outlook Express for both email and newsgroups, Microsoft Chat for IRC chatting, and
       FrontPage Express for creating web pages (depending on which version of IE you install). If you install a recent version
       of Netscape, you will also have software that performs all these important functions. Neither Internet Explorer nor
       Netscape have an FTP program. Both sets of programs do their jobs. Each has certain advantages over the other. If
       you don't like either of these suites of programs, there are many other programs available from other companies.

Internet Browsers
An Internet browser is a program that lets you navigate the World Wide Web or view HTML pages on a CD or on
your hard disk. A browser displays web pages, keeps track of where you've been, and remembers the places you
want to return to.

More information is available over the Internet every day, and more tasks can be done. You can buy books, check on
your bank account, buy and sell stocks, even order pizza over the Internet. But you have to have a browser to do it.

Internet Explorer is by far the most popular browser, though there are many others around. Netscape was once the
dominant browser. Mozilla FireFox has evolved from Netscape and has become the favorite of many.

             Purpose:                    Navigating the Internet
             Major Advantage:            Can display graphics, which older internet applications don't
                                         Keeps a list of places you want to return to.
                                         Shows HTML pages, which can include links to other pages and files for
                                         quick access.
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Internet Explorer – General Settings
The Internet Options dialog View | Internet Options or Tools | Internet Options contains many different settings that
affect the way Internet Explorer (IE) behaves. Most of these are not often changed from the default settings. In the
step-by-step sections that follow, you will verify only those settings that will allow IE to respond in the way the
directions say that it will.

The General tab has three main sections plus some buttons to optional areas:

1. Home page: sets what page will be displayed when IE first opens. The default is a page from Microsoft.

             The Use Default button will restore this default setting. You can type in an
             address to a different page or load a page and click the button Use Current to use the
             page currently displayed in the browser as the new Home page. If you don't want the
             assistance of a Home page, you can have IE open a blank page by clicking the button
             Use blank. Kind of boring, but IE will load fast!

             A portal can be a good choice for your home page. What makes a page a portal? It contains services
             and links for the most common Internet tasks in a convenient layout. Many major Internet sites are
             trying to become portals. They show news headlines, weather, sports scores, a search box, and
             whatever else they think you might want. These pages can get quite messy since they try to do so
             many different things.
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Internet Explorer – General Settings (continued)

2. Temporary Internet files: the files that IE must store on your hard drive to display a web page. These files
are also called the browser's cache. The page will display faster on a second visit if the files are already in the cache
on the hard drive. You normally want to keep these files around for a few days at least. Too large a cache will slow
down your browser. It can take longer for the browser to check what it already has than it would have taken to just
download everything all over again.

              Delete Files: deletes all the temporary files. You will need use this button if IE gets confused and
              continues to load an old version of a page that you know has been changed. IE6 adds a button
              Delete Cookies... A cookie is a text file saved on your hard disk that records information for the next
              time you visit the site that created the cookie.

              *** If the browser seems slower than usual, cleaning out these files may speed things up.

              Settings... allows you to control how often IE checks for new versions of the files, how much space
              on the hard drive can be used for these files, and where they are kept. If you have more than one
              hard drive, it can speed loading to have the temporary files on a small drive. More is not always better
              here! Too large a setting for the disk space will let your cache build up too large, slowing down your

3. History: a list of the pages you have seen recently. The list can get very long very quickly. You should clear it
from time to time. You can clear the list manually here with the Clear History button. You set the number of days
for the computer to remember where you have been here also.
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Internet Explorer – General Settings (continued)

4. Buttons for defaults: give you some control of the browser's default settings (what you will see if the web
page does not give specific directions).
The defaults right after installing the browser are:

             font = Times New Roman and Courier New
             font size = Medium
             text color and background color = whatever Windows uses
             link colors = blue for unvisited and purple for visited.

Font size settings are not in this dialog but are on the menu View | Text Size in Internet Explorer 5/6. You can
choose between Largest, Larger, Medium, Smaller, Smallest.

The Accessibility button has choices that let you override parts of the HTML code. This lets people with visual
handicaps force pages to use very large font sizes or high contrast colors.
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Internet Explorer – Screen Navigation

Title Bar
The Title Bar shows the title of the page and the browser's name at the left. At the right are the standard buttons:
Minimize, Maximize, and Close.
                                                     The Internet
Internet Explorer – Screen Navigation

Menu Bar

The Menu Bar contains cascading lists of commands.
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Internet Explorer – Screen Navigation

The toolbar has buttons for the most commonly used commands. When the mouse is over a button, it will gain
colors and look raised. Some buttons won't show if the window size is small.

Until you know the function of each button on the toolbar, you probably will want to display the text labels.
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Internet Explorer – Screen Navigation

Address Bar
The Address bar shows the URL (Universal Resource Location), also called the address, for the web page that is
showing in the browser's window. The Links bar is usually shown to the right of the Address bar.
You can type a URL in the Address bar and press the ENTER key to display the page whose location you typed.

The Go button is added to the right of the Address bar in IE5. If you like the mouse better than the keyboard, you
can click the Go button instead of pressing the ENTER key to open the page at the address in the Address bar.
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Internet Explorer – Screen Navigation

Status Bar
The Status Bar talks back to you. On its left side you will see messages about what browser is doing. The most
common message is "Done", which means that the browser thinks it has finished downloading a web page.
If your mouse hovers over a link, the address of that link appears on the status bar. There are also icons to show the
status of your connection.

Links Bar
The Links bar is a convenient spot for shortcuts to your most frequently accessed web pages. IE comes with some
Microsoft sites already showing on the Links bar. Different versions will have somewhat different sites listed. You can
delete those and add your own sites. You can see the links that aren't visible to the right by scrolling the bar. Click
on the arrow at its right end. To see links that are not visible, click on the double arrow at the right edge of the Links
bar. A drop list appears.
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Hands-On Exercises

     Browsing to a site
     Look at links, graphics, buttons, toolbars, etc.
     Discuss importance of correct site names
      (i.e. vs.
     Discuss importance of checking for SSL sites when submitting online data
      (look at address,lock, etc.)
     Discuss running ActiveX controls
     Discuss Pop-Up Blockers
     Discuss Search Engines
     Discuss Trusted Software
          Thank you for participating
            in our training session!
We hope we provided you with useful information that will allow you to be more comfortable in your use of
the computer. Classic IT & Design will be continuing to expand training sessions and it is our sincere hope
that you will return in the future to take advantage of the many learning opportunities we can provide.

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