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									Scirtothrips dorsalis
    (Chilli thrips)
       Joe Chamberlin
       Matt Ciomperlik
       Amanda Hodges
         Jeff Michel
       Cindy McKenzie
          S. Ludwig
        L.S. Osborne
        Cristi Palmer
       C. Regelbrugge
         L. Schmale
         D. Schuble
              S. dorsalis
Synonyms: Chilli, Castor, Berry, Assam and
  Yellow Tea Thrips
Host Plants:
Over 150 host plants including banana, beans,
 chrysanthemum, citrus, corn, cotton, cocoa,
 eggplant, ficus, grape, grasses, holly, jasmine,
 kiwi, litchi, longan, mango, onion, peach, peanut,
 pepper, rose, soybean, strawberry, tea, tobacco,
 tomato, viburnum, etc.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
Major pest of:
• strawberries in Queensland, Australia
• tea in Japan and Taiwan
• citrus in Japan and Taiwan (Chiu et al. 1991, Tatara and
  Furuhushi 1992, Tschuchiya et al 1995)
• cotton in the Ivory Coast (Bournier 1999)
• soybeans in Indonesia (Miyazaki et al.1984)
• chillies and castor bean in India
• peanuts in several states in India (Mound and Palmer 1981).
• Ananthakrishnan (1984) also reports damage to the following
  hosts: cashew, tea, chillies, cotton, tomato, mango, castor
  bean, tamarind, and grape.
• Rose in India
        Is Scirtothrips dorsalis a
   Serious Economic Pest for the US?

• Assuming an overall U.S. crop yield loss from
  Chilli Thrips of 5 percent the total crop value
  loss would equal $3.0 billion (primary hosts
  $583 million and secondary hosts $2.43 billion).

• Assuming an overall U.S. crop yield loss from
  Chilli Thrips of 10 percent the total crop value
  loss would equal $5.98 billion (primary hosts
  $1.2 billion and secondary hosts $4.78 billion).
  Identification
http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/DOCUMENTS/identification%
20aid.pdf
Chilli Thrips-Adult
Chilli Thrips-Adults
 Male and Female (larger)
                Thrips-Adults



                                Western
                                Flower thrips



Chilli thrips
Western Flower
 Thrips Adult
Chilli Thrips-Adult
(recently emerged)
Chilli Thrips-Adult
Chilli Thrips-Adults
 Chilli Thrips
(mixed stages)
                  2nd instar




     1st instar
Egg Blister
Chilli Thrips-Adults




 Egg Blister
 Embryo Removed from
     Egg Blister
Egg Blister




   Embryo
1st Instar Larva
  Chilli Thrips
1 st Instar Larva


              Egg to 2nd Instar
              F°        Days
              60.8      17.2
              68        12.0
              77        7.6
              86        5.8
   Chilli Thrips
2 nd Instar Larva


               F° Days
               60.8 12.4
               68    8.1
               77    6.4
               86    4.4
  Chilli Thrips
Pre-Pupa & Pupa

                  F°     Days
       Pre-pupa   60.8   9.9
                  68     6.5
                  77     4.4
                  86     3.7



       Pupa
        DEVELOPMENT (DAYS)
            EGG TO EGG
        45   40.21
        40
        35
        30           26.11
        25
    s
ay




                                  18.19
D




        20
                                               13.96
        15                                             11.33
        10
         5
         0
              61      68           77           86      95
                             T emperature °F
      Over Wintering of Pupae
                    Grapes
•   64.4% in liter
•   16.2% in branch zone
•   12.5% in soil
•   6.9% leaf zone



Okada & Kudo 1982
Scouting
Scouting
Scouting
Damage
                    Hosts
Acanthaceae Strobilanthes dyerianus Mast.
Araliaceae Hedera helix L.
Berberidaceae Mahonia bealei
Caprifoliaceae Viburnum suspensum
Combretaceae
       Conocarpus erectus
       Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f.
Compositae Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. f.
Ericaceae Rhododendron spp.
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis
Illiciaceae Illicium floridanum Ellis
Moraceae Ficus elastica
                    Hosts
Oleaceae
      Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.
      Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. f.
Rosaceae
      Raphiolepsis indica
      Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Thunb.) Mak.
      Rosa sp.
Rubiaceae
      Gardenia jasminoides
      Richardia brasiliensis Gomes
                  Hosts
Rutaceae
     Citrus sp.
     Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Solanaceae
     Capsicum annuum L.
     Capsicum frutescens L.
     Capsicum sp.
                    Hosts
Amaranthaceae Celosia argentea L.
Araceae Philodendron sp.
Araliaceae Schefflera arboricola (Hayata) Merrill
Balsaminaceae Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.
Compositae Coreopsis sp.
Compositae Zinnia sp.
Euphorbiaceae Poinsettia pulcherrima Graham
Gentianaceae Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.
Geraniaceae Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey
Hamamelidaceae Loropetalum chinense (R. Br.) Oliver
                      Hosts
Labiatae
      Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R. Br.
      Salvia sp.
Leguminosae Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Lythraceae Cuphea sp.
Marantaceae Stromanthe sanguinea (Hook.) Sonder
Onagraceae Gaura lindheimeri
Rubiaceae Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers
Scrophulariaceae Antirrhinum majus L.
Solanaceae Petunia sp.
Verbenaceae
      Duranta erecta
      Glandularia x hybrida (Grön. & Rüm.) Neson & Pruski
                  Damaged Flower Bud
                     and Leaves




Photos: L. Osborne, UF-IFAS            Mannion
                                    Comparison of
                                    damaged and
                                    normal leaf




        Damaged new growth    Normal new growth

Photos: L. Osborne, UF-IFAS                  Mannion
Chilli Thrips - rose
Ligustrum
Pittosporum
Ligustrum
Ligustrum
Chilli Thrips-pepper
Chilli Thrips-pepper
Chilli Thrips-Indian Hawthorn
Chilli Thrips-Schefflera
Chilli Thrips-Schefflera
Chilli Thrips- Schefflera
Chilli Thrips-strawberry
Sweet Viburnum
  Management
                 Chemical


See Chilli Thrips Management: Osborne & Ludwig
http://www.mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/THRIPS/CHILLIWEB2/chil
li-doc/CHILLI%20THRIPS%20Management.pdf
100% Reliance on
   Pesticides =
RESISTANCE
       What Can Growers Do?
1. Pay attention to information distributed by SAF,
   the propagators, media, pesticide companies
   and/or University and ARS scientists.

2. Implement INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE
   MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS


                    IRM
ROTATE




ROTATE
Table based on data from:
       Ciomperlik
         Ludwig
        Osborne
                            Effective Products
          Seal
                            7 Different Modes of Action

     Acephate                         Foliar       N, G, L
     Acetamiprid                      Foliar       N, G, L
     Clothianidin                     Foliar       N, G, L
     Dinotefuran                      Foliar       N, G, L
     Imidacloprid                     Foliar       N, G, L
     Thiamethoxam                     Foliar       N, G, L
     Spinosad                         Foliar       N, G, L
     Abamectin                        Foliar       N, G, L
     Flonicamid                       Foliar       G
     Chlorfenapyr                     Foliar       G
     Pyridalyl                        Foliar       G         N=Nursery
                                                             G=Greenhouse
Compounds in Yellow = the same MOA                           L=Landscape
                     RISK OF RESISTANCE
MANAGEMENT             LOW         MEDIUM          HIGH
  OPTION
Pesticide Rotation   > 2 Modes      2 Modes       1 Mode

Use of Same Mode       Once        More than     Many times
    of Action                        once
Infestation Level       Low        Medium          High
Control in Last 3      Good        Declining        Poor
    Cycles
  IPM System         All Tactics    Pesticide     Pesticide
                                   and limited      only
                                     others
               PLAN
Identify All Pesticides Registered for the
  Pest and Crop
Determine Plant Safety
Determine Labeled Frequency
Determine Other Use Restrictions
Organize Treatments (MOA…)
Don’t Forget Other Pests!
Management
   Biological
    Why Biological Control?
• To help manage pesticide resistance in
  populations of Western flower thrips.
• Chilli Thrips was attacking basil, mint, and
  peppers in organic production systems.
• Thrips control impacted implementation of
  IPM programs in many ornamental crop
  systems.
• Chemical control in the landscape is
             NOT SUSTAINABLE
Amblyseius (Typhlodromips) swirskii
    Feeding on a Chilli thrips
Study 1                              Control of Chilli Thrips
                                      Chilly Chili Pepper
                            80
Mean # of Immatures/Plant



                            70

                            60

                            50                                     ck old
                            40                                     ck new
                            30
                                                                   A.s. old
                                                                   A.s. new
                            20

                            10

                             0
                                 day 7     day 14   day 21
                                                                N=20
                                                                5 plants/Unit
                                                                4 Units/treatment
Franklinothrips vespiformis
           Adult
Franklinothrips vespiformis
          Nymph
Management
   Cultural
    ????
Thank you!

								
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