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Literary Elements Literary Elements These are

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					          Literary Elements
These are the basic elements which you will
need to be prepared to explain to the class
             about your novel.
Literary Elements
       Theme
     Character
       Setting
        Plot
    Point of View
    Rising Action
       Climax
    Falling Action
     Resolution
                      Theme
   The author reveals the theme through the
    literary elements such as character, setting, plot,
    and point of view.
                     Theme, continued
   Theme is the main idea, meaning. or message of a literary work.
   It is not the same as the subject or a summary of the action.

   It is the author’s statement of the way things are – or how they should be.
   It is the author’s reflection on a universal truth.
                       Character
   Who (or what) is in the story – people or animals.

   Usually one character is central – the action revolves
    around him or her.
                      Character, continued
   Protagonist – The chief character in a play, story, or film. Enlists our
    interest and sympathy, whether his/her cause is heroic or not.

   Antagonist – Second most important character in a play, story, or film.
    Directly opposed to the protagonist, a rival or opponent.
                     Character, continued
        The author reveals character in four main ways:
    1.      By author comment - the author tells a person’s actions and analyzes
            his character.
    2.      By the character’s actions
    3.      By the character’s comments
    4.      By what the other characters say about him
                     Character, continued
   Useful Character Questions

       What traits does each character have?

       How are they revealed?

       Does a character change during the story? If so, how?
              Character, continued
   How does the writer want you to react to each
    person?

   Does the character remind you of someone you
    know?
                        Setting
   The physical background of a story, the time and place
    in which the action takes place. It is normally explained
    at or near the beginning of the story.
                  Setting, continued
   Does the setting influence the plot or the characters?
    What kind of mood or atmosphere (the emotional coloring) does the
    setting create?
   How important is the setting to the story? Could the same story happen
    in any other time or place?
                   Setting, continued
   As you read the story:
      Picture the setting – think about :
            Geographical location
            Scenery
            Weather
            Furniture
            Clothing
            Time of Year
            Period of History
                         Plot
   Plot – the plan of events or the main story.

   It is based on one or more conflicts, with one being
    the main conflict of the story.
                     Plot, continued
   There are two kinds of conflict:
       External –
            Between two characters – human vs. human
            Between a character and society – human vs. society
            Between a character and nature or a supernatural element –
             human vs. nature
                     Plot, continued
   Kinds of conflicts, continued:

       Internal –
          Within a character   – human vs. him/herself.
       Techniques to Develop the Plot

   Foreshadowing – hinting about an event that has not yet
    occurred.

   Flashback – breaks the sequences of events to tell about
    something that occurred earlier.
      Techniques to Develop the Plot, continued

   Suspense – feeling of growing tension and excitement felt by the
    reader as the plot develops.

   Surprise Ending – unexpected twist in the plot at the end of the
    story.
      Techniques to Develop the Plot, continued

   Dialogue – an important way for the author to create
    realism and suspense. Useful method of revealing
    character and developing plot.
                  Point of View
   First Person - Narrative told by one of the characters
    from the “I” point of view.
      Limited because the reader knows only what the
       character knows.
                Point of View, continued
   Limited Third Person – Narrator tells the story using “he”
    and “she.”
      Can be limited with the narrator knowing the thoughts
       of only one character.
                 Point of View, continued
   Omniscient – Narrator tells the story using “he” and “she.”
       Knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters.
                       Exposition
   Setting, characters, and situation are revealed.

   May suggest the theme and sometimes even hint at the
    probable outcome.
                   Rising Action
   Major part of the plot.
   Series of steps each presenting a minor obstacle or problem
    and leading to a climax.
   Developed mainly by incident, description, characterization,
    and dialogue.
                          Climax
   The culmination of events of the rising action.
   The most exciting moment.
   The highest point of interest.
   Usually brief and distinct – sometimes only a sentence long.
                     Falling Action
   Follows the climax and explains any details that need
    further clarification.

   May try to help the reader understand an unexpected
    ending.

   Usually short.
                 Resolution
   How the conflict of the story is resolved – how
    the main problem is solved.
          Book Journaling Assignment
   As you read the book you will pose questions to your partner about
    the portions you have read. This is designed to help you both
    understand better and to allow you to point out things that your
    partner may have overlooked or thought was less important.
      Book Journaling Assignment, continued

   Remember that you will be coordinating your report
    with your partner for presentation in both classes.

				
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