The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries_ 2002

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					The State of
Meat Production
in Developing
                                                                                                     12      CHAPTER

Countries: 2002
Neil Trent, Peter Ormel, Jose Luis Garcia de Siles, Gunter Heinz, and Morgane James

      illions of animals are killed for      More humane transport, handling,            Since 1994 HSI has worked with the
      food annually in developing         and slaughter practices and the intro-      FAO to introduce techniques and
      countries, more than half of        duction of modern systems and               equipment for humane transport, han-
them without the benefit of stunning      equipment in the slaughter process          dling, and slaughter of food animals in
(a procedure that induces an uncon-       not only decrease animal suffering          developing areas. The most important
scious state through administration       but also provide economic benefits          of these techniques is the use of the
of a severe blow to the skull or the      for the human population, as the            captive bolt stunner (see sidebar on
application of an electrical charge).     amount of meat and hide wasted is           page 181).
   The slaughter process begins most      reduced. At the same time, worker              HSI has underwritten the cost of
often with food animals crowded into      and meat safety is greatly increased.       FAO slaughter-training workshops,
inadequate vehicles with little protec-      Two organizations—one dedicated          providing equipment, and/or partici-
tion from the elements and trans-         to the elimination of animal suffering      pating in presentations in Asia and
ported long distances without water       and the other to encouraging sustain-       the Caribbean. HSI also has produced
over harsh roads. In a typical develop-   able agriculture and rural develop-         a laminated poster for FAO use in its
ing country, few slaughter facilities     ment—have joined forces to address          training workshops, cosponsored the
have any government oversight of          animal welfare issues in the global         publication of a booklet (Guidelines
sanitation or veterinary care. Animals    livestock industry. The mission of The      for Humane Handling, Transport, and
may be stunned by repeated hammer         Humane Society of the United States         Slaughter of Livestock), and begun
blows to the head. They may be            (HSUS) and its international arm,           development of a training video for
stabbed with sharp knives until they      Humane Society International (HSI),         distribution worldwide.
collapse. While the animals are still     is to create a humane and sustainable          As part of this collaboration with
conscious, their throats are cut, and     world for all animals, including peo-       the FAO, HSI has solicited overviews
they die from excessive blood loss        ple, through education, advocacy, and       on the various aspects of animal wel-
after minutes of struggling.              the promotion of respect and com-           fare and the livestock industry in
   These brutal methods cause             passion. The Food and Agriculture           Latin America (contributed by FAO
immense animal suffering. They also       Organization (FAO) of the United            representatives Jose Luis Garcia de
have significant economic impact:         Nations has as a specific priority to       Siles and Peter W. Ormel); the Asia-
bruising of the meat renders it unfit     increase food production and food           Pacific region (contributed by FAO
for human consumption; damage to          security while conserving and manag-        consultant Gunter Heinz); and South
the hides causes loss of product; and     ing natural resources. The aim is to        Africa (through a case study of the
worker injuries result in decreased       meet the needs of both present and          status of livestock contributed by
productivity. At the same time, unsan-    future generations by promoting de-         Morgane James of the National Coun-
itary methods spread such diseases as     velopment that does not degrade the         cil of SPCAs).
salmonellosis, cholera, E.coli poison-    environment and is technically appro-
ing, and Listeria and cause contami-      priate, economically viable, and so-
nation of the meat, a serious public      cially acceptable.
health concern.
  Table 1
  World Livestock Population, 1961–2001                                      (in million heads)

                                                                                                  Percent      Percent
                                                                                                  Overall      Annual
  Species                       1961         1971         1981          1991           2001       Growth       Growth

  Cattle and Buffaloes           954         1,106         1,236        1,331           1,516        59           1.5

  Pigs                           348           551           707          791            923        166           4.1

  Poultry                       4,082        5,729         8,158       12,319          18,734       359           9.0

  Sheep and Goats               1,203        1,301         1,435        1,635           1,743        45           1.1

                                           mine quality, and poor sanitation             slaughtered (see Table 2).
Overview/                                  leads to considerable loss of product            The increase in the number of ani-
Latin America                              as well as to the risk of food-borne dis-
                                           eases (Garcia de Siles et al. 1997).
                                                                                         mals slaughtered per year led to a
                                                                                         280 percent increase in the produc-
                                              The safety of meat calls for control       tion of meat at the world level over
Introduction                               from the farm until the time the meat         the last forty years.
Food security has been defined as          is consumed. It is recognized that
access by all people at all times to ad-   stock handling, slaughtering condi-           Regional Comparison
equate quantities of safe food re-         tions, carcass dressing, and meat han-        The number of animals slaughtered
quired for a healthy and active life.      dling as well as the hygienic and envi-       worldwide per region3 is presented in
Although food availability has in-         ronmental surroundings, contribute            Table 3. For each species involved,
creased noticeably during the last         to the nutritional properties and             Asia leads the world in terms of num-
thirty years in developing countries,      commercial value of the finished              ber of animals slaughtered per year.
there currently are more than 800          products.
million people without adequate
                                                                                         Livestock Evolution
access to food, and more than 24,000       Evolution of
people die each day because of lack of                                                   in Latin America
adequate food supply.                      Meat Production
                                           As shown in Table 1, the world live-          and the Caribbean
   In developing countries, where
                                           stock population1 has grown steadily          In Latin America and the Caribbean,
diets are composed of a few staple
                                           for all major species involved2 over          the cattle and buffalo population
foods, meat and meat products are
                                           the last forty years.                         more than doubled from 1961 to
especially important in preventing
                                              In terms of slaughter, the global          2001 (see Table 4).
malnutrition and contributing to
                                           view is very similar, with moderate             During this same period, the total
food security.
                                           increases in the number of ruminants          meat production in Latin America
   In developing countries some tradi-
                                           slaughtered and larger increases in           and the Caribbean increased from
tional methods of handling, process-
                                           the total numbers of pigs and poultry         7.9 million metric tons to more than
ing, and marketing of meat under-

  Table 2
  Animals Slaughtered Worldwide, 1961–2001                                              (in million heads)

                                                                                                  Percent      Percent
                                                                                                  Overall      Annual
  Species                       1961         1971         1981          1991           2001       Growth       Growth

  Beef and Buffaloes              155          181           212          236            299         93           2.3

  Pigs                            313          533           680          861           1,172       274           6.9

  Poultry                       6,367       11,122        18,528       27,367          45,926       621          15.5

  Sheep and Goats                 364          432           507          646            788        117           2.9

176                                                                                             The State of the Animals II: 2003
                                                                                          growth in developing countries,
  Table 3                                                                                 which have led to a massive increase
                                                                                          in the demand for products of animal
  Animals Slaughtered Worldwide                                                           origin, such as meat, milk, and eggs.
  Per Region: 2001 (in million heads)                                                     However, unlike the so-called green
                                                                                          (or environmentally-conscious) revo-
  Region            Cattle and         Pigs            Poultry         Sheep and          lution, which was supply driven, the
                    Buffaloes                                            Goats            livestock revolution is demand driven.
                                                                                             The increased demand for meat
  Africa                  29            12               2,539            151
                                                                                          and meat products has come from a
  Asia                    98           678              17,396            439             growing urban population with
                                                                                          changing diets and sufficient income
  Europe                  53           294               7,440             98
                                                                                          to increase animal products in their
  Latin America           65            62               8,581             31             diets.
  and the Caribbean                                                                          A major change of this revolution is
  North America           41           119               9,525              4
                                                                                          a shift in the balance of meat con-
                                                                                          sumption from developed countries
  Oceania                 12             8                 510             66             to developing countries. The devel-
                                                                                          oped countries showed an annual
  World                  298      1,173                45,991             789
                                                                                          growth in meat consumption of only
                                                                                          1.0 percent from 1982 to 1994. At
31.7 million metric tons. This in-            tered in the Merco Sur and the              the same time, the developing coun-
crease was caused mainly by the in-           Andean countries.                           tries increased their meat consump-
crease in the production of poultry                                                       tion by 5.4 percent annually. In 2020
meat, and to a much lesser extent, by         Livestock Revolution                        people in developing countries are
the increase in beef and pork produc-         Over the past decade, the Interna-          expected to consume a total of 188
tion (see Figure 1).                          tional Food Policy Research Institute,      million metric tons of meat, whereas
                                              the FAO, and the International Live-        people in developed countries are
Subregional                                   stock Research Institute have com-          expected to consume 115 million
                                                                                          metric tons.
Comparison in                                 bined their efforts to produce a glob-
                                                                                             These expected consumption
                                              al view of the developments in the
Latin America and                             livestock sector to 2020 against the        increases will lead to equivalent
the Caribbean                                 background of world globalization.          increases in production, with produc-
                                                 A revolution is taking place in live-    tion of livestock products growing
The number of animals slaughtered in
                                              stock production that could have vast       most rapidly in areas where consump-
the Latin American/Caribbean4 sub-
                                              implications for people and the envi-       tion grows (Table 6).
region is presented in Table 5. Brazil
                                              ronment in both developed and devel-           Total meat production for develop-
leads the region in terms of number
                                              oping countries. This livestock revolu-     ing countries in 2020 is expected to
of animals slaughtered for cattle and
                                              tion is being caused by population          reach 183 million metric tons; for
buffaloes, pigs, and poultry, whereas
                                              growth, urbanization, and income            developed countries the projected
the most sheep and goats are slaugh-

  Table 4
  Livestock Population in Latin America and
  the Caribbean, 1961–2001 (in million heads)
                                                                                                   Percent      Percent
                                                                                                   Overall      Annual
  Species                        1961           1971         1981           1991         2001      Growth       Growth

  Cattle and Buffaloes           176             224             294            330       360         105          2.6

  Pigs                            50              65             74             76         81          61          1.5

  Poultry                        359             577         1,071          1,461        2,513        601         15.0

  Sheep and Goats                155             148             143            146       117         (25)        (0.6)

The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                                   177
                                                                                                                         Several basic aspects of the live-
                                    Figure 1                                                                          stock revolution offer threats as well
                                                                                                                      as opportunities to the sustainable
                                    Latin America and the Caribbean                                                   development of countries and regions
                                    Meat Production: 1961–2001                                                        (Delgado et al. 1999):
                           15,000                                                                                          (1) the revolution implies a sub-
 Metric Tons (in 1,000s)

                                                                                                                               stantial increase in livestock
                           12,000                                                                                              production in the near future;
                                                                                                                           (2) the majority of this increase
                                                                                                                               will be in developing coun-
                                                                                                                           (3) the function of livestock will
                            3,000                                                                                              change from non-tradable,
                                                                                                                               multipurpose to more mar-
                               0                                                                                               ket-oriented functions;
                                       1961           1971          1981                1991           2001                (4) people will continue to substi-
                                                                                                                               tute grains for meat and milk
                                                                                                                               in their diets;
                                     Beef and Buffaloes      Pigs             Poultry          Sheep and Goats             (5) the rapid increase in mono-
                                                                                                                               gastric production systems
                                                                                                                               will lead to a rapid increase in
total production in the same year is                            environmental and public health                                the use of cereal feeds;
121 million metric tons. However, the                           effects of these systems. This might                       (6) the stress on grazing systems
rapid growth in products of animal                              explain a general absence of policies                          and expansion of monogastric
origin has not been, nor is it expected                         and regulations in many developing                             production systems close to
to be, evenly distributed across or                             countries with regard to monogastric                           urban centers will increase;
within countries.                                               production systems. Given the drastic                      (7) rapidly changing technologies
   The livestock revolution will pro-                           increase these systems will suffer in                          will be incorporated into in-
duce a drastic increase in the capaci-                          the near future and their general                              tensive production systems.
ty of existing production and distribu-                         proximity to urban centers, this regu-                   The livestock revolution is a de-
tion systems and have possible effects                          latory vacuum easily could lead to                    mand-driven process that cannot be
in such key areas as environmental                              substantial environmental problems                    stopped. The final overall effects (pos-
pollution, public health, food safety,                          and important increased dangers for                   itive and negative) for the rural poor,
and animal welfare. The changes that                            public health.                                        the environment, public health, and
are inherent to the livestock revolu-
tion can be seen both as threats and
as opportunities for the sustainable
development of developed and devel-                                  Table 5
oping countries.                                                     Number of Animals Slaughtered in Latin
   When not managed well, these
changes could give rise to various
                                                                     America and the Caribbean, 2001
                                                                     (in million heads)
problematic situations, with negative
effects for animal welfare, public
health, and the environment. Animal                                  Region               Cattle and          Pigs            Poultry      Sheep and
welfare is a growing ethical concern,                                                     Buffaloes                                          Goats
especially in developed countries.                                   Brazil                      30              25          4,641               7
There, public awareness of environ-
mental contamination of natural                                      Mexico                       7              14          1,107               5
resources (air, water, and land) by                                  Andean Countries             8               9          1,204               8
intensive livestock production sys-
tems is high. Many countries have                                    Caribbean                    0               1           157                0
established rules and regulations to
                                                                     Central America              3               5           604                1
mitigate and compensate for the
effect these production systems have                                 Merco Sur                   17               9           868               10
on the environment. However, devel-
                                                                     Latin America and
oping countries generally have much                                  the Caribbean     65                        63         8,581               31
less experience with the negative
178                                                                                                                           The State of the Animals II: 2003
animal welfare depend on the willing-                  before slaughter, negatively affecting                  dirty, their legs covered with manure.
ness of developing countries to regu-                  the quality of the meat. Often holding                  In these cases, the knife used for
late the projected changes.                            pens are overcrowded, causing unnec-                    bleeding and de-hiding will have to
                                                       essary stress to the animals.                           cut through manure and fecal
Slaughtering                                              The quality and condition of the                     residues, resulting in a great possibil-
                                                       carcass and its storage depend great-                   ity for meat contamination.
Meat Animals in                                        ly on the care taken prior to slaugh-                      Slaughter methods vary widely and
Developing Countries                                   ter. Nervous, tired, and excited ani-                   include, among others, simple decap-
Both meat quality and quantity are                     mals may have a raised body                             itation (in India), severing the medul-
very much affected by pre-slaughter                    temperature, causing imperfect                          la (in some Latin American coun-
conditions. In developing countries                    bleeding. Muscular fatigue reduces                      tries), and severing of the major
meat animals are transported from                      glycogen content in the blood, which                    blood vessels with or without previous
the farm to the slaughterhouse on                      after slaughter changes into lactic                     stunning.
foot, by road, or by rail. Frequently                  acid, thus causing favorable condi-                        Animals going to slaughter should
livestock must travel on foot for sever-               tions for spoilage and the growth of                    be rendered unconscious in order to
al days to reach the abattoir. Since the               food-borne bacteria. Fatigue and ex-                    make death as stress-free and painless
distances involved often are quite sub-                citement also cause penetration of                      as possible. Nevertheless, in the Jew-
stantial and the management of the                     bacteria from the intestinal tract to                   ish (kosher) and the Muslim (halal)
animals during this process is poor,                   the meat.                                               slaughter of livestock, stunning gen-
transportation has deleterious effects                    Holding animals in vehicles or                       erally is not allowed, and the animal is
that result in significant food losses.                lairages without adequate litter                        bled directly, using a sharp knife to
   Livestock who have traveled long                    and/or drainage frequently results in                   cut the throat and sever the main
distances on foot or in transport fre-                 fecal soiling of the skin. Cattle enter-                blood vessels. This results in sudden
quently are insufficiently rested                      ing slaughterhouses often are very                      and massive loss of blood, with loss of

  Table 6
  Projected Trends in Production of Various
  Livestock Products, 1993–2020
                                 Annual Growth
                                    of Total
                                  Production                                   Total Production                             Per Capita Production
  Region/Product                  1993–2020                                     1993       2020                                1993       2020
                                    (percent)                                 (million metric tons)                          (million metric tons)
  Developed Countries

  Beef                                    0.6                                       35           38                                26             28

  Pork                                    0.4                                       37           41                                29             29

  Poultry                                 1.2                                       27           36                                21             26

  Meat                                    0.7                                     100           121                                78             87

  Developing Countries

  Beef                                    2.6                                       22           44                                  5             7

  Pork                                    2.7                                       39           81                                  9            13

  Poultry                                 3.0                                       21           47                                  5             7

  Meat                                    2.7                                       88          183                                21             29

  Source: Delgado et al. 1999

  Notes: Total and per capita production for 1993 are calculated from FAO (1998). Projections are updated figures, following the same format as that reported in
         Rosegrant et al. 1997. Meat includes beef, pork, mutton, goat, and poultry. Milk is cow and buffalo milk and milk products in liquid milk equivalents.
         Metric tons and kilograms are three-year moving averages centered on the two years shown.

The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                                                                         179
consciousness and death. These types       Rural Slaughter                            Urban Slaughter
of slaughtering can be very unsatis-       In developing countries, a high per-       Many of the large-scale slaughter-
factory since the animal may not be        centage of animal slaughter takes          houses in developing countries are in
rendered unconscious and may suffer        place in rural areas under very primi-     poor condition. These usually are
considerable discomfort and pain in        tive conditions that do not meet even      located in or around large cities and
the slaughter process. Many Muslim         minimal technical and hygienic             may be categorized as follows:
authorities permit some form of pre-       requirements. Animals are slaugh-              (a) Old and dilapidated slaughter-
slaughter stunning such as electric        tered in all kinds of places, such as              houses established originally
stunning of cattle, sheep, and poultry     converted buildings or rooms, under                on the outskirts of cities but
(see sidebar on page 181) (Chambers        the shade of trees, and on open, bare              now found within the city lim-
and Grandin 2001).                         ground.                                            its due to rapid expansion of
   The use of humane methods in the           Because of the level of bacterial               the urban area. These slaugh-
handling of livestock prevents need-       contamination, meat produced under                 terhouses present a serious
less suffering, results in safer working   such conditions can deteriorate easily             environmental hazard, in
conditions, reduces meat losses, and       and lead to food poisoning. Since                  addition to using unsanitary
improves meat quality. However, cru-       there is no meat inspection, meat                  slaughtering and meat han-
elty to animals exists in developing       from sick or parasite-infested animals             dling practices;
countries because of unsatisfactory        may well be a vector in spreading dis-         (b) Slaughterhouses built in the
slaughtering procedures and infra-         ease, affecting human beings as well               last two decades, with an
structures. Animals may be pulled,         as animals. In addition, unsatisfacto-             excessively high level of tech-
beaten, or dragged on their way to         ry slaughtering techniques can cause               nical equipment. Problems
slaughter and are allowed to see other     unnecessary losses of meat and valu-               with ongoing maintenance,
animals being slaughtered. Animals         able by-products. Such losses consti-              inadequate staff training, and
frequently are slaughtered without         tute a major constraint in increasing              high energy consumption
being stunned. These practices need        animal production.                                 have resulted in much of the
to be examined, since people in many          The simplest structure used in                  specialized equipment being
developing countries take cruelty to       slaughtering and dressing livestock is             shut down. Consequently,
animals for granted and its preven-        the gantry hoist. Animals who have                 many of these plants now
tion is often an acquired concept          been slaughtered on the ground are                 resemble the ones mentioned
(Mann 1984).                               then hoisted via the gantry so that                under category (a); and
   Dressing the carcass, which is          the carcass can be dressed. One step           (c) Slaughterhouses for export,
defined by the Codex Alimentarius (a       better than the gantry method is uti-              which are technically and
collection of international food stan-     lization of a slaughter slab, an area of           hygienically of a very high
dards adopted by the Codex Alimen-         concrete on which the animal is                    standard, since they have to
tarius Commission, responsible for         slaughtered and dressed. When rural                comply with export require-
execution of the FAO/WHO Food              slaughtering takes place on relatively             ments. The local population
Standards Program) as the progres-         small premises, very simple equip-                 usually does not benefit from
sive separation of an animal into a        ment, such as hooks or ropes for                   these quality meat-producing
carcass (or sides of a carcass), other     hanging animals and chopping blocks                plants because their products
edible parts, and inedible parts, is the   for breaking down carcasses, may be                are too expensive and are
next step in the slaughter process.        available. However, it remains a com-              directed to external markets.
   The essential problem in many           mon practice to dress carcasses on            Even in larger towns, abattoirs that
developing countries is the failure to     the building floor.                        have been designed specifically to
provide for hoists or hooks, hardware         Under these conditions, the utiliza-    supply meat to the expanding centers
which permits the dressing of car-         tion of animal by-products generally       of urban population all too often are
casses to take place off the floor. The    is low or nonexistent, since the by-       unsatisfactory from a hygienic view-
contamination resulting from floor         products are considered a nuisance.        point.
dressing of carcasses is considerable,     Improved slaughter methods can                Once the meat leaves the abattoir,
especially where the removal of hides      result in edible by-products which,        its hygienic quality also is influenced
and the cleaning of stomachs are car-      properly utilized, may be a source of      by careless and poor handling. Car-
ried out in the same location as the       animal protein for human consump-          casses, quarters, unwashed offal, and
dressing of the carcass itself.            tion. They can assist in increasing liv-   other items are placed together on
                                           ing standards in rural communities by      the floor of the market or on dirty
                                           improving the nutritional level, and       concrete or wooden tables in meat
                                           at the same time increasing employ-        shops, increasing the microbiological
                                           ment possibilities.                        contamination of the meat.

180                                                                                          The State of the Animals II: 2003
   Humane                                       skull but does not enter the brain. They
                                                cause unconsciousness due to concus-
                                                                                                onds following stunning. The forelegs
                                                                                                may be flexed initially and then gradual-
   Stunning:                                    sive force alone and should only be
                                                used on cattle.
                                                                                                ly straighten out, but this depends on
                                                                                                the species and the severity of the
   Two                                             Both types of stunner are powered            blow. Tonic activity is followed by a peri-
                                                by blank cartridges. Cartridges vary in         od of involuntary kicking, which gradual-
   Techniques                                   strength and are classified according to        ly subsides.
                                                the amount of propellant they contain,             If an animal is stunned properly, he or
                                                as measured in grains. It is most impor-        she collapses immediately. There is no
   Captive Bolt Stunning                        tant that the correct cartridges be used        rhythmic breathing, no blinking, no
   The captive bolt stunner is used com-        for each model of stunner.                      corneal reflex, and no vocalizing. The
   monly in stockyards, slaughterhouses,           It also is essential that the correct car-   animal has a fixed, glazed expression
   and packing plants where animals are         tridge be used for the size and species         and relaxed jaw, and the tongue is hang-
   slaughtered for food. The primary objec-     of animal being stunned. In emergency           ing out.
   tive of the captive bolt stunner is imme-    situations, it is acceptable to use a car-
   diately to induce an unconscious state       tridge designed for a larger species, but
                                                never one designed for a smaller                Bleeding Out
   by administering a severe blow to the
   skull. The captive bolt is a humane stun-    species. To obtain maximum effect, the          To prevent the risk of recovery, animals
   ner—not a humane killer—and stunning         muzzle of the captive bolt stunner must         must be bled out (sometimes referred
   must always be followed immediately          be held firmly against the head of the          to as “sticking” or exsanguination) as
   by bleeding out.                             animal.                                         soon as possible after stunning, ideally
      Captive bolt stunners are comprised                                                       while the animal is still in the tonic (rigid)
   of a steel bolt with a flange and a piston                                                   phase. Bleeding out involves severing
                                                Electrical Stunning                             the carotid arteries and jugular veins of
   at one end that is held in the barrel. The
   piston fits tightly into the breech and      Electrical stunning involves passing (by        the ventral neck and thorax region. The
   the bolt is free to move forward and         means of voltage, or electrical pressure)       animal then dies from loss of blood. It is
   backward in the barrel. Upon firing, the     an electric current (the rate of flow of        important that all major blood vessels
   expansion of gases, produced by the          electricity) through the brain, severely        are severed. If only one carotid artery is
   explosion of the charge, propels the pis-    disrupting the brain’s normal electrical        cut, the animal may take over a minute
   ton forward, and the bolt projects           activity and causing an immediate state         to die.
   through an aperture in the front of the      of unconsciousness and insensibility to            Whenever an animal is stunned using
   barrel. The bolt remains captive in the      pain.                                           a captive bolt stunner, he or she must
   barrel, however, because the flange at          Electrodes must be placed on the             be bled out within fifteen seconds to
   the rear prevents it from passing            animal in a manner to ensure good elec-         ensure a rapid and painless death. A
   through the hole. The impact of the          trical contact, and they must span the          maximum stun-to-stick interval of fif-
   flange at the front of the barrel is         brain, enabling the current to pass             teen seconds is essential for all species
   absorbed by either cellular buffers (also    through it. The animal remains un-              in the field.
   known as recuperator sleeves) or a           conscious while his or her throat is cut           The most practical method of bleed-
   grease collar, depending on the type of      and dies from loss of blood. It is impor-       ing out is to make a deep transverse cut
   stunner.                                     tant to note that an animal may recover         with a six-inch knife across the animal’s
      There are two types of captive bolt       from a stun if his or her throat is not cut     throat at the angle of the jaw (i.e., a cut
   stunners: penetrating and non-penetrat-      quickly.                                        across the throat). The cut should be
   ing. Penetrating stunners cause uncon-                                                       deep, severing the blood vessels, tra-
   sciousness as a result of a concussive                                                       chea and esophagus, and continue until
                                                Physiological                                   the blade of the knife touches the
   blow to the skull and the physical dam-
   age caused by the entry of the bolt into
                                                Effects of Stunning                             spine. The intention is to severe the
   the brain. They are generally preferred,     The initial effect on the animal is imme-       carotid arteries and the jugular veins.
   as they result in more rapid uncon-          diate unconsciousness, accompanied                                              —Neil Trent
   sciousness and death. Non-penetrative        by what is known as “tonic” activity.
   stunners have a “mushroom-headed”            The animal collapses, stops breathing,
   bolt which comes in contact with the         and becomes rigid. This period of rigidi-
                                                ty normally lasts for ten to twenty sec-

The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                                                  181
   When meat is sold on one or two         The FAO addresses this issue through        on regional training of trainers cours-
market days, meat stalls often are         technical strategies and technology         es to stimulate the multiplier and cat-
crowded, and customers lean on the         packages that include inter alia assis-     alytic effect at member country level.
stall; the meat becomes contaminat-        tance for improved hygiene, handling,
ed through contact with their hands,       and preservation of livestock prod-
bank notes, baskets, clothes, and          ucts; development of appropriate pro-       Animal Welfare
other objects. The behavior of butch-      cessing technologies, including devel-
ers is not always the most appropriate     opment of low-cost and shelf-stable         in the Livestock
from a hygienic point of view and may      meat products; and establishment of
contribute to the problem.                 small-scale meat processing plants.         Sector in
   In urban areas the traditional mar-
keting of meat begins with early           1. Slaughter Facilities
morning slaughter and delivery of the         It is evident that unsatisfactory        Asia, which is home to almost half of
unchilled meat to the marketplace a        slaughtering techniques and lack of         the world’s human population, tradi-
few hours later. The FAO recommends        appropriate slaughtering facilities         tionally has also been a region with a
that in the long term this be              may cause unnecessary losses in meat        large livestock population. Year 2000
improved to a complete “cold chain”        as well as in valuable by-products. Un-     statistics reveal that, of the global
system, with the meat being cooled         der these circumstances, commonly           livestock population, Asia—including
down at the slaughterhouse and then        found in developing countries, the          the Pacific countries—rears 35 per-
transported in refrigerated trucks to      establishment of slaughter facilities       cent of cattle, 97 percent of buffaloes,
controlled butcher outlets. The devel-     of a sufficiently high standard but still   59 percent of pigs, 42 percent of
opment of the meat sector, in partic-      simple and inexpensive would im-            sheep, 59 percent of goats, 46 per-
ular in the rapidly expanding popula-      prove the above conditions. For these       cent of chickens, and 88 percent of
tion centers, will have to move in this    reasons the FAO has developed a             ducks.
direction for both public health and       model project in which the main com-           Over the last decades, Asia had
environmental reasons (Garcia de           ponent is a small-scale, modular            average annual growth rates in live-
Siles et al. 1997).                        slaughterhouse. In addition, designs        stock production of up to 7 percent.
   The availability of shelf-stable meat   have been prepared for the construc-        In the medium term, Asia will contin-
products is very important for a con-      tion of a meat market in order to           ue to display the world’s highest
tinuous supply of animal protein and       facilitate the integration of produc-       growth rates for livestock, approxi-
essential minerals during periods          tion, processing, and marketing. Fur-       mately 3 percent, compared with 1.7
when there is no fresh meat available.     ther details of this slaughterhouse         percent annual global growth.
Shelf life ranging from a few days to a    design and operation can be found in           The Asia-Pacific region comprises
number of months can be achieved,          FAO publications (FAO 1988, 1994).          three developed countries—Japan,
depending on the processing meth-                                                      Australia, and New Zealand—and
ods. Meat processing therefore is          2. Processing                               twenty-seven developing countries.
essential to enhance food security            Taking into consideration that an        Animal welfare issues usually are
and cope with periodic deficits in         uninterrupted cold chain for meat           higher on the agenda in the devel-
meat supply.                               cannot be expected in many develop-         oped Asian-Pacific countries than in
   However, in many developing coun-       ing countries in the near future, the       the developing countries. In particu-
tries the hygienic conditions of the       FAO is assisting developing countries       lar, New Zealand and Australia have
manufacturing process are generally        in the use of existing national and         stringent animal welfare laws and
very poor. Machinery is obsolete,          alternative regional meat preserva-         detailed rules and regulations.
places are dirty, and meat is handled      tion.                                          However, even in well-organized
carelessly.                                                                            animal welfare environments, un-
                                           3. Training                                 precedented animal suffering may
                                                                                       occur. Australia exports not only
The FAO                                      The lack of adequately trained per-
                                                                                       meat from cattle and sheep but also
                                           sonnel in the meat and dairy industry
Contribution                               has been recognized as one of the           live animals. Although the numbers of
Dramatic changes in the current situ-      main constraints limiting the               livestock sent to not-too-distant
ation of the meat sector are difficult     improvement of the hygienic and             Southeast Asian countries such as
to achieve in the short to medium          technical quality of meat. Training is      Indonesia and the Philippines are
term, as they would require consider-      therefore a prioritized integral com-       high, no major animal suffering has
able investment in facilities and infra-   ponent of FAO projects for meat and         been reported, as transport distances
structure. Developing countries can-       dairy sector development. For strate-       are relatively short.
not afford this capital investment.        gic delivery of training, FAO focuses          The situation is different when

182                                                                                            The State of the Animals II: 2003
lucrative Near East markets are sup-       conditions, and there are also a few       small cages. In Asia, where duck eggs
plied with sheep and cattle for            feedlots for cattle fattening.             are very popular, layer ducks may also
slaughtering upon arrival according           Cattle prevail in India (46 percent     be kept this way.
to the Moslem halal method—cut-            of Asia-Pacific’s total), where they are      Traditional livestock production
ting the throat without pre-stunning.      used only for milk production. India       systems generally create reasonable
In the past many animals did not sur-      also has the highest buffalo popula-       conditions for animal well-being.
vive the long voyage. To shorten           tion in Asia, followed by Pakistan and     However, there are problem areas. For
transport distances, it is now             China. Buffaloes in India, Pakistan,       example, millions of cows in India,
required that these shipments disem-       Nepal, and Bangladesh are of the           who have their role in socio-cultural
bark exclusively from Western Aus-         riverine type kept predominantly for       tradition, are otherwise little used for
tralian seaports. (As a consequence        milk. Buffaloes in Southeast Asia are      agricultural production, and are not
of loss of life due to extreme high        of the swamp type; they are not suit-      adequately cared for, fed, and
temperatures in the summer of              able for milk production but serve for     watered. Buffaloes play an important
2002, Australia announced it would         draft power and are slaughtered for        role in India as milk-producing live-
ban cattle transport until cooler          meat at the end of their working lives.    stock, but there is little interest in
weather returned.) New Zealand                Regrettably, swamp buffalo popula-      young male buffaloes, who are unused
banned all live animal shipments to        tions in Southeast Asia have been          for meat production. Consequently,
overseas markets some years ago.           declining rapidly over the last ten to     the rural practice is to separate male
   In Japan animal welfare is governed     fifteen years, being replaced by motor-    buffalo calves from their mothers
by economic and public health fac-         ized vehicles. It is feared that this      shortly after birth and abandon them
tors. Guidelines for Industrial Live-      development will work against small        to die.
stock Rearing (Cabinet Office of           farmers and deprive many of their             In Asian countries with cold win-
Japan 1987) and Slaughter Methods          livelihood, as buffaloes may be more       ters, the traditional livestock sector
for Livestock (Cabinet Office of Japan     cost-effective than motorized vehicles,    suffers from very different problems.
1995) have been introduced. Due to         and buffalo manure is the much-need-       In Mongolia, for example, during the
the emergence of food poisoning            ed fertilizer for agriculture.             course of two consecutive winters,
from enterotoxins produced by                 Small ruminants (sheep and goats)       millions of livestock died of starvation
microorganisms in meat, slaughter          in developing Asia are kept for meat       during snowstorms. It is clear that
guidelines were strengthened in            only.                                      action must be taken to provide bet-
2000, and more stringent require-             Industrial livestock production of      ter shelters and basic feed reserves
ments for livestock transports and         so-called short-cycle animals (pigs        for the animals during the winter.
holding pens at slaughterhouses must       and chicken) for meat and eggs is             The above are a few examples of
be followed.                               increasing greatly in and around the       livestock suffering on traditional
   In developing Asia the countries        population centers, as per-capita          farms. More pronounced and wide-
with the largest human population          meat consumption in urban areas is         spread suffering—and not infrequent
also account for the largest livestock     increasing. The impact on livestock        cruelty—occurs in Asian countries, as
numbers. Livestock is used for food        production is best illustrated by the      elsewhere in the developing world,
(meat, milk), industrial products          example of China. Over the last two        from the moment when livestock is
(mainly leather), and draft power for      decades, the annual per-capita meat        selected for slaughtering. This stress-
agriculture and transport. In rural        consumption in China has gone up           ful and often torturous period lasts
areas manure from livestock still          from 5 kilograms to more than 30           from the farm gate to the slaughter-
plays an important role as a fertilizer.   kilograms. Egg production accounts         house. The poorer the infrastructure
In the pig and poultry sector of devel-    for comparable increases. Growth           in the livestock marketing and
oping Asia, there is a strong trend        rates in most other Asian countries        slaughterhouse sector, the more ani-
toward industrial production.              also are high, and one can imagine         mal suffering occurs.
   China is by far the largest producer    the challenges faced by industrial live-      The vast majority of Asian livestock
of pigs in Asia, due to the enormous       stock producers regarding procure-         is kept in China. China has made
demand created by more than one            ment of feed, environmental prob-          enormous progress in the abattoir
billion people. China also accounts        lems with animal waste, and proper         sector, in particular through provision
for 55 percent of Asian chicken pro-       organizing of livestock marketing and      of large-scale and rather efficient
duction and 78 percent of duck pro-        slaughtering.                              slaughterhouses in the population
duction.                                      From the animal welfare point of        centers. During the past two decades,
   Large and small ruminants in Asia       view, the arguments against industri-      transport of livestock by road, rail, and
are kept primarily under traditional       al livestock production in Asia are the    boat also has been improved. The Min-
rearing on pastureland. Around some        same as those voiced worldwide: sows       istry of Agriculture is the central
large population centers, dairy cows       confined for piglet production in nar-     authority responsible for the supervi-
may be kept under semi-industrial          row boxes and layer hens confined in       sion and control of abattoirs and pro-
The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                                 183
vides recommended best practices for       Some years ago there was a report         sanitary inspection and proper trans-
hygiene, transport, and animal wel-        from India describing how the legs of     port and handling of livestock. Pre-
fare. While such guidelines are very       young buffaloes were broken deliber-      stunning is acceptable in this pre-
helpful, training of meat sector per-      ately by livestock handlers in order to   dominantly Moslem country. Thailand
sonnel in techniques and humane            immobilize the animals in waiting         and Vietnam have completed new
treatment of animals still is lacking,     pens or transport facilities.             slaughterhouse projects where pre-
nor is the subject of animal welfare          One special aspect of large slaugh-    stunning using proper equipment is
adequately covered at veterinary and       ter animals on the Indian subconti-       carried out. Thailand has a thriving
agricultural universities. Nevertheless,   nent is the cross-border transport of     poultry export industry which com-
all large abattoirs have been equipped     cattle and buffalo from India to Pak-     plies with international standards for
with tools, such as captive bolt pistols   istan. India has the world’s largest      animal welfare. In Thailand’s domes-
and electrical tongs, for stunning of      cattle population. The cow is a sacred    tic slaughter sector, special govern-
livestock. In some cases, technically      animal to Hindus and cannot be            ment entities have been set up that
advanced boxes for electrical cattle       slaughtered. Due to lack of resources     deal with guidelines for humane
stunning have been introduced. In          in India, however, the cow cannot be      treatment of slaughter animals; how-
China’s vast rural areas, there remains    fed adequately either. Up to 50 per-      ever, binding laws have not yet been
scope for modernization of the meat        cent of Pakistan’s large slaughter ani-   published.
sector and improvements in humane          mals come from India during certain          Regarding animal welfare laws and
treatment of livestock.                    periods of the year. Some of the ani-     legislation, the Philippines is one of
   Indonesia also has a reasonable in-     mals entering Pakistan illegally travel   the most advanced countries of the
frastructure in the slaughterhouse         up to 1,000 kilometers further, into      region. An animal welfare act, as well
sector. Although Indonesia is a pre-       Afghanistan, many dying en route as       as several codes and regulations, are
dominantly Moslem country, a rather        they traverse this desert region with-    in place. In each major slaughter-
liberal approach is taken toward pre-      out adequate food and water.              house, one member of the veterinary
stunning of animals; efficient electri-       Most slaughterhouses in the sub-       staff is responsible for animal welfare
cal stunning equipment (for cattle)        continent are obsolete. Stunning          issues. The Philippine government’s
and captive bolt pistols are widely        equipment is not used. Ritual Moslem      commitment is evidenced by the fact
used.                                      slaughter in Pakistan does not permit     that the international Manila Confer-
   The situation for slaughter animals     pre-stunning. In other areas, due to      ence on Animal Welfare, an initiative
in the other two large countries in the    overcapacity and poor infrastructure,     of the Department of Agriculture, was
region, India and Pakistan, is very dif-   slaughtering is carried out very inhu-    to be held in 2003. The conference
ferent. India has a number of slaugh-      manely and in full view of other live     goal was to produce a Manila Declara-
terhouses producing buffalo meat for       animals. Furthermore, as slaughter-       tion on Animal Welfare, recognizing
export. These abattoirs must comply        house waste disposal systems also are     animal welfare as a common objective
with export requirements by using          obsolete, animals often are kept wait-    for all people and all nations.
adequate livestock transport by rail or    ing for slaughter amidst mountains of        Many are of the opinion that stan-
truck, good holding pens, and pre-         waste—such as intestinal content,         dards for animal welfare are perceived
stunning with captive bolt pistols         manure, and inedible carcass parts—       differently in Asia than in the West.
prior to bleeding. However, for the        dumped around the slaughterhouses.        Consequently, there is fear that it may
rest of the slaughter animals, cen-           In the other countries of the sub-     be difficult to make a major impact in
turies-old conditions prevail, the only    region, Bangladesh and Nepal, there       the Asian animal welfare sector. It is
difference being that, because of the      is almost no abattoir infrastructure,     true that laws and regulation on ani-
high demand for meat, all facilities       and animals are slaughtered along         mal welfare, which have been estab-
for transport, holding, and slaughter-     roadsides and rivers under the most       lished in almost all countries of the
ing are hopelessly over their capacity.    primitive conditions. In Nepal over-      region, are not strongly enforced at
   Small animals, such as pigs, and        crowded road transports of buffaloes      present by the authorities.
large and small ruminants generally        across several mountain passes in one        On the other hand, there are
are transported in trucks, most            long journey, with the animals hardly     encouraging developments—and con-
loaded well over capacity. Over short-     able to stand and in many cases lying     siderable progress—in a number of
er distances, these animals may be         virtually on top of each other, pose an   Asian countries toward the humane
made to walk. For millions of large        additional animal welfare problem.        treatment of slaughter animals. It
ruminants (mostly buffalo) in India,          The slaughterhouse sector in           must be acknowledged that much of
the typical range for the journey to       Southeast Asian countries (Myanmar,       the progress was triggered by eco-
the slaughterhouse can be as far as        Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philip-      nomic factors and considerations for
300–400 kilometers, during the             pines) is better organized. Malaysia,     easier animal handling. The desirable
course of which they lose as much as       in particular, has a good slaughter-      side effect, however, is less suffering
5 percent or more of their weight.         house infrastructure with efficient       for the animals.
184                                                                                         The State of the Animals II: 2003
   In Southeast Asia some peculiar         cially designed boxes. Both methods       chopped off the animal with one
methods are used to transport live         are recommended from the technical        stroke. In traditional Indian pig
small animals to market. Chickens          and animal welfare point of view.         slaughtering without pre-stunning,
and ducks are tied head-down to bicy-         The adequate electric stunning of      the pig is thrown on his or her back.
cles, rickshaws, and motorbikes. For-      cattle using electrodes to heart and      A short rope is tied round the muzzle
tunately, such methods will disappear      nose is absolutely painless and of par-   to prevent biting and to help press
automatically with the change of mar-      ticular interest to Moslem countries.     the head of the animal to the ground.
keting systems, away from the tradi-       However, the equipment is costly and      A straight, clean cut is made anterior
tional markets, where chicken are          hence only warranted for larger           to the sternum, which severs the
slaughtered in front of the customer,      slaughter operations.                     jugular vein, and with another cut the
toward the newly emerging supermar-           All cattle/buffalo slaughterhouses     heart is punctured. In the rest of Asia,
kets. The increasing popularity of         in Asia outside the Moslem sphere of      where no proper method for pig stun-
supermarkets will have other indirect      influence, and even occasionally          ning is available, pigs are knocked
positive repercussions for animal wel-     there, have no objections to using        down with the blow of a pole, ham-
fare. Meat will have to meet certain       captive bolt pistols, since their use     mer, or axe.
hygienic standards when a longer           results in the immediate collapse and        In the course of industrial Asian
shelf life must be guaranteed, thus re-    unconsciousness of the animal, so         livestock production and slaughter-
quiring that supplies come from prop-      that slaughtering can start without       ing, prospects are good that efficient,
erly controlled slaughter plants.          risk for the slaughter men. However,      scientifically developed stunning
   Pigs in Southeast Asia are squeezed     most medium and small slaughter-          methods will be employed on a larger
into baskets and transported on bicy-      houses cannot cover the costs of cap-     scale in Asia. At present the main
cles, etc., to market and slaughter        tive bolt pistols or, more importantly,   constraints affecting the widespread
facilities. In the absence of any alter-   do not have access to cartridges and      introduction of stunning equipment
native transport means, this method        spare parts. Instead, they must resort    are the cost and the challenge of
probably is acceptable, since the pigs     to the inhumane methods of using a        importing the equipment and spare
are released upon arrival and the          sharp-pointed knife to sever the          parts from overseas. Efforts in some
transport distances usually are short.     spinal cord or bringing the animal        Asian countries to manufacture stun-
   However, another method for indi-       down with a hammer blow.                  ning equipment locally and at cheap-
vidual transport of pigs, practiced in        In camel slaughtering, also daily      er prices have not been successful.
the small to medium slaughterhouse         practice in some parts of Asia, a very    Currently new approaches are being
sector in Thailand, inflicts great suf-    inhumane method is the severing of        taken by veterinary authorities in
fering on the animals. Pigs being          the Achilles’ tendons, which leads to     some countries. The assistance of
moved to slaughterhouses are forced        the collapse of the animal in full con-   development projects and NGOs is
into crates made of steel bars. These      sciousness. The animals may also be       envisaged.
crates are so small as to allow almost     immobilized by bending the joints of         In the Philippines national veteri-
no movement. Pigs are kept waiting         the fore and hind legs. This forces       nary authorities, in cooperation with
inside the crates, sometimes from          the animal into a painful position,       engineering departments, developed
morning to night, without water and        where he or she may remain for            a program to manufacture electrical
ventilation. They will be killed, still    many hours before the Halal throat        tongs for pigs, captive bolt pistols for
confined to the crate, by sticking a       cut is carried out.                       bovines, and the ammunition neces-
long knife into their necks. Fortu-           In Moslem ritual slaughtering, cat-    sary for captive bolt pistols. The FAO,
nately, this method of transport and       tle and buffaloes are thrown on the       in cooperation with some other donor
killing, which is very labor-intensive,    ground with a sudden pull, their          organizations and HSI, is committed
will disappear gradually with the          necks stretched, and the large blood      to cooperate in the project.
introduction of industrialized pig         vessels cut with a big, sharp knife. In      It would be most beneficial if inex-
slaughtering. It is more economical        many Moslem communities, electri-         pensive electrical stunning equipment
to transport pigs collectively on          cal stunning or use of non-penetrative    for pigs could be made available. The
trucks and keep the whole group            captive bolt stunners is acceptable;      economic benefits of import versus in-
together in a holding pen before           others, however, are adamant in refus-    country development of captive bolt
slaughtering.                              ing any kind of pre-stunning. Time is     pistols need to be analyzed, and,
   In large-animal slaughtering, effi-     ripe for Moslem authorities to discuss    whether the pistols are imported or
cient immobilization must be cou-          the issue and to study and evaluate       not, a supply of suitable ammunition
pled with immediate unconsciousness        available new technical methods for       for them must be assured. Responsi-
of the animal. Most industrial cattle      stunning.                                 ble veterinary authorities in the indi-
slaughterhouses in Asia use captive           Jhatka is a ritual slaughter method    vidual countries should become
bolt pistols for this purpose; a few       practiced by Sikhs in northern India      involved in the distribution of the
even use electrical stunning in spe-       on sheep and goats only. The head is      ammunition to the slaughterhouses.
The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                               185
  Table 7
  Livestock Population in South Africa, 1961–2001                                            (in million heads)

  Species              1961               1971                1981         1991              2001            Growth

  Cattle              12.527              11.234              13.2          13.5             13.74              9.68

  Pigs                  1.492              1.205               1.348         1.539            1.540             3.22

  Poultry                .0187              .0263               .0313         .0883              .1193        537.97

  Sheep and Goats     37.9                33.1                31.6          32.6             28.8             (24.01)

  Goats                 5.13               5.36                5.79          6.2              6.55             27.68

If such a system could be brought into     to Europe, for provision to local niche    under extensive grazing systems,
function, a great step forward toward      markets or for feeding to captive          many in communal grazing areas.
humane treatment of slaughter ani-         predators, such as lions.                    While high numbers of cattle are
mals in Asia would be made.                   There is a variety of farming sys-      fattened in feedlots, a large number
                                           tems in South Africa, from very tradi-     also are kept in extensive grazing sys-
                                           tional and extensive to intensive and      tems.
Humane                                     modern (Table 9). The diverse cul-
                                           tures influence how many animals are       Legislation
Slaughter in                               farmed.                                    In 1962 South Africa’s first animal
                                              The vast majority of poultry are
South Africa                               farmed under intensive systems for
                                                                                      welfare legislation, the Animals Pro-
                                                                                      tection Act No. 71, was promulgated.
                                           both egg and meat production. In           This act covers all animal species and
Introduction                               recent years there has been an             does not exclude any sector of animal
South Africa is a vast and diverse         increase in the production of free-        utilization (Table 10).
country; however, only 12 percent is       range products; although this still is a      Other acts relating to animals,
arable. Lack of water is one of the        relatively small niche market, con-        such as the Livestock Brands Acts
most severe constraints faced by the       sumers are becoming more aware and         1962 (Act No. 87 of 1962), do not
farming community. Because of this,        opting to purchase these products          necessarily incorporate welfare
crop production is not a viable activi-    despite their higher cost.                 requirements. The SPCA (society for
ty over large parts of the country, and       The majority of pigs also are farmed    the prevention of cruelty to animals)
extensive livestock (especially sheep)     under intensive systems. The tether-       movement enforces specific welfare
production is undertaken in the drier      ing of sows in not permitted. Phase-       legislation, with qualified and autho-
areas, particularly in the western and     out of existing tethering systems has      rized inspectors trained through a
central parts of the country (Table 7).    been nearly completed, with only two       national course to perform these
                                           producers still using a limited num-       functions. Investigations are under-
Species Utilized                           ber of tethers.                            taken and, where appropriate, offend-
                                              Although some sheep are fattened        ers are charged and prosecuted.
for Slaughter                              in feedlots, the majority are farmed       Under certain sections of the Animals
Poultry, pigs, cattle, and sheep repre-    under extensive grazing systems. The       Protection Act and regulations per-
sent the largest numbers of animals        vast majority of goats are farmed          taining to the act, authorized inspec-
slaughtered for commercial produc-
tion in abattoirs. The number of goats
slaughtered is difficult to determine
because in rural areas many are kept
                                                 Table 8
and slaughtered for home consump-                Number of Animals Slaughtered
tion (Table 8).                                  in South Africa, 2001 (in million heads)
   Although not bred for this purpose,
equines also are slaughtered. Surplus,           Cattle and Buffaloes      Pigs         Poultry          Sheep and Goats
unwanted, and non-viable equines are
purchased and slaughtered for export                   2.79                  2           .3689                10.71

186                                                                                          The State of the Animals II: 2003
tors have the power to arrest, seize
relevant evidence, and seize animals             Table 9
in need of immediate care.                       Commercially Utilized Species/
Codes of Practice                                Products in South Africa
A number of codes of practice exist
                                                 Species               Main Product Farmed for (excluding by-products)
and, while they are not legally en-
forceable, they are accepted as the              Cattle                Meat
norm as underwritten by the different                                  Milk
sectors of the livestock industry. The                                 Hides and other by-products
Animals Protection Act is enforceable            Sheep                 Meat
in all situations where animals are                                    Wool/pelts
utilized, kept, or slaughtered.
                                                 Goats                 Meat
Although specific requirements are                                     Mohair
set down in the relevant abattoir leg-
islation, charges can be made against            Calves                Veal/calf meat
perpetrators of cruelty as defined by
                                                 Poultry               Eggs
the Animals Protection Act. Convic-                                    Meat
tion on charges of animal cruelty can
result in fines, imprisonment, and               Ostriches             Feathers
confiscation of animals.                                               Meat
   The Department of Agriculture has
appointed inspectors who monitor                 Pigs                  Meat
the conditions at abattoirs, but the
                                                 Rabbits               Meat
focus is on hygiene, of both the facili-                               Pelts
ty and the carcasses. These inspectors
also are in a position to ensure that            Game                  Meat
the abattoir regulations are adhered
to in terms of facilities, handling, and
slaughter methods. Failure to comply
with the legislation can result in fines      Slaughter                                   The manner in which animals are
                                                                                          slaughtered is as diverse as these
and either temporary or permanent             Requirements                                groups, and the slaughtering of ani-
closure of the abattoir (Table 10).           South Africa has a wide range of cul-       mals for ritual as well as food purposes
                                              tures and beliefs; eleven official lan-     is very important to many (Table 11).
                                              guage groups represent this diversity.         However, in order to ensure meat

  Table 10
  South African Legislation Incorporating Animal Welfare
  Name of Legislation                                                     Purpose of Legislation

  The Animals Protection Act No. 71 of 1962                               Protect animals
                                                                          Define offenses
                                                                          Define responsibilities of animal owners
  The Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act No. 40 of 2000)                          Define acceptable practices associated with the
  and regulations                                                          slaughtering of animals
  The Performing Animals Protection Act No. 25 of 1935                    Protection of animals
                                                                          Relating to animals used for safe-guarding
                                                                           and entertainment
  Standing Regulations under the Animal Slaughter, Meat,                  To define the manner in which animals are handled,
  and Animal Products Hygiene Act, 1967 (Act No. 87 of 1967)               held, and slaughtered
                                                                          To ensure standards set out are adhered to in the
                                                                           production of animal products
  The Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act,             To provide controls over societies for the prevention
  1993 (Act No. 169 of 1993)                                               of cruelty to animals.
                                                                          To define specific standards that must be adhered to

The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                                        187
sold to the public conforms to recog-          toirs, which slaughter only a few ani-       abattoirs is undertaken in the same
nized standards, products offered for          mals per week, have been approved.           manner as slaughter for commercial
sale must be derived from animals              These small abattoirs are not required       purposes, and animals are pre-
slaughtered in approved abattoirs and          to have the same infrastructure as the       stunned.
in compliance with specific condi-             larger abattoirs. They supply meat
tions set down in legislation. Abat-           directly to their local communities,         Kosher Slaughter
toirs operate according to a grading           “warm” off the hook. Cold rooms,             The pre-stunning of animals is unac-
system, with A grade being the high-           etc., are not required; however, pre-        ceptable for meat to be considered
est. The system dictates the number            stunning is required (Table 12).             kosher. Through negotiations with
and type of animals that may be                   Slaughtering of animals outside           the Jewish community, advances have
slaughtered on a daily basis, and the          abattoirs is permitted only for home         been made concerning the manner in
facilities required. The manner in             consumption and not for commercial           which animals are restrained prior to
which animals may be handled, off-             use or gain. In such cases the abattoir      slaughter and in achieving post-stun-
loaded, and held-over prior to slaugh-         legislation does not apply, but the          ning of cattle and calves in twenty
ter are specified in the regulations,          Animals Protection Act remains               seconds.
which currently are being revised.             enforceable. Illegal slaughter does             As much as slaughter without pre-
Pre-stunning of animals (including             occur—individuals may set up “bush”          stunning is of concern, the manner in
poultry) in abattoirs is a legal require-      abattoirs, where animals are slaugh-         which animals are handled and pre-
ment, although exemption from pre-             tered and the carcasses filtered into        sented for cutting of the throat is in
stunning may be granted in cases of            the commercial market.                       many cases of equal or greater con-
animals slaughtered for religious pur-            Stock theft is rife in South Africa.      cern. Shackling and hoisting of live
poses, i.e., kosher and halal.                 In an attempt to curb this, the Live-        animals is totally unacceptable in
   In order to accommodate the for-            stock Brands Act has been revised to         South Africa and is a prosecutable
merly disadvantaged sectors of the             make marking of stock mandatory.             offense.
community, much smaller grade abat-               The majority of halal slaughter in

  Table 11
  Slaughter Methods Used by Different Cultural Groups
  and Others in South Africa
  Type                     Most Commonly                                                 Brief Description
                            Used Species                                               of Slaughter Methods

  Kosher (Jews)              Cattle, calves,                  Animals are restrained using specific equipment and have their
                             sheep, poultry                    throats cut without pre-stunning. Post-stunning is undertaken
                                                               in most instances.
                                                              Slaughter normally takes place in an abattoir.

  Halal (Moslems)            Cattle, sheep,                   Most halal slaughter is undertaken in the same manner as
                             poultry, goats                    for commercial slaughter, and pre-stunning is undertaken.
                                                              In some instances no pre-stunning is undertaken and the
                                                               throats are cut.
                                                              Slaughter normally takes place in an abattoir, however for certain
                                                               occasions animals are slaughtered at communal site or at private
                                                               homes, without pre-stunning.

  Traditional (African)   Cattle, goats, sheep                Animals may sometimes be shot or pre-stunned. In most instances
                                                               pre-stunning does not occur and cattle are poll stuck, then cast and
                                                               their throats cut.
                                                              Sheep and goats are cast and their throats cut.
                                                              Other methods include stabbing, neck-breaking, etc.
                                                              Slaughter takes place outside of abattoirs.

  Home Consumption             All species                    Animals, especially large stock, may be shot prior to bleeding.
                                                              The majority of animals, such as sheep, have their throats
                                                               cut without pre-stunning.
                                                              Slaughter takes place outside of abattoirs.

  Commercial                   All species                    Animals are pre-stunned and then bled.
                                                              Slaughter takes place in a registered and approved abattoir.

188                                                                                                  The State of the Animals II: 2003
  Table 12
  Stunning Methods in Abattoirs in South Africa
  Species                                      Stunning Methods

  Large stock—Cattle, horses,                  Captive bolt pistol
  donkeys, large boars/sows                    Use of firearm in some circumstances

  Small stock—Sheep, goats, pigs               Electrical stunning with the use of stunning tongs applied to the head
                                               Captive bolt in some circumstances/where there is no electricity

  Poultry                                      Electrical stunning by positioning the head in a fixed head-stunning unit
                                               Electrical stunning via current in water bath

  Rabbits                                      Electrical stunning by positioning the head in a fixed head-stunning unit

  Ostriches                                    Electrical stunning with the use of stunning tongs
                                               Electrical stunning by positioning the head in a fixed head-stunning unit

   The restraint method currently         undertaking the slaughtering, and             Ostrich Slaughter
used for cattle is a rotating stun box,   the reason for the slaughter. Slaugh-         In 1993 South Africa was supplying
with feet clamps. The cattle are indi-    ter generally takes place on private          approximately 90 percent of the
vidually moved into a stun box and        property. In most cases the animals           world demand for ostrich products
their feet are clamped together with      are restrained and cast, and the              and the export of fertile eggs or live
hydraulically operated metal clamps.      throat is cut. Restraint and casting of       birds was not permitted. The single-
The box is then rotated, and the ani-     cattle often is attempted by stabbing         channel marketing of ostrich and
mal, lying on his or her side and pre-    the animal behind the poll to sever           ostrich products ceased with deregu-
vented from moving by the restraint       the spinal cord and render the animal         lation in 1993, and the market conse-
of the feet, is suspended by the feet.    immobile. Although still conscious,           quently opened, although the export
The head is pulled back with the aid      the animal has limited movement,              of breeding material still was strictly
of a “devil’s fork,” a semicircular       and the cutting of the throat can be          controlled. As a result, and with an
metal frame which gives the operator      performed in relative safety.                 increase in the demand for ostrich
leverage to hold the head and neck in        Pre-stunning of animals is recom-          products, an increase in the number
an upside down, still position. This      mended and encouraged. In some                of producers and abattoirs was seen.
allows the shochet (a Jewish slaugh-      cases participants have allowed the              Eventually breeding stock was per-
terman) free access to the arched         SPCA to pre-stun the animal by                mitted to leave the country. Ship-
throat, providing relative safety for     means of a captive bolt pistol. There         ments of live birds have been investi-
personnel but at great expense to the     remains, however, a great deal of             gated and monitored as far afield as
animal.                                   resistance to pre-stunning.                   Malaysia and the United Arab Emi-
   Attempts currently are being made         In some cases the animal is                rates. This created concern in the
to install an upright slaughter box,      required to vocalize prior to death to        international welfare community, as
which will eliminate the need to          indicate that the ancestors have              attempts were made to establish
rotate cattle for the cutting of the      accepted it. While some animals, par-         ostrich farming in various countries
throat.                                   ticularly goats, will vocalize readily,       where climate, management, and spe-
                                          others are inhumanely treated until           cialist knowledge was not available.
Traditional Slaughter                     they do so.                                      While ostriches are valued for their
The slaughtering of animals plays an         Traditional festivals and occasions        skins, feathers, and meat, the manner
important role in traditional African     also may dictate the manner in which          in which some producers were har-
culture. It is undertaken at various      the animal is treated and killed. This        vesting the feathers was found to be
events, such as marriages, births,        is a very sensitive issue and, unfortu-       unacceptable. Eventually a code of
deaths, and initiation rites, and for     nately, intervention by animal welfare        practice was drawn up with the indus-
numerous reasons, such as celebra-        in these ceremonies often is per-             try, detailing the requirements for
tion and cleansing rites and commu-       ceived (erroneously) as racially moti-        feather harvesting and making it ille-
nication with ancestors. Methods of       vated and in conflict with constitu-          gal to pluck “green” feathers. Only
traditional slaughter of farm animals     tional rights of individuals and              certain “ripe” feathers may be
vary according to the tribal group        organizations.                                plucked, and clipping of other feath-
                                                                                        ers is permitted. The process is moni-
                                                                                        tored and controlled.
The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002                                                                 189
   Ostriches’ physiological and behav-    are not going to be used for trophy       teams have been formed to investi-
ioral requirements are different from     purposes means that shots to the          gate this issue, and attempts have
those of other farm animals; conse-       brain are favored. Head shots also        been made to encourage the govern-
quently the manner in which they are      limit the damage to the carcass and       ment either to legislate against this
held, handled, and slaughtered is         the resultant loss in edible meat.        practice or at the very least to regu-
more problematic. Due to the posi-           Crocodiles are farmed primarily for    late it. At the present time, the only
tioning and small size of the brain,      their valuable skin, which is used in     controls exerted by the government
stunning with a captive bolt pistol is    the fashion industry. They are reared     are those relating to animal health
not reliable; therefore ostriches are     communally and, when they reach the       and conditions imposed by the coun-
electrically stunned.                     desirable size, they are slaughtered.     try of destination. Animal welfare is
   Ostriches are potentially very dan-    They are presented for slaughter by       not a criterion. As a result a code of
gerous and can inflict life-threatening   isolating an individual from the other    practice was drawn up by the NSPCA
injuries with their powerful legs. This   animals, sometimes placing a sack         and other members of a subcommit-
influences the manner in which they       loosely over the snout to calm the ani-   tee of the Livestock Welfare Coordi-
are restrained both before and after      mal. Then the animal is shot in the       nating Committee in 2000 to detail
slaughter. The head of the bird must      brain with a firearm, at close range.     minimum requirements for live
be held manually for correct place-                                                 export.
ment of the stunning tongs or placed      Exportation
in a small stunning box and
                                          of Animals                                Acknowledgements
restrained prior to electrical current                                              Gunter Heinz expresses his sincere
being switched on. Following stun-        Due, in part, to the vastness of the
                                          country and also for economic rea-        gratitude to Hamid Ahmed (Pak-
ning the ostrich collapses into a sit-                                              istan); Kohei Amamoto (Japan); Ho
ting position and the legs and feet       sons, animals are moved great dis-
                                          tances to central sale points or abat-    Hon Fatt (Singapore); and D.
thrash wildly. In most abattoirs the                                                Narasimha Rao (India) for their valu-
stunning area is partitioned with steel   toirs. Transportation of livestock by
                                          rail is no longer permissible, so that    able contributions and advice to the
sheets to protect workers from the                                                  Asia Pacific section of this essay.
powerful, spontaneous kicking of the      ground transport is now undertaken
unconscious bird. Immediately follow-     by road. Large numbers of animals
                                          (predominantly sheep, goats, and cat-     Notes
ing stunning, after the bird has                                                    1All data presented on the evolution of meat pro-
dropped, a hinged, heavy metal bar is     tle) are imported into South Africa       duction have been obtained from FAOSTAT Sta-
placed over the legs and secured in       from neighboring Namibia. Often           tistics Database (FAO 2002).
                                                                                        2Cattle and buffaloes, pigs, poultry, and sheep
position. This is to minimize kicking     these animals are in transit for up to
                                                                                    and goats.
and allow the workers the opportuni-      three or four days, resulting in              3Six world regions were defined: Africa, Asia,

ty to place the shackle over the legs     exhaustion, dehydration, bruising,        Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, North
                                          injuries, and even death.                 America, and Oceania.
so that the ostrich can be hoisted and                                                  4Six subregions have been defined: Andean
bled. Investigation into improved            Domestic, wild, and farm animals       Countries, Brazil, Caribbean, Central America,
restraint and stunning methods is         routinely have been transported by air    Merco sur, and Mexico.
ongoing.                                  to various destinations and for various
                                          reasons. International Air Transport
Slaughter of Game                         Association regulations specify the       Literature Cited
                                          manner in which these animals can         Cabinet Office of Japan. 1987. Guide-
Game—animals such as impala,              be handled, contained, and moved.
springbok, blesbok, kudu, and                                                         lines for industrial livestock rearing.
                                          Due to the high cost, moving animals        Tokyo.
warthogs—are presented at the abat-       by air generally is not undertaken for
toir in carcass form for dressing and                                               ———. 1995. Slaughter methods for
                                          animals who are to be slaughtered,          livestock. Tokyo.
processing. The stress (and costs) of     since they have a lower financial value
live capture, the danger in handling,                                               Chambers, P.G., and T. Grandin.
                                          than those destined for breeding.           2001. Guidelines for humane han-
and the inability to restrain the ani-       In recent years, with the opening
mals humanely for slaughter dictate                                                   dling, transport and slaughter of
                                          up of international trade, there has        livestock. Rome: FAO.
that these animals be shot on site and    been a marked increase in the expor-
field dressed.                                                                      Delgado, C., M. Rosegrant, H. Stein-
                                          tation of slaughter animals by sea,         feld, S. Ehui, and C. Courbois.
   Shooting of game for commercial        although this is undertaken on a rela-
use generally is undertaken as a                                                      1999. Brief: Livestock to 2020: The
                                          tively small scale compared with the        next food revolution. Washington,
culling operation. The numbers            numbers of animals exported from
involved and the fact that the animals                                                D.C.: International Food Policy
                                          such countries as Australia. Task           Research Institute. At http://

190                                                                                           The State of the Animals II: 2003
Food and Agricultural Organization
  (FAO). 1988. Standard design for
  small-scale modular slaughterhous-
  es. FAO Animal Production and
  Health Paper 73. Rome: FAO.
———. 1994. Manual para la insta-
  lación del pequeño matadero mod-
  ular de la FAO. FAO Animal Produc-
  tion and Health Paper 85. Rome:
———. 2002. FAOSTAT Statistics
  Database. Rome: FAO.           http:
Garcia de Siles, J.L., G. Heinz, J.C.
  Lambert, and A. Bennett. 1997.
  Livestock Products and Food Secu-
  rity. World Congress on Food
  Hygiene, August 1997.
Mann, I. 1984. Guidelines on small
  slaughterhouses and meat hygiene
  for developing countries. Geneva:
  World Health Organization.
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  la, R.V. Gerpacio, and C. Ringler.
  1997. Global food markets and U.S.
  exports in the twenty-first century.
  Paper presented at the Illinois
  World Food and Sustainable Agri-
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The State of Meat Production in Developing Countries: 2002   191

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