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					Memphis Promise Academy
Physical Education Needs Assessment
       and Recommendations
 An Action Research Project Conducted by the Department of
   Health & Sport Sciences at the University of Memphis,


                         Fall 2007


                                                             1
                                Collaborators
Promise Academy

      Principal
      Blakely Wallace

      Teachers

             Kindergarten
             Ms. Herron
             Ms. Wilder
             Mr. Yancy

             First Grade
             Ms. Beazley
             Ms. McGowan
             Ms. Whaley

             Second Grade
             Ms. Baer
             Ms. Coburn
             Ms. Johnson

University of Memphis, Department of Health & Sport Sciences

      Faculty
      Paul M. Wright, Ph.D.
      Barbara McClannahan, Ph.D.

      Graduate Research Assistant
      Mark Craig

      Assessment Team (alphabetical)
      Richard Bagwell
      Robert Bright
      Dena Dodson
      Wayne Frasier
      Carius Jeffries
      Rebecca Johnson
      Meghan Money
      Camille Norwood
      Bobby Pearson
      Nathan Wallace
      Crystal Williams
      Casandra Wright

                                                               2
                              Table of Contents
1. Introduction
      a. School Description
      b. Identified Need
      c. Project Objectives
2. Procedures
      a. Assessment Team
      b. Assessment Planning
      c. Assessment Schedule
3. Key Findings
      a. Isolated Motor Skill Performance
      b. Integrated Movement Performance
      c. Cognitive & Affective Performance
4. Conclusion
5. Appendices
      a. Kindergarten Classroom Level Reports
      b. First Grade Classroom Level Reports
      c. Second Grade Classroom Level Reports
      d.   Sample Lessons/Activities




                                                  3
                                 Introduction

   School Description. The Promise Academy is a charter school located in Memphis,
Tennessee that currently serves students in the primary grades (kindergarten, first, and
second). There are three classes at each grade level. The school is located in a low-
income neighborhood and the students are predominantly African American. The current
enrollment is approximately 180 with roughly 20 students per class. The Promise
Academy’s mission is to teach and inspire the mind, body and spirit of their students so
that they can succeed in any academic or cultural setting. The work of the school is built
upon the following beliefs:


                                                                                           4
      All children can learn
      Great teachers = great school
      All children deserve great schools
      Parents want choices
      Hard work + time spent on task = success
      Parents must be involved
      Schools should be accountable


The school community strives to achieve the following vision:


       Our vision for Promise Academy is for all children to be challenged to reach their
       highest potential through quality work that integrates a balanced curriculum,
       incorporates technology, and provides opportunities for success. While learning in
       a safe and challenging atmosphere, students will develop appreciation for
       diversity and respect for self and others. Our children will be prepared to emerge
       as lifelong learners and productive contributors to society.


The students’ responsibilities in working toward this vision are stated in the following
Promise Pledge:


               I promise to do my best today.
               I promise to listen and follow directions.
               I promise to think and act responsibly.
               I promise not to waste this day, because it will never come again.


       Identified Need. As of the 2007-08 academic year, the Promise academy has not
yet implemented a physical education program. However, the school’s faculty and
administration are aware of the importance of regular structured physical activity. An
effective physical education program at the Promise Academy could represent one of the
strongest features in the curriculum to address the commitment to “mind, body and spirit”
noted in the school’s mission statement. Such a program could also contribute toward the

                                                                                            5
stated vision of a “balanced curriculum” and provide an authentic setting to help students
“develop appreciation for diversity and respect for self and others”. Beyond the obvious
alignment with the school’s philosophy, a quality physical education program could
address some of the health challenges facing low-income, minority populations such as
higher risk of obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Finally,
research and practical experience support the need for physical activity in young children
as a healthy and appropriate outlet for their high energy levels.


         Project Objectives. Currently, each teacher at the Promise Academy has a recess
period in their weekly schedule to infuse physical activity into the curriculum. However,
none of these teachers have formal training or substantial professional development
related to physical education. Despite their best efforts, many of the teachers feel they
are not equipped to design, lead, and assess a coherent physical education program.
Therefore, this action research project was designed with two primary objectives. The
first of these was to conduct a needs assessment and make recommendations to the
school’s leadership regarding the development of a customized physical education
program. The second of these primary objectives was to provide immediate strategies to
the current faculty while they are still in charge of providing the students’ only structured
physical activity lessons. Both of these primary objectives were addressed by conducting
a series of assessment activities with students at the Promise Academy to determine their
current level of performance against national standards in physical education (NASPE,
2004).
         In conducting this project, two secondary objectives were also met. One of these
secondary objectives was the provision of a service learning experience for physical
education majors at the University of Memphis. These individuals and their roles are
described later in this report. The other secondary objective was to deliver structured,
fun, and challenging physical education lessons to all students at the Promise Academy.
In total, 36 separate activities/lessons were delivered at no cost to the Promise Academy
over a four week period. The remainder of this report describes: the methods and
procedures used; key findings; recommendations for the school; as well as specific
strategies and suggestions for the individual teachers.

                                                                                              6
                                  Procedures

       Assessment Team. Dr. Barbara McClannahan at the University of Memphis was
informed of the need at the Promise Academy for physical education through contact
with a member of the school’s board of directors. Dr. McClannahan shared this
information with Dr. Paul Wright and the two developed a proposal for the current needs
assessment project. Dr. Wright designed the project to include students from an upper
division class for physical education majors. The class was devoted to learner assessment
in physical education and therefore the current project presented an ideal opportunity for

                                                                                             7
physical education majors to gain real world experience on the topic while providing a
valuable service.
       Assessment Planning. For the first several weeks of the Fall 2007 semester, Dr.
Wright trained the students in the basic principles and concepts of learner assessment in
physical education. Special attention was paid to the systematic and planned assessment
of learner performance relative to the current national standards in physical education.
These standards and corresponding assessments tap all three of the major learning
domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. The physical education majors were
introduced to evaluation concepts such as reliability by conducting live paired
observations at the University Campus School and then assessing inter-rater reliability.
After several weeks, all physical education majors in this class had received sufficient
training and demonstrated sufficient competence to lead and assess a variety of activities
with the Promise Academy students.
       Assessment Schedule. Dr. Wright and Principal Blakely communicated and
established a schedule for a series of visits. All visits took place on Friday mornings.
Four weeks in a row, from October 19th to November 9th, the U of M team worked with
Promise Academy students on the following schedule: three Kindergarten classes from
9:00-9:30am; three first grade classes from 9:30-10:00am; and three second grade classes
from 10:00-10:30am. The U of M assessment team was divided into groups of four.
Each of these groups was assigned to specific kindergarten, first grade and second grade
classes. Using this approach, over the four weeks the U of M team build rapport and
familiarity with specific classes. This enhanced their ability to run lessons, communicate
with the teachers, and assess students’ true abilities. Throughout the four site visits, Dr.
Wright was on site to facilitate organization, oversee progress, handle problems, and
communicate with the school’s administration. To the extent possible, outside spaces
were used, but depending on weather and activity content, the cafeteria space was cleared
and used on occasion.




                                                                                               8
Key Findings




               9
Isolated Motor Skill Performance

        Figure 1 summarizes student performance catching a ball. It should be
understood that the rubric used to assess students was based in specific critical elements
that are seen in the mature form of this skill. Based on these criteria, no students in the
three classes assessed reached the level of proficiency. This does not mean that no
students could catch a ball. Quite the opposite, most students could. However, students
assessed were unable to demonstrate all aspects of the proper form consistently. This
finding illustrates the need for formal instruction in what may be considered natural or
intuitive skills. Students who are instructed in proper technique at an early age will be
better equipped to learn a range of more advanced skills as they progress through the
curriculum. Effective instruction should integrate critical elements as the learning cues.


Figure 1
                   Percent of Students Demonstrating Profiency on Catching
 100%

  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%
                     0%                           0%                           0%
   0%
             Kindergarten (N=17)           1st Grade (N=18)             2nd Grade (N=20)




                                                                                              10
         Figure 2 illustrates that student performance on throwing was similar to their
performance on catching. However, 20% of the 2nd grade students did demonstrate
proficient performance. These findings reinforce the need for teaching correct form
using learning cues even for natural activities. It may also demonstrate that students do
come closer to a mature form simply as a function of development.




Figure 2
                    Percent of students Demonstrating Profiency on Throwing

 100%

   90%

   80%

   70%

   60%

   50%

   40%

   30%
                                                                               20%
   20%

   10%
                       0%                          0%
    0%
               Kindergarten (N=17)          1st Grade (N=18)            2nd Grade (N=20)




                                                                                            11
        Figure 3 adds further support to the previous point. Although students at Promise
Academy do not receive formal physical education, in some skills we can see a
developmental pattern. Related to kicking a ball, only 6% of kindergarten students
showed proficiency compared to 35% of 1st graders and 44% of 2nd graders. Even with
effective physical education we would expect to see developmental trends like this.
However, there would hopefully be an increase at all grade levels beyond the current
performance.




Figure 3
                   Percent of students Demonstrating Profiency on Kicking
 100%

  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%

  50%                                                                      44%
  40%                                           35%

  30%

  20%

  10%                6%

   0%
             Kindergarten (N=18)          1st Grade (N=20)           2nd Grade (N=16)




                                                                                        12
        Figure 4 illustrates student performance on hopping, a basic locomotor pattern.
Student performance was generally high with 65-92% proficiency demonstrated at the
different grade levels. Locomotor patterns are an important part of physical education at
the primary grade levels and without any formal instruction, students at Promise
Academy seem to be naturally developing these skills. Still, a formal program should
build upon this base and still seek to refine movement forms and add more complex
forms as students show a readiness to learn.




Figure 4
                   Percent of students Demonstrating Profiency on Hopping
 100%
                                                                            92%
  90%               85%

  80%

  70%                                           65%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
             Kindergarten (N=20)          1st Grade (N=17)            2nd Grade (N=13)




                                                                                          13
        Figure 5 summarizes the students’ proficiency in jumping and landing. The rubric

used for this assessment assessed critical elements of performance related to all phases of

a jump (preparation, flight, and landing). Not many students (6%) were proficient in

jumping and landing in Kindergarten and First Grade based on our observations. Second

graders were clearly more advanced in executing these skills. This graph illustrates the

need of early exposure to general movement patterns such as jumping and landing. The

earlier students are exposed to fundamental movement patterns, the sooner they can move

on to more sport or activity specific skills. For example, a student who has developed the

general elements of effective jumping and landing (bent knees, etc.) with good body

mechanics can better develop specific skills such as jumping rope, a standing long jump,

or a jump shot in basketball.


Figure 5
                          Percent of Students Proficent in Jumping and Landing
 100%

  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%
                                                                             50%
  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%                6%                          6%

   0%
             Kindergarten (N=18)           1st Grade (N=18)            2nd Grade (N=18)



                                                                                           14
Integrated Movement Performance


        Figure 6 illustrates student performance on a sequence that combined several
locomotor patterns. Student performance was high with 65-89% proficiency. This
assessment was based on our analysis of a predetermined sequence of locomotor skills.
As noted previously in Figure 4, students at Promise Academy seem to be naturally
developing these locomotor skills. With continued work and more complex skills added
to the curriculum, students should become more proficient at the basic and complex skills
with refinement and applications.




Figure 6
                  Percentage of Students Proficent in Locomotor Sequence
 100%
                                             89%
  90%

  80%

  70%              67%                                                  65%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten (N=18)         1st Grade (N=18)         2nd Grade (N=18)




                                                                                        15
        Figure 7 summarizes the students’ ability to approach a ball from a short distance

and then kick it with control and proper technique. As you can tell the majority of

students in all three grades could execute the skill proficiently. You can also see that the

graph is progressive, demonstrating that older students were more mature in form. This

may also be attributed to the fact that older students are more mature in their ability to

learn from instruction. For example, prior to the assessment, we had an instruction

session and discussed the learning cues for proper technique. All the grades had the same

recurring problems, but with age the problems were not as prevalent. Every grade had

issues with a smooth approach and kick without a pause, kicking the ball with just the

inside portion of their shoe, and maintaining balance while they were temporarily on one

foot while they kicked.



Figure 7
                   Percentage of Students Proficent in Approach and Kick
 100%                                                                      93%
  90%

  80%

  70%                                           67%
                    63%
  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten (N=18)          1st Grade (N=18)            2nd Grade (N=18)


                                                                                             16
        Figure 8 illustrates students’ performance on a combination of jumping rope

forwards and backwards. Kindergarten and first grade show that they performed low on

the combination of jumping rope forward and backward, but many of them were able to

jump rope forward. However, 82% of the second grade students did demonstrate a

proficient performance in jumping rope forward and backward. This figure demonstrates

that students do improve as function of development.




Figure 8
                        Jumping Forwards and Backwards in Combination
 100%
  90%
                                                                    82%
  80%
  70%
  60%
  50%
  40%
  30%
                                           21%
  20%
  10%
                   0%
   0%
            Kindergarten(n=19)        1st grade (n=17)        2nd grade (n=17)




                                                                                      17
        Figure 9 illustrates student performance in the proper execution of a
predetermined obstacle course routine. The performance of the students was generally
high with 68-82% proficiency demonstrated at the different grade levels. Being able to
demonstrate isolated skills is important to student progress in physical education.
However, the ability to plan and execute a series of skills or movements in a particular
sequence requires more advanced motor planning abilities. These findings indicate that
most students at the Promise Academy display strong aptitude in this area even without a
structured physical education program. This provides an excellent foundation for growth
and the integration of more integrated movement concepts such as dance or gymnastics.
It should be noted that students seem to do better as their age/grade level increases. This
is likely a function of natural development.




Figure 9
                           Obstacle Course Demonstration Assessment
 100%

  90%
                                                                         82%
  80%                                          75%
                    68%
  70%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
             Kindergarten(n=19)         1st grade (n=16)           2nd grade (n=17)




                                                                                           18
        Figure 10 illustrates student performance during the game, Builders and
Bulldozers, on locomotor skills (walking, skipping, hopping, jumping, and sliding).
Students scored higher in kindergarten and first grade than in second grade. This
difference may be due to the student’s ability levels in the class. Student performance
was generally high in the kindergarten and first grade assessments with the students
demonstrating proficiency at more than half. The second grade assessment findings were
not far behind with a 47% proficiency demonstrated. The findings show that almost half
of the students at each grade level have reached a proficient level of performance when
demonstrating locomotor skills. A physical education curriculum at Promise Academy
should help the students proficiency levels increase as their skill development matures.




Figure 10
                              Builders and Bulldozers Game Assessment
 100%
                                             88%
  90%

  80%

  70%              65%

  60%

  50%                                                                   47%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten(n=17)          1st grade (n=17)          2nd grade (n=17)




                                                                                           19
Cognitive & Affective Performance



        Figure 11 represents the findings of an assessment of how much the students

could recall the directions of an obstacle course. Students were given instructions and

then asked to recite the steps of the course back to the teacher. Fifty-three percent of

Kindergarteners were able to say the steps in the correct order as well as fifty percent of

first graders and eighty-two percent of second graders. It is logical for the second graders

to have a higher percentage of proficiency in this area because they are more mature and

their cognitive skills related to listening, remembering, and reciting are generally

stronger. Therefore, as the Kindergarteners and first graders continue to mature their

ability to remember will also increase to meet the standard set by the second graders.

This assessment illustrates ways that physical activity lessons can easily incorporate

cognitive skills that students need to develop and use throughout the curriculum.

Figure 11
                              Obstacle Course Cognitive Assessment
 100%

  90%
                                                                           82%
  80%

  70%

  60%
                    53%
                                               50%
  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
             Kindergarten(n=19)          1st grade (n=16)            2nd grade (n=17)


                                                                                           20
        Figure 12 illustrates student performance in self control. Student performance
was generally high with 89 – 94% proficiency demonstrated at the different grade levels.
Being able to have self control during class is an important part of the social development
of a child and aligns with affective goals established in the national standards for physical
education. The students at Promise Academy seem to be developing these skills. A
formal physical education program can enhance this type of responsible behavior by
providing clear and explicit expectations and behavioral norms. Teachers should talk to
student directly about the need to include everyone, respect differences, and make sure
not to do any harm to other students.




Figure 12
                  Percent of Students Proficent in Self-control
 100%                                                                      94%
                    89%                        89%
  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten (N=35)          1st Grade (N=28)           2nd Grade (N=35)




                                                                                          21
        Figure 13 illustrates student performance relative to effort. Student performance

was very high with 94-100% proficiency demonstrated at the different grade levels. The

proficiency level may have been so high because the activity or skill was enjoyable as

well as challenging. These findings indicate that students at the Promise Academy are

ready to try hard and work toward improvement in physical education lessons. This

bodes well for the potential of creating a coherent and effective physical education

program. We recommend focusing on task mastery and personal improvement in the

program to create a positive motivational climate for all students regardless of their skill

level. Given a fun and challenging environment that allows for success, students are

likely to exert appropriate levels of effort.


Figure 13
                 Percentage of Students Proficent in Effort
                   100%                         100%
 100%                                                                   94%
  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten (N=35)          1st Grade (N=28)         2nd Grade (N=35)




                                                                                           22
        Figure 14 illustrates the percentage of students who demonstrated full, meaningful
participation in the physical activity lessons on a given day. In each class, 100% of the
students displayed a proficient level of participation. These high levels of participation
did not vary with grade level and may be attributed in part to the fact that these were
highly structured lessons being led by a team of trained individuals. Student participation
is often higher when clear structure, objectives, and expectations are in place. It may be
difficult for classroom teachers to achieve this level of participation when leading
physical activity because they do not have the familiarity with the content area or
physical education specific management routines and instructional strategies. These
findings indicate that students at the Promise Academy are able and willing to engage in
physical activity and will participate fully in a well-designed lesson. Building on this
positive foundation, classroom teachers with some professional development or a
qualified physical education teacher should be able to meet the federal guideline of
keeping students physically active for at least 50% of their class time in physical
education.



Figure 14
                Percentage of Students Proficent in Participation
                   100%                     100%                      100%
 100%
  90%
  80%
  70%
  60%
  50%
  40%
  30%
  20%
  10%
   0%
             Kindergarten (N=35)       1st Grade (N=28)         2nd Grade (N=35)




                                                                                             23
        Figure 15 illustrates student performance on self direction. Student performance

was generally high with 69-91% proficiency demonstrated at the different grade levels.

The graph shows an increase in self direction as students get older. This may be attributed

to normal development and increasing maturity. Self direction is a very important aspect

in physical education because ultimately we want students to be able to direct their own

progress, work independently, set goals, etc. Developing such skills in school-based

physical education can aid them in maintaining a lifelong commitment to physical

activity. In the primary grades, teachers can lay the foundation for self direction by

giving students choices, allowing them to work independently, and encouraging them to

think for themselves rather than being swayed by peer pressure.


Figure 15
               Percentage of Students Proficent in Self Direction
 100%
                                                                         91%
  90%
                                              82%
  80%
                   69%
  70%

  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten (N=35)         1st Grade (N=28)          2nd Grade (N=35)




                                                                                        24
        Figure 16 illustrates student performance in exhibiting caring behaviors. Students
received proficient ratings if they were seen demonstrating multiple, proactive caring
behaviors such as encouraging others, cheering, giving high-fives, or coaching others.
Student performance using these criteria was generally low with 36-46% proficiency
demonstrated at the different grade levels. Caring is very important in physical education
because it shows an advanced level of social behavior. Demonstrating respect is the least
students can do in a physical activity setting, but demonstrating care and support is an
advanced goal we hope students can achieve. We recommend that physical
education/activity classes at the Promise Academy set high standards for behavior. If
students are given opportunities and coaching on how to support one another, a positive
and safe learning environment will be established for all learners. Research has
established that a trusting and caring environment is key to success in urban education
programs in the gym and the classroom.

Figure 16
                  Percentage of Students Proficent in Caring
 100%

  90%

  80%

  70%

  60%

  50%                                                                     46%
                    43%
  40%                                          36%

  30%

  20%

  10%

   0%
            Kindergarten (N=35)          1st Grade (N=28)           2nd Grade (N=35)




                                                                                           25
                                   Conclusion

       While there is not a formal physical education program at the Promise Academy,
the school’s administration and teaching staff should be commended for their efforts to
integrate physical activity into the curriculum. With little guidance, the classroom
teachers provide regular opportunities for their students to engage in fun, healthy play.
Obviously, the ideal way to help students develop into healthy, active physically educated
people is to adopt a formal physical education curriculum and have it delivered by a
specialist. Such a program, based in the national standards, would be more
developmentally appropriate, challenging, and beneficial to students. For instance, data
presented here indicate that most students are able to demonstrate basic natural
movements such as hopping, running, and throwing but few can demonstrate the mature
form of these movements. A physical education specialist could teach skills based in
sound biomechanics, an understanding of physical development, and appropriate learning
cues so that students would build a foundation for more advanced and efficient skill
performance.
       In addition to physical development, a specialist could provide more precise
cognitive information related to healthy growth and development, games, sports, etc.
Ideally, lessons about physical activity and exercise could be coordinated with
information about nutrition and health sciences. Also, structued physical education
provides a rich opportunity to promote affective development. Students at the Promise
Academy are already exposed to character education, the promise pledge, and a number
of positive values as part of their curriculum. Because physical activity is exciting,
active, and social it provides a wonderful opportunity to reinforce lessons about self-
control, effort, respect, goal-setting and teamwork.
       Qualified physical educators who know how to address the current national
standards are able to integrate the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning
domains. If and when there is sufficient capacity and funding for a formal physical
education program at the Promise Academy we strongly support the idea. Keep in mind
that like any other part of the curriculum at a charter school, this should be approached


                                                                                            26
with creativity and aligned with the school’s core values and philosophy. Involving
consultants to design a customized program that would align with other aspects of the
curriculum may be wise.
       In the meantime, to support the classroom teachers in their efforts to work with
their students in physically active ways, we have included a number of appendices to this
report. They include specific analyses and recommendations for each class we worked
with this Fall. We have also included a number of sample lessons that could be
implemented by Promise Academy teachers with little effort. These lessons vary in terms
of complexity and we recommend that teachers use their best judgement in choosing
lessons appropriate to their class. Recommendations made for each class provide some
guidance in this regard. We hope this report and the appendices prove useful and support
the good work we have seen at the Promise Academy.




                                                                                          27
Appendix A: Kindergarten
 Classroom Level Reports




                       28
                                Ms. Herron
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: On 10/19, our group conducted two assessments. The assessments
        addressed the psychomotor and affective learning domains. The assessments were
        a guide to how well the students could perform the skills of throwing and catching
        and how well they reacted as a group in each activity.
     Week Two: Assessments on 10/26 included psychomotor and affective domains
        during the jumping and landing lesson. The students were assessed on their ability
        to perform the jumping and landing skills and their affective domain
     Week Three: On 11/2, the assessment involved an obstacle course that integrated
        throwing, catching, jumping and landing.
     Week Four: On 11/2, a cognitive assessment was given this week on the promise
        pledge and interviews were conducted with the teachers.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: It is no surprise that your students have an incredible amount of energy. This
        is very important for a high level activity that will be beneficial to the overall
        success of a P.E. lesson
     Two: Each week every student was participating and enthusiastic about the
        lesson. This created a positive and productive learning environment.
     Three: I found that each student was able to mirror the demonstrations of each
        skill and tried their best every time.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:
     One: High energy levels often lead to safety issues. Organization during an
        exciting activity must be addressed and enforced for a safe and fun lesson.
     Two: Your class needs more practice time for proper development of the skills in
        throwing and catching.

                                                                                       29
       Three: General space and self-space will need work. This will help the students
        understand where they belong on the floor and how much space they need to
        perform their skills.

Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn to be responsible while having fun and to always be
        careful and safe.
     Two: Encourage your students to be physically active outside of class
     Three: Control your P.E. lessons by implementing structured activities.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your students behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     Two: Have clear starting and stopping routines using a bell, music, whistle, etc.
     Three: Learn different grouping techniques Ex. Count off 1 to 4 for groups of 4
        This will help you with transition time between each activity.

Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: Traveling in the general space without intruding into another students’ self
        space.
     Two: Underhand throwing and catching using learning cues and demonstrations.
     Three: Try a team building activity with your students. This promotes sharing
        leadership and ideas of how to accomplish an activity.
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: pecentral.org
     Two: lessonplancentral.com
     Three: Children Moving, A Reflective Approach to Physical Education 7th Edition
        by George Graham, Shirley Ann Holt/ Hale, Melissa Parker

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.


                                                                                              30
                                  Ms. Wilder
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: On our first visit, we assessed your students’ abilities to execute a
        stationary kick, within boundaries, to a target. While running this assessment, we
        also observed their behavior and evaluated them with an affective rubric.
     Week Two: On our second visit, we assessed your students’ abilities to execute a
        locomotor sequence consisting of 4 locomotor skills. While running this
        assessment, we observed their behavior and evaluated them with an affective
        rubric.
     Week Three: On our third visit, we played the game “Builders and Bulldozers.”
        We assessed your students’ abilities to remember what they had learned from the
        previous week and perform the locomotor skills stated during the game. We also
        evaluated their behavior with an affective rubric.
     Week Four: On our fourth visit we had the opportunity to interview you as well as
        your students to see what opinions you had on physical education. While this was
        taking place, we had your students engaged in physical activity to keep them
        moving and active throughout the time that we had them.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: The enthusiasm and high activity level in your class is probably no surprise
        to you. These qualities make physical activity an important and useful part of the
        curriculum for them. They are able to expend this energy, and at the same time
        learn something, by participating in physical activity.
     Two: The willingness to participate is another great strength that your class has.
        Their cooperation and participation makes physical activity useful for them as
        well. Without their participation, physical activity would not take place. It did not
        matter what activity we presented to them, they were willing to jump in and
        participate without complaining or acting like they did not want to do it.
     Three: Through our affective assessment evaluation, we concluded that your
        students have a great level of self-control. They were on-task most of the time and
        did not harm other classmates physically or verbally. Your class worked well


                                                                                          31
       together, especially during the builders and bulldozers game. Their teamwork was
       great, and there were no conflicts presented between classmates.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:
     One: As you know, with high energy and enthusiasm come challenges. These
        challenges were mainly physical challenges. The first challenge is using the
        learning cues for stationary kicking. Many of the students performed 2 out of 4 or
        3 out of 4 of the learning cues. Rarely, was there a student who performed all 4.
        The students need to work on each learning cue individually until each cue has
        been accomplished and is performed correctly.
     Two: Another challenge that was presented during the kicking lesson was kicking
        accurately. Many of the students were kicking out to the side of the target. That is
        mainly due to the fact that the learning cues weren’t performed correctly. There
        were boundaries set up and most of the students kicked the soccer ball outside of
        the target. The students might need to work on kicking to the target at a closer
        distance and then begin to move further away from the target as they progress
        with their kicking.
     Three: We also noticed that your students had a problem pacing themselves
        throughout the activity. As they played builders and bulldozers, the students
        began to get tired halfway through the game because they were going all out to
        begin the game. We believe that if the students are taught to pace themselves,
        they will be able to make it through a vigorous activity without complaining
        about being tired. Numerous activities should probably be played so that they can
        learn how to pace themselves.

Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn to be responsible while having fun in physical
        activity settings. Make sure that your instructions or directions are clear and
        precise so that there is no confusion and your activity time is not spent on students
        asking questions. Hold them accountable for listening as well as following
        directions.
     Two: Continue to work on every locomotor skill and incorporate skipping and
        galloping into the curriculum. Skipping and galloping are the more challenging of
        the locomotor skills. Skipping wasn’t as much of a challenge for the students as
        galloping. These skills need to be worked on and accomplished. Every
        kindergartener should know the locomotor skills and how to differentiate between
        them.
     Three: Continue to work on kicking toward a target using the specific learning
        cues. The students had trouble staying inside specific boundaries as well. Start at
        a short distance and progress up to longer distances. Also use wide boundaries

                                                                                          32
       and targets and progress to narrow targets and boundaries to make the activities
       more difficult.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your students’ behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines. Use stop and
        go signals using a whistle or another device or word. A train whistle could be
        useful for that as well. Give specific directions so students will know exactly what
        to do during the activity. Make sure to cover everything that they may have
        questions about.
     Two: Make sure you have appropriate equipment. Cones are probably a necessity
        for any activity that you do. They can be used for boundary purposes almost all of
        the time. If you don’t have certain equipment for activities, you can improvise and
        use just about anything that will work. Just make sure that what you use is
        appropriate and safe to use for the age group you’re working with.
     Three: Continue to work on the little basic skills. Once these skills have been
        mastered it will help in mastering more difficult skills in the later years.
Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: Kicking to Targets with Correct Learning Cues
     Two: Locomotor Skills – Differentiate and follow up on what was tested
     Three: Following Directions – Affective assessment
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: www.PECentral.com
     Two: PE Connections by Fleming and Bunting
     Three: www.lessonplancentral.com

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                              Good luck!!!




                                                                                          33
                                  Mr. Yancy
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: ….On our first visit, we assessed your students’ ability to execute
        hopping on their left and right foot. While running this assessment we also
        observed their behavior and evaluated them with an affective rubric.
     Week Two: …..On our second visit, we assessed your students’ ability to execute
        approach and kick.
     Week Three: …..On our third visit, we assessed your students’ ability to execute
        jumping rope forwards and backwards. While running this assessment we also
        observed their behavior and evaluated them with an affective rubric.
     Week Four: ….On our fourth visit, we assessed your students’ ability to recite the
        Promise Pledge. Following that we interviewed each of your students.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: It is no surprise to you that your student have an incredible amount of
        energy. Their enthusiasm and high activity level makes physical activity an
        important and useful part of the curriculum for them.
     Two: I know you are delighted that you have students’ that participate at all times.
        Their willingness to participate will make physical education easier to teach.
     Three: We know you are happy that you have students that have an eagerness to
        learn. Their eagerness to learn will make physical education easier to teach.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:
     One: This class had an incredible amount of energy, however when they got to
        overexcited they had a few problems. Keeping the students in their space during
        exciting activities can be difficult, but this must be address for physical activity
        sessions to be safe and fun for everyone.
     Two: This class was very willing to learn, however they had a few things that
        delayed them from learning as fast as they could. Teaching this group of students

                                                                                         34
        can be difficult because they don’t know their right from left. So, for these
        students to advance more quickly, this must be addressed.
       Three: This class had an eagerness to learn, however they had a few things that
        delayed them from learning as fast as they could. Teaching this group of students
        can be difficult because they didn’t know the correct way to perform the
        locomotor skills. So, for these students to advance quicker this must be
        addressed.


Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students understand space awareness.
     Two: Help your students learn their right from left.
     Three: Help your students learn the different locomotor skills.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your students’ behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     Two: Teach students basic skills, regarding locomotor skills and space
        awareness.
     Three: Allow students to work in groups to improve their social skills.

Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: Simon Says Game- Highlight locomotor skills
     Two: Hokey Pokey- Emphasize left and right hand
     Three: Moving in space with using different locormotor skills
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: www.pecentral.org
     Two: www.pelinks.com
     Three: www.tandalay.com

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                                              35
Appendix B: First Grade
Classroom Level Reports




                          36
                                Ms. Beasley
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: We assessed your student’s ability to execute an underhand throw and
        proper catching technique. While running this assessment, we observed their
        throwing and catching according to given learning cues.
     Week Two: We assessed your student’s ability to jump and land safely onto and
        off of boxes as well as through a ladder. We also ran an affective assessment
        which observed the student’s responsible behavior.
     Week Three: We performed a psychomotor assessment by observing the
        student’s skills in throwing and catching, as well as jumping and landing
        throughout an obstacle course. A cognitive assessment was also administered
        measuring your student’s ability to verbalize the activity that they would later be
        demonstrating.
     Week Four: We ran a cognitive assessment which had the students recite the
        Promise Pledge of the Promise Academy. The assessment team conducted
        interviews with Ms. Beasley as well as the students. Students also played in an
        unstructured soccer game.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: Kids have a great amount of energy and are very enthusiastic. Their high
        activity level makes physical activity not only an important part but also a useful
        part of the curriculum.
     Two: The students all participated and gave a tremendous amount of effort. The
        majority of the students displayed self-control.
     Three: The students in this first grade class demonstrate a great, fluent range of
        motion and do not look as “robotic” as the students in Kindergarten. The majority
        of students threw with accuracy into the target (hula hoop).

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:


                                                                                        37
       One: Often, the high energy levels and enthusiasm cause challenges. Keeping
        the students organized while transitioning from one activity to another can be
        difficult and these challenges should be addressed for physical activity sessions to
        be safe and fun for all.
       Two: Although students made accurate throws, they did not use the proper
        throwing technique that is demonstrated by the learning cues.
       Three: Students did not bend knees when landing which can be a safety issue.
        Student need to slow down and listen to all instructions before trying to begin
        activity on their own.

Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn to be responsible while having fun in physical
        activity settings by giving them a sense of structure and personal responsibility.
     Two: Encourage students to display care for their fellow classmates by cheering
        them on, not laughing when something does not happen as planned, and
        remaining out of the personal space of others.
     Three: Encourage your students to take part in physical activities outside of the
        school setting.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your students’ behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     Two: Create clear transitions to help your students get into groups in a quicker
        and more organized way.
     Three: Assign start and stop signals so that students know when to begin activity
        and when to stop and listen to instructions.

    Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: Bean Bag Tic-Tac-Toe – throwing
     Two: Spot Jumping – Jumping and Landing
     Three: Lining up Strategies – cooperative learning/transitions
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: http://www.pecentral.com

                                                                                         38
      Two: Teaching Elementary Physical Education: Strategies for the Classroom
       Teacher by Peter A Hastie and Ellen Martin
      Three: Elementary Classroom Teachers as Movement Educators by Susan K.
       Kovar, C. Combs, G. Napper-Owen, etc.

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                            Good luck!!!




                                                                                       39
                             Ms. McGowan
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: On the first visit, we assessed your student’s ability on how to kick to
        a target. Each student had three chances to kick a ball to a cone while trying to
        progress on each try. While running this assessment, we also observed their
        behavior and evaluated them with a psychomotor score sheet and an affective
        checklist rubric.
     Week Two: On the second visit, we assessed your student’s ability on how well
        they performed different locomotor skills such as jumping, hopping, skipping, and
        sliding. While running this assessment, we also observed their behavior and
        evaluated them with a psychomotor score sheet and an affective checklist rubric.
     Week Three: On the third visit, we assessed your student’s ability on how well
        they performed the locomotor skills such as jumping, hopping, skipping, and
        sliding while playing a game called builders and bulldozers. If the students were
        the builders they had to stand the cones up while performing the given locomotor
        movement and if they were on the bulldozers team they had to knock down the
        cones performing the given locomotor movement. While running this assessment,
        we also observed their behavior and evaluated them with a psychomotor and
        affective checklist rubric.
     Week Four: On the fourth visit we interviewed 5 or 6 students and had each one
        to recite the Promise Pledge. We also asked them questions about what they liked
        about the activities we did with them, why exercise and PE is important for kids,
        and what kind of activities they do outside of school. We also interviewed the first
        graders teacher and asked her questions about what she did with her students for
        PE, why she think it is important for the students to have PE at their school, how
        did she like the activities we did with the students, what she wanted the students
        to get out of PE, what suggestions she have for the PE curriculum that may be
        developed for Promise Academy, and also the kind of support she needs to cover
        PE with her students now until there is a full PE curriculum.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:



                                                                                         40
      One: It is no surprise that your students had lots of energy. Their enthusiasm and
       high activity level makes physical activity an important and useful part of the
       curriculum for them.
      Two: Your students had good self-control with the locomotor skills that they
       performed which is a big part of having a responsible behavior. We thought that
       was a big plus for your students.
      Three: Another strength that your students developed was that they followed
       directions when given a certain skill or activity to perform.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:
     One: The first need for your students to improve on would be to learn how to stay
        in their own personal space instead of going into another student’s area.
     Two: The next need for your students to improve on would be for them to learn
        how to kick accurately to a target. While teaching them this lesson a lot of the
        students kicked the ball but it wasn’t exactly towards the target.
     Three: The last need for your students to improve on is to work with them on
        being more physically involved. The students had lots of energy in the beginning
        but as the activity went on a lot of the students complained about they were tired.
        A lot of them laid on the ground or made up an excuse not to participate. This
        may relate to the fact that the students do not have an organized and structured
        PE curriculum at this point in time.

Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn the difference between a hop from a jump. When
        they were told to hop most of the students used both feet instead of one. So
        majority of the time we had to remind the students to hop with one foot and jump
        with two.
     Two: Help your students learn to have their own personal space instead of
        interrupting their classmates.
     Three: Help your students learn how to accurately pass a ball instead of expecting
        the student to go get the ball wherever they throw it to.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and specific expectations for your student’s behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines. This is very


                                                                                              41
       important for the students to follow because if you set certain rules and guidelines
       for student’s behavior then a lot can be avoided.
      Two: Since there is a big need for equipment in the school I would suggest that
       the teacher bring equipment from home or have the students to bring in equipment
       from home to play a particular game or activity. It would be best that the teacher
       plan a week ahead so that the students can be prepared or know what equipment
       to bring.
      Three: Most importantly I suggest that the teacher continue to work on the basic
       locomotor skills with the students so that they can be proficient.

Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: The teacher needs to set up some type of game or activity that involves
        hopping and jumping so the students can progress on these skills.
     Two: Play a game or activity with the students on personal space.
     Three: Play a game or activity with the students on passing a ball accurately.
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities, we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: Books for classroom teachers to teach PE
     Two: www.pecentral.com
     Three: www.pelinks4u.org

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                              Good luck!!!




                                                                                        42
                               Ms. Whaley
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: On our first visit, we assessed your student’s ability to execute one of
        the basic locomotor skills of hopping.
     Week Two: During our second visit, we assessed the student’s on their capability
        to kick and approach with a soccer ball. While running this assessment we looked
        for the proper technique, making sure the student’s used all the learning cues we
        demonstrated to them.
     Week Three: The third visit, we assessed your student’s ability to execute
        jumping rope.
     Week Four: On our last visit, we assessed your student’s on the school’s Promise
        Pledge, interviewed the students and teacher, and gave them the opportunity to
        have free play.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: It is no surprise to you that your students have an incredible amount of
        energy. Their enthusiasm and high activity level makes physical activity and
        important and useful part of the curriculum for them.
     Two: One of the strengths we noticed with your student’s is their eagerness to
        play sports. They had so many questions on when they would be able to play
        basketball and football.
     Three: It was indeed a surprise how they could really focus during instruction.
        This strength is important because it shows how these students’s would like to
        learn and be more physically active. Having their attention is very good,
        especially in a physical education class.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:



                                                                                      43
       One: Along with their high energy level and enthusiasm, come a few challenges.
        Keeping the student’s organized during exciting activities can be difficult but this
        must be addressed for physical activity session to be safe and fun for everyone.
       Two: Having cooperation and good sportsmanship is very important to shaping
        the student’s character for not only physical education but all that they do in their
        lives. In order to get all the students involved as well as developing their self
        confidence it is very important that educators work on their student’s
        sportsmanship and cooperation with their peers in the classroom.
       Three: Our group noticed that the majority of the class could not consistently
        distinguish their left from their right. In first grade this is very important and
        physical education provides a wonderful setting to practice and reinforce this
        knowledge. Also they need to work on the basic locomotor movements. For
        instance, few of the student’s knew the difference between a jump and a hop.
Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn to be responsible while having fun in physically
        activity settings.
     Two: Assessments on their health related fitness is a nice goal to achieve. You are
        able to see how your students measure up compared to the national standards.
        Using the Fitnessgram is one of many ways to test their overall fitness.
     Three: We try not to focus on the negative. So set goals for their social
        responsibility as well as behavioral responsibility.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your student’s behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     Two: Have rules just like you have for regular classroom for your physical
        education portion of class.
     Three: There’s nothing better then having stop and go signals when doing any
        type of activity.

Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:

       One: Traveling and Locomotor Movement. Name of Activity: Locomotor
        Locomotion. This will help practice and reinforce seven different types of
        locomotor movements in a game-type situation.
       Two: Space Awareness. Name of Activity: "Beep Beep!" This game reinforces
        moving in general and self space, moving at different speeds and moving to a
        definite beat.

                                                                                          44
      Three: Throwing and catching. Name of Activity: Stepping With the Opposite
       Foot. Purpose of Activity: To help young children start to understand what foot
       they need to step with when throwing a ball.

    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: www.pecentral.org
     Two: www.pelinks4u.org
     Three: Tennessee curriculum standards
        http://www.state.tn.us/education/ci/standards/
     Human Kinetics books for elementary you can go to
        http://www.humankinetics.com/physicalBest/

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

Good luck!!!




                                                                                        45
Appendix C: Second Grade
 Classroom Level Reports




                       46
                                   Ms. Baer
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: On our first visit, we assessed your student’s ability to execute an
        underhand throw and proper catching technique according to learning cues
        provided.
     Week Two: During our second visit, we assessed your student’s jumping and
        landing abilities as well as their participation in the activity using rubrics.
     Week Three: On our third visit, we had the students run an obstacle course while
        we assessed their psychomotor and cognitive abilities.
     Week Four: On our final visit, we assessed your student’s cognitive abilities by
        having them recite the promise pledge. We also had them answer a few open-
        ended questions using an interview style format.


Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: Your students have a very high energy level. This enthusiasm and high
        activity level makes physical education an important and useful part of the
        curriculum
     Two: Your students have very good self control and participation levels. They
        also give very good effort during the activities.
     Three: The students in your class, when compared to lower grade levels, have
        higher athletic ability. Their performance levels are generally strong relative to
        grade level benchmarks in physical education.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:
     One: Along with their high energy level, come a few challenges. Due to the
        nature of physical education, students can become excited and this may lead to
        them getting off-task. Organization needs to be implemented and tailored to
        physical education to create a safe, fun, and effective environment for all.


                                                                                        47
       Two: Your student’s could be encouraged to take on more self direction. When
        in the physical education setting, if one student does something they should not
        be doing, others tend to follow suit. The students should be reminded to think for
        themselves and not give into peer pressure.
       Three: Because physical education tends to be very active in nature, students
        need to listen to the teachers directions. Before, during, and after the activity,
        students need to give their full attention to the teacher. This will help eliminate
        some injuries that could occur.


Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn to be responsible and safe while having fun in
        physical education settings
     Two: Encourage the students to be physically active outside of the classroom.
     Three: Implement a range of fun, physical activities. (i.e. simple lessons or
        instant activities from the end of this report)

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your students behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     Two: Incorporate start and stop signals that help manage the classroom (whistle,
        Stop!, Go!, etc)
     Three: Create a set of rules that helps foster clear transitions into groups.

Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: Lining up strategies
     Two: Oodles of Noodles
     Three: Hoop Jumper
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One- www.pecentral.org
     Two- www.pelinks4u.org
     Three- “Ready-To-Use P.E. Activites for Grades K-2” Author Joanne M. Landy
        ISBN-013673054x
                                                                                          48
    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                            Good luck!!!




                                                                                       49
                               Ms. Coburn
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     Week One: On our first visit, we assessed your student ability on how to kick a
        ball accurately. We had them to practice kicking to each other first, and then we
        had them to kick one at a time. While running this assessment, we observed their
        behavior and evaluated them with an psychomotor and affective rubric.
     Week Two: On our second visit, we assessed your students ability on how to do
        locomotor skills using the correct form. We had them to do running, jumping,
        sliding, galloping, skipping, walking, and hopping. While running this
        assessment, we observed their behavior and evaluated them with a psychomotor
        and affective rubric.
     Week Three: On our third visit, we assessed your students by doing a game called
        builders and bulldozers using the locomotor skills they learned. While running
        this assessment, we observed their behavior and evaluated with an affective
        rubric.
     Week Four: On our last visit we interviewed your students to see how much they
        have learned in the past three weeks. While running this assessment, we also
        observed their behavior and evaluated them with an affective and psychomotor
        rubric.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     One: It is no surprise that your students have an incredible amount of energy.
        Their high physical activity level makes teaching easy and enjoyable.
     Two: Your students are ready and willing to participate in physical activity.
        Everything that was asked of them they did very willingly. They had good
        behavior management skills.
     Three: Your students gave a great effort in all the physical activities we did.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:

                                                                                       50
       One: The students were very motivated about all the activities, but one thing they
        need to improve on is their self control. A lot of students had trouble with self
        control and that’s something they need to improve on.
       Two: Helping the students with endurance must be addressed. Some of the
        students got a little tired at times but it may be do to lack of physical activity.
        You should address it for class to be fun.
       Three: Helping the students to kick the ball accurately can be difficult but skills
        like this are fundamental to many sports and particularly soccer which is growing
        in popularity.


Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     One: Help your students learn to be responsible while having fun in physical
        activity settings.
     Two: Help your students work on the following directions more in physical
        activity settings.
     Three: Help your students work on self control while in physical activity settings.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     One: Set clear and explicit expectations for your students behavior in physical
        activity regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     Two: We would recommend that if you have equipment at home or something,
        bring it to school for your students to use. Your school may not provide it for you,
        so whatever you have at home bring it to your school for your students to use.
     Three: We would recommend that you work on the basic skills with your students
        so they can master some of the skills that you teach them.

Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     One: We suggest that your students work on following directions. Sometimes they
       didn’t do what they were told to do. Maybe because they weren’t paying attention
       but that’s something they need to work.
     Two: We suggest that your students work on sportsmanship and self control. At
       times some of your students didn’t follow directions because they were either
       talking or playing with each other and the students weren’t paying attention
       because of that.
     Three: We suggest that your students work on locomotor skills. Especially
       galloping and sliding. They had a hard time doing those two skills.


                                                                                         51
    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     One: www.pecentral.com
     Two: www.NASPE.com
     Three: www.pe4life.com

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                              Good luck!!!




                                                                                         52
                                Ms. Johnson
Overview
    We were able to work with your class four consecutive weeks during their Friday
recess period. We conducted a variety of assessments related to the national standards in
physical education (NASPE, 2004). These assessments addressed the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective learning domains. Some of the assessments we implemented are
currently being piloted by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education to
address the national standards and others were alternative or authentic assessments
created specifically for this project. Below is a brief summary of the assessments we
conducted each week:
     On our first visit, we assessed the students’ ability in their hopping. I also
        incorporated other locomotor and travelling skills into our activity, but only
        assessed their ability to hop.
     On our second visit, we assessed the students’ ability to approach and to kick a
        soccer ball.
     On our third visit, we assessed the students’ ability to jump rope, both forwards
        and backwards.
     On our fourth and final visit, we assessed the students’ ability to recite the
        Promise Pledge. We also interviewed students about activities and exercises.

Strengths
    In getting to know you and your students, we saw a number of strengths and qualities
that will help you structure your recess and physical activity lessons with them. These
areas of strength include:
     It is no surprise to you that your students have an incredible amount of energy.
        Their enthusiasm and high activity level makes physical activity an important and
        useful part of the curriculum.
     Students at this age are also extremely eager to learn sports and activities. These
        students love to play, and will definitely love the opportunity to learn sports that
        they will participate in for possibly a lifetime.
     From the students that we interviewed and witnessed participating in our
        activities, the students seemed more skilled and athletic than we anticipated. This
        should make it easier for an educator to teach them to play sports and exercises.

Needs
    Over the four assessment sessions, we were also able to pinpoint several areas of
need. These are areas in which your students may need additional training, support, and
practice. Briefly, these areas are:
     Along with their high energy level and enthusiasm, come a few challenges.
        Keeping the students organized and on-task during exciting activities can be
        difficult but this must be addressed for physical activity sessions to be safe and
        fun for everyone.



                                                                                          53
       Students in several occasions were having trouble with muscular strength and
        endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. These should not be issues
        with students at this age.
       There are two things that have to be known when beginning the fundamentals of
        any sport. They must know the difference between right and left, and their
        dominant arm and leg. The majority of the students did not know this
        fundamental aspect of sport.

Goals
    Based on the strengths and areas of need we saw in your class, as well as their own
interests and preferences, we offer the following possible goals to guide your physical
activity sessions:
     Help your students learn to be responsible and safe while having fun in physical
        activity settings.
     Provide your students with an opportunity to develop physical fitness by
        specifically focusing on muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular
        endurance, and flexibility. These are extremely important aspects of health that
        should not be overlooked.
     Educate your students about their right and left. You should then build upon this
        by progressing to identifying the importance of understanding arm and leg
        dominance.

Recommendations
    To work on these goals in the immediate future, we have developed a set of
recommendations based on the time, space, and resources currently available to you.
First, we offer the following set of basic strategies for structuring and teaching physical
activity sessions with your students:
     Set clear and explicit expectations for your students’ behavior in physical activity
        regarding respect, safety, and basic management routines.
     You must stress the importance of being physically fit and the consequences that
        result in the lack of physical activity. Also, express the benefits and gains that
        can be made toward their quality of life if they are physically active.
     Your activities should attempt to educate them and develop skills, but something
        that must also be remembered is that sport and physical activity should be fun and
        enjoyable. The physical education portion of your class should also not be like
        your regular classroom. The PE portion of class should be an outlet for restrained
        energy as well as getting a break from their typical classroom experience. This
        will definitely augment your regular curriculum instruction and their learning.




                                                                                        54
Next, we suggest you try to implement the following lessons/activities with your
students:
     Playing throwing and catching games like football and softball to develop arm
       dominance.
     Playing kicking games like soccer to develop coordination and balance, and then
       to further build upon leg dominance.
     Have your students doing fitness stations that develop muscular strength and
       endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility.

    The lessons/activities noted above are more fully explained at the end of this report.
After experimenting with these strategies and lessons/activities we suggest that you build
on this foundation by talking with other teachers and getting ideas from books or
websites. Most importantly, be creative and work together with your students to make
physical activity a regular, fun, and relevant part of your curriculum. To get you started,
here are a few websites/resources we recommend:
     Pecentral.org
     Pe4life.org
     Physical Education Methods for Classroom Teachers by Human Kinetics

    Thank you for your hospitality and giving us the opportunity to work with your
students. We thoroughly enjoyed the experience and hope that it was beneficial for all of
you.

                                                                              Good luck!!!




                                                                                         55
Appendix D: Sample Lessons




                         56
                                      Lesson Plan 1


Activity Title: "What kind of animal are you?"

Objectives/Goal: The purpose of the activity is to identify the different types of
movements people and animals make in their everyday life.

Equipment/Space: animal flash cards; a children's book about animals; music; stuffed
animals (optional) , and circus music.

Organization/Management: Students will be standing in four rows with comfortable
space behind each other.

Description/Flow of Activity: The teacher will begin the lesson by asking the students
about their favorite pet or animal. (S)he will comment on the types of movements
animals make and describe to the students how we make some of the similar flow
patterns. The teacher will then explain free flow (ex. monkey swinging) and bound flow
(ex. elephant stomping).

The teacher will continue by reading the book to the class, stopping at every animal and
asking the class, as a whole, to demonstrate the movement it might make.

The teacher will then pass out flash cards with a different animal on each card. To music,
the students will act out the movements of the animal. When the music stops the students
swap cards with each other, and continue with the activity when the music starts again.




                                                                                        57
                                      Lesson Plan 2


Activity Title: Spot Jumping

Objectives/Goal: To practice and reinforce the locomotor skills of jumping and hopping.

Equipment/Space: Rubber floor spot markers (poly spots), source of music/CD or tape
player.

Organization/Management: Students are scattered about the desired area, such as a
gymnasium. Each child begins the activity by standing on a poly spot. The instructor tells
the students to move around general space while using a certain locomotor skill, when the
music begins.

Description/Flow of Activity: When the music stops, the students will stand on the
closest spot. At this time, the instructor gives them a jumping or hopping task to perform
(see examples below). After about 15 seconds, begin the music again. Be sure to
reinforce which type of locomotor movement the students may use during the music time.
(I not only state the type of movement but I also hold up the “word.”)

Examples of jumping/hopping tasks:
1) Jump on and off the spot.
2) Hop on and off the spot.
3) Jump side to side over the spot.
4) Hop around the spot.
5) Jump forward and backwards over the spot.
6) Hop around the spot.
7) Straddle jump the spot. (Both feet on, and both feet off.)
8) In a straddle position, jump side-to-side changing which foot lands
on the spot.
9) Jump up in the air in a straddle jump and land with both feet on the
spot.
10) Create your own jumping/hopping pattern and share with a friend.




                                                                                       58
                                     Lesson Plan 3


Activity Title: Beanbag Tic Tac Toe

Objectives/Goal: To help the students practice the skills of over- and underhand
throwing.

Equipment/Space: For a class of 20 students you will need: 90 bean-bags (45 with "X's"
and 45 with "O's") and 10 4ft.x 4ft. poster boards marked with a 'Tic-Tac-Toe' grid.

Activity cues:

      Underhand: arm back ("tick"); step with the opposite foot; throw ("tock")
      Overhand: side to target, step with opposition, arm back, follow through, eyes on
       target

Organization/Management: Have each student choose a partner and find a safe space
on the floor. Give each group of partners a Tic-Tac-Toe grid and 18 bean-bags (9 "X's"
and 9 "O's").

Description/Flow of Activity: The students will step 4-6 feet (2-3 giant steps) away
from the poster board and practice throwing the bean-bags, either under-handed or over-
handed, on the poster board. The object is to get 'Tic-Tac-Toe' while practicing the
correct way to throw.




                                                                                      59
                                       Lesson Plan 4

Activity Title: Lining Up Strategies

Objectives/Goal: To put forth a number of ideas to aid teachers in having elementary
students line up and/or move through the school in a safe, quiet, and controlled manner.

Equipment/Space: Classroom or Hallway

Organization/Management: A single line.

Description/Flow of Activity: As any teacher of elementary-age students can attest,
getting students to line up quietly and safely can be a daunting task to even the most
experienced teacher. This can be even more challenging for the physical education
teacher, many of whom find themselves responsible for picking up and delivering
children to and from their classroom to physical education. Doing this eight to ten times a
day shows the need for instructional protocols which positively encourage and motivate
students to line up and move through their school safely, quietly, and in a controlled
manner. Hopefully you'll find the activities below to be of help in this regard.

1. Ten Hut

When the kids are lining up to leave physical education class, I tell them if they are quick
and quiet, they will get to play Ten Hut. After they are in the line (we line up on two
parallel lines to leave), I say "Fall Out". They can then be messy on the line, i.e., step
off, not be in line, chatty, etc. I then say "Ten Hut!!" and they are to "snap to attention"
by quickly slapping their legs, straightening up, being directly behind the person in front
of them, and getting totally quiet. When they do this without being "messy" I give bonus
points. This begins as a "contest" and always ends up with both teams in a tie. I make a
big deal to their teachers and sometimes we perform for teachers or parents in the hall.




                                                                                          60
                                      Lesson Plan 5


Activity Title: Hoop Jumper

Objectives/Goal: To give students practice jumping using three different types of
jumping patterns.

Equipment/Space: Tape/CD player and lively music; 1 hula hoop for each student, 6 of
which must be of three different colors; 6 vests and foam balls for taggers; cones (if
necessary) to mark a large open boundaried area.

Organization/Management: Have students take a hula hoop to a self-space as they enter
the playing area. Ask them to stand outside their hoop and to jump into and out of it using
2 foot-to-2 foot jumps when the music begins.

Description/Flow of Activity: Begin music and give students ample opportunity to
practice this jump. AIf necessary, pinpoint a few students who are jumping using the
correct 2 foot-to-2 foot pattern and any cues used as a focus for the activity*.

Repeat this, having students also practice their 2 foot-to-1-foot jumps (start with 2 feet
outside the hoop, jump into it on one foot, jump back out onto two feet). Again, pinpoint
students who are doing this pattern correctly. Then, have students practice a 1 foot-to-the
other foot jump (for example, start outside the hoop on left foot; jump into it on the right;
jump out of the hoop on the left).

Then let students know they will be playing a tag game in which they will need to use
these three types of jumps. There will be six "taggers" (who will wear vests) and 6 "un-
freezers" (hoop jumpers). All other students will try not to get tagged. At the signal,
students will travel inside the boundaries using the motor skill called out by the teacher
(skip, gallop, jog, etc.). The freezers or taggers will circulate the area, trying to tag
regular players by touching them with the foam ball (throwing it is not allowed).

While the game is going on, the "un-freezers" or "hoop jumpers" will be speed walking
around the perimeter of the boundaried area while carrying a (red, yellow, or green)
hoop. When a student is tagged, he or she stands still like they are frozen and raise their
hand waiting for a hoop jumper to come along. When the hoop jumper spots them, they
will lay the hoop in front of the tagged student and call out the the jump the frozen player
must perform to become unfrozen, according to the color of hoop the hoop-jumper has
(make sure each hoop-jumper has one of these three or similar colors):

      A red hoop means jump using a 2 foot-to-2 foot jump.
      A yellow hoop means students should jump using a 2 foot-to-1 foot jump.
      A green hoop means they should jump from 1 foot-to-the other, or opposite, foot.
      Once a student jumps from outside the hoop to inside than back out, they will then
       be unfrozen and may begin to move again.

                                                                                          61
After explaining the game, ask students which kind of jump goes with each color, to
ensure their understanding of the game. Once the game begins, switch hoop jumpers and
taggers for every new motor skill performed to insure full participation. At the end of the
lesson, demonstrate each type of jump and ask students to tell you which kind of jump
you performed.




                                                                                         62
                                       Lesson Plan 6


Activity Title: Oodles of Noodles

Objectives/Goal: To encourage creative movement and practice various locomotor
skills.

Equipment/Space: One wacky noodle for each student, music.

Organization/Management: Noodles are scattered on the gym floor as students enter
the physical education classroom.

Description/Flow of Activity: Students move through the gym using various locomotor
skills. Each time they approach a noodle they may:
1) jump over it
2) do a fancy jump over it (add a turn, tuck, etc.)
3) hop over it
4) leap over it
5) place the weight of the hands over it or any other weight transfer taught

Students move through the gym using locomotor skills to the music. When the music
stops they may:
1) freeze straddling it
2) freeze making a bridge over it (feet on one side and hands on the other)
3) freeze posing as a funny statue using the noodle (i.e. a guitar player, baseball player or
giant smiley face)

Students find their self space with a noodle and follow the teacher's lead. The teacher
creates stories to go along with the activities and asks students to use their imagination.
i.e. "We are going to travel around the school/town/world with our noodle...
1) moving through the jungle like an elephant." (Students make a trunk with the noodle.)
2) moving like a dinosaur with a big tail."
3) moving like a snake." (Students hold one end of the noodle and slide the other end
along the floor.)
4) moving like a unicorn." (Place the noodle on top of your forehead.)

Find a safe space and shoot your rocket into the air. Students hold one end of the noodle
and toss it into the air attempting to catch the "falling star."

March in a parade and fancy spin your noodle around the body and neck and perform
figure eights through the legs.

Fly an airplane. Spin the noodle in front like a propeller.
Fly a helicopter. Spin the noodle over the head.
Pretend to be a motor boat. Spin the noodle behind the back.

                                                                                           63
                                      Lesson Plan 7


Activity Title: Scootermania

Objectives/Goal: To help children understand how to work cooperatively with a partner.

Equipment/Space: One scooter board and length of rope; two hula hoops; and as many
yarn balls or other small soft objects for each set of partners.

Organization/Management: Before beginning the activity, discuss with students what
the word "cooperation" means. Remind them that it involves communicating with others
in a positive (nice) way, as well as working together nicely. Let them know the activity
they will be doing today requires them to cooperate with a partner in order to get
something done, and it will involve scooters. Before explaining the activity, remind
students about safety concerns regarding the scooter (sit on behind or lay on stomach;
keep hands out from under the scooter; always make sure partner is ready when you push
or pull the scooter; stop immediately if the person on the scooter loses their balance; look
out for others). Next, explain the purpose of the activity (explained below) and
demonstrate it if necessary. Then, pair students up. One student safely sits or lays upon
the scooter board while the other pulls with a length of rope.

Description/Flow of Activity: The goal of the activity is for the student on the scooter
board to transport one yarn ball (or other object) at a time from a pile in a hoop in one
designated area to a hoop in another designated area as he/she rides upon the scooter. The
other partner must use his/her creativity to discover a safe and fun way to pull the scooter
board rider. Once all the yarn balls are piled in the second hoop, students can both
practice balancing the yarn balls on various body parts until all groups are finished and
you are ready to being again.

When everyone is finished, have students turn to their partner and tell them if they did a
good job or not. Did they talk nicely to their partner? Were they able to safely complete
their task? When done, have students switch roles and begin again! If necessary, discuss
any problems which different groups encountered and discuss how groups solved that
problem.




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                                      Lesson Plan 8

Name of Activity/Title: All-Ball Kickball

Objective/Goal: To improve students' abilities to kick for distance using the "shoelaces"
of the foot and to dribble using the insides of the feet.

Equipment/Space: One soccer ball/kickball, one soccer goal or folded gymnastic mats to
make a goal area; 15-20 cones. Space should be an open area, inside or outside.

Organization/Management: Students should have knowledge of how to kick and
dribble a soccer ball using the inside of the foot.

Description/Flow of Activity:
-Set up one soccer goal at one end of a large, open playing area.
-If a net is not available, a folding paneled gymnastics mat can be set up for a goal area or
two large cones.
-Use cones to set up a curved goal line approximately 8 feet from the goal.
-Then, set up two parallel lines of cones at the other end of the playing area.
-The two baselines should be approximately 15 feet apart, with each cone on the first
baseline having a counterpart on the second baseline.
-Students should have already had practice in using the shoelaces of the foot to kick the
ball into the air as well as how to dribble using the insides of the feet. After reviewing
these skills, explain and demonstrate the activity as follows:
-Half the class is lined up at a cone on the first baseline with their ball on the ground.
-The other half of the class is scattered anywhere in the outfield.
-On your signal, students at the cones all kick their ball forward into the outfield.
-After they kick the ball they run to their cone on the second baseline and back again to
the first.
-This scores one "run". They keep repeating going back and forth, scoring "runs", until
the signal is given to stop.
-When the balls have been kicked into the outfield, each person finds one ball only to
dribble using feet only to the goal.
-When each person has successfully kicked the ball into the goal (for safety, they should
not go across the goal line), this stops the running of the other team.
-At this time, the teacher can ask each person for their number of runs, and the whole
team adds their runs together for a total.
-Students then switch roles, so those in the outfield now get to kick.

Assessment Ideas:
Observe students' abilities to kick and dribble correctly. Students should get many
opportunities to kick and dribble, so that you may easily watch each student a number of
times.

Teaching Suggestions:
Care should be taken that each student in the outfield collects and kicks one ball only.

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Discuss with students how, if waiting for others on your team to dribble and kick, one can
be supportive rather than negative toward those who are still kicking and dribbling.

Remind students in the outfield to take their time when dribbling -- it is more important
to dribble correctly so as to not lose control of the ball. Just kicking the ball and losing
control will take much more time, allowing the other team to score more points.

If you choose, you could also set this game up similar to a kick ball game:
-Set up the open area with a home plate, 1st base, 2nd base, and 3rd base.
-The first student at home plate will kick the ball, using the skills from above.
-All the students on his team will follow behind him (no pushing or passing) and run the
bases.
-A point is scored each time the entire team passes home base.
-The team on the field will kick the ball to each player on his team, using the same skills
from above.
-Once all players have kicked the ball, the running will stop.
-The home plate team has 3 turns and then the teams switch and reverse rolls.
-If the team that is on the field does not use the skills you are teaching they must start
over kicking the ball. (Correct techniques must be used.)




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                                       Lesson Plan 9

Name of Activity/Title: Frog Pond

Objective/Goal:
        1. For students to practice the locomotor movements of skipping, galloping,
hopping, jumping, walking, running, and sliding.
        2. For students to gain practice in moving safely through general space. (Make
sure to tell the students to not follow others, move around to open areas during the game.)

Equipment/Space: Anything that will be able to resemble a frog's lily pad (jump ropes,
hula hoops, poly spots, or cut out pieces of construction paper). Space should be an open
area, inside or outside.

Organization/Management: Previous introduction of locomotor movements and
concept of general space.

Description/Flow of Activity: Set out enough lily pads so that there will always be a few
children who would not have one.

Explain to students the activity as described below:
 -First begin by having all the students walking around the general area, using all the
open areas and not following others.
-When you call out the words "RIBBIT RIBBIT", students need to safely find an open
lily pad.
-The student(s) who did not find a lily pad will huddle together, decide the next
locomotor movement everyone will follow, and recite the following for everyone to hear:
"Little frog, little frog please (locomotor movement) off my lily pad".
-The activity then begins again.

Assessment Ideas:
This is an excellent activity in which to assess students' abilities to correctly perform the
various locomotor movements; a checklist can be used to record information. You can
also easily assess how well students are able to move through general space.




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                                      Lesson Plan 10


Name of Activity/Title: Monsters, Inc.

Objective/Goal: To have children understand what it means to include others into their
group, and to work together to solve a problem.

Equipment/Space: Large open area, indoors or outside; 8 to 10 hula hoops; Tape player
or CD; Monsters, Inc. Soundtrack Music (or any piece of music your students enjoy)

Organization/Management: Previous introduction on working cooperatively.

Description/Flow of Activity:
-This is a cooperative version of musical chairs.
-Most children have seen the movie "Monsters, Inc."
-If not, explain to them that today they are going to be "monsters" hiding in "closets." (Of
course, reassure them that there ARE no such things as monsters in closets, and make
sure this is a light-hearted activity!)
-Scatter the hoops about on the floor, leaving enough space between the hoops for the
children to move freely.
-Tell them, as the music plays, they will be "monsters" wandering about looking for a
closet to jump into.
-The students may perform any type of locomotive skill during this activity. (Hopping,
skipping and jumping work well.)
-When the music stops, they must jump into a "closet" (hoop) and give their very best
monster growl. (Kids love doing this!)
- Once they have completed this, take away 2 or 3 of the hoops and repeat the activity,
until there are only about 2 hoops left.
-You'll be amazed at how many children can stand in one of these hoops!

Assessment Ideas:
-Ask the class, "What did you have to do to let another monster in your closet?" Most
will say things like "move over" and "scrunch together."
-Encourage them and state that they are exactly right and that they had to be willing to
give up some space to make sure they could include another "monster."
-Reinforce this is what it means to cooperate with each other and to work together.




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                                      Lesson Plan 11



Name of Activity/Title: Space City

Objective/Goal: The purpose of this activity is to introduce the students to components
of personal space, pathways, directions, and levels.

Equipment/Space: Hula Hoops, construction paper circles, or cardboard circles

Organization/Management: Previous introduction of personal space.

Description/Flow of Activity:
-In this activity the movement concepts of space, levels, directions, and pathways will be
introduced.
Using hula hoops (or other objects) the students will pretend they are driving around
"town."
Assign roles for the different colors of hula-hoops. Red are fire engines, blue are police
cars, yellow are taxicabs, and green are cars.
-In this teacher directed activity, students wait for directions of how to move about the
city.
 -Students are expected to drive their cars safely in their own personal space, not bumping
or touching other cars.
-If they are not safe drivers the "Chief of Police" will ask that driver to park their car in
the garage (time out).
-If this happens drivers are reminded of the rules of the road and are invited to join in
again but only if they can drive safely.
To start, have them get in their cars, shut the door, jingle their keys, adjust the rear view
mirror, and start their engines.
Rules:
-Teacher is the "Chief of Police."
-Red Light means "Stop." Students drop “cars” and sit in a criss-cross position outside of
hoop with hands in their laps.
-Yellow Light means "caution/slow down."
-Green Light means "Go."

Cues and questions to ask while playing:
Can you drive your vehicle in a zigzag pathway?
Can you drive your vehicle in a curvy pathway?
Can you drive your vehicle up and down on a bumpy road?
Can you drive your vehicle in a forward, backward, or sideways on the road?
Can you turn your vehicle to the right?
Can you turn your vehicle to the left?

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Can you drive your vehicle at a low level?
Can you drive your vehicle at a high level?


Variations:
-Add locomotor commands.
-After students have a firm grasp of locomotor skills, pathways, levels, and speeds,
combine them into movement sentences. For example, can you drive your car backwards,
skipping in a curved pathway, at a high level, at a medium speed?

Assessment Ideas:
Are students able to maneuver their cars in safe space without bumping or touching?
(Self space, moving in general space)
Can they stop and go? (Body management)
Do students know the difference between zigzag, curved, and straight pathways?
(pathways)
Do students know the difference between high, medium and low movements?
(levels)
Can the students discern between the speeds of slow, medium, and fast?

Teaching Suggestions:
Add some road music to make it interesting. Have students stop and go when the music is
on and then give direction.




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                                       Lesson Plan 12


Name of Activity/Title: Inside of the Foot Pass

Objective/Goal: To teach students how to perform the inside of the foot pass.

Equipment/Space: 1soccer ball or other type of ball that can be kicked per set of
partners. (If you do not have a ball ask a student to bring a ball from home.)

Organization/Management:

Description/Flow of Activity:
-First demonstrate the "inside of the foot" pass by kicking the ball to a student.
-Clue the class to watch which part of the foot you use to kick the ball; after kicking,
have each student touch (on their foot) the part of the foot used. (If they don't touch the
inside of the foot, demonstrate and introduce once again).
-Introduce the "foot trap", performed by placing the foot onto the top of the ball as it
moves toward you, in order to stop it (without using the hands).
-Once students understand where the inside of the foot is and what this type of pass is to
be used for (for passing the ball to a teammate; ball stays close to the ground), let
students know they will be working with a partner for today's activity.
 Demonstrate the set-up:
-Students should stand facing their partner, being approximately 5 to 7 yards apart.
-One student has the ball and passes the ball to his partner using the inside of the foot
pass.
-The other student will then receive the ball by trapping it, then move back a step and
pass it back to their partner using once again the inside of the foot pass.
-Students are to stay stationary while kicking the ball.

Variations:
Have each set of partners set up a goal area by using two cones or other objects against a
wall or fence. Each partner gets a turn to pass the ball to the goal using the inside of the
foot pass. If the child makes it into the goal, he/she can next time move back a step
(stones or other objects can be used by students to keep track of their "spot"). The non-
kicking child can retrieve the ball as necessary.

Assessment Ideas:
Observe students as they kick. Use a cue checklist to record whether students either
"rarely", "usually", or "almost all the time" use the inside of the foot to pass the ball to his
or her partner.




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                                      Lesson Plan 13

Name of Activity/Title: The Three Little Pigs

Objective/Goal: To give students practice moving safely through a large area (i.e.,
without bumping into others).

Equipment/Space: Five cones: three with one picture each of the three little pigs' houses
(straw, stick, brick) taped onto the cone; one cone with a picture of the wolf; and another
cone with a picture of the mother or father pig. (Have the students draw the pictures)

Organization/Management: The student should have had practice in moving safely
through general space (e.g., they shouldn't be running into others or following them
around "on a racetrack"), and they should have had practice in basic locomotor skills.
Tell the students to look where they going!

Description/Flow of Activity:
-The cones should be set up so that the cones for the wolf den and the mother or father's
pig house are across the gym from each other.
-Have the three pigs' houses spread around the gym so the students will be able to move
throughout the gym.
-At the beginning of the lesson, remind students about what it means to move safely
through space: to look where you are going, and to make sure one does not follow exactly
behind another person.
-To play the game, have the "Big Bad Wolf" stand in the middle of the gym.
-A mother or father pig must be chosen; this person will go to that such-designated cone.
-The rest of the students will be divided up equally among and placed in each of the three
pigs' houses.
-The wolf will then pick one of the three houses upon which to call (e.g., "House #1").
-He or she says loudly, "Little pigs, little pigs, let me come in". The pigs in the house will
say together "not by the hair of my chinny chin chin."
-Then the wolf counts to three "1, 2, 3".
-On the count of three, each of the little pigs in that one house moves to a new house.
-The wolf then tries to tag a pig; any pig that is touched by the wolf must then go to the
wolf den.
-The only way a pig can get out of the wolf den is if the mother or father pig sneaks over
to the den while the wolf is trying to catch more pigs and brings one pig only out of the
den.
- If a pig is saved, that pig may have a free walk back to any of the pig houses.
-After every few turns, choose a new wolf and mother or father pig. (Have the wolf or
parent pig choose a student who has not been either of these two roles.)

Variations:
Allow students in each house to pick a locomotor movement which they will use to move
to a new pig house. The wolf must also use that locomotor movement when tagging the
pigs. A new movement is picked at the beginning of each turn.

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