fruitsvegetables by 1WQmJ4C



NPA357   Adunola O. Kuboye, A. B. Oniwinde and I. A. Akerele (1978). Production Of
         Alchoholic Beverages From Ripe Pine-Apples, Plantains And Bananas.
         (NIFST). Proceesings Of The 2nd Annual Conference. Vol. 2. Pp. 78 - 80.

         The total fermentable sugars in bananas, plantains and pineapples depend on the
         extent of ripeness. The sugar level of ripe pineapple was found to be less than
         12% which was necessary for better fermentation. Both the stain and pulp of
         bananas and plantains contains appreciable fermentable sugars and these can be
         used for alcohol production. Alcohols produced are free of contaminants and
         higher alcohols.
NPA358   Abubakar, U.M. and Sopade, P.A. (1993). Rheological Characterization Of Three
         Nigerian Traditional Soups: "Ewedu(Corchorus olitorius) Karkashi (Artemisia
         spp) And Ogbonno (Irvingia gabonensis) At Different Temperatures.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.II. Pp. 118-127.

         The rheological behaviour of ewedu, kwankashi and ogbonno soups, three
         Nigerian traditional soups, were investigated using RV rotational vis .The Hesion
         values of the soups were positively related to the consistency indices. The
         significance of this study is the highlight of commercial processing and storage of
         these soups.

NPA359   Adebisi, A.A. (1997). Preliminary Survey Of Post Harvest And Marketing
         Constraints Of Chrsisophyllum albidum (African Star Apple) In Nigeria.
         The Proceeding Of A National Workshop On The Potentials Of The Star
         Apple In Nigeria. Pp. 84-90.

         . Over 30% of harvested fruits were lost on the farms and markets due to these
         two prominent problems which was coupled with inefficient and poorly
         developed transportation net-works system.
         Price instability as usual, was also found to be another problem. Price from the
         rural markets ranges between N50.00 and N600.00 depending on the freshness
         and taste of the fruits and size, while the selling price range in the urban markets
         was found to be between N120.00 and above N750.00, leaving a profit margin of
         N70.00toN150.00per basket. Attempt was also made to get average shelf life of
         this African star apple. Five (5) days period was indicated to be optional shelf life
         of C. albidum.

NPA360   Adegoke, S. Adegoroye and Peter, A. Jolliffee (1987). Some Inhibitory Effects
         Of Radiation Stress On Tomato Fruit Ripening.
         Journal Of The Science Of Food And Agriculture. Vol.39. No.4. Pp. 297-302.

         Detached tomato Lycopersicon esculentum unillicu vendor) fruit exposed to 650
         Wm-2 radiation from incandescent lamps for 1.5 or 4h developed visible injury

         during subsequent storage. In tissues directly expose to the radiation, ascorbic
         acid content was decreased and lycopene accumulation and protopectin
         solubilization were blocked. For intact fruit the respiratory climacteric was
         depressed, but ethylene production was enhanced following the radiation stress.
         Radiation injury blocks both the initiation and the progress of ripening.
NPA361   Adegoke, G.O. and Moyosade, J.O. (1987). Spoilage Microflora Of Tomatoes
         And Onions In A Tropical Marketing System.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.5. Pp. 80-84.

         The characterization of spoilage micflora of tomatoes and onions at points of
         retails at Sasa markets in Ibadan, Nigeria and the consequent determination of the
         pathogencity of the microflora isolated are the primary focus of the investigation.

NPA362   Adepoju, P.A. Akhuemonhan, I.A. (1999). Extraction And Characterization Of
         Pectin From Cocoa Pod (Theobroma Cocoa L). Proceeding of 23rd Annual
         NIFST Conference. Pp. 172-174.

         The result shows that the modified extraction method did not show any significant
         increase in yield of pectin, but the quantity of pod produced annually should make
         its exploitation feasible as compared to citrus peel

NPA363   Adindu, M.N. (1985). Effect Of Post-Harvest Changes On Dry Matter Tannins
         Total Titratable Acidity And Some Minerals Of Plantain (Musa-paradisca).
         Dissertation Presented To Department Of Food Science And Technology.
         Faculty Of Agriculture, River State University Of Science And Technology,
         Port-Harcourt. Pp. 1-54.

         Tannins were least affected in the peel where the values remind constant in the
         various post harvest stages. They however decreased with ripening in the pulp.
         All the analysis were carried out dry samples.

NPA364   Adindu, M. N. and Williams, J.O. (1999).           Evaluation Of Some
         AppropriaPackaging For Extending Shelf Life Of Ripe African Star Apple
         (Chiysophyllum albidum).
          Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp.151-152.

         The result indicates that the apples wrapped in polythene lined wet jute sack alone
         and without wrapping retained their shelf life for 6days better than other
         treatments. The lots wrapped in polythene- lined jute sacks prevented weight loss
         on the stored fruit. The larva of insect( carporphilus Spp) were isolated from the
         deteriorating fruits

NPA365   Afolabi, T.J. and Oloke, J.K. (1999). Effect Of Yeast And Its Source On Alcohol
         Produced From Banana And Plantain:
         Bioscience Research Communications. Vol. II. No.3. Pp. 263-267.

         The common edible spieces of banana [musa balbisiana]and plantain [musa
         paradisiaca the l] bought from ocal market in Ogbomoso town were
         fermented using the yeastfrom the atmosphere and baker‟s yeast . The
         amount of ethanol collected when 3, 4 ,5 and 6g ofbaker‟s yeast were use
         to ferment 60g of banana slurry samples were 60.0,65.0,101.0 and 83.0 ml
         respectively while 51.0,60.0,60.5 and 57.0 ml were collected when the same
         amount of yeastwere hadded to 60g of plantain slurry samples. When 60g
         banana slurry was exposed to the atmosphere for 1,2 or 3 days, 12.0,34.0
         and51.0 ml of ethanol were obtained, respectively, while 7.5, 23.0and 31.5
         ml 0f obtained when the same quantity of plantain slurry were exposed to
         the atmosphere for 1,2 and 3 days respectively. The ethanol produced from
         both banana and plantain increased increasing amount of baker‟s yeast up
         to a peak before a decline in ethanol yield as more baker‟s yeast was

NPA366   Akano, D.A. (1978).    A Survey Of Fungi Deterioration In Stored Cashew
         (Nuts/Anarcadium occidentale L).
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.3. Pp. 35-43.

         A total of twenty one mould species were isolated from mouldy kernel of stoned
         cash ew nuts. Nine were Aspergillia four were members of the phycomycetes.
         Mould damages in the kernels were mostly due to soil fungi notably A. flavus,
         Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. Occurring with 68.3 percentage.

NPA367   Akano, D. A (1981)R ot diseases of Onion Buld, Allium Cepa (LINN) At The
         Market Level In Ibadan.
          Dissertation Submitted To Department Of Botany In Partial Fulfilment Of
         The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Science Of University Of
         Ibadan, pp 1-71.

         A survey of the diseases of onion bulbs Allium Cepa Linn. at the market level in
         Ibadan was carried out between December, 1980 and 1981.

NPA368   Akano D.A(1982) Post harvest Diseases Of Oninins Bulbs( Allium Cepa Linn) In
          NSPRI Technical Report . No 10 pp101-106

          A survey of the rot diseases of the onion bulb (Allium cepa, linn was carried out
         at the market level in Ibadan, Oyo State on Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Ahizophus
         stolonifer. Grown negative motile rods probably lactobacillus sp. Aspergillus dry
         not ranks first in the diseases of Allium cepa at the market level with an incidence
         as high as 69.3% temperature ranges of 10oc-50oc were found to increase rotting
         which did not occur at 5oc. In the small scale storage tnial 30c proved best for the
         storage of bulbs to retain quality.

NPA369    Akano, D.A ,Afolabi, J.F.and Areoye A.D,(1985) Diseases Of Sweet Oranges
          (Citrus sinnies osbeck) In Ibadan Stores.
           NSPRI Technical Report No 4 pp39-45

          A survey of the rot diseases affecting sweet orange citrus sinensis Valencia
          variety was carriage old between January and October 1984. Two major types of
          rot diseases were recognised, soft and dry rots. Soft rot caused by Botryodiplodia
          theobromae ranked first with an incidence of 55..72% followed by Penicillium rot
          with 37.24% the incidence of dry rots was low 13.76 and 19.02% respectively.
          Observations showed that insect bites and injuries sustained during harvesting and
          transporting enhanced fast deterioration. Also the habit whereby traders heaped
          the oranges on the floor facilitated the spread of the rot diseases as water from
          diseased fruits dripped into underlying fruits.
NPA370    D. A . Akano and Oso, B.A, (1990) Effect of Temperature on Storage of Onion
          Bulbs(Allium cepa Linn.
          )Nigeria Journal of Plant Protection Vol.13 pp31 -36

          The pink variety of onion bulb( commonly referred to as Sokoto variety in
          Nigeria) was stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35c for six months . Bulbs stored
          below 5c shrivelled and appeared water soaked due to cold injury storage of bulbs
          at 5 and 10c reduced aerial shoot formation and completely eliminated rooting
          and rotting. The highest rate of rooting and aerial shoot formation occurred in the
          bulbs stored at 25c and above with complete rotting at 35c.. More than 40%
          weight loss was recorded as from 15c upwards with the highest losses at 30 and
          35c. Analysis of variance showed that temperature had a significant effect on
          weight loss (P=0.05) after 3 months of storage.

NPA371    Akano, D.A. and Oso, B.A. (1991). Histological Studies On Post Harvest Rot Of
          Allium Cepa. Pp 23-27.
          Cytobios. Vol.68.

          Allium cepa tissues infected with Rhizopus microsponus V. Tieghem
          (1M128694) showed that the pathogen completely degraded the cell walls of the
          host tissues. In infections caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tieghem (1M128693)
          the cell walls of the host cells remained intact. The pathogen did not degrade the
          cellulosic and pectic substances of the cell wall.

NPA 372   Akinnusi, O. and Adindu, M. N. (1986). Quality Changes In Plantain Flour
          Stored In Different Containers.
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.6. Pp. 71-78.

          Plantain flour made from chips of sun-dried matured green pulp was stored in
          various containers namely brown paper lined jute bags polythene lined brown
          paper bags, plastic buckets and kerosene tin. A control treatment was in open
          plastic bucket. Storage lasted 12 weeks in a room under mean daily temperature
          (29.89oc) and relative humidity (77.90%). Test portion was taken every 30days

         for some chemical, microbiological and entomological analysis, organoleptic tests
         were performed, at the end of storage ash, protein and bulk density remained
         fairly stable at the end of storage, while moisture, starch, reducing sugar (glucose)
         changed slightly, microbial reducing sugar (glucose) changed slightly microbial
         population increased at the end of storage. Plastic bucket and polythene lined
         brown paper bag appear most efficient in the maintenance of quality of the stored
         plantain flour. Flour stored in them was insect free at the end of storage.

NPA373   Akpapunam, M.A. Mepba, H.D. and Wokoma, A.L. (1993). Effects Of
         Pasteruizing Times On The Quality Of Processed Pineapple Juice. Nigerian
         Food Journal. Vol.II. Pp. 9-16.

         The acceptable juice was that heated for 3 minutes at 90‟c while the least
         acceptable was the one heated for 11minutes at 90oc. Sensory evaluation also
         showed that acceptable drink could be prepared from the single strength juice by
         diluting with water in the ratio 70:30.

NPA374   Akusu, M.O. Glam, S.Y,Okonkwo, U.T. (1998). Selected Functional Properties
         Of Modified Wild Mango (Irvingia gabonesis) And African Bread Fruit (Treculia
         africana) Seed Proteins.
          Proceedings: 22nd Annual NIFST Conference. Vol. Pp. 47-49.

         For beverage applications where high protein solubility is desired partially
         proteolysed wild mango seed proteins seems to have an advantage over
         unproteolysed proteins.

NPA375   Alabi, R.O. (1986). Disease Of Mango (Mangifera indica). Fruits Caused by
         Dothiorella dominicanas.
         International Biodterroration. Vol.22. No.1. Pp. 21-25.

         A soft rot diseases caused by Dothiorella dominicana was observed on mango
         fruits on farms and in market stalls around Ilorin Nigeria. A study of the
         incidence of the disease showed that infection resulted in high losses of between
         10.94 and 13.56%.
         The pathogen stains the epicarp black and turns the mesocarp from yellow to dark
         brown or black, thereby reducing the quality and market value of the fruits.
         The casual agent which was frequently isolated from fruits and leaves grew well
         on glucose, fructose and ripe mango mesocarp agar but less so on unripe
         mesocarp agar.Infectivity was high on fruits with soft epicarp such as tomatoes,
         guava and egg plants normally grown in association with mango

NPA376   Alobo, A.P. (1999). Utilization Of Black Plun (Vitex doniaro) Fruit In Jam
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 164-165.

         This study has shown that Vitex doniana fruit is suitable jam manufacture. Its
         utilization may help to reduce the present wastage of the fruit.

NPA377   Aloorh, O.C. and Ubebe, F. (1988). Effect Of Hot Water Dip, Benomyl And
         Modified Atmosphere Packaging Systems On Shelf Life And Quality Attributes
         Of Ogbomoso Mango (Mangifera indical).
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.6. Pp. 60-68.

         Shelf life and quality of mature green „Ogbomosho‟ mangoes dipped in hot water
         or benomyl prior to storage in sealed plastic film packs at tropical ambient
         temperature were assessed. Ripening was delayed by more than 1 week at 26-
         29oc in mangoes packed in polyvinylchloride relative to unpackaged
         control.Except for reduced degreening of the skin, fruits packed in
         polyvinylchloride ripened normally and were comparable in chemical quality
         with unpackaged fruits. Dipping in hot (55oc) 0.1% benomyl for 5min.
         suppressed decay and improved sensory quality of fruits packed in polyviny
         chloride Abnormal ripening characterised by poor colouration, off flavours,,
         reduced soluble solids and higher acidity, was observed in fruits packed in sealed
         polyethylene bags. The possible benefits of these findings for distribution and
         marketing of mangoes in Nigeria and the West African sub-region are discussed.

NPA378   Aluko, R.E. (1989). Biochemical Properties Of Some Tomato Fruits Cultivars
         Grown In Northern Nigeria.
         Nigerian Journal Of Botany. Vol.2. Pp.157-164.

         Five cultivars of tomato fruits were analysed for their biochemical properties.
         Ripe fruits at the orange-red stage were used for all the analyses. There was no
         significant difference. (P<,0.05) in each of the moisture and ash contents among
         the five cultivars. Ether extracts of the harvester and aroma.V.F cultivars were
         significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of Ife I,. Piacenza‟and „ronita‟
         cultivans.Crude protein content of the Ife,I cultivar was significantly higher
         (P>0.05) than each of those of the other cultivars, while the roma, V.F. cultivar
         had a significantly higher(P<0.05)crude fibre content than eachof the other four
         cultivars. The level of some enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, lipoxygenase, alcohol
         dehydrogenase and acid phosphate) that could affect the keeping quality of the
         fruits were determined. The ronita cultivar semmed to be the least susceptible to
         endogenous damaged and the Ife, I , and piacenza the most.

NPA379   Anuna, M.I. and M.A. Akpapunam (1995). Quantitative Analysis Of Alcohols
         Types In Pineapple Ananas comosus L(L) Merr) Wine Farmented By Two Strains
         Of Sacchacomyces cerevisige.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol. 13. Pp. 12-18.

         The types of alcohol present in pineapple wines fermented by two strains of
         saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined by gas liquid chromatograph. The
         chromatograms obtained were identified for temperatures and varying periods of

         fermentation. The total alcohol content of the samples ranged from 11.9% to
         14.5% (v/v). The predominant alcohols were ethanol and amyl alcohol. Wines
         fermented by yeast strains from palm wine and from raffia wine had the highest
         levels of ethanol 98.0% and 95.7% respectively. Amyl alcohol content ranged
         from 0.77% to 5.31% while methanol contents of the wines ranged from 0.16% to
         0.23%. Other alcohols in the samples included propanol( negligible to 3.01%,2-
         methyIpropanol (0.53to 2.35%) and n-butanol (0.29 to 2.19%) the proportion of
         these alcohols varied as temperature and periods of fermentation were varied.

NPA380   Anuna, M.I. and Obomanu, F. (1999). Proximate Analysis Of Eight Local Spices
         . Proceeding of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference Pp. 295-297.

         The result shows that vegetable spices are comparable to others vegetables in
         common use during food preparation .Spices have the dual purpose has herbs and
         dietry materials sand when used frequently, they could encourage good nutrition
         and health.

NPA381   Aremu, A.K. and Fowowe, S.O. (2000). Development And Performance
         Evaluation Of A Manually Operated Plaintain Slicing Machine.
         Proceedings Of The First International Conference And Millennium General
         Meeting Of The Nigerian Institution Of Agricultural Engineers. A Division
         Of The Nigerian Society Of Engineers. Vol.22. Pp. 30-35.

         A manually operated plantain slicing machine was developed with a view to
         mechanize the operation of plantain slicing and remove the injury accompanying
         the use of the hand knives which is the conventional method being used. The
         performance evaluation of the machine was carried out using raw unripe plantain
         (Musa paradisiaca) and the following results were obtained: the mean thickness of
         slices obtained is 9.17mm. It has a throughout capacity of 30.04kg peeled
         plantain per hour with an efficiently of 95.20%. The average cost of production
         of the machine is N3,270.00. The student t- distribution test was also conducted
         on the slices to ascertain the uniformity of thickness .It was found be satisfy the
         null hypothesis

NPA382   Arogba, S.S., and Ezeoonfe (1999). Activation Temperature And P.H. Optima Of
         Polyphenol Oxidase Activity In Wild Mango (Irvingia gaboneesis) Kernel.
         Nigerian Food Journal vol.17. Pp. 1-4.

         Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of filtered extract of ground wild mango
         (Irvingia spp) kernel suspension (40% w/v) was studied spectrophotometrically at
         420mm using catechol as substrate. The enzyme was most active at pH of 7.0
         and 20.C . The activity was reduced by 50% at pH of 4.4 and 8.0 and also at
         temperatures of 13” and 28”C. The calculated activation energy was 3.0
         kCal/mol/deg. The baseline information is intended to assist large-scale
         processors of the kernel.

NPA383   Aror, E. (1987). Preliminary Studies On Evaporative Cooler Storage Of Sweet
         Oranges (citrus sinesis O.) Under Humid Tropical Environment.
         NSPRI Technical Report. No.8. Pp. 63-68.

         The storage period of orange sample, both under evaporative cooler (E.C) and
         ambient conditions (shade) was five week., Average weekly physiological loss in
         weight (PLW) of orange samples in unshaded E.C. system 1 (E.C.I) was 1.82% ,
         for E.C.1 under shade, it was 0.94% , for E.C.11 under shade, it was 1.21% while
         samples stored under ambient conditions had an average PLW of 7.05% per
         week. The weekly cumulative PLW for individual fruits decreased as storage
         time increased in all storage systems. The average total PLW of samples was
         5.46% for unshaded E.C.1 and shaded E.C. 11. while samples under ambient
         conditions had 35.24% PLW.
         During storage, spoilage by pathogens was higher in samples stored in E.C. than
         ambient samples, physiological disorders were higher in ambient samples than in
         unshaded E.C.1. Physiological disorders were absent from shaded E.C.1 and
         E.C.11 samples.

NPA384   Arubi, P. Alobo (2000). Preparation And Quality Of Jam From Vitex Doniana
         Journal Of Tropical Science. Vol. 40. Pp. 83-85.

         Vitex doniana is a tree which grows wild in Nigeria and its fruits eaten to some
         extent . To increase its utilisation jam was prepared from the fruit. Sensory
         evaluation showed no significant difference in flavour , colour and overall
         acceptability between this jam and a commercial plum jam. The V. doniana jam
         was preffered for consistency and spreadabillity.

NPA385   Atanda, O.O. and Akano, D.A. (1997). The Incidence Of Different Types Of
         Microorganisms And Aflatoxin Content Of Dry 'Tatase Pepper (Capsicum-
         annuumL) Stored For Sale In Dry Season.
          Nigerian Journal Of Microbiology Vol.11. Pp. 36-37.

         Samples of dry „tatase‟ pepper stored for sale in four major markets in Ibadan,
         Oyo State, Nigeria between November 1988 and February 1989 were analysed for
         the incidence of the different types of micro-organisms present in them and the
         aflatoxin content. The study showed that there was a low incidence of micro-
         organisms due to the prevailing dry season with the staphylococcal species, being
         more numerous (0.33x102-2.0x104) than the coliforms (7.63x102-7.33x103) and
         yeasts and moulds (1.89x102-3.0x102). No salmonella and shigella species were
         isolated. Similarly the aflatoxin level was below 5ug/kg.

NPA386   Atanda, O.O., Akano, D. A. and Afolabi, J.F. (1990). Mycoflora Of Dry (Tatase
         Pepper Capsicum Annum L) Stored For Sale In Ibadan Markets. Journal Of
         Applied Microbiology. Vol.10. Pp. 35-37.

         Samples of dry „tatase‟ peppers [ capsium annum L.) stored for sale were
         purchased from selected markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, between June and October
         and subjected to microbial analysis. Mould colony counts ranged from 0.67x102
         to 1.6x105
         Within the period of the survey whilst the moisture contents varied between 2.2%
         and 25.02%.. A total of seven mould species were isolated, with Asspergillus
         nigen, Asspergillus favus and Geotnicumm cadidum being the dominant ones.

NPA387   Aviara, N.A. and Haque, M.A. (2002). Processing And Storage Of Guna Crop In
         The Northeast Arid Region Of Nigeria.
         AMA Agricultural Mechanization In Asia, Africa, And Latin

         . The study suggests that there is need to improve the existing practises by
         developing seed extracting and dehusking machine as well as solar dryers and
         mechanical oil press for guna crops.

NPA388   Awoniyi Abioa Agnes Oluwatoyin (1997). Effects Of Hot Water Treatment On
         The Control Of Soft Rot Of tomatoes (Lycoperscion esculentum-miller) During
         Storage Under Ambient And Evaporative Cooler Conditions. Pp. 1-62.
         A Dissertation Submitted In Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements For
         The Degree In Bachelor Of Science (Chencurs Microbiology) In The
         University Of Lagos.

         It was observed that the evaporative cooler kept fruits fresher and real red than
         those stored under ambient conditions these were absent for similar samples
         stored under evaporative cooler conditions.

NPA389   Awonorin, S.O. (1999). Hot Air Drying Kinetics Of Ewedu (Corchorus Olitorus)
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 316-318.

         Typical drying results of the vegetables are presented and the logarithmic plots of
         the moisture ratio are equally shown.

NPA390   Babarinsa, F.A. and Nwangwa, S.C. (1984). Development Of An Evaporative
         Coolant Structure For Low Cost Storage Of Fruits And Vegetables.
         NSPRI Technical Report. No.8. Pp. 75-81
         The construction of the structure is discussed with emphasis on the foundation,
         walls floor and door. The basic heat transfer mechanism is briefly discussed as the
         main functional aspect of the system and performance structure iss reported.

NPA391   Babarinsa, F.A. and Nwangwa, S.C. (1986). Construction And Assessment Of
         Two Evaporative Cooler For Storage Of Fruit And Vegetable.
         NSPRI Technical Report. No.3. Pp. 45-56.

         Two models of evaporative coolant structure (ECS) were constructed and
         assessed for fruit storage potentials. The temperature drops and relative humidity
         elevations achieved inside the chambers and in the ambient were monitored daily
         for a period of 45 days.
         A model with iron sheet chamber cabinet gave the higher temperature drop of
         13oc and relative humidity elevation of 55%. The other, a cold room model with
         a larger holding capacity, recorded a lower temperatures drop of 3oC and relative
         humidity elevation of 13%.The application of the mental chamber ECS for storage
         of oranges checked loss of freshness and reduced weight loss from 31.1% in the
         ambient to 4.2% in 45 days.

NPA392   Babarinsa, F.A. and . Nwangwa, S.C. (1999). Storage Of Polyethylene
         Packaged Mangoes In An Evaporative Cooler.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 136-138.

         Polyethylene packaging extended ambient shelf life by 5, 14, and 18days in
         ambient, cooler and refrigerator respectively.

NPA393   Babarinsa, F.A. and Nwangwa, S.C. (1999). Effect Of Drying Temperature On
         Storage Quality Of Dried Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus).
          Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 133-135

         This work demonstrates that drying temperatures of 30oc and 32oc do not reduce
         quality of Amaranthus hybridus. However delay loss of freshness in the vegetable
         before drying may cause considerable losses in nutritional value, colour and

NPA394   Babarinsa, F.A. (2000). Reduction Of Weight Loss In Valencia Oranges Using
         A Brick Wall Cooler.
         Journal Of Tropical Science. Vol.40. Pp. 92-94.

         Valencia oranges were packed in perforated or unperforated polyethylene bags, or
         left unpacked, and stored for 30days in a bricks-wall evaporating cooler. Control
         fruit left unpacked at ambient conditions lost 3I.4% in weight, whereas those in
         the cooler lost only 4.2%. The weight loss in the cooler was further reduced to
         3.0% and 1.2% for fruit in perforated and unperforated bags respe4ctively. The
         fruit left at ambient shrivelled and wilted badly,, but this was checked in the

NPA395   Babarinsa, F.A., Williams, J.O. and Nwangwa, S.C. (2001). Storage Life Of
         Plaintain In An Evaporative Cooler
         . Tropical Science. Vol. 41. Pp. 50-55.

          A brick-walled evaporated cooler maintained the freshness and extended the
          shelf life of plantain fruits by 9.5 days and reduced weight loss by 80 %
          ,packaging the fruits in polyethylene further extended the shelf life by 4
          days , delayed fruit ripening in the cooler for 9.6 days and reduced weight
          loss by another 2%.

NPA396    Babarinsa, F.A. and Williams J.O. (2002). Effect Of Three Skin Coating
          Materials On The Storage Of Valencia Oranges.
          Post-Harvest Science. Vol.1. Pp.7-11.

          Incidence of decay increased with petroleum jelly under ambient and with paraffin
          oil coating in both ambient and cooler.Storage in evaporative cooler significantly
          reduced the decay by jelly coating. The results suggest that petroleum jelly and
          paraffin oil coatins can be applied as a simple means of improving weight loss
          control in oranges stored in a bricks wall evaporative cooler or refrigerator.

NPA397    Babalola, A.O. (1998). Small Scale Processing And Storage Of Fruit And
          Vegetable. Proceeding Of National Workshop On Post Harvest Food
          Loss/Prevention Organised By Crop Storage Unit Of Federal Department Of
          Agriculture. Federal Ministry Of Agriculture And Natural Resources. Pp.

          The paper highlights importance of food storage and different methods of storage
          of fruits and vegetables.

NPA398    Babalola, A.O. and Babalola, S.O. (1998). Chemical Composition Of Two Grain
          Amaranth Lines (Amaranlliuss hypochondricus) Grown At NIHORT Nigeria
          .Proceedings, 22nd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Vol . Pp. 59-62.

          The differences in the results suggest an important environmental effect on
          chemical composition although genetic variability may have had an effect as well.

NPA 399   Babatunde, F.E (2000) Effects Of Fertilizer Sources And Containers On Post
          harvest Losses In Onion (Allium cepa L.)
           Proceedings Of The NIFEST 24th Annual Conference. Pp123-124.

          The author explained that attention need to be geared towards utilization of
          readily available fertilizer sources/ types as well as containers to be used after
          harvest to check post harvest losses in onion bulbs.

NPA 400   Baiyewu, R.A.and Amusa, N.A. (1999). Biochemical Changes In Pawpaw Fruits
          (Var.Isolo.Js.22 And Homestead) Infected With Fungi. Bioscience Research
          Communications. Vol.II. No.3 pp257-261

         There was a general decrease in the vitamin A, vitamin C, sugar and ash content
         of pawpaw fruits infected with test pathogens in this study while an increase in
         the sugar and liquid content of ripe pawpaw fruits was recorded .The ash content
         decreases with ripening of pawpaw fruits. There were no significant differences
         in the percentage sugar and liquid content of the healthy test pawpaw fruit
         varieties, Isolo and Js22. Rottening caused an increase in moisture and liquid
         contents of the test pawpaw fruits varieties, Isolo. Homestead

NPA401   Bello, O.I. (1990). Management Of Post-Harvest Losses Of Fresh Tomatoes
         Using A System Approach.
         Dissertation Submitted To Faculty Of Technology In Partial Fulfilment Of
         The Requirement For The Degree Of M.Sc. Of The University Of Ibadan.
         Pp. 1-92.
         These simulated studies was to understand how these post harvest handling
         practices brings about losses and how to reduce the magnitude of the losses
         estimated of the different stages of the post harvest system of tomatoes.

NPA402   Bello Iyabo (1999). Preservation Of Fruits By Drying.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. 177-179.

         Dehydration of fruits reduces the moisture content to a safe level. All the products
         made from dried fruits were organoleptically tested and accepted.

NPA403   Bugaje, I.M. and Ramshaw, C. (1997). An Analytical Investigation Of Heat
         Storage On Paraffin Wax.
         Nigerian Journal Of Technical Education, Vol.14. No.1. Pp. 116-128

         A latent heat storage system was designed and constructed using paraffin wax
         contained in tubes and quilts. The system was modelled based on a pseudo-
         steady state heat transfer mechanism. The model has been used to predict phase
         change time in the storage and recovery of heat. The effect of variation of the
         tube and quilt Biot number and airs temperature on the rate of energy storage and
         recovery were also evaluated. This simple mathematical model developed agreed
         fairly was with the experimental results

NPA404   Chinoko, Y.D. Naqyi, S.H.Z. (1989). Studies Of Fungi Associated With Post-
         Harvest Rot Of Tomato (Lycopersion Esculentum Mill.) In South West Nigeria.
         Nigerian Journal Of Botany. Vol.2. Pp. 9-17.

         Two hundred and forty-three isolations were made from 210 fruits collected from
         8 marketing sites in Lagos and Oyo States. Fungi found to be pathogenic were
         Aspergillus niger, Rhizophus stolonifer, Penicillium citrinum, A. flavus, P
         lividum, Cladosporium fulvum, Alternaria tenuis, Heminthosporium fulvum
         Curuulania lunata and Sclerotium rolfsii,. The first 4 were the most frequently

         isolated fungi while R. stolonifer, S. rolfsii, A. tenuis, C. lunata and H. fulvum
         were the most pathogenic. Wounding and high temperatures appear to increase
         the rage of rot development in both mature – green and ripe fruits but at 2oC
         unwounded mature-green and ripe fruits were not infected after 14days of storage.
         In the dual inoculation tests aimed at determining the presence of antagonistic
         relation ship in vivo, P. cutrinum a slow rot- induced, antagonised A. Niger
         Present studies also confirmed the sysnergistic relationship existing between A.
         flavus and A. Niger.

NPA405   Chukwu, U., Olorunda, A.O. Adeniyi,T.A. Amo, S.N., Ferris, R.S.B (1995)
         Development, Production, Properties And Acceptability Of Snacks And Wearing
         Food Made Extruved Cooking Banana (ABB). . PostHarvest Technology and
         Commodity Marketting. Pp 120-131

         The production costs of 1kg of cooking banana –based snacks food and weaning
         food made from 20% cooking banana , 70% maize, and 10% soybeans were
         estimated at US$0.27 and US$0.75, respectively.

NPA406   Comfort, A. Ekundayo, Okigbo, R.N. (1991). The Effect Of Pathogentic Fungi
         On The Nutritional Value Of the Black Plum (VITEX DOMIANA). Nigerian
         Journal Of Botanyn The Nutritional Value Of the Black Plum (VITEX
          Nigerian Journal Of Botany. Vol.4. Pp. 61-68.

         The juice of Vitex doniana [sweet] Nieson fruits used in Nigeria for wine
         production contains mainly yeasts [Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S, coreanus,
         Candida albicans, Pichia sp, Torulopsis sp, and Rhodotorula sp.] and some
         filamentous fungi [e.g,Aspergillus niger Fusarium monidforme,Botryodiplodia
         theobromae and Penicillium chrysogenum] Pathogenicity tests showed that
         the fungi penetrated the fruits through bruises and wounds and affected
         significant decreases in total sugars, crude protein, total nitrogen and
         mineral content. Significant increases in the concentrations of ascorbic acid,
         biotin and thiamine were also obtained.

NPA407   Dzivama, A.U., Bindir, U.B. and Aboaba, F.O. (1999). Evaluation Of Pad
         Materials In Construction Of Active Evaporative Cooler For Storage Of Fruits
         And Vegetables In Arid Environments.
         AMA. Agricultural Mechanization In Asia, Africa And Latin
         America.Vol.30. Pp. 51-55.

         Four pad materials (ground sponge, stem sponge, jute fibre and charcoal) were
         tested as pads for an active evaporative cooler. At an ambient temperature of
         32oC and relative humidity of 25% in the stem sponge gave best performance of a
         temperature depression of up to 18ocand relative humidity increase to 84%.
         Using stem sponge in varied system setting resulted in temperature depression of

         over 20oC and humidity increase up to 73% under a system setting of 90.0ml S-1
         water flow rate, pad thickness of 60mm and an air section velocity of 2.7Ms-1‟.
         On the varied settings, the structure was evaluated for storing mango (Mangifera
         indica) banana (musa sapientum) and tomato (Hypersicon esculentum). Results
         indicate that the produce kept in good physical condition for 18days in the cooler
         compared to 9days in ambient conditions.

NPA408   Elemo, B.O. Korede, O.O. and Adu, O.B. (1999). The Roles Of Polyphenol
         Oxides Catalase And Peroxidase In The Browing Of Thaumatococus danielli
         Fruit  During Storage.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 170-171.

         Browning occurred in all three portions of T.danielli fruit, but the mechanised
         differed. There was a strong possibility that enzymatic reactions involving PPO
         and catalase was responsible for browning in the aril, while browning in the pulp
         and gel may be non enzymatic.

NPA409   Emelike, N.J., Mepba, H.D, Hart, A.D. and Banigo, E. (1999). Coconut Milk:
         Production And Evaluation Of Physiocochemical Sensory And Storage
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 145-147.

         Coconut milks pasteurized at 80O C/5min was highly rated for their colour,
         taste, consistency and flavour attributes and stabilized at room and
         refrigerator temperatures for 2 and 4 days respectively.

NPA410   Ernest, G. Igwe (1999). Traditional Post-Harvest Practices: The Case Of Fruit
         And Vegetable Vendor.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 175-176.

         The finding suggest that reduction of post harvest loss and vegetables through
         traditional practices by especially this uneducated traders can be improved by
         improvement in transportation system snd dissemination appropriate villages
         through extension services.

NPA411   Olufemi O. P. Fagboya, O.O., Ekanem, P. and Akinyele (1996). The Use Of
         Hydrogen Tertracyano-mono-1, 10 Phenanthroline iron (111) Complex, H
         (Fe(PHEN)(C>N).2H2 As A Titrant For The Determination Of AscorbicS Acid In
         Leafy Vegetable.
          Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.14. Pp. 13-25.

         The ascorbic acid contents of three vegetable – Talinum traingulare, Vernonia
         amygalina and Celosia argentea, determined by the proposed method agree
         closely with results obtained with the N-.bromosuclinimide method.

NPA412   FGN/EEC Middle Belt Programme In Colaboration With The Agencies For Mass
         Education Kwara State (1993).
         Storage Guide For Tomatoes, Pepper And Onions. NSPRI. Pp. 1-6

         The guide is prepared in simple language to educate on storage tomatoes , pepper
         and onions

NPA413   FGN/EEC Middle Belt Programme In Collaboration With The Agencies For Mass
         Education, Kwara State (1993). Storage Guide For Oranges, Mangoes And
         Plantains. Pp. 1-6

         The guide is prepared in simple language to educate on storage of oranges,
         mangoes and plantain.

NPA414   Fagbemi,T.M. and Oshodi, A.A. (1991). Chemical Composition And Functional
         Properties Of Full Fat Fluted Pumpkin Seed Flour. (Telfaria occidentalis).
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.9. Pp. 26-32ss

         Full fat fluted Pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) seed flour was produced and
         evaluated for proximate, mineral composition and the functional properties of the
         proteins in the flour. The results showed that the flour contained 5.5% moisture,
         28.7% protein, 49.2% fat, 4.8% ash and 11.8% carbohydrate, while the mineral
         content was found to be ca(70.3), p(10138), mg(2251.3), k(17559) ma(1800)
         fc(55.8), cc(15.2), mn(11.3), cd(1.8) and pb (0.3) ppm(mg/kg).
         The flour has a minimum galation concentration of 36% (w/v), emulsion capacity
         20% water absorption capacity 88%, oil absorption capacity 142% foaming
         capacity 10.8% and foaming stability of 5% after 2hours. Foaming increasing
         flour concentration and protein solubility was observed to be PH dependent with
         minimum and maximum protein solubility at PH 4 and PH 9 respectively. The
         proximate and mineral composition as well as some of the functional properties
         observed suggest that the flour may find good use as human food.

NPA415   Gabriel, A. Ajibade (1997). An Evaluation Of Potassium Permanganate As A
         Substitute For Dichlorophenol-Indophenol In Ascorbic Acid Analysis Of
         Nigerian Journal Of Technical Education. Vol.14. No.1. Pp. 143-146.

         The Dichlorophenol- Indophenol (DCPIP) procedure, which is standard
         procedure for the determination of Ascorbic acids was modified by substituting
         potassium tetraoxomanganese 1V for the blue dye. Mean of Ascorbic acid content
         obtained by new method was higher in comparison to values indicated in
         published standard.

NPA416   Gesinde, A.F. and A. Krakowiak (1997). Effect Of Temperature On Production
         Of Cucumberr Pickles.
          Proceeding Of 28th Annual Conference of Nutrition Nigeria. Society Pp. 47-

         Cucumber (Cucumis sativum) was subjected to lactic acid fermentation in brine,
         to produce pickles. The prckles were produced by spontaneous fermentation
         under two different temperatures, 17oC (PK17) and 23oC (PK23). The sensory
         quality of the pickles was tested, using imported cucumber prickle as standard, R,
         by a 13-member panel.

NPA417   Glami, S.Y., Adindu, M.N. and Akusu, M.O. (1999). Effect Of Processing
         Methods On Protein And Other Chemical Constituents Of Fluted Pumpkin
         (Telfairia occidentalis) And African Breadfruit. Proceeding of 23rd Annual
         (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 127-129.

         Aibumin and globulin were observed to be the major see proteins, constituting
         about 58.6% and 67.8% of the total protein of raw pumkin and African breadfruit
         seeds respectively.
         Cucumber (Cucumis sativum) was subjected to lactic acid fermentation in brine,
         to produce prickles. The prickles were produced by spontaneous fermentation
         under two different temperatures, 17oC (PK17) and 23oC (PK23). The sensory
         quality of the prickles was tested, using imported cucumber prickle as standard,
         R, by a 13-member panel.

NPA418   Kogbe, J.O.S; Bamtefa ,O.T, Bada, O.O., Folorunsho, I.O. and Olusanya, T.E.
         (2000) Evaluation Of Solar Dryer On Drying Of Okro.
         Farming Systems Research. And Extension Technology Generation And
         Dissemination. Pp. 87-90.

         The work proved that okra dried with solar dryer when used for making soup after
         the expiry storage period is better in taste , sliminess, odour and aroma than okra
         dried using farmers practice
NPA419   Kola, Ajewole (1999). Analysis Of The Nutritive Elements In Some Nigerian
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 158-160.

         Of the eight minerals determined both K and Mg were the most abundant ranging
         from 0.94 mgg-1 in Cochorus olitorus from Osogbo to 0.61 mgg-1 in talinum
         traingulare from Ede. Both Zn and Mn were the lowest mineral contents ranging
         from 0.14 -0.08 mgg-1 and 0.13 – 08 mgg-1 in Zn and Mn respectively. The result
         is in agreement with findings of Fagboya2
         The Ca content ranged between 0.81 – 0.31 mgg-1 and if the Ca were in available
         form, vegetable could then serve as source of Ca to the consumers albeit the level

         of Ca absorption inhibitors needed to be determined (phytic and oxalic acid). All
         the other three mineral ranged between 0.94 (Na) to 0.016 (P) mgg-1 respectively.

NPA420   Ladapo Lydia Adeola (2002). Assessment Of Post Harvest Losses In Sweet
         Orange (Citrus Sinensis(L) Osbeck).
         A Thesis In The Department Of Agronomy Submitted To The Faculty Of
         Agriculture And Forestry In Partial fulfilment Of The Requirement For The
         Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy Of The University Of Ibadan. Pp. 20-196.

         It was concluded that sweet orange can be stored well so as to maintain stable
         prices throughout the year by hand. Picking them from trees at harvest and
         packing them with foil or perforated polyethylene bags to preserve them and then
         store under a temperature range of 12-15oC in incubators. Storage method,
         influenced net benefits as the open shelf storage methods with fruits obtained by
         shaking the to bare ground with no wrapping (control) had the lowest net benefits
         as compared with storage of wrapped fruits in either evaporative coolant structure
         or the incubator greater returns were obtained from fruits that were handpicked
         wrapped in foil and stored in the incubator for both early and late season crops,
         these observations indicated that the storage, packaging and harvesting methods
         used influence the storage of citrus.

NPA421   Mejule, F.O. and Olatunde, G.O. (1983). Determination Of The Shelf-life Of
         Green Leaf Vegetables (Amaranthus sp) In Clay Pots.
         NSPRI Technical Report, No.8. Pp. 63-76.

         Freshly harvested Amaranthus leaves were stored in clay pots lined and covered
         with wet jute bags. They were left in the open to determine the length of time
         they will remain good and acceptable to the consumers.
         The physical paratmeters used to determine the quality are turgidity,
         discolouration, infestation by insects. mould and rot and acceptability to
         consumers. After 6days of storage, the leafy vegetables stored in jute lined clay
         pots were still fresh turgid, green and acceptable to consumers.

NPA422   Mepha, H.D., Achinewhn, S.C, Sokari, T.G. and BarimalaI.S. (1999). Coconut
         Milk Yoghurts Development And Quality Evaluation. Proceeding Of 23rd
         Annual NIFST. Pp. 142-144.

         .Coconut yoghurts had a significantly higher content of protein but lower content
         of carbohydrates than the starting materials. Lactic formation of sprouted and
         germinated soybean extracts yielded cocosoy yoghurts with zero level of

NPA423    Nwangwa, S.C., Babarinsa, F.A., Omomukuyo, A. Williams, J.O. (1986). Sun-
         drying Of Common Fruits And Vegetables Under Polythene Sheet And Cloth

          NSPRI Technical Report. No.5. Pp. 63-69.

         Sliced fresh hycopersicon esculentus (tomato fruits), Allium cepa (onion bulbs),
         blanched and unblanctied Amaranthus spp. (“Alefo/tete”) and Abelmoschus
         esculentus (Okra) were sun-dried under transparent polyethylene sheet (0.08mm
         guage) cover at 80oC, under cream coloured calico cloth covered 50oC and by
         direct sunning at 50oC. Drying under polyethylene cover was best for tomato and
         onions, while amaranthus and okra dried under calico cloth cover, had better
         consumer appeal and colour retention.

NPA424   Nwanekezi, E.C., Ukagu, J.C. (1999). Determination Of Engineering Properties
         Of Some Nigerian Fruits And Vegetables.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.17. Pp.55-60.

         The moisture content of foods besides influencing the engineering properties
         of fruits and vegetable also affect the progress of chemical reactions and
         microbiological spoilages. The influence of moisture of profound importance
         in determination of shelf life of unprocessed fruits and vegetables since it
         Affects physio-chemical properties, microbiological spoilage and enzymatic
         chages. The moisture contents of the fruits and vegetables examine are all
         higher than 60%, These higher moisture and nutritional contents make them
         suitable for spillage organisms and agents to grow and multiplay.

NPA425   Nweke, O.E. (1998). Acceptability And Physical Characteristics Of Ukwa
         (African Bread-Fruits) Cakes. Akoka
         Journal Of Pure And Applied Science Education. Vol.1. Pp. 152-158.

         The study evaluated the acceptability and physical characteristics of „Ukwa”
         cakes. The high cost of food, (especially protein) results in mal-nutrition, ill-
         health and death of both children and adults. There is therefore the need to use
         „ukwa‟ an unpopular local plant, rich in protein to enrich wheat flour cakes.
         „Ukwa‟ seeds without husks were bought, picked and washed twice. They were
         then properly sun-dried and milled into flour. Samples of cakes were made from
         100% wheat flour (control), 50% wheat 150% ‘ukwa’ flour and 100% ‘ukwa‟
         flour with labels of X3 Y2 and Z3, respectively. Three experiments were carried
         out and all the products were evaluated for colour, texture, flavour and general
         acceptability. The shelf life, standing heights and ink prints were also compared.
         The 50% wheat/50% „ukwa‟ flour cakes were more acceptable than the 100%
         ‘ukwa’ flour cakes in all the parameters tested.

NPA426   Nwufo, M.I. and Mba, P.C. (1988). Studies On Post-harvest Rots Of African
         Bread Fruits (Treculia Africana) Seeds In Nigeria.
         International Biodeterioration Vol. 24. No 1. Pp. 17-23.

         A survey of the storage loss was about rot diseases of Treculia africana was
         conducted in Imo State, Nigerian 1985-86. The storage loss was about 15.2%
         during severe infection. Four types of micro-organisms namely Botryodiplodia

         theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger and yeasts, were consistently
         isolated from the rotten seeds A niger, B. theobromae and R. stolonifer were
         associated with about 90% of the total loss., This is the first report of the
         occurrence of these micro-organisms associated with T. africana seeds in Nigeria.
         The ability of each to cause storage rot of seeds was established and the effect of
         temperature, PH and different carbon sources on growth of the organisms

NPA427   Nwufo, M.I. (1994) Effects Of Water Stress On The Post-Harvest Quality Of
         The Leafy Vegetables Telfairia occidentalis And Pterocarpus soyaluxii During
         Journal Of The Science Of Food And Agriculture. Vol.64. No.3. Pp. 265-269

         The effect of water stress (excessive water loss) on the post-harvest quality of two
         leafy vegetables Telfairia occidentalis and Pterocarpus soyauxii, at ambient (30-
         35oC) and low temperature (10oC) was investigated in South-easthern Nigeria.
         The effect of seal – packaging the vegetables in polyethylene and paper bags on
         quality decline of the leafy vegetables was also monitored. Unsealed leaves of T
         occidentalis and P. soyauxii rapidly lost water during storage at either ambient or
         low temperature. There were decreases in the chlorophyll, protein and ascorbic
         acid contents in the stressed leaves. Packaging of the leaves in polyethylene bags
         salleviated these losses. Sealing of the leaves in polyethylene bags also alleviated
         water stress.

NPA428   Obafunmi, M.O., A. A. Obomegbei and Aladejebi, R.V. (1999). Production And
         Quality Parameters For "Liquid Onion".
          Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 148-150.

         The results obtained showed aerobic count of <3x102 cfu/ml for all the samples
         including the control after six weks of storage. This could as a result of low pH of
         the samples. The result of the mould / yeast count indicated <3x102 cfu/ml. All
         the colonies observed from aerobic plates counts is an indication that the
         microbiological loads are not significant. Grams-staining indicated G +ve short
         rods , suspended to belong to the bacillus species..

NPA429   Oboh, A.O., Aworh, O.C. and Agagu, O.K. (1987). The Use Of Nigerian Clays
         In Vegetable Oil Refining: Evaluation Of Some Nigerian Clays As Potential
         Bleaching Earths.
          Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.5. Pp. 42-51.

         Eleven clay samples were collected from nine different localities – Anaku, Awgu,
         Benin, Ewekow., Calabar, Mkalagu, Nsukka, Shagamu and Uselu, all in Southern
         Nigeria. Clays from Nsukka, Ewekoro, Shagamu and Anaku with relatively high
         montmonillonite content (80%) as well as the clay from Mkalagu with 40%
         montmonillonite content produced a colour reduction of at least 80% when used

         to bleach palm oil, after activation use in clay with a montmorillonite content of
         52% was even effective in bleaching palm oil in the natural state.

NPA430   Obuekwe, C.O. (1987). Incidence Of Tomato Fungi And Their In Vitro nhibition
         By Honey Distillate (HY-1).
         Nigerian Journal Of Microbiology. Vol.7. Pp. 121-127.

         Filamentous fungi were more susceptible to the distillate than yeasts. Sclerotium
         Production by Sclerotium rolfisii decrease with concentration of the distillate,
         while contact for as brief as five minute with undiluted distillate prevented the
         germination of the sclerotia.

NPA431   Odeyemi, O.O. and Williams, J.O. (1987). Insect Pest Of Sweet Orange (Citrus-
         Sinesis Osbeck) In some Ibadan Market Stores.
         Nigerian Journal Of Entomology. Vol.8. Pp. 89-94

         Insects pests of orange( Citrus sinensis) were surveyed from selected citrus fruits
         stores in Ibadan between February and September 1982. The dipterans, especially
         the Drosophilidae, were the most numerous insect group collected in the survey,
         representing 70 percent of the total number of insects collected in each survey.
         Two beetles Carpophilus hemipterus and Corpophilus dimidiatus, constituted 20
         percent of each sample of insects while 10 percent comprised other insects
         groups. This study also found that pest abundance needs be monitored, possibly
         with the aid of the modified “Steiner trap”.

NPA432   Odeyemi, O.O. and Williams, J.O. (1982). Insect Pests Of Sweet Oranges (Citrus
         Sinesis Osbeck) In Ibadan Market Stores.
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.13. Pp. 123-129.

         Insects pest of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) were surveyed from selected citrus
         stores in Ibadan between the month of February and September 1982. Small fruit
         fly Drosophila repleta and Gitonides perspicex and a fungus beetle, Carpophilus
         dimidiatus were the most abundant species of insects found in the stores during
         the survey period.
         The population of these pests was high during the dry season (31oC) and 86% r.h]
         which coincided with the orange season. Low temperature was not favourable for
         the population increase of these pests. This study also found that pest abundance
         could be monitored using the modified “Steiner trap”.

NPA433   Odo, F.O. (1999). Effect Of Processing Techniques On Unripe Plaintain (Musa
         Paradisiaca) Into Flour For Use By Diabetic Patients.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 229-230.

         Samples fermented for longer period had better colour and flavour and can be
         successfully used in the formulation of composite flour bakery industry.

NPA434   Ogali, E. L. and Balogun, S. A. (1992). The Effect Of Evaporative Coolant
         System In Prolonging The Storage Life Of Tomatoes
         Nigeria Journal Of Plant Protection. Vol 14. Pp. 1-6.

         The efficacy of any evaporative coolant system (ECS)in prolonging the shelf life
         of tomatoes was studied. Temperature in the Storage chamber were reduced by
         an average of 7.2C and relative humidity by 5.9% during a nine weeks period.
         Tomatoes stored in the ECS had less reduction in fresh weight ripened more
         uniformity and remained fresh much longer than those stored under ambient
         conditions. Decay was however, more prevalent under the ECS most of the decay
         was caused by Cladosporium herbarium, Fusarium, moniliforme and Penicillium
         citrinum. Despite this, however, the ECS holds considerable promise for the
         preservation of tomatoes.

NPA435   Ogazi, P.O. (1985). The Biscuit Making Potential Of Plantian (Flour/pulp).
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.3. No.1. Pp. 168-171.

         Plantain flour produced after drying green plantain pulp at temperatures between
         50oC and 65oC was used for the production of plantain biscuits. Baking trials
         were carried out using 100% plantain flour as well as 70% plantain flour in
         combination with 30% plantain pulp (solids) in order to develop suitable recipes
         for the pilot-scale production of plantain biscuits. Three different recipes were
         developed and good quality flow-type biscuits produced using rotary moulder.
         The plantain biscuits produced were acceptable to the majority of Nigerian
         consumers, who expressed their willingness to buy them if sold in the market.
         There was distinct plantain flavour which might be an advantage for those who
         grow and eat plantain. The economic impact of the use of plantain (flour/pulp) in
         the manufacture of biscuit lies in the substitution of some of the wheat that are
         imported with a locally grow crop

NPA436   Ogazi, P.O. (1985). The Rheological Properties Of Plantian Flour As Composite
         With Wheat Flour.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.3. No.1,2,3. Pp. 190-194.

         The physical properties of the dough made from a composite flour of strong
         wheat flour (Leviathan) and plantain flour were determined using Brabender
         Extensograph, Fairnograph and Amylograph. The water absorption of the blends
         decreased slightly. There was a marked reduction in peak development time and
         stability with dilution of the strong wheat flour with the plantain flour. The dough
         was more plastic as the level of dilution increased and the maximum viscosity of
         the slurry increased with increases in the proportion of plantain flour in the
         mixture. As the dough matured it became shorter and displayed greater visco-
         elastic properties Examining the ratio figures obtained in the extensograph test, it
         can be assumed that suitable dough with acceptable visco-elastic properties would

         be produced from a 10% dilution for a short to medium length fermentation
         dough and for a straight “no time” dough, the dilution could be 15%.

NPA437   Ogazi, P.O. (1986). Quality Assessment Of Plaintain Fruits For Dehydration.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol 4. Pp. 125-130.

         Green plantains were stored in a Triton constant humidity cabinet and incubator at
         30oC and 97% relative humidity. Samples were taken at intervals for chemical
         and physical measurements until they were overripe after ten days. The moisture
         content, total sugars and acidity of the pulp increased with increase in maturation
         until the overripe stage, while the alcohol insoluble solids decreased. The force
         required to puncture the skin of the fruit at the turning stage when both green and
         yellow colours appeared on the fruit and ripe stage was 10.3kg and 7.5kg
         respectively. A force limit of about 9kg and 8kg could be set for puncture and
         rupture processes respectively below which drying the fruits would pose some

NPA438   Ogazi, P.O. and Jones, M.C. (1990). Effect Of External Variables Velocity, Cube
         Size And Air Temperature On The Drying Rate Of Plaintain Cubes.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.8. Pp. 78-80

         Understanding the drying behaviour of plantain cubes over a range of
         temperature, air velocity and cube size was considered necessary for the selection
         or design of suitable dryer for the drying of plantain. Plantain cubes 5mm, 10mm
         and 15mm were dried as a single cube in air stream and in a single layer on a tray
         at temperature, 40o, 49o and 60oC and at air velocities of 2.4, 2.9 and 3.4m/s.
         Increase in air velocity increased the treat transfer co-efficient and decreased the
         external resistance to mass transfer. Increase in air temperature reduced the
         drying time but care should be taken to avoid case hardening of cases at very high
         temperatures which ultimately result in lower drying rate. The rate of drying was
         faster for single cubes than for a single layer of similar cubes packed in a tray.

NPA439   Ogazi, P.O. and Jones, M.C. (1990). Pilot-Scale Dehydration Of Plantain Pulp
         For Flour Production Using Cabinet Dryer.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.8. Pp. 74-77.

         This paper describes the plant trial carried out using a cabinet dryer for the drying
         of plantain. Perforated and non-perforated trays were used for the experiment and
         loadings of single, double and triple layers of 10mm plantain cubes and slices
         respectively were dried at temperatures of 67oC and 77oC. The conclusions were
         that dicing of plantain pulp produced more uniform cubes than slicing and the rate
         of drying was faster for cubes than for slices. The use of perforated trays greatly
         reduced the tray wetness and improved the rate of drying. Drying plantain cubes
         at a temperature above 70oC had not resulted in a faster rate of drying to the affect
         of case hardening on the surface of the cubes.

NPA440   Ogazi, P.O. (1995). Plantain Storage And Processing.
         Post Harvest Technology And Commodity Marketing. Pp. 108-119.

         This study showed that plantain has great processing potential. The production of
         some of the plantain food products Could be technically and economically
         feasible provided there is sufficient low priced raw materials.

NPA441   Ogbo, A.I. (1999). Production Of Spirit From A (Combination Of Paw-Paw
         Carica-Papaya)and Guava (Psiclum Guava).
         Proceedings Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 34-36.

         Ethanol produced is comparable with commercial ethanol commercial ethnol in
         terms of pH, alcoholic content. The alcohol content are 33.76% w/v, 35.54 and
         34.83%w/v for sample A,B and C respectively.

NPA442   Ogbonda, K.H. (1997). Chemical Composition Of Selected Mushrooms, And
         Truffles Grown In Rivers State Nigeria.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.15. Pp. 1-8.

         Two species of truffles and six genera of mushrooms grown in upland Rivers
         State were analysed for proximate composition and selected minerals. Edible
         portions of truffles contained 11.15%, protein, 1.46% Fat, 80 50% carbohydrate
         and have a calorific value of 379.70 cals/100g. Their mineral content includes
         calcium (175mg), phosphorus (302.5mg) and iron (385mg) per 100gm dry weight
         for the mushrooms, their average edible portion contained 24.3% protein, 4.3%
         fat and 42.9% carbohydrate. Their average iron phosphorus, calcium and energy
         contents were 388mg, 238mg, and 181mg 303 cals per 100 grams dry
         weight respectively.

NPA443   Ogundana, S.K., and Ajulo E. (1980). Fungal Flora Of Pulped Pepper
         Capsium Frutescens) Stored Under Various Conditions.
         International Biodetenoration. Vol. 16. No. 3. Pp. 67-73.

         Ripe fruits of a varieties of capsicum frutescens were ground to a pulp and
         subjected to a various storage treatments including boiling, addition of
         sodium chloride, refrigeration, and various combinations of this designed to
         reflect current culinary practice. By means of the dilution plate method
         viable counts of fungi were made. The fungi isolated included Asperdillus
         flavus, A niger,Alternaria [3spp.], Epicoccum sp, cldosporium sp,
         Geotrichum candidum, Gliocladium sp, . Glomerella cingulata, Rhizopus spp.
         and trichoderma hrzlanum.
         Refrigeration hindered the proliferation of fungi . Storage at room
         temperature was generally poor .Boiling alone did not improve storage
         except when combined with refrigeration . Salting [ addition of sodium
         chloride] before refrigeration further increased delay in fungi growth.

NPA444    Ogusua, A.O. (1986). The Use Of Defatted Oilseeds In Composite Flours For
          Bread Making.
          Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.4. Pp. 45-52.

          Defalted Oilseed flours were added to wheat flours at 5-10% levels. Rheological
          and baking studies were carried out on the composite flours. Water absorption
          increased by 2-3% on addition of 10% Oil seed flour. The farinogram
          characteristics, showed a drastic change after the addition of 20% cassava starch
          and an addition of 5% Oilseed flour to wheat flour. Loaf volume decreased from
          1765cc to 11412cc on addition of 30% cassava starch. Addition of 10% Oilseed
          flour led to a great reduction in loaf volume. Loaf score dropped significantly on
          addition of 10% defaulted Oilseed flours whereas 5% addition of defaulted
          Oilseed flours gave loaf score of over 90%.

NPA445    Okaka, J.C., Okechukwu, P.E, Akonobi, J., Okaka, C.T. (1986). Production And
          Evaluation Of Simulated Honey Made From Sucrose And Fruit Juices.
          Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.4. Pp. 80-84.

          Artificial or man-made honey was made from sucrose syrup prepared by the
          hydrolysis of sucrose using critic acid. This base – syrup was then blended with
          various mixtures of natural fruit juices to improve flavour sensory, physical and
          chemical evaluation showed that some of the artificial honey samples were
          comparable with natural honey which served as control.

NPA 446   Okanlawon, S.O, Ibrahim, M.H. and Oyebanji, A.O. (2002). Effect Of Pre-Drying
          Treatment On The Storage Of Dried Tomatoes:
          Tropical Science Vol. 42 No.1. Pp. 40-41

          Dipping fresh tomato slices in 0.5% Na2S O5 for 20minutes before drying gave a
          product of good quality which could be stored for 4months. Dipping in 10% salt
          before drying gave good results, but 1% citric acid was only fair. Untreated slices
          and those blanched in water at 90-100oC before drying were of poor quality.

NPA447    Oke, O.L. (1966). Chemical Studies On Some Nigeria Vegetables.
          Tropical Science. Vol.8. Pp. 128-136

          Four Nigerian vegetables, Heinsia pulchella Gynura amplexicaulis, solanum
          nudiflorum and myrianthus arboreus were analysed for food constituents minerals
          and oxalate. All the vegetables are relatively high in protein and could be used as
          protein supplements. The leaves are rich in minerals compared with those of
          imported vegetables such as spinarch and lettuce. They are extremely high in
          aluminium and manganese, probably due to the acid granite soil in which they
          were grown. Heinsia and Gynuna contain a high amount of oxalate. In order to
          improve the quality of the vegetables it is suggested that attention be concentrated
          on the breeding of strains low in oxalate.

NPA448    Oke, O.L. (1973). Leaf Protein Research In Nigeria. A Review.
          Tropical Science. Vol.15.No.1. Pp. 139-155.

          Progress made on leaf protein research in Nigeria is reviewed. Incorporation of
          leaf protein into Nigerian diets for adults showed that it was actually and readily
          acceptable. It blended well with most of the dishes and caused in significant
          change in taste or colour and health stability.

NPA 449   Okechukwu, P.E. and Ngoddy, P.O. (1985). Osmotic Dehydration Of Plaintian
          (Musa Specie) In Sugar Solution
          . Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.3.No.1,2,&3. Pp. 159-161.

          Osmotic dehydration of plantain (musa sapientum var paradisiacal Linn) was
          examined with the view of establishing the appropriate product requirement with
          respect to the degree of post harvest maturity for reducing moisture level of
          plantain slices. The firm ripe stage of maturity was found most appropriate since
          it ensures about 71% removal of initial moisture as against 68% and 58% for the
          “unripe” and “over ripe” stages, for plantain slices 3.5mm thick (immensed in 61o
          Brix sugar solution at 27oC to 23hours. Furthermore, the incidence of leaching of
          nutrients in osmotic dehydration was examined. Dehydration is accompanied by
          leaching of water reducing sugars as well as absorption of sugar from the
          dehydration medium by plantain slices immersed in sugar solution. The extent of
          nutrient leaching, dehydration and sugar uptake depend, in a large measure, on the
          thickness of the plantain slices.

NPA 450   Okereke, D.I. (1998). Preliminary Investigation Into The Nutritional Value Of
          Seeds Of Afzelia africana.
          Proceedings Of The 32nd Annual Conference Of The Agricultural Society Of
          Nigeria. Pp.77-79

          Processed Afzelia africana seeds are most frequently as an important soup-
          thickner in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The powder produced from Afzelia africana
          seeds was evaluated in terms of the basic chemical composition vis: moisture, fat,
          crude protein, total titratable acidity and the elements the high values obtained for
          fat (27.5%) makes the seeds to be probable good sounds of dietary fats and

NPA 451   Okoye, W.I., Onwuzulu, O. C. and Ubani, O.N. (1986). Storability Of Flour
          Tomato And Five Onion Varieties.
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.4. Pp. 57-61.

          Four tomato varieties (Euromech, Romav F., Early Storne and piacenza) and five
          onion varieties Ex-Gayanawa, Ex-Bama, D77, DS79 and composite 4) were
          studied after curing the onions for one week. At ambient room condition of 24.5
          + 2.5oC and 69.5 + 18.5% Rh the onion varieties stored for9 months and the
          tomatoes for 7weeks. At the end of the storage period thirty eight percent of the

          onions appeared physically acceptable though organoleptic assessment revealed
          loss of aroma and flavour and fibrous nature of the onions. The Euromech tomato
          varieties of tomatoes.

NPA452    Okoye, W.I. and Egunjobi, M.K. (1996). Compostion And Food Potentials Of
          The Seed Of 11 Cultivars Of The Bottle Gourd Lagenaria siceraria (Molina-
           Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.14. Pp. 54-62.

          The seed characteristics, proximate composition, physio-chemical composition
          and fatty acid profile of 11 cultivars of lagenaria siceraria (Molina stand) were
          studied. There were between 30-1,200 seeds/fruit, while weight of shelved seeds
          (cotyledon) ranged between 27.8g – 52.0g. Crude protein of deffated seed was
          between 23.4 – 37.4%; Oil content 47.0-58.5% crude fibre 1.11 – 1.93%, as 3.19-
          4.38 and moisture 4.6-5.7%, the extracted Oils had acid values 2.57-7.78%
          Saponification values 158.1-217.7, iodine values 4.67-18.58 and refractive indices
          1.44720-1.4750 at 25.oC the fatty acid composition indicate a range of 18.2 –
          48.8 percent unsaturation for all the cultivars studied.

NPA453    Okunade, S.O. and Williams, J.O. (2002). Insect Pests Infestation Of Dried
          Vegetables In Kano, Nigeria.
           Postharvest Science. Vol.1. Pp. 63.-69.

          Insects infestation on dried vegetables cuts across the three seasons but most
          abundant in terms of species and number during the wet season due probably to
          favourable environmental conditions of temperature and relevant humidity poor
          post harvest handling techniques in the market also contributed to high incidence
          of insect pests

NPA454    Okunola, A.A. and Igbeka, J.C. (2000). Water Absorption Characteristics Of
          Plantain And Sweet Potato
          .Proceeding Of The First International Conference And Millennium General
          Meeting Of The Nigerian Institution Of Agricultural Engineers (A Division
          Of The Nigerian Society Of Engineers. Vol.22. Pp. 20-25

          Optimum moisture content was derived for storage stability of those crops and the
          region of local Isotherm 11 was identified as the region of optimum storage.

NPA 455   Olabode, E. Sowumi and Samuel Agboola (1982). Some Basic Considerations In
          The Use Of Chemical Pesticides In The Production Of Agricultural Crops.
          NSPRI, Occasional Paper Series. No.3.

          The work highlights the pesticide formulations, classes of pesticides,
          organosulphurs and safety of insecticides.

NPA456    Olasantan, F.O. (1996). .Meeting Future Vegetable Needs In Nigeria: The

         Potential Role Of Out-Of-Season Vegetables.
         Outlook On Agriculture. Vol. 25. No.2.

         In Nigeria, most people still rely on rainfall vegetables for their vegetable needs.
         And for very good reasons: they are relatively easy to grow. However, their
         production as seasonal and has become unreliable because of problems of
         transportation, marketing and storage. Consequently, fresh produce is often
         surplus to marketing requirements, resulting in low prices and huge losses during
         the rainy season in scarcity and high market prices during the off season. It seems
         that rainfall vegetables can no longer continue to meet the demands of the fast-
         growing population, and it is time to examine the role of our of season vegetables
         as well.

NPA457   Olayemi, F.F. and Akinnusi, A.O. (1987). Some Engineering Properties Of
         Orange Fruits. NSPRI Technical Report. No.7. Pp. 57-62.

         Studies were conducted into some engineering properties of orange fruits.
         Consideration was given to physical and mechanical properties of the fruits,
         results showed that the oranges were 0.966 in degree of sphericity with an
         individual weight of 184± 49 grams and object density of 38 fruits per 10 litres. It
         was also found that the mechanical properties of orange fruits under
         comprehensive loading depends on its stage of maturity, the axial position of load
         application and the rate of loading.

NPA458   Olorunda, A.O. and Bolin, H.R. (1989). Effect Of Dehydrofreezing On The
         Micro-Structure And Quality Attributes Of Plaintain Products. Nigerian Food
         Journal. Vol.6. Pp. 20-29.

         Blanched samples of ripe plantain slices were either conventionally frozen or
         dehyrafrozen at – 18 to – 20oC in circulating air prior to the evaluation of
         microstructure and quality attributes scanning electron micrographs of thawed
         frozen samples showed that the slices frozen without the dehydration steps had
         more distorted or damaged cells compared with those dehydrofrozen. Colour of
         the frozen plantain pack was acceptable and unaffected by the thawing process.
         Sensory evaluation of thawed fried samples showed that the products from the
         different treatments were acceptable, although those dehydrated osmotically were
         generally rated higher in terms of flavour, texture and overall acceptability. The
         techno-economic feasibility of the process is discussed in relation to works
         previously reported.

NPA459   Oluwole, Y.A. (1979). Storage Of Tropical Fruits And Vegetables: A Review .
         NSPRI Technical Report. No.9. Pp. 95-110.

         The review indicated that effective research aimed at improving the storage of
         fruits and vegetables , since they constitute cheap sources of vitamins and
         minerals which are needed for the body.

NPA460    Omobuwajo, T.O. (1993). Comparative Studies On Soft Drinks Produced From
          Previously Developed And Modified Lemon Based Concentrates.
          Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.II. Pp. 2-8

         The drink from the modified concentrate however may have a better commercial
         prospect compared with the drink from the previous concentrate because of the
         larger volume of drink that can be produced per quantity of single strength lemon

NPA461   Omueti, O. and Adepoju, E. (1988). Preliminary Assessment Of The Effect Of
         Processing And Storage On The Quality Of Five Local Vegetables.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.6. Pp. 68-72.

         Fresh, dried, blanched and frozen forms of five local vegetables namely:
         Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus hybridus, Gelosia argentea, Corchorus
         olitorius and Talinum triangulare were examined for vitamin C. crude protein and
         total ash.-There was varied reduction in vitamin C contents after blanching
         depending on the type of vegetable. There was almost total loss of this vitamin in
         the processed and stored vegetables. There were slight losses in minerals and
         protein as a result of processing or storage

NPA462   Onimawo, I.A. and Musa Nuhu (1999). Effect Of Ripening On The Nutrient Of
         Content Of Plantain Peels. (Musa Paradisiaca Collanus Acaea).
          Proceeding Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp. 166-167.

         The results showed that ripening did not significantly affect the nutrient content of
         the peels except for carbohydrates where unripe plantain peels had considerably
         higher value (68.1%) than the ripe one (64.1%).

NPA463   Onimawo, I.A. (1999). Varation In Ascorbic Acid Content In Processed
         Selected Vegetable.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual Conference (NIFST).
          Pp. 161-163

         All vegetables studied retained the highest Vitamin C

NPA464   Onwozulu, O.C., Ubani, O.N. and Okoye W.I (1987). Storage Of Fruits In
          Waxed/Grease Proof Wrappers.

           NSPRI Technical Report. No.9. Pp. 73-77.

          The effectiveness of waxed/grease-proof wrappers in minimizing water loss and
          extending the shelf life of sweet oranges (Valenicia variety) was investigated.
          Individually and collectively wrapped oranges stored in fruit crates and paper

         carton kept better than, the control stored in the same containers for 7 weeks at
         room temperature of 24 + 4oC and relative humidity of 68 + 20%. Shrivelling
         was minimal and ripening slower in oranges wrapped in greased proof wrappers
         than the control. By the end of 6th week in storage only 10% of the wrapped fruits
         had become over-ripe and shrievlled while 80% of the control (unwrapped fruits)
         were not only over-ripe and shrived but were also store hard

NPA465   Onwozulu, O.C., Moleyan, V. and Appaich, K. M. and Aradiya Rangana.S.
         (1995). Fungicidal Control Of Fussarium And Alternaria Rots Of Fresh Tomato
         Fruit During Storage Under Ambient Conditions. Tropical Science. Vol. 35 Pp.

         Analysis of whole fruit dip-treated with 100ng/ml Imazalil gave a residue of
         0.6mg/0g fruit pulp after 20days of storage at ambient temperature.

NPA466   Onwuka, G. I, Onwuka, N.D. and Obi, O. (1999). Dehydration Characteristics
         And Compositional Changes Of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca). At Different Levels
         Of Ripening.
         Proceedings Of 23rd Annual (NIFST) Conference. Pp 155-157.

         Crude protein, fat and sugar increased remarkably as ripening progressed while
         starch and dry matter decreased.

NPA467   Onyekwelu, I.U., Dabor, D.O. Egesi,G.U. Banjoko, I.O. (1984). Preservation Of
         Leafy Vegetables By Pre-Storage Drying.
         NSPRI Technical Report. No:11. Pp. 95-99.

         Fresh, green leafy vegetables (Amaranthus Spp.) were stored at temperatures of
         20.28oC (ambient). 16oC, 8oC, 4oC and 2oC in unperforated, perforated
         polyethylene bags unwrapped, it was found that green leafy vegetables stored at
         4oC and 8oC in unperforated polyethylene bags kept longest for a minimum of
         eleven days.

NPA468   Onyekwelu, I.U. and Aror, E. (1984). Effect Of Reduced Temperature On The
         Keeping Quality Of Green Leafy Vegatables (Amaranthus spp).
         NSPRI Technical Report. No.10. Pp. 89-93.

         Pre-storage drying of leafy vegetables (Amaranthus spp.) was done at 32oC, 38oC,
         46oC, and 54oC they were then kept on the shelf and in refrigerator for two years,
         the quality of dried vegetable was compared with fresh green leafy ones,
         physically, chemically, and by taste panel, it was found that all parameters tested
         confirm dry vegetables as a good substitute for fresh green leafy ones when out of
         season. Vegetables dried at 32oC and stored in the refrigerator on in darkness
         maintained best quality.

NPA469    Onyejegbu, C.A. and Olorunda, A.O. (1995). Effect Of Raw Materials
          Processing Condition And Packaging On The Quality Of Plantain Chips.
          Journal Of The Science Of Food And Agriculture. Vol . 68 No.3.
           Pp. 279-285.

          The implication of the findings on the formulation of a guideline for the
          processing of a good quality plantain chips for the marketing system is discussed.

NPA470    Opadokun, J.S. and Ubani, O.N. (1983). Shelf-Life Of Chemically Treated
          Agege sweet Oranges.
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.9. Pp. 69-74

          Sweet oranges (Agege variety) was given various chemical treatments before
          storage at ambient conditions and in the refrigerator. Treatment with fungicidal
          wax and with diphenyl in sealed polyethylene bag prolonged the shelf life of the
          oranges significantly. Treatment with banana had no significant effect on the
          shelf life of the oranges. Waxing appears to hold much promise for extension of
          shlef-life of oranges at ambeint temperatures in Nigeria.

NPA 471   Opadokun, J.S. and Onwuzulu, O.C. (1984). Effect Of Various Chemical
          Treatments On The Shelf-Life Of Cavendish Bananas.
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.9. Pp. 83-87.

          Wrapping with polyethlene bag with or without ethylene absorbent as well as
          treatment with fungicidal wax increased the shelf-life of preclimateric coverdish
          bananas significantly when compared to the control wrapping in perforated
          polyethelen and tissue paper and treatment with hot water, benlate and giberellic
          acid had no significant effect on the shelf life of banana at Nigerian ambient

NPA472    Opadokun, J.S. Onwuzulu, O.C. and Ubani, O.N. (1985). The Influence Of Hot
          Water Dips And Chemical Treatment On The Post-Harvest Life Of Local
          Alphonso Mangoes.
          NSPRI Technical Report. No.5. Pp. 47-50.

          Treatment of green, mature, local Alphonso mangoes with hot water at 55oC for
          10mins extended the storage life of the mangoes significantly and gave more
          attractive ripe mangoes than the control. Treatment with fungicidal wax emulsion
          extended storage life of the fruits significantly but although the fruit flavour was
          not affected, full ripening of the mangoes did not take place. Wrapping in
          polyethylene let to rotting of the mangoes within two weeks without ripening.

NPA473    Opadokun, J.S. and Akalusi, D.O. (1987). Moisture Decay And Colour Changes
          In Individually Seal-Packaged Oranges In Comparison With Waxed Oranges.
          During Ambient Storage.
           NSPRI Technical Report. No.9. Pp. 69-72.

          Individual seal-packaging of green, mature oranges in polyethlene film resulted in
          significant reduction in weight losses and gave oranges with fresher appearance
          and less deformation than unsealed oranges after eight weeks of storage.
          “Degreening” of the sealed oranges was normal and the flavour of the oranges
          was not significantly affected. However, deecay in sealed packaged oranges was
          significantly higher than decay in oranges treated with fungicidal waxes

NPA474    Orji, C.U. (2000). Evaluation Of The Physical Properties Of Bread Fruit Seeds
                 (Treculia africana) Necessary For Shelling.
          Journal Of Agric.Engineering and Technology. Vol.8. Pp. 55-58.

          The removal of hull or shell, has been a major bottle neck in the processing of
          breadfruit seeds (Treculia Africana) in most localities. It therefore becomes
          necessary to replace the laborious, inefficient manual method of shelling so far
          used with mechanised shelling. To this end certain engineering properties of
          breadfruits seeds need to be evaluated. Little known about the physical properties
          of breafruits seeds.      The following physical properties were evaluated;
          characteristic dimension: shape, arithmetic mean diamete-(AMD), geometric
          means diameter (GMD), sphericity and roundness. Also certain physical
          properties of chaff and chaff/cotyledon mixture such as weight, volume, and
          density were determined.

NPA475    Oyebanji, A. O.; Ubani, O. N.; Williams, J. O.; Adesida, M. A. and Olahan, S.
          A.[2004] Storability Of Amaranthus Leafy Vegetable In Different Vegetable
          Tropical Science. Vol, 44. Pp, 55-56

          Fresh Amaranthus sp.leafy vegetables was stored in cane boxes lined with
          polyethylene or woven polypropylene or unlined boxes, all covered with moist
          jute-open –air-storage on laboratory benches was the control. The vegetable in
          boxes stored well for 3days without loss of acceptability, but discolouration and
          rotting were obvious by the sixteen day, the leaves stored in open air were of
          moderate quality within a day and unacceptable. Returns from using the boxes
          were N79-80per day, compared to rental cost of N20-21.4per day.

NPA 476   Oyewole, V.O., Aladesaiye, E.E., and Olabode, S.I. (2000). Assessment Of Okro
          Fruits Under Two Different Storage Methods.
          Farming. Systems Research And Extension Technology Generation And
          Dissemination. Pp. 106-107.

          The finding shows that okro fruits can store for a period of at least three weeks in
          the ECS without much changes in the consistency of the fruit . The use of ECSto
          store okro and other fruit vegetable like tomatoes and also citrus fruits is hereby
          recommend to farmers in Ondo State.

NPA477      Sanni, A.I. Onilude, A.A. Mbadi, E. (1996). Production Of Vinegar From
     Pineapple Using Starter Cultures.
            Nigerian Food Jouranl.Vol.14. Pp. 37-44

             Starter – organisms were used in the production of vinegar from pineapple
             Alcoholic fermentation phase was carried out for 10 days using Saccharomyces
             carlsbergensis. A10% alcoholic content was obtained with a final PH of 4.5.
             Acetification was done using Acetobacter aceti and Acetobacter mesoxydans
             isolated from palmwine. A .cetic singly inoculated produced 3.8% acetic acid
             compared to 4.2% produced using both organisms. Characteristics properties of
             the vinegar such as iodine and oxidation values, total solid and ash contents are

NPA478       Shittu, T.A., Ogunmoyela, O.A. and Sanni, L.O. (1999). Nutrient Retention And
             Sensory Characteristics Of Dried Leafy Vegetables. Proceeding of 23rd Annual
             NIFST Conference. Pp. 130-132.

             The finding showed that on the overall, sun and solar drying are better for
             rentation of ascorbic acid but the frmer is poorest in terms of sensory qualities of
             the dried leafy vegetables.

NPA 479      Sillo, O.O., and Anekwe, G.E. (1994). Comparative Study On The Lipid
             Composition Of Some Edible Nigeria Fruits.
             Procceding Of 28th Annual Nutrition Society. Pp. 36-38.

             The lipid composition of four edible Nigerian fruits were studied. The native pear
             Canarium schwernfurtie, Linm), Desert dates (Balanites aegyptiaca, Linn)
             African pear (Dacryodes edulis Linn) and African star apple (Chrysophyllum
             albidun Linn) had lipid composition of 24.4%, 2.0%, 30.2% and 6.7%
             respectively. The total lipid of D .edulis was made up of 99.5% neutral and 0.5%
             polar lipid. The total lipid of B aegyptica was made of 64.7% neutral and 35.3%
             polar lipid the total lipid of C albidum was made up of 86.7% neutral and 13.3%
             polar lipid.

NPA480       Sobande, Agnes Olajumoke (1989). Studies On The Microbiology And Stability
             Of Ascorbic Acid In Pepper Fruits (Capsium annum. L) In Storage.
             A dissertation Submitted In Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements For
             The Degree Of Master Of Science (Microbiology) Of The University Of
             Lagos. Pp. 1-67

             Ascorbic acid was found to be abundant in healthy pepper fruits, 44.58-
             260.48mg/100g of average weight 26-65g. This acid decreased with storage
             period irrespective of conditions of storage, but was most pronounced in
             processed fruits (homogenized) and those stored at freezing temperature of – 10oC

NPA481   Sowumi, O. and Chukwudebe (1979/80). The Effect Of Age At Harvesting On
         The Chemical Composition Of Okro Fruit (Abelmoschus esculenta Moench).
         NSPRI Technical Report. Pp. 111-116.

         Calcium content varied from 74 to 89.5mg per 100g: phosphorus from 80.5 and
         96.2mg per 100g and iron from 0.84 and 1.25mg per 100g of the edible portion.
         The ascorbic acid level varied between 45.2mg/100g and 51.0mg/100g.
         The significance of some of these nutrients, in animal nutrition is discussed.

NPA482   Sowumi, O., Akinnusi, O.A. and Nwangwa, S.C. (1982). The Effect Of
         Harvesting Method Stage Of Maturity And Wrapping Materials On The Storage
         Quality Of Sweet Oranges In Nigeria.
         NSPRI Technical Report No. 9. Pp. 93-99.

         FruitFruits harvested by method 2 stored longer than those harvested by method 1
         while the fruits harvested at partial maturity stored longer than those harvested at
         full maturity. Results of analyses for percent soluble solids and ascorbic acids
         were consistent with observation of longest storage for fruits harvested by method
         2, wrapped in aluminium foil before storage in the refrigerator.

NPA483   Sowumi, O., Akinnusi, O., Nwangwa, S.C. and Oyeniran, J.O. (1982). The Effect
         Of Storage Container On The Preservation Of Quality Of Sweet Oranges.
         NSPRI Technical Report. No. 11. Pp. 107-115.

         The results indicated that treated perforated paper carton was the best storage
         container preserving oranges for about 8weeks under the experimental conditions.
         Ascorbic acid content (mg/100g fresh sample): total titratable acidity (mg citric
         acid per 10g edible portion): total solids (%); glucose , and fructose (mg per 100
         edible portion) calcium, magnesium and phosphorus (p.p.m-) initially at 56.7;
         128. 1; 12.07; 13.24; 16.58; 4.12 and 14.78 respectively had substantially
         decreased by the time the oranges were no longer organoleptically acceptable

NPA484   Sowumi, O., Babarinsa F.A, Nwangwa, S.C. and Abiodun, M.O. (1982). Some
         Chemical Constituent Of Ripe Tomatoes Fruits Harvested At Different Stages Of
         NSPRI Technical Report. No.12. Pp. 117-121.

         Tomatoes plucked at the full – ripe stage from the field had higher contents of
         ascorbic acid, total hexose sugars, total reducing sugars and a lower content of
         titrable acidity than tomatoes plucked at mature-green, pink and firm-red stages.
         The differences in these parameters for full ripe (table-red) fruits at the field-
         picked, table- red, pink and firm red stages were not significant (p 0.05) but were
         significant (p 0.05) for table-red fruits plucked at mature-green stage.

NPA485   Storing Your Produce, Advisory Booklet No. 4. (1990). Fruits And Vegetables.
         NSPRI.Pp 1-35

         Highlighted the principles of reducing post harvest losses in various fruits and
         vegetables grown in Nigeria.

NPA486   Umelo, R. (1997). Potentials For Utilizations Of African Star Apple
         (Chrysophyllum-Albidum) For Jam Making In Nigeria.
         Proceedings Of A National Workshop On The Potentials Of The Star Apple
         In Nigeria. Pp. 103-107.

         Processing into new products needs to be tied to agronomic on genetic
         improvement as it denotes a major quality attributes.
         The use of African star apple to produce jam is described. This is a viable means
         of product diversity and an effective way to support rural development.
         A substantial potential for export market exists in exotic products in America and

NPA487   Uzomah, A.and Ahiligwo, R.N. (1995). Rheological Properties And Functional
         Potentials Of Achi (Brachystegea euryama) Seed Gum and Ogbono (Irvingia
         abonesis) Seed Gum.
         Nigerian Food Journal. Vol.13. Pp. 63-71

         The viscosities of achi and ogbono seed gums were time independent. Ogbono
         seed gum (OSG) was more pseudoplastic than achi seed gum (ASG). The
         psaudoplasticity of the gums was not affected by increasing temperaturs up to
         70oC. Temperature control was more critical for OSG (Ea, 20.2 MJ mol-1) than
         ASG (Ea, 13.9 MJ Mo1-1). The viscosity behaviour of ASG suggests that it may
         be a highly branched polysaccharide. The overrun, viscosity, shape factor and
         meltdown values of ice cream when ASG was added as stabilizer were 95%,
         35cp. 72% and 32%, and 70%, 25cp.65% and 37.7% respectively for ASG. Ice
         cream prepared with ASG was similar to ice creams prepared with commercial

NPA488   Ubani, O.N., Okoye, W.I. Onwazulu, O.C., (1999). Physico-Chemicaal Changes
         I      n Tomato And Onion Varieties Stored At Ambient Conditions.
         Proceeding Of 23rd Annual NIFST Conference. Pp. 153 -154.

         The study shows that varietals differences are also a contributory factor to
         storability of onions and tomatoes.

NPA489   Udoessien. I. Etim. (1987). Preservation Of Musa Paradisiaca (Plaintain).
         Nigerian Journal Of Biotechnology. Vol.4.

         The results obtained indicated that, the ripening of plantain can be profitably
         delayed if the fruits are stored in atmospheres containing low oxygen
         concentrations and little or no ethylene gas. Plantain fruits with better physical
         appearance and quality were obtained in storage systems in which the fruits were

          also noticed to have affected by the age of the plantain used. The study on the
          variations of moisture, total sugar and carotene contents revealed an increased
          accumulation of these constituents in agreement with biochemical frist principle

NPA 490   Welford, Abbey Izonfuo, L and Victor, O.T. Omuam (1988). Effect Of Ripening
          On The Chemical Composition Of Plantain Peels And Pulps (Musa-paradisiacaa.
          Journal Of The Science Of Food And Agriculture. Vol.45. No.4. Pp. 333-336.

          The composition of minerals and organic contents of the peels and pulps of unripe
          (green) plantain( Musa paradisciaca L) through five different ripening stages
          were determined. Crude fibre, ash, fat, crude protein and moisture contents were
          higher in the peels than in the pulps wheras carbohydrate and dry matter contents
          were higher in the pulps than in the peels at different stages of ripening.
          Potassium is the most abundant mineral in both samples with estimated values of
          37gkg.l in the green peel and 8.4g kg.1 in the green pulp . Small increases in
          potassium content were found in both samples during ripening. Iron, calcium and
          sodium show similar variations but phosphorus levels decrease as ripening
          progressed. The concentration of copper and magnesium ions remained fairly
          constant. The estimated values for copper were 13mg kg-1 and 10 mg kg-1 for
          the peels and pulps, respectively. However, the magnesium contents in the pulp
          of 41mg kg-1 was constant whereas that of the peel increased as the fruit ripened.
          The low sodium content (350mg kg-1) is an advantage in the treatment or
          prevention of hypokalaemia.

NPA491    Williams, J.O., Otitodun, O.G. and Okunade, S.O. (2002). Insect Attack On
          Stored Dried Tomato. Tropical Science. Vol.42. No.1. Pp. 20-21.

          Stored dried tomato in two market harboured insect pests, mainly Ephestia
          cantella and Cathartus quadricollis. E. cautella produced webbing that resulted in
          total loss of the product.

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