Political Cartoons and the Election of 1912 by wJnic8L3

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									                       Political Cartoons and the Election of 1912
                    (Economic/Political Gains in Progressive Period)

Aim: Demonstrate an understanding of Progressivism at the national level.

Goal: 7.02: Analyze how different groups of Americans made economic and political
       gains in the Progressive Period.


Main Ideas/Understanding: The Progressive Presidents and the Election of 1912 was a
       very heated election, resulting in success for a third party, largely unseen in
       American politics. Due to the third party’s involvement, Woodrow Wilson won
       the election.

Materials/Resources: Current Political Cartoons
                     Political Cartoons from the 1912 Election (see hand-outs)
                              (http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/election-cartoons/index.html#documents)
                      Overhead or Computer
                      Cartoon Analysis Worksheet
                              (http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/cartoon.html)


Do Now/Motivation: Question of the Day: Does society change the government or does
     government change the society?

Teaching Notes:
. Political Reform in the Nation
         Teddy Roosevelt’s Presidency
                Came into office 9/1901 aft. McKinley is assassinated; youngest pres to
                        that point at the age of 42
                Believed the pres should do more than lead the exec. depts.; pres should
                        also set the legis agenda for Congress
                The “Square Deal” for Labor
                   Anthracite Coal Miner Strike of 1902
                        Many US peeps thought they’d freeze to death if coal strike
                        persisted
                        Roosevelt attempted to mediate the labor dispute by inviting both
                            the union leader and mine owners to the White House
                        Mine owner refused to compromise; TR threatened to takeover w/
                            fed troops
                        Finally settled; 10% wage increase and 9 hr day for miners, but no
                            union recog
                   IMPORTANCE-TR remained neutral in his stance on bus v. labor;
                            advocated a “square deal” for both
                   Supported by voters, who elected him Pres in 1904
                Trust-busting
                   1st Pres to truly enforce the Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890
                   TR targeted the Northern Securities Co., a series of RR’s
           RR monopoly breakup is upheld by the Supreme Court in 1904
           TR distinguished b/w good & bad trusts
                “Good”- needed regulation so efficiency & low prices could dom
                   the market
                “Bad”- needed to be broken up b/c harmed the public & stifled
                   comp
       Railroad Regulation
           TR initiated 2 laws to strengthen the regulatory powers on the
                   Interstate Commerce Commission
           Elkins Act- (1903) ICC had greater authority to stop RR’s from
                   granting rebates to fave customers
           Hepburn Act- (1906) ICC could fix “just and reasonable” rates for RR
       Consumer Protection
           Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
           Public outcry from this book caused Congress to enact 2 laws
           Pure Food & Drug Act - forbade the manufacture, sale &
                   transportation of mislabeled or contaminated food & drugs
           Meat Inspection Act- made fed inspectors visit the meatpacking plants
                   to ensure they met a minimum standard of sanitation
       Conservation
           TR used the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 to set aside 150 million acres
                   of fed land for national reserves
           In 1902, TR helped pass the Newlands Reclamation Act which gave $
                   from pub land sales for Western irrigation proj’s
William Howard Taft’s Presidency
       Endorsed by TR (was his Secretary of War); defeated William Jennings
                   Bryan
       More trust-busting and conservation
           Est’d the Bureau of Mines
           Added large sections of the Appalachians to the nat. forest reserves
           Set aside fed oil lands
           Mann-Elkins Act – (1910) gave the ICC the power to suspend new RR
                   rates and regulate telephone, telegraph, and cable co’s
           16th Amendment- (1913) allowed US gov to collect an income tax
       Split in the Republican Party
           Prog’s don’t like Taft; accuse him of being too conservative based on
                   4 things
           Payne-Aldrich Tariff - (1909) raised the tariff on most imports
           Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy- (1910) Chief of the Forest Service,
                   Gifford Pinchot criticized Taft’s Secretary of the Interior for
                   opening pub. lands in AK for private development
           House Speaker Joe Cannon- Taft opposed reducing the dictatorial
                   powers of Joe Cannon, the leading Conservative at the time
           Midterm Elections
               Taft openly supported conservative candidates for Congress in
                   1910
       Rise of the Socialist Party
               Platform
                   Dedicated to the welfare of the working class
                   Called for increasingly radical reforms: pub ownership of RR’s,
                           utilities, and major industries like oil & steel
               Eugene V. Debs
                   A founder of the Socialist party; was candidate for Pres in 5 elections
                           from 1900-1920
                   Was a former railway union leader and participant in the Pullman
                           strike ( which he was put in jail for)
                   Was an outspoken critic of business & labor advocate
               Influence
                   Joined with Prog’s on issues like worker’s compensation & minimum
                           wage
                   Prog’s wanted mild reform, so didn’t like to assoc. w/ Socialists
                   Party peaked in 1912 when Debs received 900,00+ votes, or 6% of the
                           total
       The Election of 1912
               Candidates
                   Republican Party- Pres. Taft
                   Progressive Party (Bull Moose)- Theodore Roosevelt
                   Democratic Party- Woodrow Wilson
                   Socialist Party- Eugene Debs
               Campaigns
                   Taft was unpopular & Debs was too radical, so fight was b/w TR and
                           Wilson
                   Roosevelt- called for “New Nationalism”
                   Wilson- called for a “New Freedom”
               Results
                   Electoral Votes- Wilson (435), Roosevelt (88), Taft (8), Debs (0)
                   Popular Votes- Wilson (41%), Roosevelt (27%), Taft (23%), Debs
                           (6%)

Activity: After going over teaching notes describing the presidencies of the major
       Progressive Presidents, the students would be shown political cartoons from the
       era. In order to introduce the idea of political cartoons, a current cartoon that
       students can relate to would be shown to introduce the ideas of symbolism,
       humor, exaggeration, and caricature in editorial cartoons. Students would then be
       split into small groups and assigned the same cartoon, the Anti-Third Term
       Principle. The Cartoon Analysis Worksheet would be used by the students to
       analyze this cartoon. Also questions:
                - What symbols are used in this cartoon? Can you think of any other
                   symbols you have seen pictured in editorial cartoons?
                - Does this cartoon use humor to make its point? If so, how? Is it
                   sarcastic? Ironic? Ridiculing?
                - What is exaggerated in this cartoon, and what purpose does it serve?
                    - Caricature exaggerates or distorts a person's prominent feature(s)
                    to allow the viewer to identify him or her quickly. How is caricature
                    used in this cartoon?
       After viewing the Anti-Third Term Principle cartoon in small groups, have the
       class discuss what they found within the cartoon. Split the class into three groups
       and assign the other three cartoons to be analyzed by these individual groups.
       After viewing the cartoons, the groups will have to share what they found with the
       rest of the class. Extra information about the documents.
       Anti-Third Term Principle - an excellent introduction to the study of political
       cartoons. It is a straightforward criticism of Roosevelt's reversal of his promise to
       adhere to the two-term principle established by George Washington. (Roosevelt
       later countered that he only promised to refuse three consecutive terms.)
       Progressive Fallacies - a close companion to the Anti-Third Term Principle. In
       the foreground is Roosevelt; in the background the dejected and deserted La
       Follette. Of particular interest here is that this original cartoon was somewhat
       softened before publication. "Progressive Fallacies" became "Progress Sweet
       Progress" in the final version. What might have influenced the cartoonist to make
       this change? Does it modify the overall message or tone?
       Roosevelt and Taft in Ohio - Roosevelt and Taft are depicted as battling for the
       Ohio state primary election, one of only 13 state primaries in 1912. In addition to
       being Taft's home state, Ohio also sent a large number of delegates to the national
       convention. Roosevelt won the primary, Taft the nomination.
       How They Feel - Published in November 1912, How They Feel depicts the public
       faces of the candidates and speculates as to the uneasiness they might be feeling
       before election day.

Application: Remind students of the differences they found in the cartoon from today and
       the cartoons of the 1912 election. What is the same? What is different?

Assessment: After viewing and analyzing the four documents, make a list of issues that
      were important during the election of 1912 that students found in the documents
      and in the textbooks. Match the topics with the candidates.
      Have students create their own political cartoon (it can be a stick figure) and
      provide a written explanation of the cartoon’s main idea and the techniques used
      to convey that idea.

Accommodations: Students with difficulties writing will be given a copy of the lecture
     notes. Students with issues reading/hearing and understanding will be put in
     groups with students who can help them.

Integration: Art (creating a political cartoon)
        Political Science (understanding political cartoons)

								
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