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FINAL INTERPRETIVE PLAN A1A SCENIC _ HISTORIC COASTAL

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FINAL INTERPRETIVE PLAN A1A SCENIC _ HISTORIC COASTAL Powered By Docstoc
					PHASE I NATIONAL SCENIC BYWAYS GRANT PROJECT
         FOR THE A1A OCEAN SHORE AND
   A1A RIVER & SEA TRAIL SCENIC HIGHWAYS



  FINAL INTERPRETIVE PLAN
   A1A SCENIC & HISTORIC
      COASTAL BYWAY
  FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA


                  Prepared for:

                  Flagler County
          Board of County Commissioners
              Bunnell, Florida 32110




                  August 2004
PHASE I NATIONAL SCENIC BYWAYS GRANT PROJECT
         FOR THE A1A OCEAN SHORE AND
   A1A RIVER & SEA TRAIL SCENIC HIGHWAYS



  FINAL INTERPRETIVE PLAN
   A1A SCENIC & HISTORIC
      COASTAL BYWAY
  FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA
                    Prepared for:

                   Flagler County
           Board of County Commissioners
               Bunnell, Florida 32110


                         By:

           Archaeological Consultants, Inc.
             8110 Blaikie Court, Suite A
                 Sarasota, FL 34240


                 In association with:

                  Carter & Burgess
            1000 Legion Place, Suite 1400
                 Orlando, FL 32801



       Principal Investigator: Joan Deming, RPA
            Graphic Designer: Tesa Norman
          Artist/Illustrator: Theodore Morris


                    August 2004
Through interpretation, understanding;
Through understanding, appreciation;
  Through appreciation, protection.


           Freeman Tilden,
   Interpreting Our Heritage (1957)
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                         Page

1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1
  1.1      Project Objectives ............................................................................................... 1
  1.2      Methods............................................................................................................... 1
     1.2.1      Research and Data Gathering...................................................................... 2
     1.2.2      Field Visits .................................................................................................. 2
     1.2.3      Community Involvement ............................................................................ 3
     1.2.4      Signage Text and Graphics ......................................................................... 3
  1.3      Interpretive Stakeholder Group........................................................................... 4
  1.4      Public Workshops ............................................................................................... 5

2.0       IDENTIFICATION OF PROPOSED THEMATIC GROUPS AND
          TOPICS ......................................................................................... 6

3.0 SELECTED THEMES AND LOCATIONS ........................................... 8
  3.1      Selected Themes ................................................................................................. 8
  3.2      Locations for Interpretation .............................................................................. 13
  3.3      Interpretive Media............................................................................................. 15
     3.3.1      Gateway Panels......................................................................................... 15
     3.3.2      Boardwalk Panels...................................................................................... 15
     3.3.3      Trail Signage............................................................................................. 16

4.0 GATEWAY SIGNAGE.................................................................... 17
  4.1 Repetitive Signage ............................................................................................ 17
  4.2 North Gateway .................................................................................................. 18
  4.3 East-West Gateway........................................................................................... 19
  4.4 South Gateway .................................................................................................. 20

5.0 SIGNAGE AT PARKS AND PRESERVES ........................................ 21
  5.1 River to Sea Preserve ........................................................................................ 21
  5.2 Oceanfront Park ................................................................................................ 22
  5.3 Mala Compra Plantation Greenway.................................................................. 23
  5.4 Bing’s Landing Addition .................................................................................. 24
  5.5 Hammock Bridge Park...................................................................................... 25
  5.6 Silver Lake Park................................................................................................ 26

6.0       CONCLUSIONS............................................................................ 27

7.0       SOURCES CONSULTED................................................................ 28
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                              1
Final Interpretive Plan



                              1.0 INTRODUCTION


1.1    Project Objectives

       The purpose of this project was to develop a public Interpretive Planning
Program which would tell the story of the A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway,
and in so doing, would reflect the values, visions, and experiences of the
community. The program is intended to link a number of parks with the
corridor’s history, natural resources and stewardship. Linkage will be attained
through interpretive media at corridor gateways as well as within the River to
Sea Preserve at Marineland, Bay Drive Park, Hammock Bridge Park, Bing’s
Landing Addition, Oceanfront Park, and Silver Lake Park. The end products of
this undertaking include this Final Interpretive Plan, a summary of the themes
and concepts developed, as well as text and artwork for a series of interpretive
panels and signs recommended for placement at the three corridor gateways, as
well as at five parks.

       The aims of the Interpretive Plan are consistent with the goals, objectives,
and strategies developed to implement the shared visions of the A1A River & Sea
Trail Scenic Highway and the A1A Ocean Shore Scenic Highway, as contained in
their respective Corridor Management Plans. Specifically, the Interpretive Plan
was created with the goals of resource protection, preservation and
enhancement; educating the public about the unique natural and cultural
elements of the corridor; and broadening the visitor’s overall recreational
experiences without adversely impacting the resources.

       Guiding the interpretive program were the six principles for interpretation
offered by Tilden Freeman in Interpreting Our Heritage (1957):

1.     Interpretation must relate to the personality or experience of the visitor.
2.     Interpretation is revelation based on information.
3.     It is an art, and is made up of many arts.
4.     The chief aim is provocation, not just instruction.
5.     It should present the whole, not just a part.
6.     Interpretation for children is fundamentally different than that for
       adults; it is not just diluted.


1.2    Methods

       The primary work elements of the Interpretive Planning Program included
research and data gathering; field visits; community input through Interpretive


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Final Interpretive Plan

Stakeholder Group meetings and Public Workshops; and the development of
interpretive text and artwork.

       1.2.1 Research and Data Gathering

       The initial stage of work entailed a review of existing resources, including
the Corridor Management Plan for both the A1A River & Sea Trail Scenic Highway
and the A1A Ocean Shore Scenic Highway. Of particular relevance were the
Corridor Vision (Section 1) and Corridor Story (Section 9) of each document. Also
reviewed were Management Plans for Mala Compra Greenway Addition to Bing’s
Landing County Park and River to Sea Preserve, as well as newspaper articles
and other information pertaining to the overall goals of the project.

        A check of the Florida Master Site File (FMSF) and National Register of
Historic Places (NRHP) listings, both on file at the Florida Division of Historical
Resources in Tallahassee, provided information on the archaeological sites and
historic structures recorded within the A1A corridor area. Copies of FMSF forms
were obtained, as well as the NRHP Nomination forms for Marineland/Marine
Studios (8FL41) and Mala Compra Plantation (8FL26). In addition, cultural
resource assessment survey reports for projects in the area, articles pertaining to
local archaeological sites and historical resources, as well as local histories by
Clegg (1976) and Wilson (1998) were studied. Several visits were made to the
Flagler Beach Historical Museum to gather relevant information, and a number of
professional archaeologists, historians, environmental specialists, and long-time
residents were interviewed. A number of Internet websites were accessed to
learn more about the existing state and county parks along the A1A corridor, as
well as the local ecosystems. Promotional materials (e.g., brochures and maps)
also were examined for information about local points of interest, and biking,
birding, and canoe trails.

       1.2.2 Field Visits

         Washington Oaks Gardens State Park, Gamble Rogers Memorial State
Recreation Area, and a number of county parks including Bing’s Landing,
Flagship Harbor, and Varn Park, among others, were visited in order to gather
information about the content and design of existing interpretation. The locations
of all proposed parks also were visited to help identify the potential locations for
interpretation and to learn more about the local environmental communities.
Visual inspection of the entire project corridor, followed by a two-day “brain-
storming” session with other members of the Carter & Burgess project team, also
provided insights into the overall design of future gateways and parks.




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Final Interpretive Plan

       1.2.3 Community Involvement

        The Interpretive Planning Program began with the creation of an
Interpretive Stakeholder Group composed of members of the A1A River & Sea
Trail Scenic Highway and the A1A Ocean Shore Scenic Highway Corridor
Management Entities (CMEs), government representatives, individuals invited to
participate because of their specialized expertise, and interested citizens. This
core group of approximately 25 individuals provided valuable information about
the intrinsic qualities of the corridor and took the lead in the identification of
themes, the selection of locations for interpretation, and the determination of
signage needs. Over a seven month period, five two-hour meetings were
conducted. As a result, all the themes and locations for interpretive signage
were chosen, and draft text was reviewed. A summary of the accomplishments
of each meeting is contained in Section 1.3. In addition, the participation of
other citizens at two Public Workshops (see Section 1.4) provided valuable input
for the refinement of the Final Interpretive Plan.

       1.2.4 Signage Text and Graphics

       Based upon the topical information derived from the series of Interpretive
Stakeholder Group meetings, the consultant drafted text for interpretive signage.
In keeping with the basic principles of interpretation, an attempt was made to
keep text short and concise, to base it on a unified theme, and to have the
message relate to the visitor’s experience. Concrete nouns, active verbs,
personal pronouns, and familiar terms were used to the greatest extent possible.
Another important consideration was the avoidance of repeating information
currently found in local parks.

        To help tell the story, as well as to add beauty and interest, the artwork
selected to compliment the text for each panel employed a combination of
original drawings, photographs, and public domain images from the Internet.
Font styles and sizes, selected for their eye-appeal and ease of readability, were
used consistently for all panels and signs. To make the panels and signs more
visually appealing, all were designed in a rectangular rather than square shape.

      To attain an easy reading level for the audience, a sample of text from
each panel was measured using the Flesch Readability Scale. Text was worked
and reworked until a score of at least 70 (fairly easy) was attained (Trapp et al.
1994:103).




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Final Interpretive Plan



1.3    Interpretive Stakeholder Group

       The Interpretive Stakeholder Group, representing a broad spectrum of
expertise and interests, was the key to the successful conduct and completion of
this project. The group met five times between November 2003 and May 2004.
Beginning with a general discussion of the key messages they wanted to convey
through the interpretive program, the group ultimately determined the
appropriate themes for interpretation, the specific interpretive media, and where
the interpretation would be placed. Starting with a long list of general topics, the
process evolved through the elaboration of ideas for each proposed theme, and
ended with the editing of draft text for specific interpretive panels. Meeting dates
and a summary of accomplishments are as follows:

        Meeting #1, November 21, 2003: This initial meeting focused on the
identification of the WHO, WHY and WHAT elements of the interpretive program.
The group discussed who the target audience for interpretation should be, what
benefits and values the interpretive program should bring, and what the key
messages should be. The group generated a lengthy list of subjects/topics
recommended for interpretation. These were then organized into thematic
groups, listed in Section 2.0.

       Meeting #2, January 13, 2004: The second meeting focused on the
elaboration of themes and subthemes. Beginning with the question, “What about
the . . .,” the group presented facts and ideas relevant to each of the topics
outlined at the first meeting. By the end of the meeting, the group had time to
discuss only about one-third of the topics.

       Meeting #3, February 17, 2004: The third meeting continued with the
elaboration of themes and subthemes, as well as the selection of potential
locations for interpretation.

       Meeting #4, March 30, 2004: The fourth meeting focused on matching
the selected themes and subthemes with specific gateway and park locations.
The specific type of interpretive media (e.g., panels, signs, markers) for each
location also was discussed.

      Meeting #5, May 25, 2004: The goal of the fifth and final meeting was to
review draft text for the interpretive signage, and to get ideas for accompanying
graphics. During the two-hour session, about 30% of the proposed text was
reviewed and revised.




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Final Interpretive Plan

1.4    Public Workshops

        Two public workshops provided opportunities to receive comments on the
Interpretive Planning program. The first meeting, held on March 2, 2004,
introduced the attendees to the goals and objectives, methods, and desired
outcomes of the Interpretive Plan. Following a slide presentation by the project
consultant team, the workshop attendees shared their ideas at the Interpretive
Planning breakout session. As a result, the consensus opinion expressed was the
desire for a “low-key” and uncluttered approach to corridor interpretation. It was
generally agreed that stewardship/resource protection was to be the unifying
theme of corridor interpretation. It was recommended that signage at the
proposed parks be minimized, with interpretation focused at the gateways.
Signage along trails should be small and minimal, concentrating on the
identification of notable plant and animal species without telling a story. It also
was recommended that interpretive signage contain “teasers,” thus providing
linkage to existing resources such as the Flagler Beach Historical Museum, where
the visitor can learn more about the subject.

       The second public workshop, held on June 8, 2004, included a
presentation of the Draft Interpretive Plan which highlighted the selected themes
and locations. During the subsequent break out session, sample panels with
draft text and graphics were displayed. The response to the draft interpretive
panels was generally favorable, and suggestions for additional topics for
interpretation were offered.




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Final Interpretive Plan



  2.0 IDENTIFICATION OF PROPOSED THEMATIC GROUPS
                    AND TOPICS


       During the initial stage of the thematic development process, Community
Stewardship and Resource Protection was enthusiastically endorsed as the
unifying theme for the A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway Interpretive Plan.
Under this umbrella, several dozen topics were suggested as suitable for
interpretation. These topics were then clustered into five thematic groups, as
follows:

Thematic Group #1: Forces of Nature
  • Astronomy (The starry sky)
  • Biodiversity (temperate and tropical plant species)
  • Estuary
  • Blueway wildlife
  • Right whales
  • Birding trail
  • Foliage (biodiversity) in the hammock
  • Weather
  • Indigo snakes
  • Manatees and dolphins
  • Peacocks
  • Spiritual element
  • Gopher tortoises
  • Coquina
  • Hammock ecosystem

Thematic Group #2: Barrier Island
  • Beach restoration (dunes)
  • Beach life
  • Festivals/events (cultural)
  • River to Sea corridors/public lands
  • Scrub jays and eagles (endangered species)
  • Wetlands preservation
  • Sea turtles

Thematic Group #3: Marine Science Education
  • GTMNERR
  • Whitney Lab
  • Marineland
  • Future education



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Final Interpretive Plan



Thematic Group #4: Recreation
  • Connectivity/systems approach
  • Multi-use paths
  • Primitive trails
  • Gamble Rogers State Park
  • Beach life (surfing, fishing, walking)
  • County parks locations
  • Greenways planning
  • ADA
  • Silver Lake
  • Boating
  • Rails to trails

Thematic Group #5: Prehistoric and Historic Resources
  • Diversity of resources
  • Seminole Indian War
  • Old Coast Guard Road
  • House of Refuge
  • Intracoastal Waterway
  • Wicklines
  • Topaz Motel/Fuquay
  • Flagler Beach Pier
  • Washington Oaks
  • Old Salt Road history
  • Flagship Harbor
  • Marineland Oceanarium– history of tourism
  • Charles Lindberg landing
  • The AIA Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway
  • Flagler Beach Historical Museum
  • Mala Compra Plantation




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Final Interpretive Plan



               3.0 SELECTED THEMES AND LOCATIONS


3.1     Selected Themes

       The goal of the thematic development process was to communicate a
message that answered the question “What about the ……?” with respect to each
topic. An attempt also was made to relate each topic to the unifying theme of
stewardship and resource protection, to the extent possible. It was agreed to
drop topics that were either uninteresting or irrelevant to the unifying theme, or
which were already interpreted elsewhere. The end products were a series of
relevant facts, messages, and ideas about each topic/potential theme that the
consultant would later refine into thematic statements and interpretive text. The
suggestions offered for each topic are summarized as follows:


   1. Astronomy/the starry sky:
   • Lighting regulations (downcast lighting) help protect the natural
      environment and preserve the night sky.
   • County regulations result in a reduction of light pollution.
   • Lighting regulations are an aide to sea turtle preservation.
   • Spectacular sunrises and sunsets enhance the value of the scenic corridor.
   • Sunrise/sunset are associated with the times of greatest animal activity
      (birds, deer, rabbits, possum, armadillos, squirrels).

   2.   Biodiversity:
   •    Environmentally, Flagler County enjoys the “best of both worlds.”
   •    “Everyone comes to vacation here, even the critters.”
   •    Flagler County is situated at the boundary of two biogeographic zones:
        the temperate and the tropical.
   •    This area is the northern limit of black mangrove and wild coffee in the
        U.S.
   •    The Audubon Society is doing a bird biodiversity study for the River to Sea
        Preserve.
   •    Female Northern right whales come down (December - March) from the
        waters off Newfoundland to coastal Flagler County to calve.

   3.   Estuary:
   •    Estuaries are “The Cradle of Sea Life.”
   •    The estuary, where fresh and salt water mix, is a spawning zone for fish.
   •    Most seafood that people eat comes from the estuary (shrimp, oysters,
        blue crab, flounder, clams, redfish, spotted sea trout, sheepshead, and
        mangrove snapper).


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Final Interpretive Plan

   •   The estuary is an “at risk” environment, where rainfall and development
       are important issues.
   •   The Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve is the
       25th designated NERR.
   •   The estuary is important to recreational fishing in Flagler County.
   •   The estuary is part of the newly designated Northeast Florida Blueway.
   •   When we build in the floodplains, it impacts the estuary (which acts as a
       sponge). Floodplains protect wetlands and the estuaries.
   •   Protecting the estuaries also protects the human habitat (ex. Natural
       retention of floodwater).
   •   Estuary environments are marked by a diversity of bird life.
   •   Two outstanding Florida waters, Bulow and Pellicer Creeks, empty into the
       estuary.

   4. Right whales: (Include with biodiversity)
   • Dolphins swim around the whales, whose babies can weigh two tons.
   • Flagler County is the headquarters for monitoring the health of right
      whales. Monitoring includes the use of small planes and people viewing
      from shore.
   • Whales can come close to shore in Flagler County, because of the
      presence of the Anastasia Formation.
   • There’s a chance you can see the whales “cavorting” offshore.

   5. Birding trail: (Include with biodiversity)
   • Flagler County, located on the migratory path, is where birds rest and
      replenish themselves.
   • Flagler County is the first part of Florida to be included in the East Coast
      Birding Trail.

   6. Indigo snakes:
   • Indigo snakes (“King of snakes”), a highly endangered species, kill other
      snakes, including rattlesnakes, which they eat.
   • Indigo snakes are secretive tenants of gopher tortoise burrows.

   7. Manatees and dolphins:
   • At the Silver Lake embayment, manatees make big circles in the water
      close to the surface. They have a fuzzy nose with whiskers.
   • Spring and summer are the best time for manatee sightings. They winter
      someplace else (freshwater springs).
   • Groundbreaking dolphin research (echolocation) has been conducted at
      Marineland.
   • Dolphins make a “whoosh” sound as they surface to breathe. When it’s
      quiet, listen for this sound.




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Final Interpretive Plan

   8. Wood storks:
   • Wood storks, an endangered species, occupy wetland habitat at the edge
      of the marsh, which they share with egrets and ibis.

   9. Gopher tortoises:
   • These animals have been referred to as “The landlord of the burrow.”
   • Don’t ever stick your hand/foot in a gopher tortoise hole because
      dangerous animals, including rattlesnakes, live in them.
   • Burrows can be seen at Flagship Harbor and River to Sea Preserve.

   10. Coquina:
   • Historically, this very durable material was used for construction of houses
      and motels, even the Castillo San Marcos in St. Augustine.
   • Coquina is a sedimentary rock composed of compressed shells and sand
      (cf., sandstone with shells).
   • The coquina clam provides a source of food, including soup and stews.
   • The longest exposure of coquina is in Flagler County.
   • Coquina was/is mined commercially; today it’s mined on the mainland.
      The Old Lehigh Mine has been filled in. Coquina was mixed with cement.
   • At Fox’s Cut, when the Intracoastal Waterway was dredged, the coquina
      formations were so thick that it took a week to blast them out.
   • The lake on the north side of Hwy 100 (at Old Kings Highway) is an old
      coquina mine.
   • Coquina formations date back to the end of the Ice Age.
   • Geographically, coquina is found from Cuba to St. Augustine.
   • You can see the many different colored living clams bury themselves as
      the beach washes in and out.
   • Coquina is used in local parks as a decorative design element.

   11. Hammock ecosystem:
   • A large maritime hammock characterizes part of the River to Sea
      Preserve.
   • Nuts from the pignut hickory are so hard that animals can’t eat them.
   • Trees in the hammock interact/are interdependent.
   • In the 1910s and 1920s, people made their living by cutting palm buds.

   12. Beach restoration (dunes):
   • Beaches are dynamic and go through an annual cycle.
   • Beaches are affected by human activities, such as the construction of
      jetties.
   • Dunes protect the land landward of the beach.
   • Sea oats protect the beach. The sea oats are protected by state statute
      (existing kiosk at Gamble Rogers explains this).




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Final Interpretive Plan

   •   The concrete pad in front of the Pier restaurant, funded by the Flagler
       County Tourist Development Council, keeps the dune in place, and
       qualifies for beach erosion funds.
   •   Walkovers protect the dunes and help reduce beach erosion.
   •   Dune walkovers, located at the ends of the streets to provide beach
       access, replaced foot paths, which eroded the dunes.
   •   Unseen at the Marineland revetment (boardwalk) is a buried steel wall
       system.
   •   The wide and hard-packed beaches of Flagler County are related to the
       natural topography.
   •   Beginning in the 1980’s, unbuildable parcels of land have been donated to
       Flagler County.
   •   The boardwalk south of the Flagler Pier is made of recycled plastic.
   •   Construction of a boardwalk at the Flagler Beach Pier has increased the
       use of the area, and diversified the activities there.

   13. Beach life:
   • The holes you see near the water are made by ghost crabs, which grab
      baby sea turtles and eat them.
   • Ghost crabs live on the beach. They are whitish in color and have black
      eyes on stalks that swivel.
   • Mole crabs and sand fleas bury themselves when the waves go out.
   • Sea turtle nests should never be disturbed.
   • Sea turtles lay their eggs between March and October.
   • It takes 60 days for loggerheads to hatch.
   • In the 1940’s, the first leatherback turtles were recorded in Flagler
      County.
   • Old-timers watched where the turtles laid their eggs. If they laid them at
      the base of the dune, then watch out for a hurricane. If they laid the eggs
      by the water, there wouldn’t be any hurricanes.
   • Sea beans, the seeds from tropical plants (e.g., sea heart; hamburger
      bean), get washed up all over the world because the seas are connected.
   • Mermaid purses, which have tendrils coming off them, are the egg cases
      of sharks and skates.
   • The mottled brown seaweed that we like to pop floats here from the
      Sargasso Sea.
   • Sargassum (sargasso seaweed) makes good fertilizer.
   • Sea slugs feed on the tentacles of man-o-war which wash up on the
      beaches.
   • Don’t ever feed the pelicans fish because the fish bones may catch in their
      throats and kill them.
   • Old-timers used cast nets to catch mullet, which were then split in half
      and salted.




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Final Interpretive Plan



   14. Festivals/events (cultural):
   • Annual events in Flagler County include Earth Day, celebrated at
      Washington Oaks Gardens State Park, and the Fourth of July Festival at
      Flagler Beach.

   15. Marineland:
   • Prominent names such as Tolstoy and Vanderbilt are associated with
      Marineland.
   • Marineland played an important role in the history of Florida tourism.
   • Marineland/Marine Studios is listed in the National Register of Historic
      Places.

   16. Marine science education:
   • Local programs are inclusive of “K through Gray,” with opportunities for all
      age groups.

   17. Bike trails:
   • A 57 mile long bike trail, which cuts through Flagler County, was
      completed in 1997 using ISTEA funds.
   • A rails-to-trails project, currently under design, will connect all the bike
      paths in Flagler County.

   18. Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area at Flagler
   Beach:
   • “See the ocean from your tent” is the main feature of this park.
   • This is Florida’s most popular park with the highest occupancy rate.
   • “We don’t need to advertise.”

   19. Seminole Indian War:
   • The Second Seminole War brought an end to the plantation system.

   20. Washington Oaks Gardens State Park:
   • The citrus groves here were part of the Hernandez St. Annes plantation.

   21. Public lands acquisition:
   • Flagler County has had the foresight to set aside lands for public parks.
   • In 1988, the citizens of Flagler County passed (by 75%) a law which
      committed a percentage of their taxes to purchase public lands.
   • The River to Sea Preserve includes some of the most pristine land on
      Florida’s east coast.
   • The citizens of Flagler County have fully backed the acquisition of parks
      including Mala Compra, Flagship, Silver Lake, etc.
   • Flagler was the only county in Florida to get ISTEA funding for its Master
      Bike Plan. This makes Flagler County unique.


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Final Interpretive Plan

   •   Public referendum has made the County park system possible.

   22. The AIA Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway:
   • “The Coastal Road,” designated in 1946 after World War II, was created
      by tying together a number of existing roads.
   • During World War II AIA was a military (Coast Guard) watch road.

   23. Flagler Beach Historical Museum:
   • This is the most unique museum around, which tells the story from the
      prehistoric time to the Space Age, and everything in between.
   • You can see the city flag that went up to space on the Shuttle Endeavor in
      November 2001; a photo of Charles Lindberg landing at Flagler Beach,
      plus a photo of the old hotel where he stayed; photos of old landmarks
      such as the original pier and casino.

   24. World War II:
   • During the war, women volunteered to spot airplanes.
   • The Navy had an airfield at Bunnell, which was the site of training
      exercises.
   • Flagler County had a number of military installations during the war,
      including Fort Blanding.

   25. Plantations:
   • Sea island cotton, citrus, corn, and sweet potatoes, but not sugar, were
      grown at the Mala Compra Plantation.
   • The name “Mala Compra” means bad purchase in Spanish.
   • The cotton grown along the coast was short staple, different than the long
      staple cotton grown elsewhere.
   • Long staple cotton, which has a longer growing season, was used for
      making lace.
   • Cotton growing was very labor intensive.
   • Most of the plantations were located inland; few were on the barrier
      islands.
   • Slave labor was used to support the plantations.


3.2    Locations for Interpretation

      Interpretive signage will be placed at the three gateways, as well as the
River to Sea Preserve, Bing’s Landing Addition, Oceanfront Park, Hammock
Bridge Park, and Silver Lake Park. Also, a sign is proposed for the “crossroads”
area between Bing’s Landing Addition and the Mala Compra Plantation
Greenway. No interpretive signage will be developed for Bay Drive Park. The
themes selected for each location are summarized in Table 1.



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Final Interpretive Plan

Table 1. Draft Interpretive Plan: Locations and Themes.
       THEME/TOPIC                                           INTERPRETIVE MEDIA
                                        1. North Gateway
 1a    Stewardship/Public lands acquisition/Orientation      Panel   in   pavilion
 1b    Estuary system; Marine science education              Panel   in   pavilion
 1c    Coquina                                               Panel   in   pavilion
 1d    Recreation                                            Panel   in   pavilion
                                 2. River to Sea Preserve
 2a    Biodiversity                                          Panel along boardwalk
 2b    Native American settlement/land use                   Panel along boardwalk
 2c    Marineland history                                    Panel along boardwalk
 2d    Dune restoration                                      Panel along boardwalk
 2e    Local ecosystems                                      Sign at trailhead
 2f    Florida scrub jay                                     Trail stop sign
 2g    Gopher tortoises                                      Trail stop sign
 2h    Yaupon holly                                          Trail stop sign
 2i    Prehistoric occupation                                Trail stop sign
 2j    Spanish land grants/ Hernandez cow pens               Trail stop sign
                        3. Bing’s Landing County Park Addition
 3a    Old Salt Works                                        Panel in shelter
 3b    Local ecosystems                                      Sign at trailhead
 3c    Prehistoric occupation (same as 2i)                   Trail stop sign
 3d    Oak hammock community                                 Trail stop sign
 3e    Saltwater marsh resources                             Trail stop sign
                         4. Mala Compra Plantation Greenway
 4a    What does Mala compra mean?                           Sign at “crossroads”
                                       5. Oceanfront Park
 5a    Creatures on the Beach                                Panel at dune walkover
 5b    Old Coast Guard Trail                                 Trail stop sign
 5c    Birds of the freshwater marsh                         Trail stop sign
 5d    Saw palmetto                                          Trail stop sign
                                 6. Hammock Bridge Park
 6a    The hammock ecosystem                                 Sign at trailhead
 6b    Ospreys                                               Trail stop sign
 6c    Significance of the Intracoastal Waterway             Trail stop sign
                                       7. Silver Lake Park
 7a    Manatees                                              Panel along fishing dock rail
                                   8. East-West Gateway
 8a    Stewardship/Public lands acquisition/Orientation      Panel   in   pavilion
 8b    Recreation                                            Panel   in   pavilion
 8c    Flagler Beach: Then and Now                           Panel   in   pavilion
 8d    Sunrise to Sunset                                     Panel   in   pavilion
                                       9. South Gateway
 9a    Stewardship/Public lands acquisition/Orientation      Panel   in   pavilion
 9b    Recreation                                            Panel   in   pavilion
 9c    Estuary system                                        Panel   in   pavilion
 9d    World War II                                          Panel   in   pavilion




August 2004
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                           15
Final Interpretive Plan



3.3    Interpretive Media

        Three types of interpretive media were chosen for the A1A National Scenic
Byway: Interpretive panels at the three gateways and along the boardwalk rails
at selected parks; trailhead signs at each of the parks/preserves; and trail stop
markers for the trails within the four parks/preserves. The construction material
for all media should be durable, aesthetically pleasing, economical, and require
little maintenance. In view of these considerations, a high pressure laminate is
recommended. Fossil Industries, Inc. of Deer Park, New York is suggested as a
potential provider of this material. According to their promotional literature,
Fossil graphic panels “are impervious to moisture, can never delaminate or crack,
and are extremely resistant to UV rays, scratching, impact, cigarette burns and
graffiti.” Fossil products carry a 20 year guarantee, and are available in
thicknesses from 1/32” to 1” and in panel sizes up to 5’ x 12’; panels of ½” or
greater thickness are self-supporting, and require no framing or backing. Product
samples and literature from Fossil and competitor companies are provided with
this report.


       3.3.1 Gateway Panels

        Four upright panels measuring three feet in height by two feet wide are
proposed for each gateway. It is recommended that these be placed in a cluster
at the center of each gateway pavilion. Each panel, focused on a single theme,
will include text and color graphics. The selected themes for each gateway are
presented in Section 4. A set of all gateway panels, reproduced as one-quarter
size, are provided with this report.


       3.3.2 Boardwalk Panels

       Horizontal panels measuring three feet long by two feet high are proposed
for placement along the boardwalk rails at River to Sea Preserve (four panels),
Bing’s Landing Addition (one panel), Oceanfront Park (one panel), and Silver
Lake Park (one panel). Each panel, focused on a single theme, includes text and
color graphics. The selected themes for each boardwalk panel are presented in
Section 5. A set of boardwalk panels, reproduced as one-quarter size, are
provided with this report.




August 2004
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                             16
Final Interpretive Plan

       3.3.3 Trail Signage

        Trailhead signs and trail stop markers are recommended for placement at
four parks and preserves: River to Sea Preserve, Bing’s Landing Addition,
Oceanfront Park, and Hammock Bridge Park. The final size, orientation, lettering,
and format will need to be determined by the County to ensure compatibility
with existing and planned signage at local parks. It is the recommendation of the
Interpretive Stakeholder Group that interpretive trail signage be small and
contain minimal text and no graphics. The purpose of the trailhead signs will be
to introduce the visitor to the natural communities and amenities of the parks. In
accordance with County park management plans, these signs also will note the
public ownership and funding of each park. Trail stop markers will identify briefly
notable natural (i.e., plant and animal species) and cultural features; they should
not attempt to tell a story.




August 2004
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                            17
Final Interpretive Plan



                           4.0 GATEWAY SIGNAGE


4.1    Repetitive Signage

        Because of their universal relevance, two interpretive panels will be
repeated at each of the three gateways. The first contains two elements: 1) the
story of community stewardship and resource protection along the A1A corridor,
and 2) an orientation map indicating the location of gateways, parks and
preserves, other places of interest (e.g., Marineland, Flagler Pier, Flagler Beach
Historical Museum), bicycle/pedestrian trails, and State Canoe Trails. While the
text and graphics are identical for the three gateways, the three panels will be
distinguished by placement of the “You Are Here” label and arrow. The second
repetitive panel, Nature’s Theme Park, presents an overview of recreational
opportunities along the byway. Reduced versions of these panels are provided on
the pages which follow.




August 2004
                           The A1A Scenic &
                         Historic Coastal Byway
        Story Of Stewardship
        Would you vote yes to raise your taxes? Flagler County citizens are stewards of their natural and cultural
        resources. Voter-approved taxes and state funding grants buy sensitive lands for preservation, protection
        and enhancement. Thousands of acres of public parks, preserves and greenways are located along A1A,
        including four large parcels which extend from river to sea. The A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway links
        natural, recreational, historical, cultural and educational points of interest. Explore our waterways and
        beaches, parks and preserves, and network of bike and pedestrian paths. Learn about our past and
        connect with nature at its most beautiful and serene. Use this map to guide your way.

              Marineland Oceanarium and the Mala Compra Plantation at Bing’s Landing County Park are listed in the National Register of
              Historic Places as significant historical and archaeological properties. Our 26-mile bicycle/ pedestrian path is Florida’s first
              segment of the East Coast Greenway, which extends from Maine to Key West.

                                                                                                                                     PLACES OF INTEREST
                                                                                 1 Marineland, the world’s first oceanarium, is undergoing a revitalization. Hours vary. Admission fee.
        YOU ARE HERE                 1
                                         MARINELAND                                    Call 1-999-279-9194 for schedule.

                                 3
                                           2 (GTM NERR)
                                                                                            Atlantic
                                                                                     2 Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTM NERR) and the
                                                                                            University of Florida Whitney Laboratory/Sea Grant College Extension are located within the
                                          A
                                                                                             River to Sea Preserve. Whitney Lab offers programs for local schools and free public lectures.
                                                                                             3 River to Sea Preserve is open from sunrise to sunset; beach access to 11 PM. Canoe/kayak
                                                           ngton Oaks                                launch, nature trails, oceanfront boardwalk. The canoe/kayak launch provides access to Pellicer
                                                          ens State Park
                                                                                                      Creek, a State Canoe Trail. Free. 386-437-7490.
    1
                                                          Bay Drive Park                                4 Washington Oaks Gardens State Park is open from 8 AM to sunset. Ornamental


                                                           6 Malacompra Road Park/Oceanfront Park
                                                                                                             gardens, visitor
                                                                                                            Ocean thecenter, rocky beach, hiking/biking trails, and picnic tables. The park is
                                                                                                              included in     Great Florida Birding Trail. Park fee. 386-446-6780.
                                                          Malacompra Plantation Greenway
                                                            Bings Landing                                      5 Bay Drive Park provides beach access, restrooms and parking. Free.
                                                               9 16th Road (Old Salt Road) Beachfront Park
                                                                                                                 6 Mala Compra Road Park/Oceanfront Park provides beach access, hiking
                                                                                                                        trails, restrooms and parking. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                  10                                                7 Mala Compra Plantation Greenway preserves the oak hammock and ocean
                                                          Jungle Hut Road Beachfront Park
                                                                                                                         scrub communities along A1A. Bike/pedestrian trail is adjacent. Free.
                                                                       11 Hammock Bridge Park                           8 Bing's Landing County Park, open from dawn to 11PM, provides a boat ramp,
                                                                                                                              canoe/kayak launch, fishing pier, picnic tables, hiking trails, interpretive exhibits,
                                                                                                                             and the ruins of the Mala Compra Plantation. Free. 386-437-7490.
                                                                                                                           9 16th Road (Old Salt Road) Beachfront Park provides beach access,
                                                                                                                                restrooms and parking. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                           A1A
                                                                                                                              10 Jungle Hut Road Beachfront Park provides beach access, restrooms
                                                                                   12 Varn Park
                                                                                                                                     and an outdoor shower. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                                                                               11 Hammock Bridge Park features a fishing pier, a canoe/kayak launch,
                                                                                                                                     picnic tables, and hiking trails. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.

                                                                                            BEVERLY                               12 Varn Park provides wheelchair access to the beach, restrooms and
                                                                                             BEACH
                                                                                                                                            outdoor showers. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                                                  13 Silver Lake Park                13 Silver Lake Park provides a canoe/kayak launch and hiking trail.
                                                                                                                                             Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.

                                                                                                                                           14 Flagler Beach Pier and Boardwalk is open from 6:30 AM to
                                                                                                                 14 Flagler Beach Pier
                                                                                                                                              midnight. Pier fee. 386-439-2200.
                                                          95
                                                                                                               EAST-WEST GATEWAY           15 Flagler Beach Historical Museum is located at 207 S. Central
                                                                                                                  agler Beach
                                                                             100                                  istorical Museum
                                                                                                                                               Avenue. Old photos, memorabilia and artifacts. Open Tuesday-
                    100                                                                                          Flagship                      Friday 10 AM-2 PM and Saturday from 12-3PM. Free. 386-517-2025.
                                                                                                                  Harbor
                                                                                                                   Preserve                16 Flagship Harbor Preserve and Moody Boat Launch offer
                                                                                                                                               nature trails, an elevated boardwalk, a boat launch and picnic
                                                                                                                         Gamble Rogers
                                                                                                                         Memorial State        tables. Open sunrise to sunset. Free. 386-437-7490.
                   1                                                                                                     Recreation Area
                                                                                                                                           17 Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area offers beach
                                                                                                                                               access, oceanfront camping, nature trails, picnic tables, a boat
                                                                                                                         17    SOUTH
                                                                                                                               GATEWAY         launch, and access to the Tomoka Marsh Aquatic Preserve. Open
                                                                                                                                               8 AM to sunset. Park fee. 386-517-2086.

                                                                                                                                                                      LEGEND
                                                                                                                                                     Gateways                 Bike/Pedestrian Trails
                                                                                                                                                     Parks/Preserves          Canoe Trails
0         2            4 miles
                                                                                                                                                     Other Places Of Interest
          The A1A Scenic &
        Historic Coastal Byway
        Story Of Stewardship
        Would you vote yes to raise your taxes? Flagler County citizens are stewards of their natural and cultural
        resources. Voter-approved taxes and state funding grants buy sensitive lands for preservation, protection
        and enhancement. Thousands of acres of public parks, preserves and greenways are located along A1A,
        including four large parcels which extend from river to sea. The A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway links
        natural, recreational, historical, cultural and educational points of interest. Explore our waterways and
        beaches, parks and preserves, and network of bike and pedestrian paths. Learn about our past and
        connect with nature at its most beautiful and serene. Use this map to guide your way.

              Marineland Oceanarium and the Mala Compra Plantation at Bing’s Landing County Park are listed in the National Register of
              Historic Places as significant historical and archaeological properties. Our 26-mile bicycle/ pedestrian path is Florida’s first
              segment of the East Coast Greenway, which extends from Maine to Key West.

                                                                                                                                         PLACES OF INTEREST
                                                                                     1 Marineland, the world’s first oceanarium, is undergoing a revitalization. Hours vary. Admission fee.
                                     1
                                         MARINELAND                                        Call 1-999-279-9194 for schedule.

                                 3
                                           2 (GTM NERR)
                                                NORTH GATEWAY
                                                                                               Atlantic
                                                                                         2 Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTM NERR) and the
                                              River to Sea Preserve
                                                                                               University of Florida Whitney Laboratory/Sea Grant College Extension are located within the
                                          A
                                                                                                 River to Sea Preserve. Whitney Lab offers programs for local schools and free public lectures.
                                                                                                 3 River to Sea Preserve is open from sunrise to sunset; beach access to 11 PM. Canoe/kayak
                                                              ngton Oaks                                 launch, nature trails, oceanfront boardwalk. The canoe/kayak launch provides access to Pellicer
                                                              ns State Park
                                                                                                          Creek, a State Canoe Trail. Free. 386-437-7490.
    1
                                                              Bay Drive Park                                4 Washington Oaks Gardens State Park is open from 8 AM to sunset. Ornamental


                                                               6 Malacompra Road Park/Oceanfront Park
                                                                                                                 gardens, visitor
                                                                                                                Ocean thecenter, rocky beach, hiking/biking trails, and picnic tables. The park is
                                                                                                                  included in     Great Florida Birding Trail. Park fee. 386-446-6780.

                                                                Bings Landing                                      5 Bay Drive Park provides beach access, restrooms and parking. Free.
                                                                   9 16th Road (Old Salt Road) Beachfront Park
                                                                                                                     6 Mala Compra Road Park/Oceanfront Park provides beach access, hiking
                                                                                                                            trails, restrooms and parking. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                       10                                               7 Mala Compra Plantation Greenway preserves the oak hammock and ocean
                                                             Jungle Hut Road Beachfront Park
                                                                                                                             scrub communities along A1A. Bike/pedestrian trail is adjacent. Free.
                                                                            11 Hammock Bridge Park                          8 Bing's Landing County Park, open from dawn to 11PM, provides a boat ramp,
                                                                                                                                  canoe/kayak launch, fishing pier, picnic tables, hiking trails, interpretive exhibits,
                                                                                                                                 and the ruins of the Mala Compra Plantation. Free. 386-437-7490.
                                                                                                                               9 16th Road (Old Salt Road) Beachfront Park provides beach access,
                                                                                                                                    restrooms and parking. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                               A1A
                                                                                                                                  10 Jungle Hut Road Beachfront Park provides beach access, restrooms
                                                                                       12 Varn Park
                                                                                                                                         and an outdoor shower. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                                                                                   11 Hammock Bridge Park features a fishing pier, a canoe/kayak launch,
                                                                                                                                         picnic tables, and hiking trails. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.

                                                                                               BEVERLY                                12 Varn Park provides wheelchair access to the beach, restrooms and
                                                                                                BEACH
                                                                                                                                                outdoor showers. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                                                      13 Silver Lake Park                13 Silver Lake Park provides a canoe/kayak launch and hiking trail.
                                                                                                                                                 Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.

                                                                                                                                               14 Flagler Beach Pier and Boardwalk is open from 6:30 AM to
                                                                      YOU ARE HERE                                   14 Flagler Beach Pier
                                                                                                                                                  midnight. Pier fee. 386-439-2200.
                                                              95                                                     EAST-WEST
                                                                                                                      GATEWAY                  15 Flagler Beach Historical Museum is located at 207 S. Central
                                                                                                                      agler Beach
                                                                                 100                                  istorical Museum
                                                                                                                                                   Avenue. Old photos, memorabilia and artifacts. Open Tuesday-
                    100                                                                                              Flagship                      Friday 10 AM-2 PM and Saturday from 12-3PM. Free. 386-517-2025.
                                                                                                                      Harbor
                                                                                                                       Preserve                16 Flagship Harbor Preserve and Moody Boat Launch offer
                                                                                                                                                   nature trails, an elevated boardwalk, a boat launch and picnic
                                                                                                                             Gamble Rogers
                                                                                                                             Memorial State        tables. Open sunrise to sunset. Free. 386-437-7490.
                   1                                                                                                         Recreation Area
                                                                                                                                               17 Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area offers beach
                                                                                                                                                   access, oceanfront camping, nature trails, picnic tables, a boat
                                                                                                                             17    SOUTH
                                                                                                                                   GATEWAY         launch, and access to the Tomoka Marsh Aquatic Preserve. Open
                                                                                                                                                   8 AM to sunset. Park fee. 386-517-2086.

                                                                                                                                                                          LEGEND
                                                                                                                                                         Gateways                 Bike/Pedestrian Trails
                                                                                                                                                         Parks/Preserves          Canoe Trails
0         2            4 miles
                                                                                                                                                         Other Places Of Interest
      The A1A Scenic &
    Historic Coastal Byway
    Story Of Stewardship
    Would you vote yes to raise your taxes? Flagler County citizens are stewards of their natural and cultural
    resources. Voter-approved taxes and state funding grants buy sensitive lands for preservation, protection
    and enhancement. Thousands of acres of public parks, preserves and greenways are located along A1A,
    including four large parcels which extend from river to sea. The A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway links
    natural, recreational, historical, cultural and educational points of interest. Explore our waterways and
    beaches, parks and preserves, and network of bike and pedestrian paths. Learn about our past and
    connect with nature at its most beautiful and serene. Use this map to guide your way.

          Marineland Oceanarium and the Mala Compra Plantation at Bing’s Landing County Park are listed in the National Register of
          Historic Places as significant historical and archaeological properties. Our 26-mile bicycle/ pedestrian path is Florida’s first
          segment of the East Coast Greenway, which extends from Maine to Key West.

                                                                                                                                     PLACES OF INTEREST
                                                                                 1 Marineland, the world’s first oceanarium, is undergoing a revitalization. Hours vary. Admission fee.
                                 1
                                     MARINELAND                                        Call 1-999-279-9194 for schedule.

                             3
                                       2 (GTM NERR)
                                            NORTH GATEWAY
                                                                                           Atlantic
                                                                                     2 Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTM NERR) and the
                                          River to Sea Preserve
                                                                                           University of Florida Whitney Laboratory/Sea Grant College Extension are located within the
                                      A
                                                                                             River to Sea Preserve. Whitney Lab offers programs for local schools and free public lectures.
                                                                                             3 River to Sea Preserve is open from sunrise to sunset; beach access to 11 PM. Canoe/kayak
                                                          ngton Oaks                                 launch, nature trails, oceanfront boardwalk. The canoe/kayak launch provides access to Pellicer
                                                         ens State Park
                                                                                                      Creek, a State Canoe Trail. Free. 386-437-7490.

                                                          Bay Drive Park                                4 Washington Oaks Gardens State Park is open from 8 AM to sunset. Ornamental


                                                           6 Malacompra Road Park/Oceanfront Park
                                                                                                             gardens, visitor
                                                                                                            Ocean thecenter, rocky beach, hiking/biking trails, and picnic tables. The park is
                                                                                                              included in     Great Florida Birding Trail. Park fee. 386-446-6780.
                                                         Malacompra Plantation Greenway
                                                           Bings Landing                                       5 Bay Drive Park provides beach access, restrooms and parking. Free.
                                                               9 16th Road (Old Salt Road) Beachfront Park
                                                                                                                 6 Mala Compra Road Park/Oceanfront Park provides beach access, hiking
                                                                                                                        trails, restrooms and parking. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                  10                                                7 Mala Compra Plantation Greenway preserves the oak hammock and ocean
                                                         Jungle Hut Road Beachfront Park
                                                                                                                         scrub communities along A1A. Bike/pedestrian trail is adjacent. Free.
                                                                       11 Hammock Bridge Park                           8 Bing's Landing County Park, open from dawn to 11PM, provides a boat ramp,
                                                                                                                              canoe/kayak launch, fishing pier, picnic tables, hiking trails, interpretive exhibits,
                                                                                                                             and the ruins of the Mala Compra Plantation. Free. 386-437-7490.
                                                                                                                           9 16th Road (Old Salt Road) Beachfront Park provides beach access,
                                                                                                                                restrooms and parking. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                           A1A
                                                                                                                              10 Jungle Hut Road Beachfront Park provides beach access, restrooms
                                                                                   12 Varn Park
                                                                                                                                     and an outdoor shower. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                                                                               11 Hammock Bridge Park features a fishing pier, a canoe/kayak launch,
                                                                                                                                     picnic tables, and hiking trails. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.

                                                                                           BEVERLY                                12 Varn Park provides wheelchair access to the beach, restrooms and
                                                                                            BEACH
                                                                                                                                            outdoor showers. Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.
                                                                                                  13 Silver Lake Park                13 Silver Lake Park provides a canoe/kayak launch and hiking trail.
                                                                                                                                             Open from dawn to 11 PM. Free.

                                                                                                                                           14 Flagler Beach Pier and Boardwalk is open from 6:30 AM to
                                                                                                                 14 Flagler Beach Pier
                                                                                                                                              midnight. Pier fee. 386-439-2200.
                                                          95
                                                                                                                                           15 Flagler Beach Historical Museum is located at 207 S. Central
                                                                                                                  agler Beach
                                                                             100                                  istorical Museum
                                                                                                                                               Avenue. Old photos, memorabilia and artifacts. Open Tuesday-
                100                                                                                              Flagship                      Friday 10 AM-2 PM and Saturday from 12-3PM. Free. 386-517-2025.
                                                                                                                  Harbor
                                                                                                                   Preserve                16 Flagship Harbor Preserve and Moody Boat Launch offer
                                                                                                                                               nature trails, an elevated boardwalk, a boat launch and picnic
                                                                                                                         Gamble Rogers
                                                                                                                         Memorial State        tables. Open sunrise to sunset. Free. 386-437-7490.
               1                                                                                                                       a
                                                                                                                         Recreation Area
                                                                                                                                           17 Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area offers beach
                                                                                                                                               access, oceanfront camping, nature trails, picnic tables, a boat
                                                                                                                         17    SOUTH
                                                                                                                                     Y
                                                                                                                               GATEWAY         launch, and access to the Tomoka Marsh Aquatic Preserve. Open
                                                                                 YOU ARE HERE                                                  8 AM to sunset. Park fee. 386-517-2086.
                                                                                                                 SOUTH
                                                                                                                GATEWAY                                               LEGEND
                                                                                                                                                     Gateways                 Bike/Pedestrian Trails
                                                                                                                                                     Parks/Preserves          Canoe Trails
0     2            4 miles
                                                                                                                                                     Other Places Of Interest
          Enjoying
    NATURE’S THEME PARK
                       If you want to go fishing, bird watching, boating,
                       biking or hiking, swimming or surfing, or viewing
                       wildlife or historic places, the A1A Scenic & Historic
                       Coastal Byway can take you there. The road provides
                       public access to a network of bike/pedestrian trails
                       and to miles of beautiful beaches along the Atlantic
                       Ocean. The ocean view is spectacular and free of
                       charge. Recreational opportunities abound at
                       our county and state parks and preserves.
If fishing is your choice, check with one of the local
tackle shops for permits and regulations, and to find
out what’s biting. Visit the estuary or the Intracoastal
Waterway in your boat, canoe or kayak. Many
launches and bait and tackle shops are nearby. Inland
waterways are good places to catch flounder, spotted
sea trout, red fish, sheepshead and saltwater catfish.
If you don’t have a boat, grab your rod and reel and
head for a spot along the surf. The Flagler Beach Pier
is also a popular place. Pier and surf fishermen catch
pompano, mackerel, blue fish and whiting.

Did you bring your binoculars? The tidal marshes in our
parks and preserves are great places to spot a variety of
birds, including many threatened and endangered species.
You may see roseate spoonbill, wood stork, blue heron,
bald eagle, osprey, or the elusive Florida scrub jay.
                    If biking or walking is your pleasure,
                    our bike/pedestrian trail parallels A1A.
                    This path is part of the East Coast
                    Greenway system which stretches
                    from Maine to Key West.



                                            If you’re a history enthusiast, visit the ruins of the Mala
                                            Compra Plantation at Bing’s Landing County Park. Nearby
                                            is Washington Oaks Gardens State Park, the original site of
                                            the Bella Vista Plantation. Exotic plants from around the
                                            world are found at Washington Oaks gardens. You can
                                            smell the fragrant azaleas, camellias and roses.

                                            Enjoy your day, and please remember that we share this
                                            land with many other critters. Take only photographs,
                                            leave only footprints, and obey Florida’s vehicle safety
                                            rules.
                            Want to know more about the wildlife and habitats along the A1A Scenic &
Environmental               Historic Coastal Byway? Environmental education opportunities are here for
Education                   people of all ages, “from K to gray.” Nature walks, exhibits, lectures and
                            workshops are offered by a number of groups along the corridor, including
                            the state parks, the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research
                            Reserve (GTMNERR), Whitney Laboratory, Marineland and Florida Sea
                            Grant.Check out local newspapers, the GTMNERR’s monthly newsletter, or
        Logo
                            the ranger stations at the state parks for current offerings.
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                           18
Final Interpretive Plan



4.2    North Gateway

        In addition to the Orientation/Stewardship and Nature’s Theme Park
panels, the North Gateway pavilion will contain interpretive panels about coquina
(Coquina for Building and Broth) and the estuary systems (The Estuary: Cradle of
Life). Reduced versions of these panels are provided on the pages which follow.




August 2004
                             COQUINA
                              For Building & Broth

What’s That Rock
On The Beach?
What is that rock growing out of the beach sand?
This is COQUINA (ko-key-nah), Spanish for “little
shell.” Coquina rock is a mixture of shells and
quartz sand. It was formed by nature hundreds
of thousands of years ago.
                                                      A Fort Made Of Seashells
The coquina deposit along
the East Coast of Florida                             The Spanish quarried coquina rock on Anastasia
is named the Anastasia                                Island as early as 1598. They used this material
Formation. It extends                                 to build the fortress Castillo de San Marcos in
from just north of                                    St. Augustine. This national monument is
St. Augustine to southern                             Florida’s oldest structure. It was built between
Palm Beach County. The                                1672 and 1695. Fort Matanzas is another local
longest exposure of                                   national monument made of coquina.
coquina rock is in Flagler
County.                                               Coquina rock is relatively soft and easy to
                                                      quarry. In the 1950's and 1960's, the Lehigh
Washington Oaks Gardens                               Cement Plant mined coquina. It was used to
State Park is an excellent                            make cement. Visit the Flagler Beach Historical
place to see coquina rock.                            Museum to see old photographs of the plant.
Look closely into the tidal pools on the rocks. You   Coquina also is used as a decorative material in
may see an anemone, a starfish, or a small crab.      many local parks.
Walk down to the surf and see the living coquina      More than 1000 years ago, Native Americans
clams as they burrow back into the sand. Scoop        used baskets to gather coquina clams from the
up a handful, and you’ll be holding a rainbow of      beach. Then they cooked and ate them.
colors.                                               Archaeologists find prehistoric middens (trash
                                                      piles) that contain millions of discarded coquina
                                                      shells.

                                                      You’d have to eat lots of coquina clams to get
                                                      any real food value. It’s estimated that about
                                                      300 clams yield only 100 grams of meat.
                                                                  100 grams of coquina meat would
                                                                  provide 54 calories, 8.6 grams of
                                                                   protein, 1.0 gram of fat, and 2.0
                                                                       grams of carbohydrates


Help Us Protect Coquina                                          Coquina Soup
                                                          Coquina broth makes a tasty soup stock
Coquina rock helps protect the beach from storm
                                                          or base for other dishes. Try this recipe:
erosion. A Flagler County ordinance prohibits
theft, vandalism and destruction of coquina.          •    Collect a few quarts of live coquina clams from
Please help us protect this unique resource.               the wet sand, just above the line where the waves
                                                           are breaking
As you travel the                                     •    Rinse well, and cover with about ½ inch of water
A1A Scenic &                                          •    Add some pepper, a little butter, and a tablespoon
                                                           of sherry
Historic Coastal                                      •    Boil for five minutes
Byway, how                      LOGO                  •    Strain out the shells and serve the broth
many other uses
of coquina do                                                                 Yields one serving
you see?
THE ESTUARY
 The Cradle Of Life
What Is An Estuary?
An estuary is a place where fresh water mixes with sea water. The
estuaries near the scenic byway provide food and transportation for
people, and have for the past 4000 years. Estuaries keep our planet
healthy. They help control flooding and reduce polluted runoff. Estuaries
provide habitat for many plants and animals including migratory birds and
the endangered manatee.




In the summer months manatees visit the quiet waters to eat, rest,
mate and give birth. Birdwatchers may spot wood storks, roseate
spoonbills, egrets, great blue herons, white ibis, eagles, osprey and
shorebirds such as terns and gulls. You will have a good time at
the estuary. Lots of people go swimming, boating, bird watching,                   Marineland
and fishing here.


Our Local Estuary Systems                                               Pellicer
                                                                        Creek
Two large estuaries are located near the scenic byway. From the         Aquatic
North Gateway, look west out over the waters of the Guana               Preserve
Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve
(GTMNERR). This is where the Matanzas River mixes with the
water of the Atlantic Ocean. The GTMNERR covers over 60,000
acres of saltwater marsh and mangrove tidal wetlands, oyster bars,
estuarine lagoons, and upland habitats.

Near the South Gateway is the Tomoka Marsh Aquatic Preserve.
The mixing of salt water from the Atlantic Ocean with fresh water
from the Tomoka River, Bulow Creek, and the upper Halifax River
creates this 8000 acre estuary.
                                                                                        Mat
                                                                                           anz




Where Does Your Seafood
                                                                                              a
                                                                                            s Ri




Come From?
                                                                                              v er




There’s a good chance that the
seafood listed on the restaurant
menu started its life in the estuary.
Oysters, crabs, shrimp, snook, and
redfish all make their home here. At
least two-thirds of commercial fish
and shellfish rely on estuaries.
                                                   LOGO
Please help us protect these unique
resources.
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                        19
Final Interpretive Plan



4.3    East-West Gateway

        In addition to the Orientation/Stewardship and Nature’s Theme Park
panels, the East-West Gateway pavilion will contain interpretive panels about
Flagler Beach history (Flagler Beach: Then and Now) and the link between local
lighting regulations and sea turtle protection (Sunrise to Sunset). Reduced
versions of these panels are provided on the pages which follow.




August 2004
             FLAGLER BEACH
                                Then And Now
Where Is Ocean City?                                                        Reflections Of Old
Before Flagler Beach was named                                              Florida Today
in 1923, the original town was                                              Hurricane winds and fires, as
called Ocean City. The earliest                                             well as the wrecking ball, have
residents of Ocean City did not                                             taken away many Flagler Beach
live near the ocean. Settlers like                                          landmarks. Gone are the
the Wickline family, who came in                                            original pier, the grand Flagler
1913, built their homes along the                                           Beach Hotel, and the casino.
west side of the inland waterway.                                           Yet, Flagler Beach still has the
Back then, there was no bridge or          Turnstile Bridge in 1920,        look and feel of a small
road to the beach.                              Looking East.               beachside community. In spirit,
                                                                            it has changed little over the
George Moody built the first                                                decades.
Ocean City beachside house in
1914. It stood on the corner of                                             Take a good look around.
today’s A1A and South Second                                                What DON’T you see? Where
Street. To bring in supplies,                                               are the oceanside motels? Do
Moody built a small ferry. It was                                           you see any strip malls with
pulled across the canal by ropes.                                           chain-owned stores or fast food
Moody also made a road out of                                               restaurants? Their absence is
palm logs.                                                                  not an accident. Flagler Beach
                                                                            citizens have worked hard to
By the late 1910's, the beach          Fuquay Home (now Topaz Inn)          maintain the historic sense of
became a popular spot for picnics,             built in 1927.               place through regulations and
swimming, fishing and camping.                                              smart growth.
A public swimming pool fed by an
artesian well was built near the                                            In 1923, pioneer homesteader
beach. The Ocean City Beach                                                 D.F. Fuquay donated a block of
Casino at the northwest corner                                              property for use as a city park.
of Moody Boulevard and A1A had                                              His gift came with a condition -
dressing rooms, showers, and a                                              that no building restricting the
room for dancing and skating.                                               view of the ocean would ever
This recreation center was             Flagler Beach Pier in the 1940's.    rise on this site. Today, the
constructed in 1916.                                                        miles of unobstructed ocean
                                                                            view reflect Mr. Fuquay’s vision.
From Ocean City To                                                          We welcome you to enjoy the
Flagler Beach                                                               serene charm of our Old Florida
                                                                            community.
When Ocean City was renamed
Flagler Beach in 1923, and
incorporated two years later, a
cold bottle of Coca Cola sold for
five cents. Labor Day was
celebrated with horse races down
Central Avenue, then a dirt road.          1940's Aerial of the Pier
The 1920's were a boom era for          (foreground) and the Flagler
Flagler Beach. During this decade,           Beach Hotel (rear).            To learn more about Flagler Beach, visit the
the landmark Municipal Pier was                                            Flagler Beach Historical Museum at the corner
built. The Fourth of July in 1925                                           of South 3rd Street and South Central Avenue.
marked the grand opening of the                                              You can see fossils and Indian artifacts from
Flagler Beach Hotel. Charles                                               long ago, photographs of historic places, and a
Lindberg stayed here for a week in                 LOGO
                                                                              flag taken to space by NASA astronauts.
1931, two years before he made
his solo flight across the Atlantic.
                                                                                                 All photographs courtesy of the
                                                                                                 Flagler Beach Historical Museum
          FROM SUNRISE
Rhythms Of The Day
If you stood in one place all day, Mother Nature would treat you to an
awesome sight. The day starts with the sun rising up like a fiery ball,
and ends as the light goes out with the sinking of the setting sun. The
natural cycle of the day regulates the life of many creatures. Sunrise
and sunset are the times when animals are most active. At night,
raccoons and owls hunt for food, and sea turtles lay their eggs on
the beach.

Sea Turtles Love A
Starry Night
Flagler County has lighting regulations to keep the night sky
dark. Downcast lighting reduces the amount of light pollution.
It also is an aide to sea turtle preservation. How is that? Artificial light
may disorient sea turtles, causing them to head towards buildings and
roads. So, the lights along the beach are dim to help the sea turtles
find their way to their nesting spot or back to the sea. Flagler
County also requires that construction projects near the beach be
scheduled to avoid the nesting season.


Some Sea Turtle Facts
Did you know that three species of sea turtles use the Florida beaches during summer nesting season?
The female loggerhead turtle usually lays over 100 eggs. After depositing them, she returns to the
water, leaving the nest unprotected. It takes about two months for the eggs to hatch. The hatchlings
usually break out as a group at night, then head for the sea.


Help Us Protect Sea Turtles
Sea turtle nesting season is from May through October. Please protect
sea turtles by leaving them alone. Never shine lights on nesting
turtles, and please don’t make lots of noise. Sea turtles are protected
by federal, state and local laws. If you see a dead, sick or injured sea            LOGO
turtle, call the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC) Division of
Law Enforcement at 1-888-404-3922, or dial #FWC from your
mobile phone.




                      TO SUNSET
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                           20
Final Interpretive Plan

4.4    South Gateway

       In addition to the Orientation/Stewardship and Nature’s Theme Park
panels, the South Gateway pavilion will repeat The Estuary: Cradle of Life panel.
The fourth panel will look at selected aspects of life during World War II (Life
During World War II). A reduced version of the World War II panel is provided
on the following page.




August 2004
                             Life During
            WORLD WAR II
U-Boats                                                    Patrols On Land
Off The Coast                                              And Sea
During World War II,                                       During the second world war, the Coast
residents of Flagler                                       Guard Auxiliary established a Coastal Picket
County did some pretty                                     Patrol to monitor activity at sea. Popularly
strange things.                                            called the “Corsair Navy,” the patrol ships
They drove their cars at                                   reported U-boat sightings and helped rescue
night with their lights                                    survivors.
turned off. It’s also said
that some folks painted                                    The Coast Guard also patrolled the beach.
the windows on the east                                    They walked behind the dunes, rode on
side of their house dark                                   horseback, and drove motorcycles with
blue. What could account                                   sidecars. Trained dogs joined them on some
for such odd behavior?                                     patrols. For a time, beach watchtowers were
                                                           used. These were manned around the clock
Coastal blackouts were one way to hide from the            by volunteers. They searched for enemy
Germans, whose submarines moved offshore. It was           planes and submarines as well as American
reported in May 1942 that there were more sub attacks      and Allied ships hit by the enemy.
along Florida’s coast than anywhere else in the world.
So, to remain out of sight, the beaches were closed at     The design of the A1A gateway feature is
night. Civilian teams patrolled the streets to make sure   modeled after these wartime towers. If you
everyone had their lights off. Beach patrollers were not   drive down A1A to Ormond-By-The-Sea you
allowed to use cameras or field glasses during the day.    will see one of the original beach lookout
Why not? What would happen if the sunlight hit the         towers. During the war, these were located
glass?                                                     every five miles along the coast. Now gone,
                                                           one was located just north of the Flagler
Marineland                                                 Beach Pier at the end of
                                                           Highway 100.
During The War
Marineland was closed as a tourist attraction during
the war. The large tanks were emptied in
the summer of 1942. The dolphins and other
marine animals were given away or released
into the ocean. However, Marineland did not
remain an idle place. The facility was turned over
to the Coast Guard for use in training combat
(K-9) dogs. Important research continued at
Marineland. One outcome was creation of a shark
repellent. This was used by the Army and Navy in
sea survival kits.
                                                             To learn more
                                                             about Flagler Beach
                                                             during World War II,
                                                             visit Gamble Rogers Memorial State
                                                             Recreation Area, former site of a wartime Coast Guard Station.
              Logo                                           Old photographs and memorabilia are also at the Flagler Beach
                                                             Historical Museum.
A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway                                           21
Final Interpretive Plan



              5.0 SIGNAGE AT PARKS AND PRESERVES

5.1    River to Sea Preserve

       Four interpretive panels have been designed for placement along the rail
at the oceanfront boardwalk. These will tell stories about Marineland
(Marineland: Center for Entertainment & Science), biodiversity (Biodiversity: The
Best of Both Worlds), Native American settlement (Mounds and Middens), and
dune restoration at Marineland (Dunes are Dynamic). Reduced versions of these
panels are provided on the following pages.

       In addition, a trailhead sign and four trail stop markers are proposed for
the hiking trail located west of A1A. The trailhead sign will identify the
ecosystems through which the trail passes. The trail stop signs will take a
glimpse at yaupon holly (Sacred Tea), Florida scrub jays, and the historic use of
the islands within the Matanzas River (Cow Pen Island), gopher tortoises
(Landlords of the Burrow), and prehistoric land use (Archaeological Sites are
Non-Renewable). Recommended text for these signs is as follows:




August 2004
      MARINELAND
Center For Entertainment & Science
                                       The World’s First
                                       Oceanarium                              Advances In
                                                                               Scientific Research
                                        In the early 1950s, trained
                                        dolphins performed before                      Many discoveries were made at Marine Studios. These usually resulted
                                        delighted crowds at Marineland.                from a basic need to keep the resident marine animals healthy. Could sharks
                                        Before the large theme parks,                  and porpoises be put in the same tank? What foods did the large animals eat?
                                        Marineland was Florida’s top                     Dolphin echolocation was among the important discoveries made at Marine Studios.
                                        tourist attraction.         Buster Crabbe,        Today, advances in marine research continue at the University of Florida’s
                                                                    Lloyd Bridges, and     Whitney Laboratory for Marine Biology and Medicine. This facility is located
Marineland opened in 1938 as Marine Studios. Its                    Rosemary Clooney.
original purpose was to make films. Trained                                                  adjacent to the A1A Scenic & Historic Coastal Byway.
dolphins came later. Marine Studios was the world's
first underwater motion picture studio. It                                             A Place Where Celebrities Met
also was the first oceanarium. The word
means a place where many different                                                              Many famous people visited Marineland, including Eleanor Roosevelt and
types of marine life lived together, as                                                         Ernest Hemingway. Humorist Robert Benchley (grandfather of Jaws writer
they do in the sea.                                                                              Peter Benchley) visited so often that he was made an honorary mayor.
                                                                                                   After World War II, Norton Baskin, husband of Pulitzer Prize winner
                                                                                                    Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, operated the Dolphin Restaurant here.
  The film classic Revenge of the
  Creature was shot at Marine                                                                       The Marine Studios founders were men with ties to great fortunes.
  Studios in 1955. Clint                                                                            They included W. Douglas Burden, great-great-grandson of
  Eastwood worked as a                                                                                 Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, and his cousin Cornelius
  technician on this film. The old                                                                             Vanderbilt Whitney. Count Ilia Tolstoy, grandson of Russian
  TV series Sea Hunt, starring                                                                                         novelist Leo Tolstoy, also was a cofounder.
 Lloyd Bridges, also was filmed
                                                                                           The Town of
 here.                                                                                      Marineland
                                                                                                                                                           ***
                                                                                 The Town of Marineland was incorporated
                                                                                                                                        In 1986, the National Park Service entered
           LOGO                                                                 in 1940. At one time, it had more dolphins
                                                                                                                                        Marine Studios in the National Register of
           GOES                                                                   than people as permanent residents. In
                                                                                                                                           Historic Places in recognition of its
           HERE                                                              October 2000, Marineland received recognition
                                                                                                                                      significance in the areas of scientific research,
                                                                          as Florida’s first Remarkable Coastal Place. Today, the
                                                                                                                                       marine education, tourism, film-making, and
                                                                            Town is a major science research, education and
                                                                                                                                                       architecture.
                                                                                                nature center.

				
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