CBD NATOPS Manual

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					                                                                              NAVAIR-000-00-000



                                                           CBD NATOPS DRAFT 14
                                                                                       November 2011



                                 CBD NATOPS
               Chemical Biological Defense


                                                                     Point of Contacts:

                                                                     Management:
                                                                     Sam Frazier
                                                                     fraziersj@navair.navy.mil
                                                                     301-342-3582

                                                                     Technical Coordinator:
                                                                     Phil Horne
                                                                     hornep@battelle.org
                                                                     910-577-1128

                                                                     Admin. Support-Documentation
                                                                     Specialist:
                                                                     Karen Ann McDonald
                                                                     mcdonaldk@battelle.org
                                                                     301-862-5104




DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C — Distribution authorized to U.S. Government Agencies and their
contractors to protect publications required for official use or for administrative or operational purposes
only (November 2011). Other requests for this document shall be referred to Commander, Naval Air
Systems Command, Sam Frazier, APMSE Chemical Biological Defense, Code 4.1.8, B-2187, Suite 2240-
G6, Patuxent River, MD 20670-1906.

DESTRUCTION NOTICE — For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will
prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

           ISSUED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS AND
        UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMAND, NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND.

0800LP1013004                               1 (Reverse Blank)                 15 November 2011




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SUMMARY OF APPLICABLE TECHNICAL DIRECTIVES
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                                  iii                                      DRAFT
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                                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY OF APPLICABLE TECHNICAL DIRECTIVES .............................................................. II

RECORD OF CHANGES ......................................................................................................................... III

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................... IV

ILLUSTRATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... IX

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................................... XI

GLOSSARY ...............................................................................................................................................XII

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS........................................................................................ XVII

PREFACE .................................................................................................................................................. XX

CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 1-1
   1.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................ 1-1
   1.2 PURPOSE ......................................................................................................................................... 1-1
      1.2.1 Chapter 1, Introduction. ............................................................................................................. 1-1
      1.2.2 Chapter 2, Chemical and Biological Defense............................................................................. 1-1
      1.2.3 Chapter 3, Aircrew Chemical and Biological Defense Individual Protective Equipment (IPE). 1-1
      1.2.4 Chapter 4, Donning and Doffing Aircrew Chemical and Biological IPE. ................................. 1-1
      1.2.5 Chapter 5, Ingress and Egress in a Chemical and Biological Environment. ............................. 1-1
      1.2.6 Chapter 6, Chemical and Biological Detection. ......................................................................... 1-1
      1.2.7 Chapter 7, Chemical and Biological Contamination Control. ................................................... 1-1
      1.2.8 Chapter 8, Decontamination. ..................................................................................................... 1-1
      1.2.9 Chapter 9, Aircraft Handling and Operations in a Chemical and Biological Environment. ..... 1-1
   1.3 SCOPE............................................................................................................................................... 1-1
   1.4 ADVISORY GROUP ........................................................................................................................ 1-2
CHAPTER 2-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE ............................................................... 2-1
   2.1 PURPOSE ......................................................................................................................................... 2-1
   2.2 UNITED STATES CBR POLICY .................................................................................................... 2-1
      2.2.1 Chemical Warfare....................................................................................................................... 2-2
      2.2.2 Biological Warfare. .................................................................................................................... 2-2
   2.3 CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ................................................................................................. 2-2
      2.3.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 2-2
      2.3.2 Persistent and Semi-Persistent Agents. ...................................................................................... 2-2
      2.3.3 Non-Persistent Agents. ............................................................................................................... 2-2
      2.3.4 Characteristics. .......................................................................................................................... 2-3
      2.3.5 Delivery. ..................................................................................................................................... 2-3
      2.3.6 Decontamination. ....................................................................................................................... 2-3
   2.4 BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS.............................................................................................. 2-4
      2.4.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 2-4
      2.4.2 Pathogens. .................................................................................................................................. 2-4
      2.4.3 Toxins. ........................................................................................................................................ 2-7
      2.4.4 Bioregulators. ............................................................................................................................. 2-7
      2.4.5 Delivery. ..................................................................................................................................... 2-7
      2.4.6 Decontamination. ....................................................................................................................... 2-7
   2.5 TOXIC INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS .................................................................................................. 2-7
      2.5.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 2-7
   2.6 WEATHER FACTORS ..................................................................................................................... 2-7
      2.6.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 2-7
      2.6.2 Atmospheric Stability. ................................................................................................................. 2-7

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      2.6.3 Topography................................................................................................................................. 2-9
      2.6.4 Ship Avoidance. .......................................................................................................................... 2-9
   2.7 AIR UNIT CBD ORGANIZATION ................................................................................................. 2-9
      2.7.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 2-9
      2.7.2 Commanding Officer. ............................................................................................................... 2-11
      2.7.3 Executive Officer. ..................................................................................................................... 2-11
      2.7.4 Squadron Duty Officer (SDO). ................................................................................................. 2-11
      2.7.5 Squadron CBD Officer. ............................................................................................................ 2-11
      2.7.6 Squadron CBD Petty Officer. ................................................................................................... 2-11
      2.7.7 Aircraft Maintenance Officer ................................................................................................... 2-12
      2.7.8 Operations Officer .................................................................................................................... 2-12
      2.7.9 First Lieutenant (ashore) .......................................................................................................... 2-13
      2.7.10 Department Heads and Work Center Supervisor ................................................................... 2-13
      2.7.11 Medical Officer ....................................................................................................................... 2-13
      2.7.12 Aviation Supply Officer .......................................................................................................... 2-13
      2.7.13 Maintenance Control Officer/Safety Officer ........................................................................... 2-13
      2.7.14 Mission Commander ............................................................................................................... 2-13
   2.8 CBD TRAINING ............................................................................................................................. 2-13
      2.8.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 2-13
      2.8.2 Training Requirements. ............................................................................................................ 2-13
      2.8.3 U.S. Navy. ................................................................................................................................. 2-14
      2.8.4 U.S. Marine Corps. ................................................................................................................... 2-14
      2.8.5 Summary. .................................................................................................................................. 2-14
   2.9 CBD CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................................. 2-14
      2.9.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 2-14
      2.9.2 Shipboard. ................................................................................................................................ 2-14
      2.9.3 Shorebased. .............................................................................................................................. 2-14
      2.9.4 Aviation. ................................................................................................................................... 2-15
      2.9.5 Countermeasure Washdown System (CMWDS). ...................................................................... 2-15
      2.9.6 Operational Exposure Options. ................................................................................................ 2-15
   2.10 CB PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................ 2-17
      2.10.1 General. .................................................................................................................................. 2-17
      2.10.2 Individual Protective Equipment (IPE). ................................................................................. 2-17
   2.11 COLLECTIVE PROTECTION (COLPRO) ................................................................................. 2-20
   2.12 IPE PROVISIONING .................................................................................................................... 2-20
CHAPTER 3-AIRCREW CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT (IPE) .................................................................................................................................. 3-1
   3.1 AIRCREW CB IPE LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................. 3-1
      3.1.1 Vision Correction. ...................................................................................................................... 3-1
      3.1.2 Night Vision Devices and Laser Eye Protection (LEP). ............................................................. 3-1
      3.1.3 Aircraft Incompatibility. ............................................................................................................. 3-1
      3.1.4 Warnings .................................................................................................................................... 3-1
   3.2 ABOVE THE NECK PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT........................................................................ 3-3
      3.2.1 A/P23P-14A(V) Respirator Assembly. ........................................................................................ 3-3
      3.2.2 A/P22P-14(V)1 thru (V)4 Chemical, Biological and Radiological Respirator Assemblies. ....... 3-3
   3.3 BELOW THE NECK PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ....................................................................... 3-9
      3.3.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 3-9
      3.3.2 Configuration. ............................................................................................................................ 3-9
CHAPTER 4-DONNING AND DOFFING AIRCREW CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL IPE ..... 4-1
   4.1 PHYSIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS................................................................................................. 4-1
   4.2 DONNING ........................................................................................................................................ 4-1
      4.2.1. Donning The Respirator Assembly And Associated Equipment. ............................................... 4-3
   4.3. DOFFING AN UNCONTAMINATED ENSEMBLE ..................................................................... 4-8
   4.4. DOFFING A CONTAMINATED ENSEMBLE ............................................................................ 4-10
      4.4.1 Aircrew members ...................................................................................................................... 4-10
CHAPTER 5-INGRESS & EGRESS IN A CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT .. 5-1


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 5.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 5-1
 5.2 AIRCRAFT/AIRCREW PREPARATION........................................................................................ 5-1
    5.2.1 Aircraft Preparation. .................................................................................................................. 5-1
    5.2.2 Preflight Inspection. ................................................................................................................... 5-1
 5.3 INGRESSING A CONTAMINATED AIRCRAFT .......................................................................... 5-1
    5.3.1 Ingress of Tactical (fixed wing) Aircraft ..................................................................................... 5-2
    5.3.2 Multi-Engine Fixed Wing Aircraft. ............................................................................................. 5-3
    5.3.3 Rotary Wing Aircraft (with doors). ............................................................................................. 5-5
    5.3.4 Rotary Wing Aircraft (with Canopies). ....................................................................................... 5-6
    5.3.5 Rotary Wing Aircraft (transport and cargo). .............................................................................. 5-7
 5.4 EGRESSING A CONTAMINATED AIRCRAFT ............................................................................ 5-8
    5.4.1 Egress of Tactical (fixed Wing) Aircraft. .................................................................................... 5-8
    5.4.2 Egress of Cargo and Transport Fixed Wing Aircraft. ................................................................ 5-8
    5.4.3 Egress of Rotary Wing Aircraft (canopies and doors). ............................................................... 5-9
    5.4.4 Egress of Rotary Wing Aircraft (transport and cargo). .............................................................. 5-9
 5.5 IN FLIGHT EMERGENCY ............................................................................................................ 5-10
    5.5.1 Pusher Fan Malfunction. .......................................................................................................... 5-10
    5.5.2 Airsickness. ............................................................................................................................... 5-10
    5.5.3 Emergency Egress. ................................................................................................................... 5-10
CHAPTER 6-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DETECTION ......................................................... 6-1
   6.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................ 6-1
   6.2 STANDOFF DETECTORS .............................................................................................................. 6-1
      6.2.1 Chemical Warfare Directional Detector (CWDD). .................................................................... 6-1
      6.2.2 M21 Remote Sensing Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm (RSCAAL). ......................................... 6-2
   6.3 HAND HELD CHEMICAL VAPOR DETECTORS ........................................................................ 6-3
      6.3.1 M256/M256A1 Chemical Agent Detector Kit. ............................................................................ 6-3
      6.3.2 Chemical Agent Monitor/Improved Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM/ICAM). ............................ 6-5
      6.3.3 Automatic Chemical Agent Detector And Alarm/Shipboard Automatic Chemical Agent Detector And
      Alarm (M22 ACADA/MK26 Ship ACADA). ........................................................................................ 6-8
      6.3.4 Chemical Agent Point Detector System (CAPDS) MK 21 MOD 1. ............................................ 6-9
      6.3.5 Improved (Chemical Agent) Point Detector System (IPDS). ...................................................... 6-9
      6.3.6 Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS). ............................................................................................ 6-9
   6.4 LIQUID CHEMICAL DETECTORS.............................................................................................. 6-10
      6.4.1 M8 Chemical Agent Detector Paper. ........................................................................................ 6-10
      6.4.2 M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper......................................................................................... 6-11
   6.5 BIOLOGICAL DETECTION ......................................................................................................... 6-12
      6.5.1 Confirmation That A Biological Attack Has Occurred. ............................................................ 6-12
      6.5.2 Dry Filter Unit (DFU) and Hand Held Assay (HHA). ............................................................. 6-12
      6.5.3 Interim Biological Agent Detection System (IBADS). .............................................................. 6-15
CHAPTER 7-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL ......................... 7-1
   7.1 OBJECTIVES OF CONTAMINATION CONTROL ....................................................................... 7-1
   7.2 CONTAMINATION SOURCES ...................................................................................................... 7-1
   7.3 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION................................................................. 7-1
   7.4 ELEMENTS OF CONTAMINATION CONTROL .......................................................................... 7-2
   7.5 AVOIDANCE ................................................................................................................................... 7-2
      7.5.1 Definition. ................................................................................................................................... 7-2
      7.5.2 Benefits. ...................................................................................................................................... 7-2
      7.5.3 Avoidance Planning. ................................................................................................................... 7-2
      7.5.4 Coordination............................................................................................................................... 7-2
      7.5.5 Considerations. ........................................................................................................................... 7-3
   7.6 CB DETECTION .............................................................................................................................. 7-4
   7.7 WARNINGS AND ALARMS .......................................................................................................... 7-4
      7.7.1 CB Threat Conditions. ................................................................................................................ 7-4
      7.7.2 Local Cb Alarms And Warning Signals. ..................................................................................... 7-5
      7.7.3 Area Warning Procedures. ......................................................................................................... 7-6
   7.8 HAZARD MARKING ...................................................................................................................... 7-6
      7.8.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 7-6
      7.8.2 Marker Deployment. ................................................................................................................... 7-6
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   7.9 CONTAMINATION TRANSFER CONTROL PROCEDURES ..................................................... 7-6
      7.9.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 7-6
      7.9.2 Basic Assumptions. ..................................................................................................................... 7-9
      7.9.3 Basic Operational Scenarios. ..................................................................................................... 7-9
   7.10 CONTAMINATION MITIGATION AND REMOVAL .............................................................. 7-11
      7.10.1 General:.................................................................................................................................. 7-11
CHAPTER 8-DECONTAMINATION .................................................................................................... 8-1
   8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 8-1
   8.2 CONTAMINATION HAZARDS - METHODS OF TRANSMISSION........................................... 8-1
   8.3 AGENT PERSISTENCY – REQUIREMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION ................................. 8-1
   8.4 DECONTAMINATION CONCEPTS............................................................................................... 8-2
      8.4.1 Decontamination Principles. ...................................................................................................... 8-2
   8.5 DECONTAMINATION IN COMBAT ............................................................................................. 8-2
   8.6 DECONTAMINATION DECISIONS .............................................................................................. 8-3
   8.7 DECONTAMINANTS ...................................................................................................................... 8-3
   8.8 DECONTAMINATION LEVELS AND PROCEDURES ................................................................ 8-4
   8.9 IMMEDIATE DECONTAMINATION ............................................................................................ 8-5
      8.9.1 Skin Decontamination................................................................................................................. 8-5
      8.9.2 Personal Wipe Down. ................................................................................................................. 8-6
      8.9.3 Spot Decontamination. ............................................................................................................... 8-7
   8.10 OPERATIONAL DECONTAMINATION ..................................................................................... 8-8
      8.10.1 Mopp Gear Exchange. .............................................................................................................. 8-8
      8.10.2 Aircraft Wash Down. ................................................................................................................ 8-9
   8.11 THOROUGH DECONTAMINATION ......................................................................................... 8-13
      8.11.1 Aircrew Decontamination. ...................................................................................................... 8-13
      8.11.2 Thorough Aircraft Decontamination. ..................................................................................... 8-45
      8.11.3 Systems Decontamination And Maintenance Implications. .................................................... 8-49
      8.11.4 Aviation Ordnance. ................................................................................................................. 8-52
      8.11.5 Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Decontamination. ........................................................... 8-52
      8.11.6 Precautions. ............................................................................................................................ 8-52
CHAPTER 9-AIRCRAFT HANDLING AND OPERATIONS IN A CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 9-1
   9.1 OPERATIONAL ISSUES ................................................................................................................. 9-1
   9.2 CB FLIGHT OPERATIONS ASHORE ............................................................................................ 9-1
      9.2.1 Preflight Procedures In A CB Environment. .............................................................................. 9-1
      9.2.2 Launching Aircraft In A CB Environment. Aircrew. .................................................................. 9-1
      9.2.3 In-flight Procedures Before, During, And After Entering A CB Environment. .......................... 9-3
      9.2.4 Recovery Of Contaminated Aircraft. .......................................................................................... 9-4
   9.3 CB FLIGHT OPERATIONS AFLOAT ............................................................................................ 9-5
      9.3.1 Preflight Procedures In A CB Environment. .............................................................................. 9-5
      9.3.2 Launching Aircraft In A CB Environment. ................................................................................. 9-5
      9.3.3 In-flight Procedures Before, During and After Entering A CB Environment.. ........................... 9-7
      9.3.4 Recovery Of Contaminated Aircraft. .......................................................................................... 9-7
   9.4 IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONAL DECONTAMINATION .................................................................. 9-8
   9.5 CB MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS ............................................................................................ 9-10
      9.5.1 Organizational Maintenance Operations. ................................................................................ 9-10
      9.5.3 Fueling Aircraft. ....................................................................................................................... 9-10
      9.5.4 Ordnance. ................................................................................................................................. 9-11
APPENDIX A-MEDICAL CONCERNS ................................................................................................ A-1
   A.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................................................... A-1
   A. 2 AIRCREW SPECIFIC MEDICAL ISSUES .................................................................................. A-1
     A.1.1 Heat Illness. ............................................................................................................................... A-1
     A.1.2 Vision. ........................................................................................................................................ A-1
     A.1.3 Miosis. ........................................................................................................................................ A-1
     A.1.4 Psychological Effects. ................................................................................................................ A-1
     A.1.5 Claustrophobia........................................................................................................................... A-2

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   A.1.6 Impaired Perception................................................................................................................... A-2
   A.1.7 Panic Attack. .............................................................................................................................. A-2
APPENDIX B .............................................................................................................................................B-1

APPENDIX C ........................................................................................................................................... C-1

INDEX ............................................................................................................................................. INDEX-1




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                                             ILLUSTRATIONS

   Figure 2-1    Threat Chemical Agents ................................................................................... 2-3
   Figure 2-2    Biological Warfare Agents (1 of 2) .................................................................. 2-5
                 Biological Warfare Agents (2 of 2) .................................................................. 2-6
   Figure 2-3    Atmospheric Stability, Categories and Conditions Usage ................................ 2-8
   Figure 2-4    Relative Effectiveness of Vapor Agent Usage ................................................. 2-9
   Figure 2-5    CBD Organization Chart ................................................................................ 2-10
   Figure 2-6    Command CB Awareness ............................................................................... 2-16
   Figure 2-7    MOPP Matrix ................................................................................................. 2-19


   Figure 3-1    A/P23P-14A(V) Respirator Assembly (Upgrade) Non-Oxygen ...................... 3-4
   Figure 3-2    A/P22P-14A(V)1 Respirator Assembly, Non-Oxygen Variant ........................ 3-5
   Figure 3-3    A/P22P-14A(V)2 Respirator Assembly, LOX Variant .................................... 3-6
   Figure 3-4    A/P22P-14A(V)3 Respirator Assembly, OBOGS Variant ............................... 3-7
   Figure 3-5    A/P22P-14A(V)4 Respirator Assembly, Panel Mount Variant ........................ 3-8
   Figure 3-6    Below the Neck Aircrew IPE (1 of 2)............................................................. 3-11
                 Below the Neck Aircrew IPE (2 of 2)............................................................. 3-12
   Figure 3-7    Service Life of IPE ......................................................................................... 3-13

CHAPTER 4
  Figure 4-1     Aircrew CB IPE ................................................................................................ 4-2


   Figure 5-1    H Manifold Position Table ............................................................................... 5-4


   Figure 6-1    CWDD, AN/KAS 1 .......................................................................................... 6-2
   Figure 6-2    M21 Remote Sensing Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm................................ 6-2
   Figure 6-3    M93A1 NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle ............................................................. 6-3
   Figure 6-4    M256/M256A1 Chemical Agent Detector Kit ................................................. 6-4
   Figure 6-5    M256/M256A1 Sampler-Detector .................................................................... 6-5
   Figure 6-6    CAM/ICAM...................................................................................................... 6-6
   Figure 6-7    Full CAM/ICAM Display ................................................................................. 6-7
   Figure 6-8    Typical CAM/ICAM Displays ......................................................................... 6-7
   Figure 6-9    M22 ACADA ................................................................................................... 6-8
   Figure 6-10   MK26 Ship ACADA ........................................................................................ 6-8
   Figure 6-11   M8 Chemical Agent Detector Paper ............................................................... 6-10
   Figure 6-12   M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper ............................................................... 6-12
   Figure 6-13   Dry Filter Unit ................................................................................................ 6-13
   Figure 6-14   Hand Held Assay ............................................................................................ 6-13


   Figure 7-1    NATO Contamination Markers ........................................................................ 7-8




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   Figure 8-1   Comparison Data for Decon Levels/Techniques .............................................. 8-3
   Figure 8-2   How Decon Affects Combat Effectiveness ...................................................... 8-5
   Figure 8-3   M291 SDK ........................................................................................................ 8-6
   Figure 8-4   Aircraft Operational Decon Methods ............................................................. 8-10
   Figure 8-5   Contaminated Aircrew Decontamination, Shore Based Site Layout .............. 8-15
   Figure 8-6   Shore Based Contaminated Aircrew Personnel & Equipment Requirements 8-16
   Figure 8-7   Generic Layout for CCA for the Two Cutter Process..................................... 8-32
   Figure 8-8   Typical CPS Decontamination Station ........................................................... 8-39
   Figure 8-9   Typical CPS Decontamination Station Layout ............................................... 8-40

CHAPTER 9       AIRCRAFT HANDLING AND OPERATIONS IN A CB ENVIRONMENT
  Figure 9-1    Monitor & Surveillance Matrix ........................................................................ 9-9




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BIBLIOGRAPHY




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                                          GLOSSARY

                      A                                Aviation Life Support Systems (ALSS).
                                                          Items of equipment and clothing worn
Above the Neck Protection. The respirator                 by aircrew members and aircraft
   assembly is the above the neck portion                 passengers to function within all
   of the chemical, biological and                        parameters of the flight environment,
   radiological (CBR) aircrew protective                  safely egress from disabled aircraft and
   equipment. It is designed to provide                   descend/ascend to the surface, and
   aircrew members with head, eye, and                    survive on land and water and to
   respiratory protection to guard against                interface with rescue forces.
   the toxic and lethal effects of nuclear
   fallout and chemical and biological                 Avoidance. Individual and/or unit measures
   agents.                                                taken to avoid or minimize chemical,
                                                          biological       and        radiological
Absorption. Penetration of solid materials                (CBR)/nuclear, biological, and chemical
   or liquids by a foreign substance (such                (NBC) attacks and reduce the effects of
   as a chemical agent) without a chemical                CBR hazards.
   reaction.
                                                                            B
Adsorption. Adhesion of molecules of a
   foreign substance (such as a chemical               Barriers. Devices used to contain or
   agent) to the surface of solid materials               channel contamination or contaminated
   (including crevices) or liquids without a              runoff.
   chemical reaction.
                                                       Below the Neck Protection. Components of
Aircraft Wash Down. The equipment                         clothing and cover designed to
   portion of operational decontamination                 compliment and enhance the respirator
   that limits the spread of contamination,               assembly function of protecting aircrew
   allows temporary relief from MOPP4,                    members      against   chemical     and
   and accelerates the weathering process,                biological agents.
   potentially eliminating the need for a
   thorough decontamination.                           Biological      Warfare        Agent.    A
                                                           microorganism that causes disease in
Atmospheric Stability. The stability of a                  personnel, plants, or animals or causes
   chemical or biological agent cloud is                   the deterioration of materiel.
   directly effected by the temperature of
   the air at the surface of the earth and the         Blister Agent. Chemical agents that injure
   first few meters above the surface. The                 the eyes and lungs and burn or blister
   air stability categories are dependent on               the skin, also called vesicants. They
   the temperature gradient (difference of                 include mustard (H) and Lewisite (L).
   air temperature at two altitudes). The
   four possible gradient conditions are               Blood Agent. Chemical compounds that
   inversion, neutral, lapse, and elevated                affect bodily functions by preventing the
   inversion.                                             normal transfer of oxygen from the
                                                          blood to body tissues; also called
Aviation    Intermediate     Maintenance                  cyanide agents. Blood agents are non-
   Department. A department within a                      persistent and will remain on a target for
   ship or station authorized to provide I-               only minutes. They include Hydrogen
   level maintenance support. It consists of              Cyanide (AC) and Cyanogen Chloride
   the aircraft maintenance, supply, and                  (CK).
   weapons departments/divisions.

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                     C                                    (including food substances) or waste in
                                                          food or water.
C2/C2A1 Canister. A standard NATO
   canister that is compatible with the               Contamination Control. Procedures to
   MCU2-P mask, M40 series mask, and                     avoid, reduce, remove, or render
   the A/P22P-14(V) series aircrew                       harmless, temporarily or permanently,
   respirator, which provides protection                 biological or chemical contamination for
   against nerve, blood, blister, choking,               the purpose of maintaining or enhancing
   hallucinogenic, and riot control agents.              the efficient conduct of military
                                                         operations.
Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH). The
   standard shipboard decontaminant for               Contamination Control Area. The CCA is
   chemical and biological agents.                       a liquid chemical hazard area or a
                                                         biological infectious hazard area for
Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD)                    removal of contaminated individual
   Officer. The Commanding Officer’s                     protective equipment or outer garments
   advisor with regard to all matters                    and preparation of personnel for
   associated with chemical and biological               processing through a conventional
   warfare, and unit defense.                            decontamination station.

Circle William. The classification of                 Counter Measures Wash Down System. A
   openings between the interior of the ship             dry-pipe sprinkler system equipped with
   and the outside atmosphere, including                 nozzles designed and arranged topside
   ventilation systems, that are secured to              to throw a large salt water spray pattern
   minimize the penetration of chemical or               on weather surfaces; salt water is
   biological agents.                                    supplied from the ship’s fire main.
                                                         Originally designed as a countermeasure
Chemical Warfare Agent. Any toxic                        system for nuclear fallout, it is also
   chemical intended for use in military                 effective in the control of chemical and
   operations.                                           biological contamination.

Collective Protection. A system of air                                     D
   locks, high pressure fans and high
   efficiency filters providing pressurized,          Damage Control Assistant. The damage
   filtered air to Total Protection (TP)              control assistant (DCA) is responsible, under
   zones and filtered air to Limited                  the engineer officer, for the control of
   Protection (LP) zones. See also Total              damage. This includes the control of
   Protection Zone and Limited Protection             stability, list, and trim. It also includes
   Zone.                                              fighting fires, repairing damage, and
                                                      maintaining CBR defense.
Containment Pit. An area used to collect
   contaminated runoff.                               Decontaminant. Any substance used to
                                                         break down, neutralize, or remove a
Contamination. The deposit and/or                        chemical, biological, or radioactive
   absorption of radioactive material or                 material posing a threat to equipment or
   biological or chemical agents on and by               personnel.
   structures, areas, personnel, or objects.
   2. Food and/or water made unfit for                Decontamination. The process of making
   consumption by humans or animals                      any person, object, or area safe by
   because      of    the    presence    of              absorbing, destroying, neutralizing,
   environmental chemicals, radioactive                  making harmless, or removing chemical
   elements, bacteria, or organisms. 3. The              or biological agents, or by removing
   by-product of the growth of bacteria or               radioactive material clinging to or
   organisms in decomposing material                     around it.

                                               xiii                                         DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
Detection. Determination of the presence of                              L
   a chemical or biological agent.
                                                    Limited Protection Zones (LPZ). A zone
Detector. Any mechanism by which the                   within a collective protection system
   approach or presence of a chemical or               that provides protection against liquid
   biological agent is made known.                     and solid CBR agents but not agents in
                                                       vapor form.
Doffing. Removing clothing, chemical
   protective suits or equipment.                                       M

Donning. To put on clothing, chemical               Marine Air Ground Task Force
   protective suits or equipment.                     (MAGTF). A task organization of
                                                      Marine forces (division, aircraft wing,
                    H                                 and force service support groups) under
                                                      a single command and structured to
HTH. High Test Hypochlorite. See also                 accomplish a specific mission. The
  Calcium Hypochlorite                                Marine     Air-Ground     Task    Force
                                                      (MAGTF) components will normally
                     I                                include command, aviation combat,
                                                      ground combat, and combat service
Immediate Decontamination. (1) Aim –                  support elements (including Navy
  minimize casualties, save lives, and                Support Elements). Three typical types
  limit the spread of contamination. (2)              of MAGTFs organized are the Marine
  When – conducted as soon as someone                 Expeditionary Unit (MEU), Marine
  suspects they have been contaminated.               Expeditionary Brigade (MEB), and
  (3) Who – individual. (4) What – skin,              Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).
  personal clothing, and equipment.
                                                    METT-TC. An acronym which describes a
Individual Protective Equipment (IPE).                template for planning. All planning,
   Equipment, which when properly worn,               whether it be deliberate, crisis, or
   allows personnel to operate in toxic               campaign, must consider the mission
   environments for a specified period of             (M), the enemy (E), the terrain and
   time.                                              weather (T), the troops and support
                                                      available (T), - the time available (T)
Intermediate      Maintenance      Activity           and the civil considerations (C).
    (IMA). An aviation activity (ship or
    station) authorized to provide I-level          Mission Oriented Protective Posture
    maintenance support. It consists of the            (MOPP). A flexible system for
    aircraft maintenance, supply, and                  establishing shipboard and shore based
    weapons departments/divisions.                     readiness levels through the use of
                                                       various elements of collective and
                    J                                  individual protection consistent with the
                                                       threat, work rates imposed by the
Joint Warning and Reporting Network                    mission     and     by    environmental
    (JWARN). The Joint Warning and                     conditions.
    Reporting Network (JWARN) is a
    standardized    software    application                              N
    intended to provide NBC warning and
    reporting, downwind hazard prediction,          Nerve Agent. A lethal chemical agent that
    operations    planning,   and     NBC              interferes with the transmission of nerve
    management capabilities for Joint                  impulses; it can be absorbed into the
    Forces, from battalion to theater-level            body through the eyes, respiratory tract
    command.                                           or the skin; affects the nervous and
                                                       respiratory systems and other vital body
                                                       functions. Nerve agents include both G
DRAFT                                         xiv
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000
    and V series (GA-tabun, GB-sarin, GD-
                                                                           S
    soman and VX)
                                                     Spot Decontamination. A technique used in
                     O
                                                        operational decontamination in which
                                                        limited areas of the aircraft are
Operational Decontamination. (1) Aim –
                                                        decontaminated in order to allow
   minimize contact or transfer hazard and
                                                        ingress/egress       of        aircrew,
   sustain operations. (2) When –
                                                        launch/recovery    of    aircraft,   or
   conducted when operations require. (3)
                                                        maintenance.
   Who – individuals, crews, teams, or
   units. (4) What – specific parts of
                                                     STANAG. Standardized North Atlantic
   operationally    essential   equipment,
                                                        Treaty Organization Agreement
   material, work areas, and exchange of
   individual protective equipment.                  Super Tropical Bleach (STB). Bleach that
                                                        contains approximately 30% chlorine.
Organizational Maintenance (O-level
   maintenance). Maintenance, which is
                                                                           T
   the responsibility of, and performed by,
   a using organization on its assigned              Thorough Decontamination. (1) Aim –
   equipment. Its phases normally consist               reduce contamination to the lowest
   of inspecting, servicing, lubricating,               possible levels, to permit partial or total
   adjusting, and replacing parts, minor                removal of IPE and maintain operations
   assemblies, and subassemblies.                       with minimum degradation. (2) When –
                                                        conducted when operations, manning,
                     P                                  and resources permit. (3) Who – units or
                                                        wings, with or without external support.
Persistency. In biological or chemical
                                                        (4) What – personnel, equipment,
   warfare, the characteristic of an agent,
                                                        material, or work areas (may include
   which pertains to the duration of its
                                                        some terrain beyond the scope of
   effectiveness,      under       determined
                                                        operational decontamination
   conditions after its dispersal.
                                                     Threat Conditions (ThreatCons). Threat
Plane    Captain.   Aviation personnel
                                                        Conditions are a flexible system
   responsible for general servicing,
                                                        determined by the most current enemy
   appearance, inspections, fueling, pre-
                                                        situation,   as    depicted    by    the
   launch and post flight inspections of
                                                        continuously updated IPB (intelligence
   aircraft.
                                                        preparation of the battlefield) process.
                                                        This allows local commanders to
Propeller Wash. Wind produced by the
                                                        increase the threat status as conditions
   propeller of an aircraft.
                                                        change in their area of operations. The
Protective Ensemble (aircrew and non-                   chemical and biological threat status
   aircrew). The combination of above the               serial numbers are for planning purposes
   neck and below the neck protective                   in accordance with STANAG 2984.
   apparel worn by an individual.
                                                     Total Protection Zones (TPZ). A zone
                                                        within a collective protection system
                     R
                                                        that provides protection against liquid,
Rotor Wash. Wind produced by the rotor                  solid, and gaseous CBR agents.
   blades of an aircraft.
                                                     Toxic Industrial Hazards. Toxic industrial
                                                        compounds (TICs) and toxic industrial
                                                        materials (TIMs), which present a
                                                        serious threat to the force.


                                                xv                                          DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                    W                                 weapon where such means is a separable
                                                      and divisible part of the weapon.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). In
  arms control usage, weapons that are             Weathering. The process by which
  capable of a high order of destruction             chemical      and   biological    agents
  and/or of being used in such a manner as           deteriorate from surface areas by the
  to destroy large numbers of people. Can            natural action of the environment,
  be nuclear, chemical, biological, and              especially evaporation by temperature
  radiological weapons, but excludes the             and wind for chemicals and ultraviolet
  means of transporting or propelling the            (UV)       light    for      biologicals.




DRAFT                                        xvi
                                                                 NAVAIR 00-000-000

         LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS
    ACRONYM                                 DESCRIPTION
ACADA               Automatic Chemical Agent Detector and Alarm
ACPG                Advanced Chemical Protective Garment
ADRL                Automatic Distribution Requirements List
AIMD                Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department
ALSS                Aircrew Life Support Systems
AMO                 Aircraft Maintenance Officer
AO                  Air Officer (Air Boss)
AOCC/HDC            Air Operations Control Center/Helicopter Direction Center
APE                 Auxiliary Power Equipment
ARS                 Aircrew Respirator Spectacles
ATP                 Allied Tactical Publication
BDO                 Battle Dress Overgarment
BTN                 Below The Neck
BWA                 Biological Warfare Agent
CAM                 Chemical Agent Monitor
CAM/ICAM            Chemical Agent Monitor/Improved Chemical Agent Monitor
CAP                 Combat Air Patrol
CAPDS               Chemical Agent Points Detector System
CARM                Chemical Agent Resistant Material
CB                  Chemical and Biological
CBA&W               Chem/Bio Alarms and Warning
CBR                 Chemical, Biological and Radiological
CCA                 Contamination Control Area
CCS                 Central Control Station
CDM                 Chemical Downwind Message
CDU                 Control Display Unit
CINCLANTFLT         Commander, Atlantic Fleet (Shore Facilities)
CINCPACTFLT         Commander, Pacific Fleet (Shore Facilities)
CJD                 Creutzfeld-Jacobs Disease
CMC                 Commandant of the Marine Corps
CMU-34/P and 35/P   Chemical Protective Undergarment
CMWDS               Countermeasure Washdown System
CNET                Chief of Naval Education and Training
CNO                 Chief of Naval Operations
CNTRA               Chief of Naval Air Training
COLPRO              Collective Protection
COMMARFORLANT       Commander, Marine Forces Atlantic
COMMARFORPAC        Commander, Marine Forces Pacific
COMMARFORRES        Commander, Marine Forces Reserve
COMNAVAIRLANT       Commander, Naval Air Forces Atlantic
COMNAVAIRPAC        Commander, Naval Air Forces Pacific
COMNAVAIRSYSCOM     Commander, Naval Air Systems Command
COMNAVFACENGCOM     Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command
COMNAVRESFOR        Commander, Naval Reserve Force
COMNAVSAFCEN        Commander, Naval Safety Center
COMNAVSEA           Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command
COMNAVSURFLANT      Commander, Naval Surface Force Atlantic
COMNAVSURFPAC       Commander, Naval Surface Force Pacific
COTS                Commercial Off The Shelf
CPE                 Chemical Protective Ensemble
                                     xvii                                       DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000

        ACRONYM                              DESCRIPTION
CPL                 Contamination Purge Lock
CPS                 Collective Protection System
CSAR                Combat Search and Air Rescue
CWA                 Chemical Warfare Agent
CWDD                Chemical Warfare Directional Detector
DAD                 Detailed Aircraft Decon
DC                  Damage Control
DCA                 Damage Control Assistant
DCC                 Damage Control Center
DED                 Detailed Equipment Decon
DFU                 Dry Filter Unit
DPO                 Disaster Preparedness Officer
DS2                 Decontaminating Solution number 2
DU                  Detector Unit
EASU                External Air Sampling Unit
ECS                 Environmental Control System
EDM                 Effective Downwind Message
FARP                Forward Arming and Refueling Points
FFI                 Fatal Familial Insomnia
FM                  Field Manual
FOV                 Field Of View
FOX                 M93A1 NBC Reconnaissance System
GC/MS               Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer
GPS                 Global Positioning Satellite
GSE                 Ground Support Equipment
GSS                 Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome
HAZMAT              Hazardous Material
HHA                 Hand Held Assay
HTH                 High-Test Hypochlorite
IBADS               Interim Biological Agent Detection System
ICS                 Internal Communications System
ICUA                Inner Clothing Undressing Area
IEDK                Individual Equipment Decontamination Kit
IMA                 Intermediate Maintenance Activity
IPDS                Improved (Chemical Agent) Point Detector System
IPE                 Individual Protective Equipment
ITS                 Individual Training Standards
JSLIST              Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology
KMPH                Kilometers per hour
LHA                 Landing Ship, Helicopter Assault
LHD                 Landing Ship, Helicopter Dock
LOX                 Liquid Oxygen
MAGTF               Marine Air Ground Task Forces
MCCDC               Marine Corps Combat Development Command
MCRP                Marine Corps Reference Publication
MCWP                Marine Corps Warfighting Publication
MEF                 Marine Expeditionary Force
METT-T              Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, and Time
MEU                 Marine Expeditionary Unit
MOPP                Mission Oriented Protective Posture
MRC’s               Maintenance Requirement Cards
MS                  Methyl Salicylate

DRAFT                                xviii
                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000

    ACRONYM                           DESCRIPTION
MSOGS          Molecular Sieve Oxygen Generating Systems
NATEC          Naval Air Technical Data and Engineering Service Command
NATOPS         Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization
NAVAIRSYSCOM   Naval Air Systems Command
NBC            Nuclear, Biological and Chemical
NBC WRS        Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warning and Reporting System
NCO            Non Commissioned Officer
NEPMU          Navy Environmental and Preventative Medicine Unit
NRFI           Not Ready For Issue
NSTM           Naval Ships’ Technical Manual
NWDC           Navy Warfare Development Center
NWP            Navy Warfare Publication
OBOGS          On-Board Oxygen Generating Systems
OCUA           Outer Clothing Undressing Area
OD             Olive Drab
OJT            On the Job Training
PAA            Peracetic Acid
PDDA           Power Driven Decon Apparatus
PDDE           Power Driven Decon Equipment
PID            Photo Ion Detector
POL            Petroleum, Oils, Lubricants
PQS            Personnel Qualification System
RDU            Remote Display Unit
RSCAAL         Remote Sensing Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm
SDK            Skin Decontamination Kit
SDO            Squadron Duty Officer
SE             Support equipment
SMPO           Senior Maintenance Petty Officer
SOF            Special Operations Forces
SOPs           Standing/Standard Operating Procedures
STB            Supertropical Bleach
TIC            Toxic Industrial Chemicals
TIH            Toxic Industrial Hazards
TIM            Toxic Industrial Materials
TM             Technical Manual
TMS            Type, Model, Series
USA            United States of America
USAF           United States Air Force
USMC           United States Marine Corps
USN            United States Navy
VEE            Venezuelan equine encephalitis
VOC            Volatile Organic Compounds
WC             Work Center
WCS            Work Center Supervisors
WMD            Weapons of Mass Destruction




                                xix                                     DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000

                                            PREFACE
SCOPE                                                does not have a library, then send a letter to
                                                     the Commanding Officer, Naval Air
This NATOPS manual is issued by the                  Technical Data and Engineering Service
authority of the Chief of Naval Operations           Command, NAS North Island, P.O. Box
and under the direction of Commander,                357031, Building 90 Distribution, San
Naval Air Systems Command in conjunction             Diego,     CA      92135-7031,      requesting
with the naval air training and operating            assignment of a distribution account number
procedures standardization (NATOPS)                  (if necessary) and automatic mailing of
program. It provides the best available              future issues of the publications needed.
operating      instructions   for     most
circumstances, but no manual is a substitute                             Note
for sound judgment. Operational necessity
may require modification of the procedures                 The ADRL floppy disk can be
contained herein.                                          used only to place an activity on
                                                           the mailing list for automatic
HOW TO GET COPIES                                          distribution of future issues of the
                                                           publications. It cannot be used to
One Time Orders                                            make one time orders of
                                                           publications from current stock.
If this publication is needed on a one time                To get publications from stock,
basis (without future updates), order it from              see One Time Orders above.
stock by sending an electronic DD 1348
requisition in accordance with NAVSUP                Once established on automatic distribution
Publication 2002D.                                   for this or any other NAVAIR technical
                                                     publication, an activity must submit an
                   Note                              ADRL report on floppy disk at least once
                                                     every 12 months to update or confirm their
      CBD Resource CD can be                         automatic distribution requirements.
      obtained      by        contacting
      Commander, Naval Air Systems                                       Note
      Command, Sam Frazier, APMSE
      Chemical Biological Defense,                         Activities not submitting an
      Code 4.1.8, B-2187, Suite 2240-                      ADRL report on floppy disk for
      G6, Patuxent River, MD 20670, or                     more than 12 months may be
      by accessing the PMA-202                             dropped from distribution of all
      website                         at:                  NAVAIR technical publications.
      https://pma202.navair.navy.mil.
                                                     UPDATING THE MANUAL
Automatic Distribution (With
Updates)                                             To ensure that the manual contains the latest
                                                     procedures and information, NATOPS
This publication and changes to it are               review conference are held in accordance
automatically sent to activities that are            with the current OPNAVINST 3710.
established on the Automatic Distribution
Requirements List (ADRL) maintained by               CHANGE RECOMMENDATIONS
Naval Air Technical Data and Engineering
Service Command (NATEC), NAS North                   Recommended changes to this manual, or
Island, San Diego, CA. If there is a                 other NATOPS publications, may be
continuing need for this publication, each           submitted by anyone in accordance with the
activity’s Central Technical Publication             current OPNAVINST 3710.
Librarian must send a revised ADRL report            Routine change recommendations are
on floppy disk to NATEC. If an activity              submitted directly to the model manager on

DRAFT                                           xx
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000
OPNAV 3710/6 (4-90) shown on the next                 CHANGE SYMBOLS
page. When submitting routine changes
ensure only one change recommendation is              Revised text is indicated by a black vertical
contained on each form. The address of the            line in either margin of the page, adjacent to
model manager of this manual is:                      the affected text, like the one printed next to
                                                      this paragraph. The change symbol identifies
Commander, Naval Air Systems Command                  the addition of either new information, a
PMA 202                                               changed procedure, the correction of an
Patuxent River, MD 20670                              error, or a rephrasing of the previous
                                                      material.
Change recommendations of an URGENT
nature (safety of flight, etc.) should be             WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
submitted directly to the NATOPS advisory
group member in the chain of command by               The following definitions apply to
priority message. Advisory group members              ―WARNINGS‖,       ―CAUTIONS‖,         and
are listed in the current OPNAVINST 3710.             ―NOTES‖, found throughout the manual.
In addition, COMNAVSEASYSCOM,
COMNAVSURFLANT,                       and
COMNAVSURFPAC are designated as
                                                                        WARNING
advisory group members for the CBD
NATOPS manual.                                              An      operating     procedure,
                                                            practice, or condition that may
YOUR RESPONSIBILITY                                         result in injury or death if not
                                                            carefully observed or followed.
Read this manual from cover to cover. It’s
your responsibility to have a complete
knowledge of its contents. NATOPS
manuals are kept current through an active                              CAUTION
manual change program. Any corrections,
additions, or constructive suggestions for                  An       operating    procedure,
improvement of its content should be                        practice, or condition that may
submitted by routine or urgent change                       result in damage to equipment if
recommendation, as appropriate, at once.                    not carefully observed or
                                                            followed.
NATOPS MANUAL INTERIM
CHANGES                                                                   Note
Interim changes are changes or corrections                  An      operating     procedure,
to NATOPS manuals promulgated by CNO                        practice, or condition that is
or     COMNAVAIRSYSCOM.               Interim               essential to emphasize.
changes are issued either as printed pages or
as naval messages. The interim change                 WORDING
summary page is provided as a record of all
interim changes. Upon receipt of a change or          The concept of word usage and intended
revision, the custodian of the manual should          meaning which has been adhere to in
check the updated interim change summary              preparing this manual is as follows:
to ascertain that all outstanding interim
changes have been either incorporated or              ―Shall‖ has been used only when application
canceled; those not incorporated shall be             of a procedure is mandatory.
recorded as outstanding in the section
provided.                                             ―Should‖ has been used only when
                                                      application of a procedure is recommended.



                                                xxi                                           DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
―May‖ and ―need not‖ have been used only              ―Will‖ has been used only to indicate
when application of a procedure is optional.          futurity, never to indicate any degree of
                                                      requirement for application of a procedure.




DRAFT                                          xxii
                                                                                                     NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                                                                                               DATE
             NATOPS/TACTICAL CHANGE RECOMMENDATION
                              TO BE FILLED IN BY ORIGINATOR AND FORWARDED TO MODEL MANAGER
FROM (originator)                                                UNIT

TO (Model Manager)                                                        UNIT
Please select name from list
COMPLETE NAME OF MANUAL/CHECKLIST                    REVISION DATE        CHANGE DATE         SECTION/CHAPTER          PAGE   PARAGRAPH

RECOMMENDATION (Be specific)




                                                                                                                  CHECK IF CONTINUED ON BACK

JUSTIFICATION




SIGNATURE                                                                        RANK           TITLE

ADDRESS OF UNIT OR COMMAND

                                       TO BE FILLED IN BY MODEL MANAGER (Return to Originator)
FROM                                                                 DATE

TO

REFERENCE
     (a) Your Change Recommendation Dated


         Your change recommendation dated_____________________________ is acknowledged. It will be held for action of the
         review conference planned for _________________________ to be held at ________________________________________.


         Your change recommendation is reclassified URGENT and forwarded for approval to __________________________________
         By my DTG _________________________________________________.

lsl ______________________________________MODEL MANAGER                              ___________________________________________AIRCRAFT

OPNAV 3710/6 (APR 1990)                                                                                                        Page 1 of 2 Pages




                                                                xxiii                                                 DRAFT
        NAVAIR-000-00-000
CONTINUED




OPNAV 3710/6 (APR 1990)            Page 2 of 2 Pages




        DRAFT               xxiv
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                                  2
                                         CHAPTER 1
                                      Introduction
1.1 GENERAL                                            aircraft in contaminated environments while
                                                       avoiding transfer of contamination to
The increasing proliferation of, chemical              aircraft, facilities and personnel. Procedures
and biological warfare technology, along               described are general in nature and provide
with the intent and willingness by others to           broad guidance for the following categories
use these weapons in both a conventional or            of aircraft: multi-engine fixed wing, tactical
asymmetric manner, requires that all                   air and helicopters.
USN/USMC aviation units be prepared to
survive, operate, and remain effective in a            1.2.6 Chapter 6, Chemical and
hostile, debilitating, chemical and biological         Biological Detection. This chapter
(CB) warfare environment.                              provides information regarding CB detection
                                                       equipment organic to naval aviation units as
1.2 PURPOSE                                            well as detection capabilities of ships, shore
                                                       facilities and USMC aviation units and
The purpose of this manual is to provide               Marine Air Ground Task Forces (MAGTF).
USN/USMC aviation personnel with
information, tactics, techniques and                   1.2.7 Chapter 7, Chemical and
procedures that will allow aviation units to           Biological Contamination Control.
survive, operate in and recover from                   This chapter describes recommended control
exposure to CB materials. This manual is               procedures to avoid contamination ashore
organized into nine Chapters.                          and afloat.

1.2.1 Chapter 1, Introduction. This                    1.2.8 Chapter 8, Decontamination.
chapter explains the purpose of the manual             This chapter describes decontamination
and describes how it is organized.                     methods and principles. Also discussed are
                                                       types of decontamination as well as detailed
1.2.2 Chapter 2, Chemical and                          procedures for conducting decontamination
Biological Defense. This chapter                       of contaminated aircrews, aircraft and
provides basic chemical and biological                 support equipment ashore and afloat.
threat information.
                                                       1.2.9 Chapter 9, Aircraft Handling and
1.2.3 Chapter 3, Aircrew Chemical                      Operations in a Chemical and
and Biological Defense Individual                      Biological Environment. This chapter
Protective Equipment (IPE). This                       describes     procedures    for   handling
chapter describes individual equipment and             contaminated      aircraft    to    include
systems designed to protect aircrews when              maintenance implications. Also discussed
operating in the CB environment.                       are relationships between the aviation unit
                                                       and various support providers both ashore
1.2.4 Chapter 4, Donning and Doffing                   and afloat.
Aircrew Chemical and Biological IPE.
This chapter explains how to wear aircrew              1.3 SCOPE
individual protective equipment and how to
take it off in an uncontaminated                       This manual provides information, guidance,
environment.                                           methods and procedures for Navy and
                                                       Marine aviation units to sustain operations
1.2.5 Chapter 5, Ingress and Egress                    in CB environments both ashore and afloat.
in a Chemical and Biological                           Detection, avoidance and decontamination
Environment. This chapter describes                    are the cornerstones to sustaining operations.
methods aircrews use to enter and exit                 To perform these tasks it is essential that the
                                                 1-1                                           DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
material contained herein be studied and                Commander, Naval Air Forces Pacific
assimilated. It is essential to reinforce this          (COMNAVAIRPAC)
study with training and drills. This manual is          Commander, Naval Air Forces Atlantic
not intended cover every contingency which              (COMNAVAIRLANT)
may arise nor every rule of safety and good             Chief of Naval Air Training (CNTRA)
practice. It is also not intended to replace            Chief of Naval Education and Training
existing USN/USMC CBD methods, but                      (CNET)
rather to enhance and build upon them. The              Marine Corps Combat Development
tactics, techniques and procedures contained            Command (MCCDC)
in Naval Ships Technical Manual (NSTM)                  Navy Warfare Development Command
Chapter 470 ―Shipboard BW/CW Defense                    (NWDC)
and Countermeasures‖, Navy Warfare                      Commander, Marine Forces Pacific
Publication (NWP) 3-20.31 (Rev A)                       (COMMARFORPAC)
―Surface Ship Survivability‖, Marine Corps              Commander, Marine Forces Atlantic
Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 3-37.3                   (COMMARFORLANT)
(dual designation, Army Field Manual (FM                Commander,      Naval     Reserve   Force
3-5) ―Decontamination‖ and MCWP 3-37,                   (COMNAVRESFOR)
―MAGTF NBC Operations‖ form the basis                   Commander, Marine Forces Reserve
of CBD and decontamination in the Navy                  (COMMARFORRES)
and Marine Corps. Aviation units must                   Commander,      Naval      Safety Center
coordinate their CBD requirements with                  (COMNAVSAFCEN)
ships, stations ashore, expeditionary airfields         Commander, Naval Surface Force Pacific
and other organizations that provide                    (COMNAVSURFPAC)
facilities and support to naval aviation units.         Commander, Naval Surface Force Atlantic
                                                        (COMNAVSURFLANT)
1.4 ADVISORY GROUP                                      Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command
                                                        (COMNAVSEA)
The following activities comprise          the          Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering
advisory group for this manual.                         Command (COMNAVFACENGCOM)

Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC)                    Commanders shall designate their advisory
Commander, Pacific Fleet (CINCPACTFLT                   group representative in writing and forward
Shore Facilities)                                       correspondence     to   NAVAIR        (PMA
Commander,          Atlantic      Fleet                 202L/AIR-4.1.8). NAVAIR shall be advised
(CINCLANTFLT Shore Facilities)                          on each occasion when a new representative
Commander, Naval Air Systems Command                    is                                 assigned.
(COMNAVAIRSYSCOM)




DRAFT                                             1-2
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                          CHAPTER 2
          Chemical and Biological Defense
2.1 PURPOSE                                            1. Counter proliferation. Three principle
                                                          methods support the national counter
This section provides aviation commands                   proliferation strategy.
with pertinent information on achieving and
maintaining the capability to conduct and                 a. Interdiction. This critical counter
sustain essential naval air operations during                proliferation method prevents the
threat from and or exposure to CB weapons.                   movement of WMD materials,
Chemical and biological defense (CBD)                        technology and expertise to hostile
requires organization, specific procedures,                  states and terrorists.
responsibilities    and     training.   While
background information is readily available               b. Deterrence. Use of military,
for the land battlefield and shipboard                       economic, and political means to
communities the same is not true for naval                   deter the use of WMD weapons.
aviation. Naval aviation commands have                       For the military option, this
unique requirements, therefore CBD must be                   includes the full range of
tailored to operational aviation needs.                      conventional and nuclear weapons
                                                             along with the threat of
2.2 UNITED STATES CBR POLICY                                 overwhelming force in response to
                                                             WMD use against the United
The national policy with respect to weapons                  States or its allies.
of mass destruction (WMD) is to prevent
further proliferation and to reduce to the                c. Defense and Mitigation. Active
greatest extent possible the current inventory               and passive defensive measures as
consistent with the national interest. The                   well as mitigation seek to assist
national goal with respect to chemical and                   forces in the accomplishment of
biological warfare is a complete and                         their missions and to assist friends
verifiable world wide ban on the                             and allies when WMD are used.
development, production and stockpiling of                   Active defensives disrupt, disable
chemical and biological weapons. Until such                  or destroy WMD weapons enroute
a ban is achieved, however, and is consistent                to their targets. Passive measures
with existing treaties and international law,                allow us to detect and avoid, and if
U.S. policy is to deter the use of chemical,                 necessary, protect from and
toxin and biological weapons against U.S.,                   decontaminate the effects of
allied and coalition forces by maintaining                   WMD.
the capabilities to deny an enemy significant
military advantage from their use. Deterrent           2. Nonproliferation. Six approaches
capabilities shall include the ability to                 guide the national policy with regard
survive an initial attack and continue                    to nonproliferation.
military operations in a contaminated
environment.3                                             a. Active           Nonproliferation
                                                             Diplomacy. Active employment of
The strategy for achieving the national goal                 diplomatic approaches in bilateral
contains three pillars: Counterproliferation                 and multilateral settings to
to combat WMD use, strengthening                             dissuade cooperation between
nonproliferation     to   combat      WMD                    supplier states and proliferant
proliferation, and consequence management                    states and to induce proliferant
to respond to WMD use.4                                      states to end WMD and missile
                                                             programs.


                                                 2-1                                      DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
        b. Multilateral       Regimes.    This          essential operations in a chemical warfare
           approach seeks to support and                agent (CWA) contaminated environment.
           strengthen                  existing
           nonproliferation and arms control            2.2.2 Biological Warfare. The United
           regimes and to promote new                   States will not use biological agents,
           agreements consistent with other             including toxins, regardless of source or
           policy priorities.                           manner of production, or other methods of
                                                        biological warfare under any circumstances.
        c. Nonproliferation    and    Threat            The U.S. will strictly limit its biological and
           Reduction Cooperation. Under a               toxin research program to defensive
           number of programs, this approach            measures, such as production of vaccines,
           addresses proliferation threats              antidotes,   treatment       and     protective
           stemming from Soviet-legacy                  equipment. U.S. policy is in accordance with
           WMD        and     missile-related           the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1972
           expertise and materials. The                 Biological Weapons Convention, both of
           programs also encourage friends              which the U.S. has ratified. However, U.S.
           and allies to contribute to these            Naval Forces must be prepared to mitigate
           programs and to work with other              an enemy’s use of biological warfare agents
           countries to improve the security            (BWA).
           of their WMD-related materials.
                                                        2.3 CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS
        d. Controls on Nuclear Materials.
           The United States will continue to           2.3.1 General. Chemical warfare agents
           discourage      the     worldwide            (CWA) are classified based upon
           accumulation      of     separated           persistency and physiological effects.
           plutonium and to minimize the use            Persistent, semi-persistent     and   non-
           of highly enriched uranium.                  persistent describes the duration of
                                                        effectiveness of CWA. Physiological
        e. U.S. Export Controls. The overall            classification describes chemical agents
           goal is to focus resources on                according to their effect on the body. The
           sensitive exports to hostile states          six major types are nerve, blood, blister,
           or those that engage in onward               choking, psychochemical and irritant.
           proliferation.
                                                        2.3.2 Persistent and Semi-Persistent
        f. Nonproliferation Sanctions.                  Agents. These agents are used to impede
                                                        the use of critical terrain, channelize the
  3. WMD Consequence Management.                        attacking force or contaminate materiel.
     The final pillar that supports the                 Persistent and semi-persistent agents
     national strategy seeks to provide the             produce casualties (immediate or delayed)
     full range of protective, medical and              when the vapors are inhaled or the agent
     remediation tools to identify, assess,             contacts the skin. Additionally, they
     and respond rapidly to a WMD event.                contaminate materiel and degrade unit
                                                        efficiency. Persistent and semi-persistent
2.2.1 Chemical Warfare. The United                      agents force personnel into a higher levels of
States is a signatory to the Chemical                   mission oriented protective posture (MOPP),
Weapons Convention (CWC), which                         which results in degraded operational
prohibits the development, production,                  capabilities and decreased morale. Examples
stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons                of persistent and semi-persistent agents
(CW). The convention does allow quantities              include HD (distilled mustard), VX, TGD
of chemical warfare materials for research              (thickened GD (soman)), GF (cyclosarin),
purposes. In order to deny an enemy any                 and GB (sarin).
battlefield advantage from the use of
chemical weapons, U.S. Naval Forces shall               2.3.3 Non-Persistent Agents. These
be capable of conducting and sustaining                 agents are used to inhibit, injure, or hinder

DRAFT                                             2-2
                                                                                  NAVAIR 00-000-000
activities of targeted units. Non-persistent             include, CG (phosgene), AC (hydrogen
agents force personnel into protective masks             cyanide) and CK (cyanogen chloride).
and may require a higher level of mission
oriented protective posture (MOPP), which                2.3.4 Characteristics. See Figure 2-1 for
results in degraded operational capabilities             characteristics   of    CWA.     Detailed
and decrease morale. Non-persistent agents               information regarding specific CWA can be
usually will not require decontamination.                found in NSTM 470 or FM 3-9, Potential
These agents enter the body through                      Military/Chemical Biological Agents and
inhalation and absorption through the eyes               Compounds (Navy designation NAVFAC P-
and skin. Examples of non-persistent agents              467).

                        THREAT CHEMICAL AGENTS
    Types               Symptoms                      Effects             Rate of Action        Release Form
Nerve            Difficulty breathing.        Incapacitates at low      Very rapid by        Aerosol, vapor, or
 GA              Sweating, drooling,          concentration; kills if   inhalation or        liquid.
 GB              nausea, vomiting,            inhaled or absorbed       through the eyes;
 GD              convulsions, and             through the skin or       slower through the
 GF              dimming of vision.           eyes.                     skin.
 VX              Symptoms usually
                 develop quickly.
Blood and        Difficulty breathing         Kills if high             Rapid.               Aerosol or vapor.
Choking          coma.                        concentrations are
 AC                                           inhaled.
 CK
 CG
Blister          Symptoms range from          Blisters skin and         Blisters from        Liquid or droplets.
 H               immediate to delayed,        respiratory tract; can    mustard may
 HD              depending on agent.          cause temporary           appear several
 HN              Searing of eyes and          blindness. Some sting     hours after
 L               stinging of skin. Powerful   and form welts on the     exposure, whereas
 CX              irritation of eyes, nose,    skin.                     lewisite causes
                 and skin.                                              blisters within
                                                                        minutes of
                                                                        exposure.
                       Figure 2-1 Characteristics of Chemical Warfare Agents



2.3.5     Delivery.      CWAs     may     be                3. Decontaminate as far forward as
disseminated using mortars, artillery,                         possible.
rockets, mines, aircraft, aerosol generators,
missiles, as well as covertly by special                                     Note
operations forces or terrorists.5
                                                                Refer to Chapter 8 of this manual
2.3.6 Decontamination. Chemical agent                           for       details       regarding
decontamination may be accomplished by                          decontamination.
passive (weathering) or active (flush/scrub,
neutralize, absorb) means. Basic principles                 4. Decontaminate by priority.
of chemical decontamination are:

   1. Decontaminate as soon as possible.

   2. Decontaminate       only     what       is
      necessary.


                                                   2-3                                           DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                       Rickettsiae. Smaller than most bacteria, they
                  CAUTION                              are inter-cellular parasites. For the most part
                                                       they require a living host. Human rickettsiae
      Some nerve and blister CWAs                      can be classified into the following groups:
      have similar characteristics to                  typhus, spotted fevers, and Q fever.
      strong organic solvents, and pose
      serious threats to aircraft coatings,            Fungi. Members of the plant kingdom they
      composites, metals, and porous                   include mold, mildew, smut, rust, toadstools,
      materials.                                       puffballs, and yeast. Their military use is
                                                       primarily as anti plant agents. Some produce
2.4 BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS                          mycrotoxins that are poisonous to humans.
                                                       Examples of diseases caused by fungi are in
2.4.1 General. Biological warfare agents               figure 2-2.
(BWA) are classified in three general
categories pathogens (micro organisms),                Viruses. As intracellular parasites they are
toxins, and bio-regulators/modulators. Many            dependent on the synthetic machinery of
of the biological agents are more toxic than           their host cells. Each virus requires its own
chemical agents and may cause casualties at            special type of host cell for multiplication. A
lower dose levels. They can be spread more             virus generally brings about changes in its
easily over a wide area and are effective at           host cell that can eventually lead to cell
lower exposure levels. Incubation periods              death. Examples of diseases caused by
vary from hours to weeks. Some agents kill             viruses include small pox, Venezuelan
while others incapacitate. Some are                    equine encephalitis (VEE), and viral
contagious, others are not. Vaccinations,              hemorrhagic fevers.
prophylaxis and medical treatment after
sickness, are effective for some agents, but           Prions. May infect humans through diet or
not others.                                            medical procedures, or by hereditary
                                                       transmission. Prion based diseases are
2.4.2 Pathogens. Pathogens are living                  characterized by loss of motor control,
organisms too small to be seen by the                  dementia, paralysis, wasting, and eventual
unaided eye. They are universally found in             death following pneumonia. Examples of
air, water. and soil. They may be single cell          diseases caused by prions include
or multi-celled groups. The six types include          Creutzfeld-Jacobs Disease (CJD), a human
bacteria, rickettsiae, fungi, viruses, prions,         variant of BSE, Fatal Familial Insomnia
and protozoa6.                                         (FFI); Kuru; Alpers Syndrom; and
                                                       Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrom
Bacteria. Found almost everywhere, bacteria            (GSS).
are plant like, single celled microorganisms.
They can cause disease by invading host                Protozoa. Larger than bacteria they are
tissue, producing poisons (toxins). Examples           mostly found in moist habitats. Only a few
are anthrax, plague, tularemia, cholera,               species are pathogenic. Their most likely
diphtheria and typhoid fever.                          wartime use would be in strategic
                                                       applications as food and water contaminants.
                                                       Examples are amoebic dysentery and
                                                       malaria. Examples of diseases caused by
                                                       protozoas include amoebic dysentery and
                                                       malaria.




DRAFT                                            2-4
                                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                                                                                LETHALITY
                  TRANSMIT         SYMPTOM              INCUBATION       DURATION              (approximate         PERSISTENCE
  DISEASE
                 MAN-TO-MAN        SUMMARY                PERIOD         OF ILLNESS             case fatality       OF ORGANISM
                                                                                                   rates)
Inhalation       No           Non-specific chest        1-6 days         3-5 days            High                  Stable-spores
Anthrax                       cold symptoms                              (usually fatal if                         remain viable for
(Bacteria)                    followed by                                untreated)                                >40 years in soil
                              respiratory distress,
                              fever, shock, death.
Cutaneous        No           Sores or blisters form    1-12 days                            20% untreated cases   Decays in soil
Anthrax                       on hands and forearms,
(Bacteria)                    followed by back
                              scabs and possible
                              systemic
                              complications.
Brucellosis      No           Prolonged fever,          5-60 days        Weeks to            <5% untreated         Stable
(Bacteria)                    headaches, profuse        (usually 1-2     months
                              sweating, chills, pain    months)
                              in joints and muscles,
                              fatigue, possible
                              mental status changes.
Cholera          Rare         Acute infectious          4 hours-5 days   ≥ 1 week            Low with treatment,   Unstable in aerosols
(Bacteria)                    gastrointestinal          (usually 2-3                         high without          and fresh water
                              disease, vomiting,        days)                                                      Stable in salt water
                              diarrhea, rapid loss of
                              fluids, severe muscular
                              cramps, collapse.
Glanders         Low          Fevers, rigors, sweats,   10-14 days via   Death in 7-10       >50%                  Stable
(Bacteria)                    myalgias, headache,       aerosol          days in form of
                              swollen neck glands,                       septicemia
                              swollen liver.
Pneumonic        High         High fever, chills,       2-3 days         1-6 days            High unless treated   For up to 1 year in
Plague                        malaise followed by                        (usually fatal)     within 12-24 hours    soil 270 days in live
(Bacteria)                    cough with possible                                                                  tissue
                              blood in sputum,
                              respiratory distress to
                              failure.
Bubonic Plague   Low          High fever, malaise,      2-10 days                            14% untreated
(Bacteria)                    painful lymph nodes
                              progressing to septic
                              shock and or
                              pneumonic symptoms.
Tularemia        No           Sudden onset of chills,   2-10 days        ≥ 2 weeks           Moderate if           For months in moist
(Bacteria)                    fever, headache,          (average 3-5)                        untreated             soil or other media
                              muscles aches, fatigue,
                              loss of body fluids
                              possibly accompanied
                              by typhoid-like
                              symptoms, deep ulcers
                              found on skin with
                              swelling of regional
                              lymph nodes.
Q Fever          Rare         Sudden onset of fever,    10-40 days       2-14 days           Low                   For months on
(Rickettsiae)                 headache, chills,                                                                    wood and sand
                              weakness, profuse
                              perspiration, upper
                              respiratory problems,
                              mild coughing; chest,
                              muscle and joint pain.
Smallpox         High         Malaise, fever, rigors,   7-17 days        4 weeks             High to moderate      Stable
(Virus)                       vomiting, headache        (average 12)
                              and backache followed
                              by pustules on the
                              skin, primarily the
                              extremities and face.

                               Figure 2-2 Biological Warfare Agents (1 of 2)


                                                         2-5                                                       DRAFT
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                                                                 LETHALITY
                  TRANSMIT         SYMPTOM               INCUBATION         DURATION            (approximate         PERSISTENCE
  DISEASE
                 MAN-TO-MAN        SUMMARY                 PERIOD           OF ILLNESS           case fatality       OF ORGANISM
                                                                                                    rates)
Venezuelan       Low          General malaise,           2-6 days           Days to weeks     Low                   Relatively unstable
Equine                        spiking fevers, rigors,
Encephalitis                  severe headache, aches
(Virus)                       and pains, light
                              sensitivity. Nausea,
                              vomiting, sore throat,
                              diarrhea may follow.
Viral            Moderate     Flushed skin of face       4-21 days          Death within 7-   High for Zaire        Relatively unstable;
Hemorrhagic                   and chest, petechiae,                         16 days           strain, moderate      depends on agent
Fevers (Virus)                bleeding, swelling,                                             with Sudan
                              hypotension and
                              shock.
Botullism        No           Cranial nerve affliction   1-5 days           Death in 24-72    High without          For weeks in
(Toxin)                       with eyelid droop,                            hours; lasts      respiratory support   nonmoving water
                              blurred vision, double                        months if not                           and food
                              vision, dry mouth and                         lethal
                              throat, difficulty
                              speaking and
                              swallowing, followed
                              by weakness/paralysis
                              and respiratory failure.
Staphylococcal   No           Fever, chills,             3-12 hours after   Hours             <1%                   Resistant to
Enterotoxin B                 headache, myalgias         inhalation                                                 freezing
(Toxin)                       and dry cough.
                              Possible difficulty
                              breathing and chest
                              pain. Possible nausea,
                              vomiting, diarrhea if
                              ingested.
Ricin (Plant     No           Acute onset of fever,      18-24 hours        Days; death       High                  Stable
Toxin)                        chest tightness, cough,                       within 10-12
                              respiratory difficulty,                       days for
                              nausea and aches.                             ingestion
                              Possible necrosis of
                              the respiratory tract
                              followed by death.
Typhoid Fever    High         Dull frontal headache,     3-60 days;
(Rickettsiae)                 fever, and rose-colored    usually 10-14
                              spots on skin,             days
                              constipation or
                              diarrhea, abdominal
                              tenderness
Typhus           High         Headache, high fever,      6-14 days;
(Rickettsiae)                 general aches, pains,      usually 12 days
                              chills, rash.
Rocky                         Fever, chills,             3-14 days
Mountain                      headache, pain in
Spotted Fever                 joints and muscles.
(Rickettsiae)                 Skin rash, which
                              spreads quickly.
                              Neurological
                              abnormalities.
Histoplasmosis   No           Upper respiratory          5-18 days
(Fungi)                       infection, lesions of he
                              skin.
T-2              No           Skin pain, itch,           2-4 hours          Days to months    Moderate              For years, at room
Mycotoxins                    redness, lesions, and                                                                 temperature
(Fungal Toxin)                necrosis of skin. Nose
                              and throat pain, nasal
                              itching and discharge,
                              wheezing, difficulty
                              breathing, and chest
                              pain progress to
                              weakness, and shock
                              and death in sever
                              cases
                                Figure 2-2 Biological Warfare Agents (2 of 2)

  DRAFT                                                  2-6
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000

2.4.3 Toxins. Toxins are chemical                      Sterilizing and disinfectant vapor are also
compounds of biological origin that may be             used in industrial decontamination, but may
lethal when inhaled or ingested, or                    not be suitable for aviation use. The method
incapacitating on skin contact. While                  to be used will depend upon the nature of
pathogens are living organisms, toxins are             the area/equipment and/or the materials to
inert yet harmful by-products of living                be decontaminated. Use only approved
organisms such as bacteria, plants, fungi,             procedures for aircraft. See Chapter 8 of this
snakes, and insects, or their lab-produced             publication for details.
synthetic equivalents. The metabolic
activities of living organisms produce these           2.5 TOXIC INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS
poisonous toxins. Toxins destroy an
organism by overwhelming that organism’s               2.5.1 General. Throughout the world there
ability to rid itself of the poison. The               are hundreds of thousands of places where
bacterial toxins, such as botulinum toxins,            toxic industrial materials (TIM) are used and
are the most highly concentrated toxins                stored. These hazards are commonly
known. Less concentrated toxins, such as the           referred to as toxic industrial hazards (TIH)
mycotoxins, are thousands of times less                and can be used as weapons. The same holds
toxic than botulinum and have limited                  true for toxic industrial chemicals (TIC).
aerosol potential.                                     When faced with TIC/TIM/TIH, use
                                                       extreme caution since CB protective gear
2.4.4 Bioregulators. Bioregulators are                 may not provide adequate protection.
biochemicals that regulate bodily functions.           Request the immediate assistance of trained
They occur naturally in organisms and act as           hazardous material (HAZMAT) such as
neurotransmitters and/or modifiers of neural           USMC CBIRF, U.S. Army Technical Escort
responses. Some of these bioregulators are             Unit, theater Navy Environmental and
chemically synthesized. If introduced in               Preventative Medicine Unit (NEPMU)
large quantities, they will cause severe               specialists, national and host nation first
adverse effects or death.                              responders. Be prepared to evacuate to a
                                                       clean upwind area always avoiding low
2.4.5 Delivery. Delivery is feasible with              terrain and enclosed spaces.
aircraft and missiles, and by aerosol
generators employed by regular or special              2.6 WEATHER FACTORS
operations forces (SOF) and terrorists. SOF
and terrorists can also use liquid cultures to         2.6.1 General. The effectiveness of CWA
contaminate food and water supplies.                   and BWA use is dependent upon weather
Biological agents may be dispersed or                  and topography. The threat to the force
deposited as aerosols, liquid droplets, or dry         increases during periods of stable
powders. Live microorganisms usually grow              atmospheric conditions and low velocity
in a moist environment; therefore, these               winds. Under these conditions hostile forces
agents may be disseminated in a liquid                 can maximize the concentration and
medium as wet aerosols. However,                       duration of a toxic cloud. Soil consistency,
microbiological materials may also be stored           vegetation, the presence of water, and
and released in more stable powder                     shaded areas affects the persistency of
mediums. In general, agents dispersed as dry           agents also.
powder will survive longer than those
dispersed as wet aerosols7.                            2.6.2 Atmospheric Stability. The
                                                       stability of the air mass into which a CB
2.4.6 Decontamination. The most                        agent is released affects agent dissipation
common methods used in biological                      and effectiveness. Atmospheric stability is
decontamination are flushing, scrubbing and            divided into three broad categories as
heating. Exposure of pathogens to the                  defined below. These are further subdivided
environment (UV light, temperature,                    as illustrated in figure 2-3. Figure 2-4
humidity) over time diminishes their affects.          illustrates the correlation between air
                                                       stability and wind velocity that determines
                                                 2-7                                          DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
the most favorable conditions for hostile
employment of an agent.                              3. Lapse       Temperature       Gradient
                                                        (Unstable-U). This condition normally
  1. Inversion    Temperature      Gradient             exists on a clear day when the middle
     (Stable-S)8. This condition usually                and low clouds cover less than 30
     exists on a clear or partially clear               percent of the sky and when the wind
     nights when middle and low clouds                  speed is less than 2.7 Knots (5 kmph).
     cover less than 30 percent of the sky,             It is the least favorable condition for
     and on early mornings until about 1                the enemy to employ chemical or
     hour after sunrise when the wind                   biological agents. When a lapse
     Speed is less than 2.7 Knots (5 kmph)              condition exists, area coverage
     --ideal for enemy employment of                    without diffusion will be enhanced
     chemical agents.                                   with a steady low wind speed of 1.7 to
                                                        3.9 knots (3 to 7 kmph).
  2. Neutral      Temperature      Gradient
     (Neutral-N). This condition usually
     exists on heavily overcast days or
     nights at 1 or 2 hours before sunset or
     1 to 2 hours after sunrise when the
     middle and low clouds cover more
     than 30 percent of the sky.
     Independent of cloud cover and time
     of day, a neutral condition may also
     exist when the wind speed is greater
     than     2.7    Knots     (5    kmph).
     Additionally, periods of precipitation
     are normally accompanied by a
     neutral     condition.    A     neutral
     temperature gradient is most favorable
     for enemy use of biological agents.



        DISPERSION                   ATMOSPHERIC                     TRADITIONAL
        CATEGORY                     DESCRIPTION                     ATMOSPHERIC
                                                                      CONDITIONS

             1                  Very Unstable                               Lapse
             2                  Unstable                                    Lapse
             3                  Slightly Unstable                          Neutral
             4                  Neutral                                    Neutral
             5                  Slightly Stable                            Neutral
             6                  Stable                                    Inversion
             7                  Extremely Stable                          Inversion

                 Figure 2-3 Atmospheric Stability, Categories and Conditions Usage9




DRAFT                                          2-8
                                                                                        NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                                 WIND SPEED IN KNOTS

               1/2   1     2    3    4    5      6         7      8    9    10   11   12   13    14   15   16

       S   1
       T
       A
       B
           2
                                                                                 LESS FAVORABLE
       I
       L
           3
       I
       T
       Y   4
                                                           MARGINAL
       C
       A
       T   5
       E                   MORE FAVORABLE
       G
       O   6
       R
       Y
           7

                         Figure 2-4 Relative Effectiveness of Vapor Agent Usage10

2.6.3 Topography. Terrain contours                             lower levels of airborne hazards. Rough
influence the flow of chemical clouds the                      terrain can create ―quieter‖ zones where
same as they influence airflow. Chemical                       contamination accumulates.
and biological clouds tend to flow over low
rolling terrain and down valleys and settle in                 2.6.4 Ship Avoidance. Ship maneuvering
hollows and depressions and on low ground.                     into clean air is a recognized and
A chemical cloud released in a narrow                          recommended tactic for CBD. However, at
valley subjected to a mountain breeze retains                  certain times (such as during aircraft launch,
a high concentration of agent as it flows                      recovery, respot) maneuvering may create
down the valley due to minimal lateral                         hazardous conditions. If a ship can avoid the
spread. Hence, high dosages are obtained in                    contamination cloud by maneuvering to
narrow valleys or depressions. In areas of                     clean air, it avoids contamination. However,
adjacent land and water, daytime breezes                       once      contaminated     it   carries    the
from the water and nighttime breezes from                      contamination with it, even in clean air.
the land control chemical cloud travel.
                                                               2.7 AIR UNIT CBD ORGANIZATION
Terrain also affects biological agent
distribution. Landforms, e.g., buildings,                      2.7.1 General. To assist naval air units in
surface coverings such as trees and asphalt,                   assigning roles and responsibilities for
and ship structures, influence the channeling                  dealing with CBD the organizational chart
and mixing of air parcels. Gradations in                       provided in figure 2-5 identifies command
terrain, from smooth sand to buildings or                      responsibilities    and        relationships.
trees, result in faster agent dispersion and




                                                     2-9                                              DRAFT
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                         Senior Organization Level
WING/CAG         SHIP                    ASHORE               USMC
CBD              Tycom                   NAVFAC               Wing/MAG
Coordination     Damage Control          Disaster             NBC OFFICER
Officer          Coordinator             Preparedness
CBD              Tycom DC Senior         DP Team              NBC
Petty Officer    Petty Officer           Leaders              Section/Non Commissioned Officer (NCO)


                                      Unit Organization Level
                        Aviation                  Ship                  Ashore              USMC
Squadron         Detachment   Element
CO               OIC          Mission       CO                     CO                 CO
                              Commander
XO               -            Senior        XO                     XO                 XO
                              Aviator
                              Flight
                              Officer
Squadron         SDO          -             Officer of the         Command Duty       SDO
Duty Officer                                Deck                   Officer
(SDO)
Aircraft         Senior          -              Engineering        Public Works       AMO
Maintenance      Maintenance                    Officer            Officer
Officer          Petty Officer
(AMO)            (SMPO)
Operations       Det OPS         -              Operations        Operations          OPS OFFICER
Officer          Officer                        Officer           Officer
First Lt         -               -              First Lt          PW(BLDGS/Gro        -
(ashore)                                                          unds)
Sqd. CBRD        Det CBRD        -              Damage Control    Disaster            SQD NBC Officer/
Officer/CBRD     Coord                          Assistant (DCA), Preparedness         NBC NCO
Petty Officer                                   Leading DCPO & Officer &
                                                DC Parties        Disaster
                                                                  Preparedness
                                                                  Teams
Department       -               -              Department        Department          Dept. Heads
Heads                                           Heads             Heads
Division         -               -              Division Officers PW Division         Div Off
Officers                                                          Officers
Work Center      SMPO            -              WCS               PW Shop             WCS
Supervisors                                                       Supervisors
(WCS)
Medical          -               -              Medical Officer/   Medical Officer/   MO
Officer/Staff                                   Staff              Staff/Clinic
Supply           Supply Petty    -              Supply Officer     Supply Officer     SO
Officer/Matrl    Officer
Ctrl Off
Maintenance      -               -              Gas Free Officer   Safety Office      MCO/SO
Control/Safety
Officer
Mission          -               -               Combat Systems Base Security/        MC
Commander                                        Officer          Disaster Control
                                     Figure 2-5 CBD Organization Chart

  DRAFT                                          2-10
                                                                              NAVAIR 00-000-000
2.7.2 Commanding Officer. The                           2. Establish    decontamination    and
commanding officer provides guidance for                   detection teams from unit personnel
planning for operations under CB                           and equipment.
conditions, training of his unit to function
under CB conditions, and coordinating with              3. Coordinate     requirements      for
senior    and     host   commands.      The                contamination avoidance, detection,
Commanding officer shall appoint a CBD                     and decontamination with unit
Officer and Petty Officer (NCO for Marine                  department heads, and determine host
Aviation Units) to implement CB plans and                  command’s capability to support CBD
training.                                                  requirements.

2.7.3 Executive Officer. Actively support               4. Establish and maintain unit CBD
the command CBD efforts and monitor                        training which maximizes the unit’s
readiness. Take appropriate corrective                     ability to mitigate the affects of,
actions as needed. Monitor command CBD                     operate in, and recover from CB
training and preparedness.                                 attacks. Specific objectives of training
                                                           include simulator and flight training
2.7.4 Squadron Duty Officer (SDO).                         in aircrew Individual Protective
While on watch, serve as the COs                           Equipment      (IPE),    ingress/egress
designated coordinator for CBD.                            procedures for contaminated aircraft
                                                           and facilities, ground support
   1. Notify CO, XO and key unit                           equipment/aircraft/aircraft subsystem
      personnel of all CB threats, warnings,               decontamination, ground crew and
      and alarms.                                          aircrew personnel decontamination
                                                           ashore and afloat, and staff training
   2. Take appropriate CBD actions with                    exercises.
      regard to aircraft, personnel, ready
      rooms, unit spaces, and shop areas per            5. Support unit CBD Petty Officer in
      unit operating procedures ashore and                 establishing an in house CBD training
      afloat.                                              program that assesses unit personnel
                                                           CBD qualification and provides
   3. Monitor all command CBD response                     recurring training.
      efforts and keep the CO, XO, and key
      unit personnel advised.                           6. Periodically review and update units
                                                           CBD standing operating procedures
   4. Establish        and        maintain                 for     contamination      avoidance,
      communications with area, senior, and                protection, and contamination control.
      host commands in monitoring CB
      threat/attack alarms and warning                  7. Assist Department Heads efforts in
      information.                                         maximizing unit CBD readiness while
                                                           maintaining the ability to meet
   5. If possible communicate CBD status                   mission essential tasking.
      to aircraft aloft along with CO’s
      instructions.                                     8. Keep CO informed of units CBD
                                                           status and make recommendations to
2.7.5 Squadron CBD Officer. Serves as                      improve training and readiness.
the commanding officer’s representative
with regard to CB readiness.                          2.7.6 Squadron CBD Petty Officer.

   1. Establish and implement the units                 1. Successfully complete a formal CBD
      CBD SOP.                                             training curriculum at NCTD, Ft
                                                           Leonard Wood or other approved
                                                           location.


                                               2-11                                         DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
  2. Coordinate unit CBD training by                       2. Upon CB warning/attack, implement
                                                              contamination avoidance efforts that
        a. Establishing an individual CBD                     minimize exposure of personnel,
           qualification file on all unit                     aircraft, SE and stores to CB
           personnel. It should confirm basic                 contamination to the absolute
           CBD training in IPE and                            minimum while maintaining the
           confidence chamber qualifications,                 ability to meet unit mission essential
           any      supplemental      training,               tasking.
           Personal Qualification System
           (PQS) formal training and OJT as                3. Coordinate with senior and other local
           ships company.                                     units    in     coordinating       and
                                                              accomplishing CB decontamination
        b. Conducting/coordinating        basic               and contamination transfer controls.
           CBD       training.     Periodically
           conduct refresher training in basic             4. Keep unit SDO and CBD Officer
           and aviation oriented CBD skills                   advised on Department CBD status.
           on an annual basis and/or in
           anticipation of unit, detachment or                a. Task and coordinate department
           aircrew temporary duty in elevated                    heads and work center supervisors
           threat areas.                                         personnel support requirements for
                                                                 CB detection and decontamination
  3. Maintain an inventory of non-aircrew                        teams.
     IPE equipment or coordinate the
     issuing of non-aircrew IPE.                              b. Coordinate decontamination of
                                                                 aircraft systems and sub systems
  4. Assist     parachute    riggers/flight                      with AIMD/IMA, DCA/disaster
     equipment personnel with aircrew IPE                        preparedness, AO and unit CB
     inventory and management.                                   officer.

  5. Coordinate    all     decontamination               2.7.8 Operations Officer
     requirements      (ground      support
     equipment/aircraft/aircraft                           1. Recommend unit threat condition per
     subsystem/ground          crew/aircrew                   area,   theater   and   local   CB
     personnel/ALSS) with the DCA afloat                      warning/alarm/attack message traffic
     and disaster preparedness personnel                      to CO.
     ashore.
                                                           2. Integrate   unit     CB       detection,
  6. Maintain a file of unit non-aircrew CB                   decontamination, reclamation and
     IPE requirements (mask, CPO/ACPG,                        recovery with air operations.
     gloves, and footwear covers). As
     required coordinate the sizing, fitting,              3. Ensure pre-flight briefs include
     and leak testing of masks and                            appropriate CBD information such as
     protective ensembles.                                    local radio frequencies for CB
                                                              information, required aircrew IPE,
2.7.7 Aircraft Maintenance Officer                            current     CB    threat     condition,
                                                              avoidance measures, provisions for
  1. Prepare a contamination avoidance                        decontamination              (including
     plan for maintenance personnel,                          capabilities at divert locations) and
     aircraft, support equipment (SE) and                     contaminated             ingress/egress
     stores that maximizes use of available                   procedures.
     protected spaces, topography and
     emergency covers.                                     4. Notify in-flight aircraft of all CB
                                                              threats, warning, alarms.


DRAFT                                             2-12
                                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000
2.7.9 First Lieutenant (ashore)
                                                    2.7.12 Aviation Supply Officer
  1. Assist CBD staff with the posting of
     CB warning signs and contaminated                1. Protect all supplies/stores from CB
     area marking.                                       contamination.

  2. Coordinate surveillance of squadron              2. Coordinate screening of suspect
     areas for munitions, ordnance and CB                supplies with CB detection teams.
     contamination.
                                                      3. Establish a plan to manage, process,
  3. Assist CBD staff with establishing                  and replace (as required) reusable end
     and maintaining a secure, marked area               items that are not ready for issue
     for personnel CB contamination                      (NRFI) due to contamination.
     control processing.
                                                      4. Assist with CB IPE (aircrew and non-
2.7.10 Department Heads and Work                         aircrew) inventory management.
Center Supervisor
                                                    2.7.13      Maintenance           Control
  1. Prepare and implement a work center            Officer/Safety Officer
     (WC)/department hazard avoidance
     plan that limits contamination                   1. Ensure all unit personnel obey posted
     exposure while still meeting required               hazard warning and request CB
     maintenance actions for mission                     survey of all suspect area for
     essential operations.                               hazardous contaminants/ordnance.

  2. Provide for work-rest scheduling of              2. Ensure that all decontaminated
     exposed personnel.                                  aircraft, tools, ground support
                                                         equipment, systems, subsystems and
  3. Limit contamination exposure of                     Aviation Life Support Systems
     personnel to the minimum possible.                  (ALSS) are marked as being
                                                         previously contaminated and that
     a. Establish a support equipment/tool               equipment       records    annotate
        control accountability system for                decontaminated status.
        contaminated items.
                                                    2.7.14 Mission Commander
     b. AIMD/IMA          activities shall
        establish emergency reclamation               1. Plan for and prepare aircraft /aircrew
        teams to conduct decontamination                 to mitigate CB exposure/hazards.
        of aircraft subsystems.
                                                      2. In the event of suspected CB exposure
2.7.11 Medical Officer                                   take all necessary actions to protect
                                                         personnel and minimize exposure of
  1. Ensure that established medical plans               equipment.         Notify      higher
     for ground and aircrew includes                     headquarters.
     surveillance for CB exposure.
                                                    2.8 CBD TRAINING
  2. Prepare for emergency medical
     response to unit personnel IAW                 2.8.1 General. Existing CBD training for
     BUMED 3400 series and appropriate              U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps personnel
     unit level instructions.                       is accomplished at both individual and unit
                                                    levels.
  3. Coordinate     with      preventative
     medicine    personnel     to   screen          2.8.2 Training Requirements. CBD
     food/water/supplies for CB exposure.           training ashore and afloat shall be

                                             2-13                                        DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
coordinated/integrated with host commands.                evaluations and annual mask confidence
Aviation units shall train to develop the                 exercises. Additional team training exercises
following abilities and skill sets:                       are accomplished as part of ongoing NBC
                                                          readiness exercises. OJT is also regularly
   1. Train aviation personnel to conduct                 accomplished when Marines perform
      aviation operations in aircrew and                  mission     oriented    training    in   full
      non-aircrew IPE for prolonged                       aircrew/non-aircrew IPE.
      periods in accordance with work rate
      tables in FM 3-4, NBC Protection                    2.8.5 Summary. Regular training in full
      (NTTP 3-11.27).                                     IPE has been shown to reduce physiological
                                                          and psychological affects associated with
   2. Complete all NATOPS requirements                    the CB environment and provides the wearer
      for launch and recovery of aircraft in              with a better understanding of how
      MOPP.                                               operations are affected. Operating in MOPP
                                                          builds confidence and allows units to
   3. Perform scheduled and unscheduled                   develop deliberate procedures to reduce
      maintenance in Mission Oriented                     performance degradation.
      Protective Posture (MOPP) to sustain
      air operations.                                     2.9 CBD CONSIDERATIONS

   4. Ingress and egress aircrews in aircrew              2.9.1 General. CBD procedures focus on
      IPE.                                                expeditious warning of the arrival of
                                                          hazardous conditions and moving personnel
   5. Perform continuous and periodic                     to suitable shelter, setting appropriate
      monitoring of aircraft, support                     MOPP, limiting hazard intrusion by sealing
      equipment, facilities, and personnel                up buildings/hull/superstructure, securing all
      using CBD equipment.                                external    ventilation/air    paths,     and
                                                          supervising personnel traffic movements
   6. Perform immediate, operational, and                 between contaminated and clean areas.
      thorough decontamination of aircraft,
      support equipment, and personnel.                   2.9.2 Shipboard. Upon notification/alarm,
                                                          ships personnel simultaneously sound
2.8.3 U.S. Navy. Individual training for                  General Quarters, move to Battle Stations,
enlisted personnel is performed using formal              set condition Circle William (secure all
classroom and ―confidence chamber‖                        exterior sourced ventilation, secure all
sessions. Officer training relies on classroom            weather deck access doors, hatches,
instruction. Upon reporting to an air, ship, or           scuttles), clear weather decks of all
shore unit, enlisted personnel receive                    personnel, and assume the directed level of
additional instruction using the Personnel                MOPP. A ship may also maneuver to remain
Qualification System (PQS), on the job                    clear of suspect/confirmed CB hazards.
training (OJT), and participation in                      Upon command, trained personnel survey
unit/team CBD exercises. Supplemental unit                the ships weather decks for contamination
training is also accomplished to meet                     and report finding to Damage Control
operational readiness requirements, as part               Central (DCC). Remedial actions are taken
of pre-deployment work-ups, or to meet                    as ordered. Aviation units coordinate air
Theater/Fleet       Commander           specific          operations and flight deck access with the
requirements for ―in-chop‖.                               AO and Damage Control Assistant (DCA).

2.8.4 U.S. Marine Corps. All Marines                      2.9.3 Shorebased. Facilities ashore pass
receive basic NBC Defense training during                 CB warnings using aural and visual area
recruit/officer candidate training and during             alarms along with supplemental means (such
follow on combat skills training. Individual              as key personnel networking, cell phones,
training includes annually conducted NBC                  pagers etc.). Civil defense plans should
individual     training    standards    (ITS)             provide instructions on location of collective

DRAFT                                              2-14
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000
protective shelters, procedures for hasty               509 Aircraft Weapons Systems Cleaning
survey of the facility, directed MOPP level             and Corrosion Control. Flight deck
and additional precautions to avoid                     personnel shall use extreme caution while
contamination. Aviation units coordinate air            directing/handling aircraft during CMWDS
operations with base operations personnel.              operation due to degraded visibility. Water
Ground and aircrews shall have ready access             spray can degrade gas mask filter and IPE
to their IPE or be in some level of MOPP.               ensemble effectiveness. Exterior area of
                                                        aircraft not within the CMWDS spray
2.9.4 Aviation. Aviation unit/detachment                pattern can be subject to contaminant
personnel shall follow the CBD procedures               deposition.
in the unit SOP as coordinated with the host
command, unless otherwise ordered by                    2.9.6 Operational Exposure Options.
competent        authority.    Pre-operational          Any decision to conduct and sustain air
planning and coordination essential for                 operations in a CB contaminated
conducting and sustaining air operations in a           environment will involve the deliberate
CB environment shall be accomplished                    exposure of personnel, aircraft and
jointly by aviation units and their host                equipment to toxic agents. This exposure is
activities. It shall include contingencies for          justified in order to deny an enemy any
flight deck emergencies (which may include              battlefield advantage from the use of
providing aircrew/non-aircrew IPE to                    weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
unprepared aircraft occupants, assisting                Operational commitments (tasking/flight
aircraft occupants from aircraft to safety              schedule) should be carefully reviewed by
under CB conditions, and assistance with                commanders to evaluate essentiality versus
casualty handling). For sustaining air                  risk. To assist in this decision making
operations it shall include all tasks                   process the following guide lines are
associated with aircraft operations. These              provided:
tasks include, but are not limited to:
                                                          1. Mission Essential. Failure to perform
   1. Aircraft spotting.                                     this task would result in serious
                                                             threats to national security, serious
   2. Preflight.                                             injury and or death of personnel.
                                                             (examples include medevac ops,
   3. Aircrew Ingress/Egress.                                amphibious                       assault
                                                             sustainment/casualty airlift, combat
   4. Launch/recovery handling.                              air patrol, close air support, airborne
                                                             early warning, etc.)
   5. Servicing.
                                                          2. Mission Support. May be delayed
   6. Re-supply.                                             without serious consequences for
                                                             several hours. Provides time to
   7. Scheduled/unscheduled maintenance.                     evaluate degree of hazard and take
                                                             mitigating actions (decontaminate,
   8. Aircrew transit from and to CCA                        reschedule to already ―dirty‖ aircraft,
      facilities along with CCA processing                   implement risk exposure options).
      wearing normal flight gear, ALSE,
      and aircrew CB IPE.                                 3. Deferred. Task will not be performed
                                                             until operational risk is reduced to
2.9.5 Countermeasure Washdown                                acceptable level.
System (CMWDS). Use of the shipboard
CMWDS will create serious problems
during flight operations. Aircraft exposed to
spray shall be subject to emergency
reclamation for salt water exposure IAW
NAVAIR Technical Manual (TM) 01-1A-

                                                 2-15                                         DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000




        Planning Phase

            Political Situation        Geographical Area (FWD             Overt/suspected
              (World/area)               deployed/CONUS)                  Hostile CB Action




        Preflight Phase


              Area/Theater                  Local CB Threat               Local/Host Activity
            Senior Command                     Guidance                     CB Detection
             Guidance (ATP-               (Threatcon/Defcon)                   Network
            45B NBCJWRNS)                                                    (“Umbrella”)




                                                                           Local Detection
                                                                             Pass-Down
                                                                           (Suspect/actual
                                                                               attack)
        Decision Phase

                                   Mission Tasking Decision Response



                       Deferred                    Essential              Support
                      Stand Down                   Must go               Delay until
                      until safe to                   as                  situation
                        do task                   scheduled            stabilizes or it
                                                                         becomes
                                                                        Essential or
                                                                          Deferred
                                                    “GO”

                                  Figure 2-6 Command CB Awareness




DRAFT                                      2-16
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000

2.10 CB PROTECTION                                     protective equipment that is worn in addition
                                                       to normal flight clothing and aviation life
2.10.1 General. The Navy and Marine                    support equipment. Aircrew IPE is worn by
Corps address personal CB protection both              crewmen when engaged in flight duties
individually and collectively. Individual              (including normal ground activities related
protection provides individual with suitable           to preparing for or returning from flight)
protective garments/gas mask while the                 only. It shall not be worn by crewmen when
collective protection deals with toxic free            performing non-flight duties. When
areas. This section discusses only individual          performing duties other than flight, crewmen
protection.                                            shall wear non-aircrew IPE. Aircrew IPE
                                                       should not be worn by ground support
                                                       personnel,      aircraft   maintainers,    or
                 WARNING                               passengers.

       Aircraft environmental systems                 Aircrew IPE is configured specifically for
        do not provide adequate CB                     the requirements of aircrewmen, therefore it
        protection. Contaminants can                   is not interchangeable with non-aircrew IPE.
        saturate the on board oxygen                   Among the requirements for aircrew IPE,
        generating system (OBOGS)                      which accounts for the differences between
        molecular sieve beds, rendering                aircrew and non-aircrew IPE are:
        them ineffective at filtering CB
        agents.      Additionally,     the                 1. Aircrew      below-the-neck    IPE
        OBOGS system cannot address                           clothing is made to fire retardant
        parallel contamination paths                          specifications, non-aircrew IPE is
        such as unfiltered environmental                      not.
        control system (ECS) air,
        breathing gas supply lines, and                    2. Aircrew       above-the-neck      IPE
        contamination       from      open                    (respirator assembly) is designed
        canopies. Only an in-series CB                        with higher protective capabilities
        filter, down stream of the                            than non-aircrew masks. Two
        interface between ALSS and                            significant capabilities are the neck
        OBOGS, can protect aircrew                            dam seal and the pusher fan. The
        from CB agent inhalation and                          neck dam provides a protective seal
        ingestion.                                            around the crewman’s neck instead
       Individual protective equipment                       of his face (as with non-aircrew
        (IPE) has been designed to                            masks) in order to minimize the
        protect against chemical and                          potential for breaks of the mask
        biological warfare agents. It                         seal. The pusher fan blows filtered
        may not be suitable (particularly                     air into the aircrewman respirator
        masks) for use with toxic                             assembly       that     creates    an
        industrial substances (TIM, TIC,                      overpressure in the mask which
        TIH). It is also not suitable for                     further minimizes CB agent
        use in areas that have                                intrusion      into     the     mask.
        insufficient air to sustain human                     Additionally, the aircrew respirator
        life.                                                 allows for standard flight helmets
                                                              and communication interfaces while
2.10.2        Individual       Protective                     still providing protection. The non-
Equipment (IPE). Individual personal                          aircrew      mask(s)       do     not.
protective ensembles are available to both
ground and aircrew personnel.                              3. Ergonomically, variants of aircrew
                                                              protective gloves are manufactured
2.10.2.1 Aircrew IPE. Aircrew IPE                             so that standard flyers gloves fit
consists of above and below the neck                          over them, while preserving

                                                2-17                                         DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
        maximum range of motion of the                     Chemical Protective Overgarment.
        hands and fingers. Non-aircrew                     See NSTM 470 for more information
        protective gloves are thicker, yet                 regarding the CPE.
        provide no greater level of
        protection.                                     2. Army/Marine         battle     dress
                                                           overgarment (BDO) is a two-piece
There may be instances in a CB                             ensemble worn with the service
contaminated environment were it is                        specific field protective mask, foot
advantageous for crewmen to perform pre-                   wear covers and chemical protective
flight duties in non-aircrew IPE and then                  gloves. See FM 3-4 or Army TM 10-
change to aircrew IPE prior to flight.                     8415-209-10 or USMC TM 8415-10/2
Commanders shall determine when this is                    for more information regarding the
required. In CB contamination situations                   BDO.
where the commander determines that pre-
flight duties are to be conducted in non-               3. Saratoga. USMC specific two-piece
aircrew IPE, crewmen must doff this IPE in                 chemical protective suit that features a
accordance      with    ship    or  station                hood integrated into the suit jacket.
contamination control procedures and then                  The Saratoga suit is worn with the
don appropriate aircrew IPE. Upon return                   service specific protective mask,
from missions, crewmen will doff aircrew                   footwear covers and chemical
IPE in accordance with ship or station                     protective gloves. See FM 3-4 or
contamination control procedures and, as                   Army TM 10-8415-209-10 or USMC
required, will don non-aircrew IPE.                        TM 8415-10/2 for more information
                                                           regarding the Saratoga suit.
See Chapter 3 of this manual or NAVAIR
Technical Manual 13-1-6.10, Special                     4. Joint Service Lightweight Integrated
Mission Aircrew Equipment for information                  Suit Technology (JSLIST) suit. This
regarding aircrew IPE.                                     two-piece garment is the latest joint
                                                           service      chemical       protective
                   Note                                    overgarment. It features an integrated
                                                           hood in the suit jacket and is worn
      Responsibility to provide                           with service specific protective
     aircrew and non-aircrew IPE shall                     masks, footwear covers and chemical
     be the responsibility of the parent                   protective    gloves.    The     Navy
     command, in accordance with                           designation of the JSLIST is
     service directives.                                   Advanced      Chemical      Protective
      Aircrew performance will                            Garment, (ACPG). See NSTM 470 or
     degrade over time while wearing                       Navy manual SS200-AP-MMO-010
     aircrew IPE. However, there is no                     or Army TM 10-8415-220-10 or
     data to suggest the level of                          USMC TM 8415-10/3 for more
     performance degradation while                         information       regarding        the
     wearing aircrew IPE as there is for                   JSLIST/ACPG.
     non-aircrew IPE.
                                                     2.10.2.3 Mission Oriented Protective
2.10.2.2 Non-Aircrew or Ground                       Posture (MOPP). In order to manage
Protective Ensembles. There are several              personal       performance        degradation
different non-aircrew IPE ensembles in the           associated with the need to don CB IPE,
stock system and identified by various               U.S. and Allied Forces have adopted a
terms/acronyms. Examples include:                    system that allows graduated protection
                                                     levels to the CB threat. This system is called
  1. Navy chemical protective ensemble               mission oriented protective posture (MOPP).
     (CPE). This ensemble consists of the            MOPP levels are set by competent authority
     MCU2/P mask, footwear covers,                   that can include senior level command, unit
     chemical protective gloves and                  COs, OICs, or on scene commanders and

DRAFT                                         2-18
                                                                                   NAVAIR 00-000-000
will     vary    depending    on     location
(afloat/ashore). Figure 2-7 illustrates non-                                  Note
aircrew MOPP levels.
                                                                MOPP is only applicable to
Full protection or MOPP 4, can impose                            non-aircrew             protective
serious physiological and psychological                          ensembles. Aircrew IPE is not
stress on some personnel, along with high                        configured to allow graduated
heat stress levels that will vary with                           levels of protection.
assigned work tasks. MOPP seeks to reduce                       Training in CB protective
these stresses by setting levels that vary                       equipment will help reduce IPE
from having IPE readily available, to full                       associated            performance
suit-up. Information provided in NSTM 470                        degradation. Donning the suit,
indicates that personnel in full MOPP (level                     mask, foot covers and gloves at
4) will require about 1.2 to 1.6 times longer                    various levels of MOPP, and
to perform a specific task. Work-rest period                     over increasing spans of time
duration and frequency will also increase                        has been shown to improve
due to heat stress. The ratio of work time to                    performance by acclimatizing
rest time may need to be 1:4 or 1:5, which                       personnel. In addition, training
would drastically increase the time or                           in IPE reveals the tasks that are
number of personnel required to complete a                       difficult to perform in protective
task. Increases in the number of errors or                       equipment and allows personnel
mistakes can be expected. FM 3-4 also                            to       develop        alternative
provides degradation data including                              procedures       to    accomplish
recommended work/rest cycles for personnel                       assigned tasks.
in non-aircrew IPE.




                    Afloat*                                                 Ashore**
  Afloat MOPP1           Afloat Description          Ashore MOPP1                 Ashore Description
                                                    MOPP Ready 2,3         Carry mask; IPE nearby3
                                                    MOPP 0                 Carry mask; IPE available4
MOPP 1                IPE available4                MOPP 1                 Don overgarment
MOPP 2                Activate installed detectors. MOPP 2                 Don protective boots
                      Carry mask5, post M8/M9
                      detector paper.
MOPP 3                Don protective suits and       MOPP 3                  Don protective mask
                      boots, activate intermittent
                      counter-measures
                      washdown (CMWD).
MOPP 4                Don mask and protective        MOPP 4                  Secure hood and don protective
                      gloves, secure hood, Circle                            gloves.
                      William; CMWD.
* USN, USCG, MSC Vessels                             ** USN, USMC, USA, USAF personnel
1
  MOPP gear consists of non-aircrew individual protective equipment and medical supplies for chemical threat
and individual protective equipment only for biological threat
2
  USA/USMC only
3
  IPE must be available to soldiers and Marines within 2 hours. Second set available in 6 hours. MOPP ready
does not apply to USAF.
4
  IPE within arm’s reach of personnel
5
  The term mask includes any form of respirator protection against NBC hazards as issued by services.

                      Figure 2-7 MOPP Matrix (Source: Tactical Memo 3-11.1-02)



                                                   2-19                                           DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000

2.11 COLLECTIVE PROTECTION                           2.12 IPE PROVISIONING
(COLPRO)
                                                     Information on IPE provisioning for both
Toxic free protected areas are provided for          ground and aircrew Navy personnel is
naval personnel afloat and ashore. Detailed          available in NWP 3-20.31 (rev A) Ship
information on the various types available           Survivability. Marines will embark both
afloat is provided in NSTM 470 while shore           non-aircrew and aircrew IPE in accordance
based information is available in U.S. Army          with        tables     of      equipment.
FM 3-4, NBC Protection.




DRAFT                                         2-20
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                               11
                                        CHAPTER 3
    Aircrew Chemical and Biological
Defense Individual Protective Equipment
                 (IPE)
3.1 AIRCREW CB IPE LIMITATIONS
                                                        1. Helicopters (AH-1W, UH-1N, CH-
While designed to protect air crewman in                   46E, CH-53E). Additional bulk of
either chemical or biological contamination                aircrew CB IPE when worn with body
environments,    there    are    equipment                 armor and survival vests interferes
limitations and incompatibility issues                     with aft stick movement. Access to
between aircrew CB IPE, ALSS and specific                  pusher fan controls and battery are
platforms.                                                 also impeded when wearing body
                                                           armor.
   1. Moisture degrades the protective
      qualities of below the neck protective            2. Tactical Aircraft.
      equipment and the C2/C2A1 filters
      attached to the aircrew respirator.                   a. F-14A/B. Unable to reach/operate
                                                               circuit breaker panels. Difficulty
   2. Anti-exposure     suits     are    not                   in operating thumbwheels while
      compatible     with     aircrew    CB                    wearing gloves.
      protective equipment.
                                                            b. F-18A-D. CB communication
3.1.1 Vision Correction. Aircrew                               cable has potential to snag on
Respirator Spectacles (ARS) are the only                       equipment and to inadvertently
corrective eyewear compatible with the                         disconnect.
aircrew CB respirator. Refer to NAVAIR
Technical Manual 13-1-6.10, Special                         c. AV-8B. CB communication cable
Mission Aircrew Equipment, for details on                      has potential to snag on equipment
fitting and ordering ARS.                                      and to inadvertently disconnect.
                                                               Additional bulk of aircrew CB IPE
3.1.2 Night Vision Devices and Laser                           restricts full range of stick control
Eye Protection (LEP). Field of view is                         movement for personnel in the
reduced when wearing the aircrew                               higher anthropometric range.
respirator. This is due to increased distance
from pupil to the optic lens. The only LEP                  d. EA-6B. Additional bulk if aircrew
compatible with aircrew CB respirators are                     CB IPE restricts full range of stick
helmet mounted visor types. Spectacle LEP                      control movement for personnel in
is not compatible with the respirator of the                   the higher anthropometric range.
helmet mounted visor LEP configurations,
only the STEP-IN neodymium visor is                     3. Multi-Engine Fixed Wing Aircraft (E-
compatible with both aircrew CB respirators                2C). Insufficient hose length to
and night vision devices. All other LEP                    connect to emergency oxygen.
visor configurations result in inability to
achieve proper eye relief.                            3.1.4 Warnings. Crewmen, plane captains
                                                      and flight equipment personnel must be
3.1.3 Aircraft Incompatibility. Known                 familiar with aircrew CB equipment. The
incompatibilities and problems with aircrew           following warnings have been extracted
CB protective equipment to specific                   from NAVAIR technical manual 13-1-6.10,
platforms are presented below:                        Special Mission Equipment, to alert users,
                                                3-1                                          DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
maintainers and support personnel to critical                        WARNING
issues regarding aircrew IPE:

                                                         Only the C2 or C2A1 canister
                   WARNING                                (NIIN 01-119-2315) shall be
                                                          used as part of A/P23P-14A(V)
       If canteen is disconnected in a                   Respirator Assembly. Wear
        CBR                  contaminated                 protective mask and clothing, in
        environment, do not reconnect                     accordance with local standard
        until all matching connectors                     operating procedures, when
        are free of contamination.                        replacing or disposing of a
       Either     a    nose      occluder                canister that has been exposed
        (authorized for (V)1, (V)2, (V)3                  to a toxic agent.
        or (V)4) or butyl blanking plugs                 J-manifold         gaskets     are
        (authorized for (V)1 only) must                   occasionally displaced from
        be installed to ensure CBR                        manifold when C2 or C2A1
        protection.                                       canister is removed. Visual
       If pusher fan fails to operate in a               inspection to ensure that the
        contaminated environment or if                    gasket is in place must be
        aircrew member is immersed in                     performed when C2 or C2A1
        water, close the hood outlet                      canisters are removed or
        valve.                                            installed.
       Excessive dirt, sand, dried                      Failure to seat rubber molding
        liquid nourishment, or vomit in                   properly may result in restricted
        mask assembly can degrade                         oxygen flow to the user, i.e., do
        protection against CB agents.                     not push rubber molding past lip
        Presence of foreign matter in                     groove connection.
        mask      may       degrade     its              Filter canisters do not provide
        performance and subject wearer                    protection against ammonia gas
        to contamination.                                 or carbon monoxide. Protection
       Scratches and gouges in lens                      against sulfur dioxide gas can be
        area of polycarbonate faceplate                   provided for only 5 to 10
        compromise visual acuity and                      minutes.
        the protective qualities of the                  Do not subject pusher fan power
        respirator, rendering it unusable                 cord to excessive stress such as
        and shall be cause for removal                    when disconnecting the battery
        from service. Damage or                           by pulling on the cord rather
        scratches to faceplate cannot be                  than the plug. Failure to firmly
        repaired. Use care when                           grasp the plug itself when
        cleaning faceplate. Abrasive                      disconnecting the battery may
        cleaners, adhesives and solvents                  compromise the integrity of the
        must not be applied to visual                     power cord and/or the electrical
        areas of faceplate. Velveteen                     connection and result in an in-
        covers are not to be used for                     flight failure.
        cleaning and polishing.                          Ensure intercom unit is turned
                                                          off prior to removing or
                                                          installing batteries. Failure to
                                                          turn the intercom unit off may
                                                          cause electrical arcing, resulting
                                                          in fatal explosion or fire,
                                                          especially      in    combustible
                                                          atmospheres.


DRAFT                                           3-2
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000

                   WARNING                             (V)4 Respirator Assembly variants are
                                                       intended for use by all USN/USMC rotary
       If the LOX/OBOGS regulator                     and fixed wing aircrew personnel for both
        assembly is damaged, it must be                ground and in-flight operations. A modified
        removed and replaced.                          HGU series helmet will be worn over the
       If pusher fan delivery and/or                  mask to provide head protection in-flight.
        oxygen delivery hose(s) is/are                 Refer to NAVAIR 13-1-6.7-3 for applicable
        damaged, it/they must be                       helmets.
        removed and replaced.
       When donning or maintaining                    Respirator assemblies are provided in four
        the mask do not overextend or                  configurations: A/P22P-14(V)1 Non-oxygen
        damage the neck seal.                          (figure 3-2), A/P22P-14(V)2 LOX (figure 3-
                                                       3), A/P22P-14(V)3 OBOGS (figure 3-4) and
3.2 ABOVE THE NECK PROTECTIVE                          A/P22P-14(V)4 Panel Mounted Regulator
EQUIPMENT                                              (figure 3-5). The Respirator Assemblies
                                                       consist of a Mask Assembly, Lower
3.2.1     A/P23P-14A(V)      Respirator                Assembly, Intercom Unit, CMU-29(V)1/P
Assembly. This variant is composed of the              or 2/P Vest, transit case, and standard
aircrew CB respirator mask with nose                   additional flight equipment. Variant
occluder, the Lower Assembly and the                   designation determines aircraft application
A/P37S-1 Intercom Set.                                 as defined by the type of oxygen equipment
                                                       employed or the absence of an oxygen
It is designed to provide aircrew members              facility.
with the necessary head, eye, and respiratory
protection to guard against the toxic and              All variants may be equipped with a nose
lethal effects of nuclear fallout and chemical         occluder kit for the mask. Lower Assembly
and biological agents. During in-flight and            components common to each respiratory
ground operations, the respirator fits beneath         assembly designation include the H-
standard issued helmets and protective                 Manifold, Manifold Hose and Pusher Fan
equipment with a minimum of interference.              Subassembly.

The Pusher Fan provides the aircrew                    Oxygen-equipped variants include an
member with a blown and filtered air                   additional H-Manifold Hose, 90 degree
supply.                                                Rubber Molding and appropriate plumbing
                                                       to connect to Non-oxygen, LOX, OBOGS or
The A/P37S-1 Intercom Set provides the                 Panel Mounted oxygen delivery systems.
aircrew member with direct voice                       The pusher fan subassembly and 90 degree
communication while wearing the respirator             rubber molding each employ a C2 or C2A1
and protective helmet.                                 filter canister to supply contaminant-free air
                                                       and/or oxygen for the respirator assemblies.
The A/P23P-14A(V) Respirator Assembly is
shown in figure 3-1. There are no variants at             1. A/P22P-14(V)1. The (V)1 variant is
this time.                                                   intended for use by all rotary wing
                                                             aircrew. This variant is similar to the
3.2.2     A/P22P-14(V)1       thru    (V)4                   aircrew CB respirator (Rotary
Chemical,           Biological        and                    Upgrade Mask) that is utilized by
Radiological        (CBR)       Respirator                   USMC helicopter aircrews. The (V)1
Assemblies. These systems are designed                       variant is a non-oxygen system and is
to protect rotary wing and fixed wing                        suitable for all rotary wing aircraft.
aircrew members from the toxic and lethal
effects of chemical, biological and nuclear               2. A/P22P-14(V)2. The (V)2 variant is
agents from ground level to a 43,000 foot                    intended for use by all fixed wing
cabin      altitude    (depending     upon                   aircrew utilizing Liquid Oxygen
configuration). The A/P22P-14(V)1 thru                       (LOX) Systems.

                                                 3-3                                          DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                               Note
  3. A/P22P-14(V)3. The (V)3 variant is
     intended for use by all fixed wing          Refer to NAVAIR 13-1-6.10 for
     aircrew utilizing Molecular Sieve           specifications     and     detailed
     Oxygen       Generating    Systems          information              regarding
     (MSOGS) or On-Board Oxygen                  characteristics,       capabilities,
     Generating Systems (OBOGS).                 donning and maintenance of all
                                                 above the neck IPE. Other
  4. A/P22P-14(V)4. The (V)4 variant is          manuals on aircrew equipment
     intended for use by all fixed wing          are: NAVAIR 00-35QH-2, 13-1-
     aircrew utilizing Panel Mounted             6.7-1, 13-1-6.7-2, 13-1-6.7-3, and
     Oxygen Systems.                             13-1-6.7-4.




            Figure 3-1 A/P23P-14A(V) Respirator Assembly (Upgrade) Non-Oxygen


DRAFT                                     3-4
                                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000




              MCK-3A/P MASK
                                                                                HOOD COWL



           NOSE OCCLUDER




          TOGGLE HARNESS


                                                                                         MICROPHONE
                 FACEPLATE




       HOOD INLET ADAPTER                                                               HOOD OUTLET VALVE


          DRINK FACILITY                                                                O2 INLET ADAPTER



      RIPAWAY TOGGLE
                                                                                        ANTI-SUFFOCATION
                                                                                        DISCONNECT


       ENTRY TUBE                                                                           SNOUT


DRINKING FACILITY HOLDER                                                                   H-MANIFOLD
      (QUICK DISCONNECT)                                                                   (CLOSED MODE)



                                                                                                      APRON
  BLANKING CAP




          CLAMPS
                                                                                               MANIFOLD HOSE




       J-MANIFOLD W/ GASKET



                    C2 OR C2A1 CANISTER                                           PUSHER FAN
                                                                         (BATTERY NOT SHOWN)




                                 NOTE: INTERCOM UNIT, VEST AND TRANSIT CASE NOT SHOWN




             Figure 3-2 A/P22P-14(V)1 Respirator Assembly, Non-oxygen Variant




                                                  3-5                                                  DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                Figure 3-3 A/P22P-14(V)2 Respirator Assembly, LOX Variant




DRAFT                                  3-6
                                                  NAVAIR 00-000-000




Figure 3-4 A/P22P-14(V)3 Respirator Assembly, OBOGS Variant




                         3-7                                  DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000




             Figure 3-5 A/P22P-14(V)4 Respirator Assembly, Panel Mount Variant




DRAFT                                   3-8
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000

3.3 BELOW THE NECK PROTECTIVE                        3.3.2 Configuration. The Below-the-Neck
EQUIPMENT                                            components include items described below.

3.3.1 General. All other aircrew IPE is                1. Cotton Undershirt And Drawers. The
considered the below-the-neck (BTN)                       cotton undershirt and drawers are
portion of respirator assemblies. BTN                     100% cotton knit. The undershirts are
components are items of clothing and                      available in four sizes and the drawers
coverings. They are designed to compliment                are available in fourteen sizes. These
and enhance the respirator assembly                       items are designed for wear under the
function of protecting aircrew members                    MK1 chemical liner to prevent skin
against chemical and biological agents and                irritation from the charcoal lining and
the effects of nuclear fallout. The clothing              to minimize the amount of
ensembles provide protection against                      perspiration contamination to the
chemical and biological warfare agents.                   chemical liner. Cotton undershirt and
They are worn by aircrew members in                       drawers are optional for wear under
addition to the applicable aircrew member                 the chemical protective undergarment
flight   equipment     configuration    (see              CMU-34/P undershirt and CMU-35/P
NAVAIR 13-1-6.7 Series). Included in the                  drawers. Unless contaminated, these
BTN ensemble are the following items. See                 garments may be worn indefinitely
figure 3-6.                                               and are not limited by time in use.

   1. Cotton Undershirt                                2. Chemical Liner. Two types of
                                                          chemical liners are available for wear
   2. Cotton Drawers.                                     under flight suits.

   3. Chemical Liner (MK1) or Chemical                    a. MK1. This one-piece chemical
      Protective Undergarment (CMU-34/P                      liner is made from a nylon/viscose,
      shirt and CMU-35/P drawers).                           non-woven fabric. The fabric outer
                                                             surface is treated with a water and
   4. Chemical Protective Socks.                             oil repellant finish which repels
                                                             liquid agents. The fabric inner
   5. Chemical Protective Gloves.                            surface is coated with activated
                                                             charcoal which absorbs chemical
   6. Chemical Glove Inserts.                                vapors. In a non-contaminated
                                                             environment, the chemical liner
   7. Disposable Footwear Covers.                            has a service life of 50 hours of
                                                             wear. The protective properties of
   8. Aircrew Cape.                                          the chemical liners are degraded
                                                             by prolonged contact with
                   Note                                      perspiration. The liner is available
                                                             in nine sizes.
      In this discussion the below-the-
       neck protective assemblies are                     b. CMU-34/P Undershirt and CMU
       referred to as BTN ensemble, or                       35/P Drawers. The chemical
       ensemble.                                             protective undergarments consist
                                                             of an undershirt and a drawer. The
      The      Chemical       Protective                    fabric is composed of a non-
       Undergarment (CMU-34 and                              woven material with encapsulated
       35P) is the most recent                               carbon in a stretchable matrix. The
       protective clothing for aircrews.                     chemical                  protective
       The MK1 is an older system and                        undergarments, when worn under
       may be used, if serviceable,                          the flight suit, are somewhat
       until stocks are depleted.                            resistant to water, petroleum, oils,

                                               3-9                                        DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
           and lubricants; however, gross                      are manufactured from 14 mil
           contamination by these POLs may                     butyl rubber and have a 15 year
           degrade chemical protection.                        service life. 14 mil gloves provide
           Service life of the undergarments                   24 hours of protection in a
           when removed from the vapor-                        contaminated environment. The
           barrier package is 15 days. The                     gloves provide 14 inches of
           undergarments may be laundered                      protection measured from the
           one time during the 15 day                          fingertip and come in 4 sizes.
           uncontaminated service life. CMU                    White, cotton inserts are worn
           34/P undershirts and CMU-35/P                       under the butyl rubber gloves and
           drawers should remain in their                      are      designed     to     absorb
           vapor barrier bags until used. If                   perspiration. Cotton inserts come
           used and returned uncontaminated,                   in three sizes.
           chemical protective undergarments
           should be sealed in a resealable                c. Gore HSF Liner. The Gore HSF
           plastic bag. The undergarments                     liner is intended to replace the
           provide protection from liquid and                 butyl rubber chemical protective
           vapor chemical threat for up to 12                 glove. The Gore HSF liner is
           hours after contamination.                         manufactured in four sizes and is
                                                              packaged with an appropriately
  3. Chemical Protective Socks. The                           sized Nomex Flyer’s glove.
     chemical protective socks are made of                    Chemical protection time for this
     4 mil polyethylene. They are vapor                       system is 6 hours. Cotton inserts
     agent impermeable, which protects                        are not intended to be worn with
     the feet from chemical agents. They                      the Gore HSF gloves, but may be
     come in one size only, and are meant                     in order to absorb perspiration.
     to be worn over cotton socks inside                      The Gore HSF liner has a 14 day
     the flyers boots. The socks are                          uncontaminated service life, but
     disposable items for one-time use.                       may be extended to 15 days by
                                                              commanders to match the CMU
  4. Chemical Protective Gloves. Two                          series    undergarments.      Such
     types of chemical protective gloves                      extensions will be based on
     are available for wear under flight                      operational requirements after
     gloves. Both variations of glove                         appropriate risk assessments.
     provide protection to the hands.
                                                        5. Disposable Footwear Covers. The
        a. 7 Mil Butyl Rubber Chemical                     footwear covers are worn over the
           Protective Gloves. These gloves                 flyers boots. They protect the aircrew
           are manufactured from 7 mil butyl               member from contamination en route
           rubber and are designed to provide              between the shelter and the aircraft.
           an       estimated     12      hour             They must be removed before
           uncontaminated service life over                entering the aircraft. The footwear
           seven days. Contaminated service                covers come in three sizes, medium,
           life is 6 hours. The gloves provide             large, and extra large.
           12 inches of protection measured
           from the fingertip and come in 4             6. Aircrew Cape. The aircrew cape is a
           sizes. White, cotton inserts are                large, clear, disposable, 4 mil
           worn under the butyl rubber                     polyethylene bag worn over the body.
           gloves and are designed to absorb               The cape protects the aircrew member
           perspiration. Cotton inserts come               from liquid contamination en route
           in three sizes.                                 between the shelter and the aircraft
                                                           and must be removed before entering
        b. 14 Mil Butyl Rubber Chemical                    the aircraft. It is available in one size
           Protective Gloves. These gloves                 only.

DRAFT                                            3-10
                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000




COTTON UNDERSHIRT AND DRAWERS                    AIRCREW CAPE




             CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE GLOVES                CHEMICAL GLOVE INSERT




            CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE SOCKS                            MK1 CHEMICAL LINER



                Figure 3-6 Below the Neck Aircrew IPE (1 of 2)

                                   3-11                                     DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                                                                    CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE
                    DISPOSABLE FOOTWEAR COVERS                      UNDERSHIRT, CMU-34/P


                                                                    CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE
                                                                    DRAWERS, CMU-35/P


                       Figure 3-6 Below the Neck Aircrew IPE (2 of 2)




DRAFT                                    3-12
                                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000



                 Item                         Packaged                Uncontaminated                Contaminated
                                             Service Life                Service Life                Service Life
A/P22P-14 (V) 1,2,3,4                   8-10 years                 Under research                  16 hours

C2/C2A1 Filter                          Per current SB3-30-2       As required*                    One use*

MK-1 Chemical Liner (under              6 Years                    50 hours                        6 hours
coveralls)

CMU-34/P Chemical Protective             5 years                   15 days                         12 hours
Undershirt
CMU-35/P Chemical Protective            5 years                    15 days                         12 hours
Drawers
Chemical Protective Socks               Indefinite                 One use                         Unknown

Chemical Glove Inserts                  Indefinite                 No limit                        N/A

Protective Gloves (7 mil)               5 years                    84 hours                        6 hours

Protective Gloves (14 mil)              15 years from              15 years from manufacture       24 hours
                                        manufacture date           date as long as service able
HSF Liner                               15 years from date of      14 days                         6 hours
                                        manufacture                 (extendable to 15 days
                                                                   when risk is acceptable)
Aircrew Cape                            Indefinite                 One use                         One use

Disposable Footwear Covers              Indefinite                 One use                         One use

  * To achieve maximum effectiveness, do not remove C2/C2A1 canisters from airtight container until immediately
  before use. Filters shall be changed after each mission to mitigate degradation from environmental conditions and
  CB contamination.

                                         Figure 3-7 Service Life of IPE




                                                     3-13                                          DRAFT
                                                                             NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                              12
                                       CHAPTER 4
  Donning and Doffing Aircrew Chemical
           and Biological IPE
4.1 PHYSIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS
                                                       7. Sweating hands.
Physiological limitations which may be
imposed by the ensemble are:                           8. Mask fogging.

  1. Decreased mobility/dexterity.                     9. Inability to detect fumes.

  2. Reduction in peripheral vision/field of         4.2 DONNING
     view (FOV).                                                        Note

  3. Reduction in hearing.                                Donning of Respirator Assembly
                                                          and below-the-neck clothing
  4. Heat build up.                                       should be supervised by a
                                                          qualified  Aircrew     Survival
  5. Dehydration.                                         Equipment Man, in accordance
                                                          with OPNAVINST 4790.2 Series.
  6. Claustrophobia.




                                               4-1                                      DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000

Quantity                              Description                                    Reference Number
1                                     Respirator Assembly                            See Note
1                                     HGU Series Helmet
1                                     CWU-27/P Flight Suit                           MIL-C-83141
1 Pair                                Aircrewmember’s Boots                          MIL-B-21408, MIL-B-24911
1                                     Survival Vest
1                                     Torso Harness (if required)
1                                     Anti-g Garment (if required)
1                                     Life Preserver Unit
1 Pair                                GS/FRP-2 Fire Resistant                        MIL-G-81188
                                      Flyer’s Gloves1
1                                     Cotton Undershirt                              see table 5-2 NAVAIR 13-1-6.10
1                                     Cotton Drawers                                 see table 5-2 NAVAIR 13-1-6.10
1                                     MK1 Chemical Liner2                            see table 5-2 NAVAIR 13-1-6.10
1                                     CMU-34/P Chemical
                                      Protective Undershirt3
1                                     CMU-35/P Chemical
                                      Protective Drawers4
1 Pair                                Chemical Glove Inserts5                        see table 5-2 NAVAIR 13-1-6.10
1 Pair                                7 mil Chemical Protective                      see table 5-2 NAVAIR 13-1-6.10
                                      Gloves6
1 Pair                                14 mil Chemical Protective
                                      Gloves7
1 Pair                                HSF Gore Liner8
1 Pair                                Chemical Protective Socks                      NIIN 01-040-3169
1 Pair                                Disposable Footwear Covers                     see table 5-2 NAVAIR 13-1-6.10
1                                     Aircrew Cape                                   NIIN 01-040-9018
1 Pair                                Cotton Socks
1 Pair                                Prescription ARS Spectacles                    ARS 6540
                                      (if required)
1                                     2 Qt. Water Canteen                            NIIN 01-118-8173
1                                     M-1 Canteen Cap                                NIIN 00-930-2077
1                                     Canteen Cover                                  NIIN 01-118-8175
1                                     Skull Cap (if desired)
1                                     Sweat Band (if desired)
As Required                           Powder, Talc
    1.   Flyer’s gloves may be replaced when wearing HSF Gore liners, which are packaged with a pair of flyer’s gloves.
    2.   Worn when CMU-34/P chemical protective undershirt and CMU-35/P chemical protective drawers are not available. The
         MK1 should not be interchanged with the CMU-34/P or CMU-35/P set. Cotton undershirt and cotton drawers are worn
         under the MK1 liner for sweat management and to protect the skin from the chaffing caused by the MK1 liner.
    3.   Worn with the CMU-35/P drawers as a set. Cotton drawers/undershirt are not worn, nor required with the CMU-34/P or
         CMU-35/P. Worn when the MK1 is not available. CMU-34/P or CMU-35/P should not be interchanged with the MK1.
    4.   Worn with the CMU-34/P chemical protective undershirt as a set. Cotton drawers/undershirt are not worn, nor required
         with the CMU-34/P or CMU-35/P. Worn when the MK1 is not available. CMU-34/P or CMU-35/P should not be
         interchanged with the MK1.
    5.   Worn under 7 or 14 mil chemical protective gloves. Cotton inserts worn under Gore HSF liners is optional as a sweat
         management feature.
    6.   Standard chemical protective gloves. Worn over cotton inserts and under flyers gloves. No other chemical protective
         gloves are required when wearing the 7 mil gloves.
    7.   Replacement chemical protective gloves. Worn over cotton inserts and under flyers gloves. No other chemical protective
         gloves are required when wearing the 7 mil gloves.
    8.   Replacement chemical protective gloves. A set of Gore HSF liners contain a pair of Gore HSF chemical protective liners
         and a pair of flyer’s gloves. No other chemical protective gloves or flyer’s gloves are required with this equipment. Cotton
         inserts are optional as a sweat management tool. If cotton inserts are worn, they are placed on the hands first, followed by
         the liner, followed by the flyer’s glove.

                                                     Figure 4-1 Aircrew CB IPE

ORIGINAL                                                          4-2
                                                                              NAVAIR 00-000-000

                    Note

      Refer to Chapter 3 for general                       b. Aircrew members requiring the
      information on the A/P23P-                              use of the in-flight amplifier AM-
      14A(V) and A/P22P-14(V)1 thru                           3597C/A need to have each end of
      A/P22P-14(V)4            Respirator                     the amplifier wrapped with 6 to 8
      Assemblies. Refer to NAVAIR                             inches of electrical tape to ensure
      13-1-6.10 for detailed information                      the amplifier does not disconnect
      on all Respirator Assemblies.                           from         the       helmet/mask
                                                              communication cords. Electrical
4.2.1.      Donning       The     Respirator                  tape should be loosely wrapped
Assembly             And          Associated                  around the amplifier at this time so
Equipment. To provide maximum                                 the tape will be available for final
protection, the donning sequence given for                    wrapping of the amplifier upon
the BTN ensemble must be followed. The                        ingress into the cockpit.
Aircrew Survival Equipment man will
supervise the aircrew members while they                2. Don the cotton undergarments and
are donning the ensemble. Since every                      cotton socks. Ensure that pant legs are
second counts in a chemical/biological                     pulled down over the socks, and that
attack, it is imperative that the users as well            sleeves extend to the wrist. Also
as the Aircrew Survival Equipment Men                      ensure that the crewneck of the cotton
become proficient in assembly donning                      undershirt is pulled up to prevent neck
procedures. The donning procedure is as                    chafing caused by the chemical liner.
follows:
                                                                         Note
                    Note
                                                           Cotton undergarments are donned
      Detailed procedure for fitting                       only if the MK1 chemical liner is
      respirator assemblies covered in                     being     used.    The    cotton
      this manual are found in Chapter 3                   undergarment is not required
      or 4 of NAVAIR 13-1-6.10.                            when using CMU series chemical
                                                           protective undergarments.
   1. Ensure all normal flight equipment,
      BTN ensemble, and respirator                      3. Don the protective socks. The
      assembly components are on hand and                  protective socks should be positioned
      serviceable before beginning to don                  so that no excess material is under the
      the protective assembly. Ensure pre-                 foot, and so that the seam is flat on the
      flight equipment checks have been                    floor in front of the foot. Fold excess
      completed and oxygen-configured                      material smoothly along the calf.
      respirator assemblies are correctly                  Masking tape may be used to secure
      prepared.                                            the protective socks to the calf and
                                                           ensure that they remain properly
      a. Ensure      that    the    in-flight              positioned.
         communication cords are properly
         attached to the helmet and the                 4. Don       chemical               protective
         mask      breathing     hose      (if             undergarment MK1            or      CMU-
         applicable).      The       ground                34P/35/P.
         communication cord is not
         compatible with the aircraft                      a. Don the MK-1 chemical liner and
         cockpit intercom connection,                         close the slide fastener to the neck.
         except for some KC-130 aircraft.                     Loosely tie the waist-draw-strings.
                                                              Legs and sleeves should extend to
                                                              the ankle and wrist bones

                                                  4-3                                          DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
           respectively, and may be cut to fit.               opposing wrist of the opposite arm
           The assistant will check that the                  and the ankle of the crew member.
           elastic leg stirrups are positioned
           over the protective socks at the                             Note
           arch of the foot. The assistant will
           cinch the stirrups to provide                  Ensure the M-9 tape is not
           comfortable but firm stretching                covered by the anti-g suit. If
           support to keep chemical liner legs            necessary, M-9 tape may be
           extended and then clip and discard             applied around the ankle of the
           any surplus elastic strap material.            anti-g suit.

     b. Don CMU-34/P and CMU-35/P.                      7. Don personal prescription Aircrew
        The        chemical      protective                Respirator Spectacles (ARS 6540) if
        undergarments are to be worn                       vision correction is required.
        close to the body, next to the skin,
        over personal underwear and                     8. Don a skullcap and/or sweat band
        under the CWU-27/P flight suit.                    (optional). Use of an absorbent
        Choose the chemical protective                     skullcap and/or sweat band will
        undershirt and drawer size to try                  improve      comfort   and    keep
        on based upon Table 5A-3                           perspiration from running into the
        contained in NAVAIR 13-1-6.10.                     eyes.
        The garments come packaged
        separately so that undershirts and              9. Check that the respirator assembly
        drawers can individually fit based                 hood outlet valve is open (out).
        upon      the     aircrewmember’s
        measurements. The undershirt has                10. Turn the pusher fan ON to supply
        expandable wrist openings with                      breathing air and prevent misting of
        hook and loop closures and a full-                  the visual area of the faceplate.
        length slide fastener. The trousers
        have an elastic waistband and                   11. Don the mask
        tapered legs. The undershirt is
        worn outside of the trousers and
        extends to hip level. The sleeves                              WARNING
        and legs of the garments are not to
        be trimmed. Pull slide fastener                   When donning the mask do not
        fully closed.                                     overextend or damage the neck
                                                          seal.
  5. Don the flight suit and close the slide
     fastener to the abdomen.                              a. While the assistant maintains the
                                                              position of the ARS, sweat band,
  6. Don the flight boots. The bootlaces                      and skull cap with their hand,
     should be completely loosened to                         place the mask assembly over the
     facilitate donning over the protective                   head. One method is to grasp the
     socks. Tuck the chemical liner into                      neck seal with both hands, open it
     the top of the boots prior to tightening                 fully, place the front of the neck
     up the boot laces. The flight suit                       seal under the chin, and pull the
     should be worn pulled down over the                      neck seal and hood back over the
     outside of the boot.                                     head. A second method is to insert
                                                              both hands into the neck seal and
     a. Apply M-9 tape to the crew                            spread it open wide enough to
        member in the following fashion.                      slide it directly down over the
        Apply M-9 tape adhesive side                          head. The assistant will hold the
        down around the upper arm, the                        manifold and lower assembly
                                                              during this process.

ORIGINAL                                          4-4
                                                                       NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                                  Note
   b. Position the mask for comfort and
      maximum visibility. The lower lip              Aircrew survival equipment can
      of the orinasal mask should rest               become damaged or inoperable
      between the lower lip and chin.                when exposed to decontamination
                                                     procedures. In order to protect
   c. The assistant will ensure that the             survival equipment and preserve it
      neck seal lies flat on the neck and            for    future     use    following
      is not rolled or bunched.                      decontamination, it should be
                                                     protected by wrapping and taping
   d. Test exhalation valve assembly.                in plastic material. Interlocking-
      Request wearer to exhale; ensure               seal plastic (Zip-Lock) bags are
      air flows from the exhalation valve            useful for this purpose. NSNs are
      assembly to the environment.                   provided      below.     Protecting
      Pinch-off mask inlet hose and                  survival equipment in this manner
      request the wearer to inhale;                  is a commander’s decision.
      wearer should experience an                    Certain expensive items of
      inability to breathe. Release hose.            equipment (survival radios and
                                                     HABDs bottles) make more sense
   e. Ensure the aircrew member is                   to protect than less expensive,
      familiar with the location of the              readily available items (survival
      anti-suffocation disconnect and                mirrors and flashlights).      Any
      faceplate ripaway tab or toggle                survival item that can be wrapped,
      and their operation.                           and not pose a safety risk, should
                                                     be considered for protection in
                                                     this manner.
               CAUTION
                                                         8105-00-837-7753      4x4‖
   Ensure shoulder skirt material                        8105-00-837-7753      6x6‖
                                                         8105-00-837-7753      8x8‖
   does not catch in the slide fastener
                                                         8105-00-837-7753      10x10‖
   and neck bellows remains outside                      8105-00-837-7753      12x12‖
   of flight suit collar. Be sure
   shoulder skirt is not tucked in too
   tightly, as this can restrict                     a. While the assistant holds pusher
   mobility.                                            fan, battery pocket and oxygen
                                                        related equipment, as applicable,
12. While the aircrew member holds the                  the aircrew member will don the
    pusher fan, battery pocket and oxygen               vest, and close slide fastener.
    related equipment, as applicable, the
    assistant will tuck shoulder skirt of            b. The assistant will attach pusher
    respirator assembly under flight suit at            fan and battery pocket to survival
    the shoulders. To maximize comfort                  vest using the quick release
    and mobility, ensure the skirt lays flat            bracket.
    and that neck bellows remains near
    but outside flight suit collar. After            c. The assistant will engage the
    positioning skirt, close the flight suit            hooks and route the leg lines, and
    slide fastener to the neck.                         assist in any adjustments. Ensure
                                                        hoses lie on the outside of survival
13. Don the torso harness and anti-g                    vest.
    garment if applicable.
                                                                  Note
14. Don the survival vest.
                                                     A very light dusting of talc on the
                                                     outside of the hood or a second
                                               4-5                                   DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
     thin skullcap can be used to                       listening.       Secure        the
     facilitate helmet donning.                         intercommunications unit to the
                                                        survival vest by clipping the snap
  15. Don the flight helmet.                            hook to one of the upper D-rings
                                                        located on the survival vest.
     a. Turn the pusher fan OFF; deflate
        hood.                                      17. Secure mask to helmet and adjust
                                                       toggle harness:
     b. Place flight helmet on the head
        over respirator assembly’s hood.
        To maximize field of view, don                          WARNING
        the helmet fore to aft to minimize
        hood material slack in the temple            For proper retention of the helmet,
        area. The faceplate should lie               the toggle harness must lie over
        within the helmet edge roll.                 hooks provided on V-bow.

     c. The assistant will assist in                 a. The assistant will connect CBR
        securing and adjusting chin and                 adapter straps to helmet. The
        nape straps as required.                        toggle harness cables shall lay
                                                        over the hooks on the faceplate.
     d. Check for proper operation of
        helmet visor.                                b. Position mask, then rotate V-bow
                                                        down to lock into flight position.
     e. Turn pusher fan ON.
                                                     c. Adjust harness tension to obtain a
                                                        good seal between mask and the
                 CAUTION                                face by rotating V-bow up, turning
                                                        adjustment sleeves on each
     Ensure intercommunications set is                  harness wire, then rotating V-bow
     turned off prior to removing or                    down to check tension and fit;
     installing batteries.                              repeat as often as necessary. To
                                                        provide a comfortable fit, ensure
  16. Connect     and      check      the               there is equal tension on both sides
      intercommunications unit for proper               of mask.
      operation:
                                                                  Note
                   Note
                                                     Check for proper fit by clamping
     The AM-3597C/A amplifier, if                    hood in-let hose shut by using
     installed, must be temporarily                  finger and thumb pressure while
     removed     for   the    inter-                 the filtered air supply is flowing.
     communications unit to operate                  While holding breath, check to see
     properly.                                       if air is leaking out from the edge
                                                     of the mask. Readjustment of
     a. Connect intercom unit to mask                toggle harness may be required to
        microphone and aircrew helmet                assure a good seal and
        with the appropriate ground                  comfortable fit.
        communications cord as shown in
        figure 4-17 of NAVAIR 13-1-                  d. Ensure proper operation of nose
        6.10.                                           occluder. If unable to valsalva,
                                                        repeat steps b, c, and d, or refit
     b. Check for proper operation by                   nose occluders as shown in
        actuating the intercommunications               Chapter 3 or 4, of NAVAIR 13-1-
        unit and alternately speaking and               6.10 as applicable.

ORIGINAL                                     4-6
                                                                      NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                    approximately one half inch in
                                                    order to increase flexibility.
                 WARNING
                                                    a. MK1. Roll up flight suit and
   Keep the drink facility quick                       chemical liner sleeves and don the
   disconnect plugged into a canteen                   butyl rubber or Gore HSF gloves.
   or its holder to reduce the chance
   of contamination. Disconnect the                   (1) Butyl Rubber Gloves.
   drink facility quick disconnect
   from the canteen by pulling and                          (a) Don the cotton chemical
   twisting, and plug it into its holder                        glove inserts. Ensure the
   prior to emergency egress.                                   sleeve of the undershirt
                                                                fits over the glove insert
18. Hang a filled canteen and pouch on                          at the wrist. Roll down
    the right side of the aircrew member                        the sleeves of the
    using the strap provided. The assistant                     chemical liner, smoothly
    will help in routing the canteen strap,                     fold over any excess
    ensuring strap does not interfere with                      material, and tape liner
    hoses and communications cords. The                         sleeves to hold the folds.
    strap should be placed on the left
    shoulder, then routed across the body                   (b) Don the butyl protective
    to the right side of aircrew member.                        gloves. Ensure gloves are
    The canteen cap should face forward.                        pulled all the way onto
    Remove       drink     facility   quick                     the hands and arms and
    disconnect from its holder and attach                       lie smoothly over the
    it to canteen by snapping up flap on                        chemical liner sleeves.
    top of the M-1 canteen cap using a                          Use masking tape to
    firm twisting motion to push it into                        secure and seal the
    the receiver fitting of cap. Wetting                        protective gloves to the
    canteen cap will facilitate connection.                     chemical liner sleeve.

                 Note                                       (c) Don flight gloves. Roll
                                                                down flight suit sleeve
   When donning the canteen and                                 over flight gloves, and
   strap, be certain to use a qualified                         secure at the wrist using
   PR or helper for proper canteen                              flight suit’s velcro tabs.
   strap routing. The canteen strap is
   routed UNDER the respirator                        (2)   Gore HSF Liner.
   hoses and intercom cord and
   OVER the left shoulder, clear of                              Note
   the life preserver lobes. The
   canteen is worn on the right side                Cotton inserts may be used for
   with the canteen cap facing                      additional sweat absorption.
   forward.
                                                            (a) Roll down the sleeves of
19. Don Chemical Protective Gloves                              the chemical liner.
    (Butyl Rubber or Gore HSF).
                                                            (b) Don the Gore HSF
                 Note                                           liners. Ensure liners are
                                                                pulled all the way onto
   With butyl rubber gloves, the                                the hands and arms and
   cotton inserts may be modified by                            lie smoothly over the
   cutting or splitting the ―V‖                                 chemical liner sleeves.
   between         each       finger                            Use masking tape to

                                              4-7                                  DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                 secure and seal the Gore                        (c) Don flight gloves. Roll
                 HSF     liner    to    the                          down flight suit sleeves
                 chemical liner sleeve.                              over flight gloves and
                                                                     secure at the wrists using
            (c) Don flight gloves. Roll                              flight suit’s velcro tabs.
                down flight suit sleeve
                over flight gloves, and
                secure at the wrist using
                flight suit’s velcro tabs.                          WARNING

     b. CMU-34/P and CMU-35/P. Roll                      Donning and doffing the aircrew
        up flight suit and chemical                      protective cape may generate
        protective undershirt sleeves and                static electricity. Caution shall be
        don the butyl rubber or Gore HSF                 taken when working with
        gloves                                           sensitive electrical components or
                                                         around jet fuels or other
       (1) Butyl Rubber Gloves.                          flammable vapors.

            (a) Don the cotton glove                  20. Don disposable footwear covers and
                inserts.                                  aircrew cape in a liquid threat
                                                          environment.
            (b) Don the butyl protective
                gloves. Ensure gloves are                When removing and discarding
                pulled all the way onto                  aircrew member’s disposable
                the hands and arms and                   protective capes and footwear
                lie smoothly on the arms.                covers, care shall be exercised to
                                                         ensure they are not drawn into jet
            (c) Roll down the chemical                   engine air intakes.
                protective     undershirt
                sleeves and secure velcro                              Note
                around the protective
                gloves and wrist.                        See Chapter 5 for information on
                                                         aircraft ingress and egress.
            (d) Don flight gloves. Roll
                down flight suit sleeves              21. On arrival at aircraft, the aircrew
                over flight gloves and                    member’s protective cape and
                secure at the wrists using                footwear covers shall be doffed and
                flight suit’s velcro tabs.                discarded outside aircraft to prevent
                                                          contaminating the aircraft’s interior.
       (2) Gore HSF Liner.
                                                      22. Protective footwear covers and capes
            (a) Don the Gore HSF                          shall be available to aircrew for return
                liners. Ensure liners are                 trip from aircraft to shelter.
                pulled all the way onto
                the hands and arms and              4.3. DOFFING AN UNCONTAMINATED
                lie smoothly on the arms.           ENSEMBLE

            (b) Roll down the chemical              Aircrew members should doff an
                protective     undershirt           uncontaminated ensemble in the following
                sleeves and secure velcro           order:
                around the protective
                gloves and wrist.



ORIGINAL                                      4-8
                                                                          NAVAIR 00-000-000
                  Note                                the     helmet.      Remove     the
                                                      communications cord from the pigtail
     When feasible, a qualified                       and the inter-communications unit.
     Aircrew Survival Equipment man                   This turns the unit off. Unclip the
     (PR) or other trained assistant                  intercommunications unit snap hook
     shall assist the aircrew member in               from the D-ring on vest.
     doffing the CBR protective
     assembly.                                     5. Remove helmet mounted devices
                                                      (e.g., NVIIS) and raise all visors.

                 WARNING                           6. Rotate the V-bow on mask to the UP
                                                      position.
     Do not handle suspected
      contaminated       items   unless            7. The assistant will remove CBR
      wearing chemical protective                     adapter straps from helmet.
      equipment. Failure to wear
      proper protective clothing may               8. Unsnap helmet chin strap and doff
      result in disability, serious                   helmet.
      injury, or death.
     Aircrew members must be                      9. With the assistant’s help, separate the
      checked       with       M-8/M-9                pusher fan and battery pocket from
      detection         paper       for               survival vest. This is accomplished by
      contamination prior to assuming                 pulling to the right on the ribbon,
      they     are      uncontaminated.               which releases the locking pin of the
      Personnel wearing contaminated                  quick release assembly on the rear of
      equipment shall report to the                   pocket.
      nearest decontamination station
      for removal of contaminated                  10. With aid of the assistant, open
      systems.                                         survival vest slide fastener, unhook
                                                       leg lines, and doff survival vest.
1. Remove protective cape and footwear                 Remove anti-g garment and torso
   covers. Dispose of in accordance with               harness as applicable.
   local procedures.
                                                   11. Open flight suit slide fastener to waist
2. Doff canteen. Remove drink facility                 level and remove the shoulder skirt of
   quick disconnect from the M-1                       respirator from under flight suit.
   canteen cap, and replace quick
   disconnect in its holder.
                                                                    CAUTION
3. Open velcro tabs on flight suit sleeves
   and remove flight gloves. Remove                   When doffing mask assembly do
   CBR protective gloves and cotton                   not over-stretch and/or damage
   glove inserts.                                     the neck seal.

                                                   12. Doff mask by inserting thumbs under
                CAUTION                                neck seal in front, then stretch and lift
                                                       the mask up over face and to the back.
     Ensure microphone cords are fully                 A second method is to insert thumbs
     unplugged. If not, damage to                      under neck seal from the back, then
     microphone and/or cords can                       stretch and lift mask over the back of
     occur. Do not tug cord to unplug.                 the head toward the front. Leave
                                                       pusher fan on to maintain airflow to
4. Disconnect microphone lead of the                   mask.
   mask from the pigtail on the back of
                                             4-9                                         DRAFT
NAVAIR-000-00-000
    13. Doff skull cap, sweat band, and ARS
        (if worn).
                                                                     WARNING
    14. Remove flight boots.
                                                          Do      not     handle     suspected
    15. Remove remainder of flight suit.                  contaminated        items      unless
                                                          wearing      chemical      protective
    16. Doff chemical liner. Return to                    equipment. Failure to wear proper
        Aircrew Survival Equipment man for                protective clothing may result in
        inspection and verification of                    disability, serious injury, or death.
        remaining service life
.                                                    4.4.1 Aircrew members in contaminated
    17. Take off chemical protective socks           equipment must report to the nearest
        and cotton underwear. The chemical           decontamination station to doff the
        socks shall be disposed of in                contaminated equipment.
        accordance with local procedures.
                                                                        Note
                    Note
                                                          Refer to Chapter 8 for details
       Cotton underwear may be                            concerning donning and doffing
       laundered for hygiene purposes.                    contaminated          individual
                                                          protective equipment.
4.4. DOFFING A CONTAMINATED
ENSEMBLE




ORIGINAL                                      4-10
                                                                                  NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                              Chapter 5
    Ingress and Egress in a Chemical and
           Biological Environment
5.1 INTRODUCTION                                                             Note

The goal of ingress/egress procedures in a                     Clean      aircraft  landing     at
contaminated environment is to limit the                       contaminated air facility or vessel
transfer of CB agents into the interior of                     are considered contaminated until
aircraft, and to provide aviation commanders                   certified as clean.
with a means of sustaining tempo while
operating in a CB environment. The                       Ground      crews     begin     to    prepare
procedures provided in this chapter apply to             contaminated aircraft for flight by removing
any person (aircrew, ground crew, ordnance               regular and supplemental CB contamination
personnel, etc.) requiring access to the                 control covers (if in place) and performing
interior of an aircraft. If properly instituted,         operational decontamination procedures in
the ingress/egress procedures provided will              accordance with chapter 8 of this
yield the following advantages:13                        publication. Special attention should be
                                                         given to ingress/egress areas such as
   1. Aircraft interiors, which are difficult            boarding ladders, hand/footholds, and
      to decontaminate, will be kept free of             possible contact areas during ingress/egress
      liquid agents.                                     and preflight inspection.

   2. Minimizes contamination transfer to                Applying M8/M9 tape to the interior of
      ALSS which is difficult to                         aircraft, especially near the outlet of
      decontaminate. Contact hazards to                  ventilation systems, before an attack,
      aircrew will be minimized.                         provides early detection of cockpit and
                                                         cargo space contamination and may be used
   3. Operational readiness of aircraft will             for the duration of the mission.
      be maintained.
                                                         5.2.2 Preflight Inspection. An alternate
                     Note                                aircrew should perform preflight inspection
                                                         of the external areas of the aircraft to reduce
      To prevent heat stress associated                  fatigue on the mission aircrew14. One
      with IPE aircrews should strive to                 aircrew can inspect many aircraft thereby
      minimize ground time.                              limiting      personnel       exposure       to
                                                         contamination and reducing heat stress on
5.2 AIRCRAFT/AIRCREW                                     aircrews preparing to fly. If an alternate
PREPARATION                                              aircrew is not available, the mission aircrew
                                                         should conduct external preflight inspection
5.2.1 Aircraft Preparation. After a                      in ground MOPP, process through
suspected CB attack, ground crews assume                 ship/shore decontamination station, and rest
the prescribed MOPP. Ground crews and                    before donning aircrew IPE to complete the
aircrews shall consider all aircraft and                 preflight inspection and start the mission.
ground      support    equipment     (GSE)
contaminated until certified clean by                    5.3 INGRESSING A CONTAMINATED
monitor/survey teams, damage control                     AIRCRAFT
personnel, disaster preparedness personnel,
or the equivalent.                                       The numerous types and models of
                                                         Navy/Marine aircraft have been broken into
                                                         five categories to provide a general
                                                   5-1                                        ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
description of ingress procedures. The five                    disposable foot coverings or
categories are:                                                plastic bags) over his chemical
                                                               protective foot coverings. All
  1. Tactical fixed wing aircraft (F-14, F-                    aircrew equipment being carried
     18, AV-8, and EA-6 aircraft).                             to the aircraft by the aircrew is
                                                               in a disposable outer bag.
  2. Cargo and transport fixed wing
     aircraft (multi-engine fixed wing).            5.3.1 Ingress of Tactical (fixed wing)
                                                    Aircraft
  3. Rotary wing aircraft with doors (UH-
     1, H-60, H-3 aircraft).                          1. An alternate aircrew conducts
                                                         preflight inspection on the external
  4. Rotary wing aircraft with canopy                    area of the aircraft.
     (AH-1).
                                                      2. Position       a        decontaminated
  5. Rotary wing transport and cargo                     maintenance stand next to the aircraft
     aircraft (H-46, H-53 aircraft).                     (the maintenance stand is preferred
                                                         for ingress over the aircraft ladder).
                   Note
                                                                       Note
      The       following       ingress
       procedures are a general                          The following step is completed
       sequence     of    actions    for                 using          the        multiple
       categories of aircraft described                  (triple/quadruple) buddy system.
       above. Aviation units shall use
       these procedures as a template                 3. The aircrew, plane captain, and a
       to develop specific procedures                    ground     crew      person     position
       for type/model aircraft, and                      themselves at the bottom of the
       shall record those procedures in                  maintenance stand. The plane captain
       standing operating procedures                     lifts a foot and the ground crew
       (SOPs).                                           person removes his disposable
      These       general       ingress                 overboot before he steps directly onto
       procedures begin with the                         the decontaminated maintenance
       assumption that the following                     stand. The plane captain lifts his other
       tasks have been accomplished:                     foot and follows the same procedure.
                                                         The aircrew follows this procedure
       1. All protective coverings are                   and removes the aircrew cape while
          removed from Aircraft.                         the plane captain is completing step 4.

       2. Operational      or     thorough
          Decontamination of support                                WARNING
          equipment         and        spot
          decontamination of aircraft per                Ground       crew     must     take
          chapter 8 of this publication has              extraordinary care not to touch
          been completed.                                plane aircrew or plane captain
                                                         while      removing      disposable
       3. Areas of aircraft where Aircrew                footwear covers and aircrew cape.
          or maintenance personnel may                   If contact is made, aircrew should
          make contact with aircraft are                 be thoroughly checked using
          checked for contamination using                CAM before ingressing the
          CAM and M8 paper.                              cockpit.

       4. Plane captain is wearing                    4. The plane captain opens the canopy
          disposable footwear (aircrew                   and then decontaminates his gloves

ORIGINAL                                      5-2
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000
   before checking cockpit visually for
   gross contamination and with CAM/
   M8 paper for trace amounts. If                                      Note
   contamination is located, plane
   captain will conduct spot decon and                   Aviation units shall develop
   decontaminate      himself    before                  specific procedures for this step.
   proceeding to next step.
                                                    5.3.2     Multi-Engine      Fixed     Wing
5. The plane captain assists the aircrew            Aircraft. An alternate aircrew conducts
   as they ingress the aircraft using               preflight inspection on the external area of
   normal procedures.                               the aircraft.

                                                    5.3.2.1 Aircraft that Require
              WARNING                               Maintenance Stand.

   Aircrew shall avoid touching the                    1. If required, position a decontaminated
   external surface of the aircraft. If                   maintenance stand next to the aircraft
   normal ingress procedures require                      (the maintenance stand is preferred
   aircrew to touch the external                          for ingress over the aircraft ladder).
   surface of the aircraft, Plane
   captain will provide assistance to                  2. The aircrew, plane captain, and a
   avoid this procedure or, as a last                     ground     crew     person   position
   choice, plane captain will                             themselves at the bottom of the
   decontaminate surface before                           maintenance stand. The plane captain
   aircrew touches the surface.                           lifts a foot and the ground crew
                                                          person removes his disposable
6. Plane captain assists aircrew in                       footwear covers before he steps
   connecting themselves to the aircraft                  directly onto the decontaminated
   (to the O2 regulator, helmet and                       maintenance stand. The plane captain
   microphone cord, restraint systems,                    lifts his other foot and follows the
   etc.).                                                 same procedure. The aircrew follows
                                                          this procedure and the removal of the
                                                          aircrew cape while the plane captain
                WARNING                                   is completing the next step.

   Plane Captain should assist Pilot
   ensuring ―H Manifold‖ is in the                                  WARNING
   position     appropriate        for
   type/model of aircraft. (See figure                   Ground      crew     shall    take
   5-1).                                                 extraordinary care not to touch
                                                         plane, aircrew or plane captain
7. The plane captain will hold the                       while     removing      disposable
   outside of the disposable bag flight                  footwear covers and aircrew cape.
   equipment has been stowed in and                      If contact is made, aircrew shall
   allow the aircrew to remove the                       be thoroughly checked using
   equipment from and place it on the                    CAM and decontaminated before
   interior of the aircraft with them.                   ingressing the cockpit.

8. For single seat aircraft, aircrew closes            3. Plane captain proceeds to the top of
   canopy. For multi-seat aircraft, plane                 the maintenance stand and opens the
   captain will assist each aircrew                       crew door from the outside.
   member before canopy is closed.



                                              5-3                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                             GROUND TRANSIT                                           IN-FLIGHT NORMAL                                                IN-FLIGHT EMERGENCY
     VARIANT
                                 HOOD AREA       ORINASAL AREA                          HOOD AREA           ORINASAL AREA                                  HOOD AREA               ORINASAL AREA




       V1            C2A1

                                                                          C2A1                                                                 C2A1

                                                         PERMANENT                                                    PERMANENT
                                                         CAPPED END                                                                                                                           PERMANENT
                                                                                                                      CAPPED END                                                              CAPPED END
                                                                                                                                                                      LUNG POWERED
                                                                                                                                                                      FILTERED AIR
                     VENTILATED                                            VENTILATED                                                                        VENTILATION SYSTEM FAILURE
                     FILTERED AIR                                          FILTERED AIR
                                        OPEN MODE                                            OPEN MODE                                                               OPEN MODE
                                                                                                                                                          HOOD AREA           ORINASAL AREA
                    HOOD AREA          ORINASAL AREA
                                                                           HOOD AREA          ORINASAL AREA

                                                                                                                                                      FILTERED O2                   FILTERED O2
                                                                                                                                                                                                     O2 REG



                   C2A1                         C2A1      TEMPORARY
                                                                          C2A1                                                     O2 SYSTEM             C2A1               C2A1                    OBOGS
                                                          CAPPED END
                                                                                                     FILTERED O2                   INTERFACE                                                        OR LOX

                                                                                                                                                 VENTILATION SYSTEM FAILURE                       OPEN MODE
      V2,V3                                                                                                                                                HOOD AREA               ORINASAL AREA


                VENTILATED                                 O2 REG
                FILTERED AIR                                             VENTILATED                                                                                                    C2A1
                                                                         FILTERED AIR                                           OBOGS                                                             O2 REG
                                                                                                    C2A1     O2 REG             OR LOX
                                                                                                                                                         C2A1



                                                                                                                                                           VENTILATED                                 OBOGS
                                                                                                                                                           FILTERED AIR                               OR LOX

                                        OPEN MODE                                            CLOSED MODE                                        BREATHING SYSTEM (O2)FAILURE                       OPEN MODE
                                                                                                                                                         HOOD AREA             ORINASAL AREA
                          HOOD AREA      ORINASAL AREA                     HOOD AREA       ORINASAL AREA

                                                                                                                                                                                                   PANEL
                                                                                                                                                                                                   MOUNT
                                                                                                                                                      VENTILATED                     C2A1          O2 REG
                                                                                                                                                      FILTERED AIR

                                                                                                                   O2 SYSTEM                                                                                    O2
                                                                         C2A1                        C2A1          INTERFACE                                                                                  SUPPLY
                    C2A1                        C2A1        QUICK                                                                                                    C2A1
                                                            DISCONNECT
                                                                                                                                                  RAPID DECOMPRESSION                         CLOSED MODE
       V4                                                                                                              PANEL
                                                                                                                       MOUNT                             HOOD AREA           ORINASAL AREA
                                                                                                                       O2 REG

                                                                                                                                                                                                  PANEL
                                                                                                                                                                                                  MOUNT
                                                                          VENTILATED                                              O2                        C2A1                    C2A1          O2 REG
                  VENTILATED
                  FILTERED AIR                                            FILTERED AIR                                          SUPPLY
                                                                                                                                                                                                               O2
                                                                                                                                                                                                             SUPPLY


                                        OPEN MODE                                            OPEN MODE                                          VENTILATION SYSTEM FAILURE                         OPEN MODE


                                                       Figure 5-1 H Manifold Position Table


                          Note                                                                      7. The plane captain disposes of
                                                                                                       contaminated bag and disposable
     Doors that open and then go                                                                       footwear covers.
     inside of the aircraft may require
     spot decontamination of the entire
     door to prevent contamination                                                                                                     WARNING
     spread to the inside of the aircraft.
                                                                                                            Aircrew should assist one another
  4. The aircrew steps directly into the                                                                    ensuring ―H Manifold‖ is in the
     cabin.                                                                                                 position      appropriate     for
                                                                                                            type/model aircraft.
  5. The plane captain will hold the
     outside of the disposable bag in which                                                5.3.2.2 Aircraft that do not Require
     flight equipment is stowed, and allow                                                 Maintenance Stand.
     the aircrew to remove the equipment
     and place it in the interior of the                                                            1. If no maintenance stand is used, the
     aircraft.                                                                                         plane captain releases the door
                                                                                                       handle(s) on the crew door and opens
  6. The plane captain shall use the                                                                   the door (lower if applicable). The
     exterior surface of the aircraft to close                                                         plane captain decontaminates his
     the crew door, while the crew chief                                                               gloves and stands by to remove
     uses the interior surface to latch the                                                            aircrew cape and disposable footwear
     crew door.                                                                                        covers as the aircrew ingresses the
                                                                                                       aircraft.
ORIGINAL                                                                        5-4
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000

                 Note
                                                                      WARNING
   The      plane     captain     will
   decontaminate his gloves again                        Aircrew should assist one another
   after completing this procedure.                      ensuring ―H Manifold‖ is in the
                                                         position      appropriate     for
                                                         type/model aircraft.
              WARNING
                                                       6. The plane captain should collect and
   Aircrew shall avoid touching the                       secure the disposable footwear covers
   external surface of the aircraft. If                   and disposable equipment bag.
   normal ingress procedures require
   aircrew to touch the external                     5.3.3 Rotary     Wing     Aircraft    (with
   surface of the aircraft, Plane                    doors).
   captain will provide assistance to
   avoid this procedure or, as a last                  1. An alternate aircrew conducts
   choice, plane captain will                             preflight inspection on the external
   decontaminate surface before                           area of the aircraft.
   aircrew touches the surface.
                                                       2. The plane captain will open the door
2. The aircrew places the clean foot                      for the right seat of aircraft.
   directly into the cabin, or onto the
   clean boarding step/ladder, and lifts               3. The plane captain decontaminates his
   the other foot to allow the plane                      gloves and stands by to remove the
   captain to remove the other disposable                 aircrew cape and the aircrew’s
   boot.                                                  disposable footwear covers as they
                                                          ingress the aircraft.
                 Note
                                                       4. The aircrew will allow plane captain
   Upon initial entry, that aircrew                       to remove the aircrew cape and grabs
   member will open the upper                             the interior of the doorframe,
   aircrew door to provide easier                         extending a foot to the plane captain.
   access for the following aircrew                       The plane captain removes the
   members.                                               disposable boot while avoiding any
                                                          contact with the aircrew.
3. This process is repeated for each
   member of the aircrew or passenger
   boarding the aircraft.                                           WARNING

4. The plane captain will hold the                       Aircrew shall avoid touching the
   outside of the disposable bag in which                external surface of the aircraft. If
   flight equipment is stowed, and allow                 normal ingress procedures require
   the aircrew to remove the equipment                   aircrew to touch the external
   and place it in the interior of the                   surface of the aircraft, Plane
   aircraft.                                             captain will provide assistance to
                                                         avoid this procedure or, as a last
5. The plane captain shall use the                       choice, plane captain will
   exterior surface of the aircraft to close             decontaminate the surface before
   the crew door, while the crew chief                   aircrew touches the surface.
   uses the interior surface to latches the
   crew door.                                          5. The aircrew places the clean foot
                                                          directly into the cabin and lifts the


                                               5-5                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000                                                  WARNING
     other foot to allow the plane captain
     to remove the other disposable boot.
                                                        Aircrew shall avoid touching the
     a. This process is repeated for each               external surface of the aircraft. If
        member of the aircrew or                        normal ingress procedures require
        passenger boarding the aircraft at              aircrew to touch the external
        their appropriate door.                         surface of the aircraft, Plane
                                                        captain will provide assistance to
     b. The plane captain will hold the                 avoid this procedure or, as a last
        outside of the disposable bag flight            choice, plane captain will
        equipment has been stowed in,                   decontaminate the surface before
        allowing the aircrew to remove the              aircrew touches the surface.
        equipment and place it on the
        clean interior of the aircraft.              4. The aircrew allows the plane captain
                                                        to remove the aircrew cape.
     c. The plane captain shall use the
        exterior surface of the aircraft to
        close the doors, while the aircrew                         WARNING
        uses the interior surface to close
        and latch doors.                                Ground       crew     must     take
                                                        extraordinary care not to touch
     d. The plane captain disposes of                   plane aircrew or plane captain
        contaminated footwear covers and                while      removing      disposable
        flight equipment bag cover.                     footwear covers and aircrew cape.
                                                        If contact is made, aircrew should
                                                        be thoroughly checked using
                 WARNING                                CAM and decontaminated before
                                                        ingressing the cockpit.
     Aircrew should assist one another
     ensuring ―H Manifold‖ is in the                                  Note
     position      appropriate     for
     type/model aircraft.                               The      plane     captain     will
                                                        decontaminate his gloves again
5.3.4 Rotary     Wing     Aircraft    (with             after completing this procedure.
Canopies).
                                                     5. The plane captain stands by to steady
  1. An alternate aircrew conducts                      aircrew as they mount the steps to
     preflight inspection on the external               enter the cockpit. As the aircrew steps
     area of the aircraft.                              up they will steady themselves by
                                                        grasping points on the clean interior
  2. The plane captain will open the rear               of the aircraft.
     canopy of the aircraft.
                                                     6. The aircrew will extend the foot
  3. The plane captain decontaminates his               which initially enters the cockpit to
     gloves and stands by to remove the                 the plane captain who will remove the
     aircrew cape and the aircrew’s                     disposable footwear cover.
     disposable footwear covers as they
     ingress the aircraft.                           7. Aircrew swings foot into the clean
                                                        interior of the cockpit and extends the
                                                        other foot to the plane captain, who
                                                        removes that disposable footwear
                                                        cover.



ORIGINAL                                       5-6
                                                                          NAVAIR 00-000-000

                WARNING                                plane captain who removes the
                                                       disposable boot while avoiding any
     Plane Captain should assist Pilot                 contact with the aircrew.
     ensuring ―H Manifold‖ is in the
     position      appropriate     for
     type/model of aircraft.                                      WARNING

                                                       Aircrew shall avoid touching the
                WARNING                                external surface of the aircraft. If
                                                       normal ingress procedures require
     Aircrew must take extraordinary                   aircrew to touch the external
     care not to touch external surface                surface of the aircraft, plane
     of the plane. Contact with the                    captain will provide assistance to
     exterior surface could potentially                avoid this procedure or, as a last
     transfer contamination to the                     choice, plane captain will
     interior of the cockpit. If contact               decontaminate surface before
     is made, aircrew should be                        aircrew touches the surface.
     thoroughly checked using CAM
     and      decontaminated      before            5. The aircrew places the clean foot
     continuing to ingress the cockpit.                directly into the cabin, or onto the
                                                       clean boarding step/ladder, and lifts
  8. The plane captain will hold the                   the other foot to allow the plane
     outside of the disposable bag flight              captain to remove the other disposable
     equipment is stowed in, and allow the             footwear cover.
     aircrew to remove the equipment and
     place it on the clean interior of the                           Note
     aircraft.
                                                       Upon initial entry, that person will
  9. Using the external surface, the plane             open the upper aircrew door to
     captain assists the aircrew in closing            provide easier access for the
     the canopy.                                       following aircrew members.

  10. The plane captain moves to the front          6. This process is repeated for each
      canopy and follows steps 2 through 9             member of the aircrew or passenger
      for the next aircrewman.                         boarding the aircraft.

5.3.5 Rotary Wing Aircraft (transport               7. The plane captain will hold the
and cargo).                                            outside of the disposable bag flight
                                                       equipment is stowed in, allowing the
  1. An alternate aircrew conducts                     aircrew to remove the equipment and
     preflight inspection on the external              place it on the clean interior of the
     area of the aircraft.                             aircraft.

  2. The plane captain releases the lower           8. The plane captain shall use the
     and upper door handles on the crew                exterior surface of the aircraft to close
     door, and opens the lower door.                   the lower portion of the crew door,
                                                       while the crew chief uses the interior
  3. The plane captain decontaminates his              surface to close the upper crew door.
     gloves and stands by to remove the
     aircrew cape and disposable footwear
     covers as they ingress the aircraft.

  4. The aircrew will grab the interior of
     the doorframe and extend a foot to the

                                              5-7                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

                                                                      WARNING
                 WARNING
                                                            Unprotected aircrew must rely
      Aircrew should assist one another                      upon flight suit, boots, and
      ensuring ―H Manifold‖ is in the                        gloves for protection, using
      position      appropriate     for                      them to cover all exposed skin.
      type/model aircraft.                                   Ground crews shall take all
                                                             possible precautions to prevent
   9. The plane captain latches both the                     contamination transfer to the
      upper and lower door handles and                       aircrew during egress. Aircrew
      disposes of contaminated bag and                       shall process through personnel
      disposable footwear covers.                            decontamination          station
                                                             immediately.
                   Note                                     Aircrew on liquid oxygen
                                                             (LOX) systems may use aircraft
      Aviation units shall develop                           environmental system. Aircrews
      detailed ingress procedures which                      on OBOGS should switch to
      comply with these descriptions,                        emergency oxygen until a field
      instituting them in standing                           mask is provided. OBOGS has
      operating procedures.                                  not been qualified to provide
                                                             CB protection
5.4 EGRESSING A CONTAMINATED
AIRCRAFT                                                2. A decontaminated maintenance stand
                                                           will be positioned next to the aircraft
Naval/Marine aircraft are separated into five              and the ground crew passes a clean
categories to provide a general description                aircrew cape, disposable footwear
of egress procedures. These five categories                covers, and bag for flight equipment
are identical to those defined in paragraph                to the aircrew.
5.3 for ingress procedures.
                                                        3. Once disposable footwear covers and
5.4.1 Egress of Tactical (fixed Wing)                      cape are donned, and flight equipment
Aircraft.                                                  is stowed in disposable bag, the
                                                           aircrew will egress the aircraft
   1. If aircrew is unprotected and landing                normally using the maintenance stand.
      at a contaminated airfield or ship
      (without a field protective masks                 4. The ground crew transports aircrew to
      aboard) the aircrew will rely on the                 personnel decontamination station.
      aircrafts environmental system until
      protective mask can be passed                   5.4.2 Egress of Cargo and Transport
      through the canopy by the ground                Fixed Wing Aircraft.
      crew.
                                                        1. Aircrew and passengers don a clean
                                                           pair of disposable footwear covers,
                                                           aircrew cape, and stow all baggage
                                                           and flight equipment in disposable
                                                           bags.

                                                        2. Aircrews and passengers should use
                                                           the aircraft ramp whenever possible to
                                                           egress the aircraft. If a maintenance
                                                           stand is required, ground personnel
                                                           will decontaminate one before
                                                           positioning it next to aircraft.
ORIGINAL                                        5-8
                                                                          NAVAIR 00-000-000

  3. Once disposable boots and cape are                           WARNING
     donned, and flight equipment is
     stowed in disposable bag, the aircrew             Unprotected aircrew must rely
     will egress the aircraft using the                upon flight suit, boots, and gloves
     aircraft’s   ramp     to    minimize              for protection using them to cover
     contamination transfer.                           all exposed skin. Ground crews
                                                       shall take all possible precautions
                                                       to prevent contamination transfer
               WARNING                                 to the aircrew during egress.
                                                       Aircrew shall process through
    Unprotected aircrew must rely                      personnel decontamination station
    upon flight suit, boots, and gloves                immediately.
    for protection using them to cover
    all exposed skin. Ground crews                   4. Ground crew transports aircrew to
    shall take all possible precautions                 personnel decontamination station.
    to prevent contamination transfer
    to the aircrew during egress.                  5.4.4 Egress of Rotary Wing Aircraft
    Aircrew shall process through                  (transport and cargo).
    personnel decontamination station
    immediately.                                     1. Aircrew and passengers don a clean
                                                        pair of disposable overboots, aircrew
  4. Ground crew transports aircrew to                  cape, and stow all baggage and flight
     personnel decontamination station.                 equipment in disposable bags.

5.4.3 Egress of Rotary Wing Aircraft                 2. Aircrews and passengers should use
(canopies and doors).                                   the aircraft ramp whenever possible to
                                                        egress the aircraft.
  1. Aircrew and passengers don a clean
     pair of disposable overboots, aircrew           3. Once disposable boots and cape are
     cape, and stow all baggage and flight              donned, and flight equipment is
     equipment in disposable bags.                      stowed in disposable bag, the aircrew
                                                        will egress through the rear of the
  2. Aircrew hands flight equipment and                 aircraft to minimize contamination
     baggage in disposable bags to ground               transfer.
     crew.

  3. Once disposable footwear covers and                          WARNING
     cape are donned the aircrew and
     passengers   egress   the aircraft                Unprotected aircrew must rely
     normally.                                         upon flight suit, boots, and gloves
                                                       for protection using them to cover
                                                       all exposed skin. Ground crews
                                                       shall take all possible precautions
                                                       to prevent contamination transfer
                                                       to the aircrew during egress.
                                                       Aircrew shall process through
                                                       personnel decontamination station
                                                       immediately.

                                                     4. Ground crew transports aircrew and
                                                        passengers        to      personnel
                                                        decontamination station.


                                             5-9                                    ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
5.5 IN FLIGHT EMERGENCY                                    5.5.3 Emergency Egress.

5.5.1 Pusher Fan Malfunction. In the
event of a pusher fan malfunction:                                            WARNING

   1. If the pusher fan fails to produce any                        IPE may restrict aircrew while
      filtered breathing air or ventilation to                       executing emergency egress
      the mask, check to make sure the                               procedures.
      battery on/off switch was not                                 Thorough familiarization with
      inadvertently depressed. If it still fails                     procedures and operation during
      to produce filtered air, replace battery                       emergency      situations      is
      immediately.                                                   essential. Exposure to CB
                                                                     agents     may    result    from
   2. If the pusher fan still malfunctions,                          improper use.
      the optical area of the faceplate will                        Suffocation may result if the CB
      fog unless an anti-fog compound was                            protective assembly is exposed
      applied. If the optical area of the                            to smoke or direct flames. The
      faceplate starts to fog, impairing                             respirator will afford some
      vision, activate the ripaway facility.                         protection against fire and
                                                                     fumes although the mask is
                     Note                                            made of a combustible material
                                                                     and will not provide oxygen in
        Unsnapping both toggle harness                               an        oxygen        deficient
        straps allows the faceplate to fall                          environment.
        and suspend from the mask
        creating a snag hazard.                            5.5.3.1 Overland. When emergency
                                                           egressing over land while wearing the CB
5.5.2     Airsickness.      In   the   event   of          respirator assembly, aircrews should
airsickness.                                               consider the following general procedures to
                                                           manipulate the CB respirator assembly and
   1. If the aircrew becomes airsick and                   consult their aircraft NATOPS manual for
      vomits into the mask, release the                    specific egress procedures:
      helmet adapter straps and disconnect
      the helmet chinstrap allowing the
      orinasal mask to be pulled away from                                      WARNING
      the face. This will allow the vomit to
      collect in the respirator assembly neck                      Aircrew wearing A/P22P-14(V)2
      dam. Reconnect the helmet chinstrap                          and (V)3 (CB)             protective
      and adapter straps. CB protection will                       respirator assemblies must switch
      still be maintained.                                         H manifold valve from the closed
                                                                   (vertical) position to the open
   2. In the event of extreme airsickness,                         (horizontal) position. Failure to
      activate the ripaway facility in                             switch the H manifold valve will
      accordance with 5.35.3.2 (3) (a.) of                         result in loss of CB protection.
      the aircrew emergency egress over
      water. CB protection will be lost.                      1. After egressing the aircraft, the
                                                                 respirator assembly will continue to
                     Note                                        provide protection.

        Unsnapping both toggle harness                        2. In a contaminated environment, after
        straps allows the faceplate to fall                      egressing the aircraft, ensure pusher
        and suspend from the mask                                fan is still running. While running, it
        creating a snag hazard.                                  provides ventilation and positive
                                                                 pressure and hence CB protection. If

ORIGINAL                                            5-10
                                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000
      the pusher fan is not running, the hood          2. Activate the ripaway facility per the
      outlet valve shall be closed                        Type Model Series aircraft NATOPS
      immediately to prevent contamination                manual procedure.
      inside the hood.
                                                                       Note
5.5.3.2 Over Water. When emergency
egressing over water while wearing the CB                Unsnapping both toggle harness
respirator assembly, aircrews should                     straps allows the faceplate to fall
consider the following general procedures to             and suspend from the mask
manipulate the CB respirator assembly and                creating a snag hazard.
consult their aircraft NATOPS manual for
specific egress procedures:                            3. In the event it is not possible to
                                                          activate the ripaway facility and
                                                          flooding of the mask occurs during
                       WARNING                            egress clear the mask by:
     The A/P23P-14a(v) or A/P22P-                         a. Locating and activating the anti-
     14(v)1, 2, 3, and 4 will not                            suffocation disconnect by twisting
     provide CB protection after the                         and pulling down.
     ripaway facility is activated.
                                                          b. Ensure that the exhalation valve is
   1. To prevent water entry into the mask,                  above water and mask is upright.
      close the hood outlet valve prior to                   Forcibly exhale. The mask will
      impact. Take a deep breath just prior                  rapidly drain.
      to the pusher fan submerging. When
      the pusher fan becomes immersed in                  c. To draw water from hood, open
      water, the pusher fan filter canisters                 hood outlet valve
      will occlude and will not pass either
      water or air into the aircrew’s mask.
                                                                        WARNING
                   Note
                                                         The A/P23P-14A(V) or A/P22P-
     With the hood closed, the mask                      14(V)1,2,3,and 4 will not provide
     should be sealed off from air and                   CB protection after the anti-
     water entry.                                        suffocation     disconnect      is
                                                         activated.




                                                5-11                                  ORIGINAL
                                                                                 NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                                  15
                                         CHAPTER 6
        Chemical and Biological Detection
6.1 GENERAL                                             vicinity of the detector. This can be
                                                        accomplished either automatically or with
The principles and equipment discussed in               periodic monitoring. An automatic point
this chapter provide an overview of                     detector includes an audio and/or visual
detection capabilities available to Navy and            alarm that calls attention to the fact that CB
Marine aviation forces. In many cases, the              material has arrived at the specified location.
equipment described in this chapter is not              Point detection by periodic monitoring is
organic to the aviation unit, but can be                accomplished by the use of chemical
sourced from the ship on which embarked or              reagents that change color in the presence of
the shore facility from which operating.                CB materials. Air samplers or strips of
USMC aviation units are equipped with a                 detection paper are placed at pre-selected
modest supply of detection equipment. If                locations and are then checked by human
operating as part of a Marine Air-Ground                operators on a scheduled basis.
Task Force (MAGTF), a more robust
capability will exist due to the ability of the         Monitoring is the use of sensors to establish
commander to redistribute detection                     the presence or absence of chemical agent in
equipment from other elements of the                    vapor form in the atmosphere or in liquid
MAGTF to the air combat element. Users                  form on a surface. In the following sections,
should refer to specific technical manuals or           brief descriptions are provided for the
the Naval Ships’ Technical Manual Chapter               various items of equipment available for
470-Shipboard BW/CW Defense and                         standoff detection, hand held chemical vapor
Countermeasures (NSTM 470) for details on               detection, liquid chemical detection and
specific operating procedures. Chapter 9,               aerosol biological agent detection.
Aircraft Handling and Operations in a CB
Environment, provides general guidance and              6.2 STANDOFF DETECTORS
recommendations on when and where
detection equipment should be used.                     6.2.1 Chemical Warfare Directional
                                                        Detector       (CWDD).        The     CWDD,
Remote detection is the capability to detect            AN/KAS-1A is a ship mounted, manually
CB threat agents away from a ship or shore              operated passive sensor that can detect nerve
facility. Ideally, it provides advanced                 agent vapor at distances of up to 5
warning before the arrival of an agent at a             kilometers from a ship. Although not
ship or facility to allow time for avoidance            specific to naval aviation, for those ships on
maneuvering and/or implementation of                    which the system is mounted, it can benefit
protective measures. However, the term,                 embarked aviation units when the ship
―remote‖, could imply a remotely placed                 maneuvers to avoid contamination or by
detector. Therefore, the term standoff                  providing early warning that could allow
detector is used to specify a detector that can         aviation units to take contamination
detect CB threat agents at a distance from              avoidance measures on embarked aircraft. A
the detector. A remote detector is one that             complete description of the CWDD is
transmits a detection indication to a remote            provided in NSTM 470 or in the NAVSEA
location.                                               AN/KAS-1A technical manual, SW073-AA-
                                                        MMO-010.
Point detection provides warning of the
arrival of CB material in the immediate




                                                  6-1                                        ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                                     Figure 6-1 CWDD, AN/KAS 1


6.2.2 M21 Remote Sensing Chemical                      an amphibious ship because the sensor unit
Agent Automatic Alarm (RSCAAL).                        must be still and stable in order to function
The M21is a ground mounted, automatic                  effectively. Although not organic to Navy or
passive sensor that can detect nerve and               Marine aviation forces, if in place at an
blister agent vapor at distances up to 5               airfield or FARP, it could provide sufficient
kilometers. Although not specific to naval             early warning for aviation units to take
aviation, it is organic to specific USMC               contamination avoidance measures on
units, like MAGTFs which include an                    aircraft. A complete description and
aviation combat element. It could be                   operating instructions for the M21 RSCAAL
employed at Forward Arming and Refueling               is provided in Army TM 3-6665-315-10, or
Points (FARP) or permanent/expeditionary               USMC TM 09676A-10/1.
airfields. It would not be suitable to augment




                Figure 6-2 M21 Remote Sensing Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm


ORIGINAL                                         6-2
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000

6.2.3 M93A1 NBC Reconnaissance                         MAGTFs such as the Marine Expeditionary
System (FOX). The M93A1 is a lightly                   Unit (MEU), which consists of a reinforced
armored combat vehicle that contains an                rifle battalion, a reinforced medium lift
array of CB detection capabilities. Among              helicopter squadron and a combat service
the general capabilities are mobility, ability         support element. Although not organic to
to     swim,    digitized     and      secure          Navy or Marine aviation forces, if in place
communications, GPS and automatic alarm                at an airfield or FARP, it could provide
reporting. CB detection capabilities include           sufficient early warning via the M21 for
on board mass spectrometer for analyzing               aviation units to take contamination
chemical warfare material samples, M21                 avoidance measures on aircraft. The hand-
RSCAAL and hand-held chemical detectors.               held detectors aboard the vehicle could also
The M93A1 is organic to larger USMC                    be used to augment aviation monitoring
MAGTFs like the Marine Expeditionary                   requirements ashore and on amphibious
Force (MEF), which consists of a Marine                ships if the vehicle is embarked as part of a
Division, Air Wing and Force Serve Support             MAGTF.
Group. But, it could be located in smaller




                            Figure 6-3 M93A1 NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle

6.3 HAND HELD CHEMICAL VAPOR                           M8 chemical agent detector paper. These
DETECTORS                                              components are packed in a small plastic
                                                       case that has a shoulder strap and a waist
6.3.1 M256/M256A1 Chemical Agent                       strap. The sampler-detectors are vapor
Detector Kit. The purpose of the                       detectors. In a single exposure (each
M256/M256A1 is to detect and classify                  sampler-detector or sheet of M8 paper is
toxic chemical agents in vapor and liquid              designed to be used once and then disposed
forms. The kit provides a man portable                 of), sampler-detectors detect nerve agent (V
capability    for    detecting    operational          and G series), blister (H-series, L, CX) and
concentrations of nerve, blister, and blood            blood agents (AC and CK). The M8 paper
agents. It could be used as part of an initial         is used to detect liquid nerve and blister
survey and detection effort or as a check for          agents. Sampler-detectors contain reagents
the efficiency of decontamination efforts.             that respond with specific color changes
The kit contains 12 individually packaged              upon contact with the vapors of specific
sampler-detectors, a set of instruction cards          chemical agents.
for the sampler detectors and a booklet of


                                                 6-3                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

                                                       be used in conjunction with other detection
                 WARNING                               devices. The recommended use is as a
                                                       validation test to corroborate other detection
      Personnel who are color-blind                    equipment results, although the kit could be
      shall not analyze M256A1                         used by itself if no other detection
      sampler-detector test results. The               equipment is available. Sampler-detectors
      tests are based on color                         and M8 paper are subject to false positive
      comparisons. An incorrect reading                indications. Moderate to extreme cold
      of test results could lead to                    temperature conditions also affect the kit.
      premature removal of protective                  The following conditions can produce false
      clothing and cause casualties.                   positives on the sampler detector.

                                                          1. Use of an outdated sampler-detector
                 WARNING                                     touching sampler-detector test spots
                                                             with fingers or gloves
      When conducting tests at night, do
      not perform the tests under red                     2. Exposure of sampler-detector to
      light. A red light can conceal a                       heavy rain or other forms of water.
      positive response when testing for                     Exposure of the test spots to direct
      blood or blister agents and can                        sunlight while conduction tests.
      make the interpretation of other
      results difficult. If using a                       3. Exposure of the sampler-detector to
      flashlight, the red lens should be                     smoke.
      removed.
                                                          4. Exposure of sampler-detector in areas
M256/M256A1 detector kits are organic and                    where calcium hypochlorite has been
available to USMC aviation units.                            used. The Lewisite and blister agent
M256/M256A1 kits are also used by damage                     tests are particularly susceptible.
control men aboard ships and may be
available to support aviation requirements.            A training kit is available that will provide
Shore facility disaster preparedness officers          simulated positive reactions for various tests
may be able to provide detector kits to units          of the sampler detector. A complete
operating at Naval facilities ashore. Due to           description and operating instructions of the
the time required to achieve test results (17-         M256/M256A1 is provided in NSTM 470
20 minutes), the M256/M256A1 kit should                and      Army       TM        3-6665-307-10.




                        Figure 6-4 M256/M256A1 Chemical Agent Detector Kit


ORIGINAL                                         6-4
                                                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000




                                                                       BLISTER AGENT
                                                                       TEST SPOT

     HINGED PROTECTIVE
                                                                               BLOOD AGENT
     STRIP (OPEN POSITION)
                                                IP                             TEST SPOT
                                            STR TIVE
                                                 C
                                          PR OTE

                                                        OOO
                                      4                                                  NERVE AGENT
      HINGED HEATER                                 O         O
                                 4
                                                              O
                                                                                         TEST SPOT
      ASSEMBLY                                      O
                                                              O
                                                    O
                                                        OOO

                                            O

                                                5                       5                PULL TAB TO EXPOSE
                                                                                         LEWISITE TABLET




                                                                      PULL
                                                                      TAB
                                                              3   3




                                                                       1
           BLISTER REAGENT
           AMPOULES

                                                                                         LEWISITE DETECTING
                                                                                         TABLET


                      BLOOD REAGENT
                      AMPOULES


                                                                                             LEWISITE TABLET
                              NERVE REAGENT
                                                                                             RUBBING TAB
                              AMPOULES




                                          Figure 6-5 M256/M256A1 Sampler-Detector

6.3.2             Chemical                Agent                              The CAM/ICAM draws in air and samples it
Monitor/Improved Chemical Agent                                              for contamination. It indicates the level of
Monitor (CAM/ICAM). The CAM and                                              contamination on a bar graph indicator.
ICAM are battery operated, hand held, real                                   When very light concentrations are present,
time, point vapor sensors capable of                                         the CAM/ICAM samples for a longer period
automatically identifying and providing the                                  of time to reduce the possibility of false
relative concentration of G series nerve and                                 indications. When an agent vapor is
H series blister agent vapors. The primary                                   detected, the CAM/ICAM will provide a bar
uses of CAM/ICAM is to search out clean                                      graph     indication     of    the     relative
areas; to search and locate contamination on                                 concentration of the sample. Although very
personnel, equipment, ships’ structures,                                     close to what is actually there, the indication
aircraft and land vehicles, buildings and                                    is only an approximation of the
terrain; and to monitor the effectiveness of                                 concentration. If vapor is not present, the
decontamination. The CAM/ICAM also can                                       instrument will not provide an indication. If
be used to monitor collective protection                                     vapors are transient, the CAM would
shelters. The CAM/ICAM responds to nerve                                     provide intermittent indications. This is
and mustard agent vapors down to the                                         primarily a function of weather, time of
lowest hazard that could affect personnel                                    exposure, and the challenge presented.
over a short period. The CAM/ICAM is not
a detector. It is a monitor that can become                                  The CAM/ICAM has not been qualified and
contaminated and overloaded (saturated).                                     issued for naval aviation applications or
The CAM/ICAM reports conditions only at                                      aboard surface ships except for hospital
the front of the inlet nozzle. It is only a point                            ships (for personnel survey). It is organic to
monitor and cannot give a realistic                                          USMC ground and aviation units and may
assessment of the vapor hazard over an area                                  have application aboard amphibious ships or
from one position. When conducting                                           ashore.
reconnaissance with the CAM/ICAM in a
windy area, (such as on board ship, ground
surface winds at 8 kmph or higher) use a
funnel, paper cone or a can with a hole
punched in it the size of the CAM probe.

                                                                      6-5                                               ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                         CAM inlet.

                WARNING                               2. Cleaning compounds. Some cleaning
                                                         compounds and disinfectants contain
     CAM/ICAM are susceptible to                         additives which give them a pleasant
     false positive alarms rate when                     smell. Some of these additives such as
     exposed to many interferents often                  menthol and methyl salicylate (MS)
     present on naval vessels and in                     can give false responses in the H
     aviation     applications.     The                  mode. Ammonia gives a false
     situations most likely to give a                    response in the G-mode. Cleaning
     false response are in enclosed                      materials are, by nature, spread over
     spaces or when sampling near                        large surface areas and, therefore,
     strong vapor sources, for example,                  provide a considerable vapor source,
     in a motor pool engine test bay. If                 particularly in enclosed spaces.
     it is possible, get to know your
     local environment during training                3. Smoke and fumes. The exhaust from
     periods. Determine if, for                          some rocket motors and the fumes
     example, there are any responses                    from some munitions can give
     in the galley, the sick bay, flight                 responses.
     deck, aircraft or the hangar.
     Common         interferents     are           A complete description and operating
     presented below:                              instructions for the CAM is provided in
                                                   USMC TM 09717A. A complete description
  1. Aromatic vapors. Included in this             an operating instructions for the ICAM is
     category are groups of materials such         provided in Army TM 3-6665-343-10.
     as perfumes and food flavorings.              Tactics, techniques and procedures for
     Some brands of after shave and                employing the CAM/ICAM can be found in
     perfume can give a response in G              Marine Corps Reference Publication
     mode when CAM is held close to the            (MCRP) 3-37.2A, Chemical and Biological
     skin, for example as in casualty              Contamination Avoidance and in Marine
     handling procedures. Some sweets              Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 3-
     such as peppermints and cough                 37.2,            NBC             Protection.
     lozenges and menthol cigarettes can
     cause a response in G mode if the
     breath is exhaled directly into the




                                       Figure 6-6 CAM/ICAM

ORIGINAL                                     6-6
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000




                                                  6 (MARKER A)      6 (MARKER B)



8 PROGRESIVE
BAR LEVELS


                                                                            MUSTARD AGENT
                                                                            MODE SELECTED


NERVE AGENT
MODE INDICATOR                  WAIT               BL                       INTERNAL
                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC
                                                                            INDICATOR


     WARMING-UP                                               BATTERY LOW
     AND SELF-TEST INDICATOR                                  INDICATOR


                               MARKERS DIVIDE BAR LEVELS
                               1, 2, 3 BARS - LOW HAZARD
                               4, 5, 6 BARS - HIGH HAZARD
                               7, 8 BARS - VERY HIGH HAZARD


                               Figure 6-7 Full CAM/ICAM Display



                                         G MODE                     H MODE

FULL DISPLAY
                                          WAIT      BL               WAIT    BL
                                        MARKER B                 MARKER B
                                MARKER A                 MARKER A


NO CONTAMINATION
(VAPOR) DETECTED


LOW VAPOR HAZARD
(1 TO 3 BARS VISIBLE)



HIGH VAPOR HAZARD
(4 TO 6 BARS VISIBLE)


VERY HIGH VAPOR HAZARD
7 TO 8 BARS VISIBLE



                          Figure 6-8 Typical CAM/ICAM Displays

                                            6-7                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
6.3.3 Automatic Chemical Agent                        been developed to ignore interferents
Detector       And       Alarm/Shipboard              common aboard ships. Both Navy ships and
Automatic Chemical Agent Detector                     USMC MAGTFs are issued ACADA
And Alarm (M22 ACADA/MK26 Ship                        (USMC) or Ship ACADA (Navy), but
ACADA). The ACADA/Ship ACADA is a                     neither device is presently qualified and
portable (approx. 30 lbs) point chemical              issued for naval aviation applications.
warfare agent vapor detector capable of               However, as part of an overall detection
automatic detection and identification nerve          system, the ACADA/Ship ACADA could
and blister agent vapors. The detector                have utility to aviation applications.
samples air in the vicinity of the nozzle for         Recommended uses are to place the
the presence of nerve and blister chemical            ACADA/Ship ACADA downwind or inside
agents. Therefore, vapors must come in                of aircraft and equipment suspected of being
contact with the sampler nozzle. Air sample           chemically contaminated, or downwind or
conditions a short distance away from the             inside of decontaminated aircraft. A
detector may be quite different, and a                complete description of the Ship ACADA is
change in wind direction could quickly bring          provided in NAVSEA SW073-AFMMO-
a hazardous level of agent vapor to a                 010 and for the M22 ACADA in USMC TM
previously safe area. The Ship ACADA has              10434A-12&P.




            Figure 6-9 M22 ACADA                               Figure 6-10 MK26 Ship ACADA




ORIGINAL                                        6-8
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000

6.3.4 Chemical Agent Point Detector                   description of the IPDS is provided in
System (CAPDS) MK 21 MOD 1.                           NSTM 470.
CAPDS is an installed (aboard ships),
automatic vapor sensor that provides point            6.3.6 Commercial Off The Shelf
detection of G series and V nerve agents.             (COTS). Marine Expeditionary Units
The CAPDS provides a means of                         (MEU) are equipped with a variety of COTS
continuously sampling outside air and                 detection devices as part of the Enhanced
automatically indicating the presence of              NBC program. USMC aviation units may
agent by audible and visual alarms.                   have access to this specialized equipment if
Although not specific to naval aviation, for          embarked as part of a MEU. Current
those ships on which the system is mounted,           detectors are summarized below:
it can benefit embarked aviation units by
providing     warning      that    chemical              1. Draeger Tube. Draeger tubes operate
contamination is present and that protection                similar to the M256/M256A1 in that
and avoidance measures need to be taken. It                 both use the principle of reagent color
may also give an indication of potential                    change to indicate the presence of
decontamination requirements. A complete                    chemical materials. Draeger tubes
description of the CAPDS is provided in                     contain reagent absorbed to a silica
NSTM 470 or in the NAVSEA CAPDS                             material that is contained inside the
technical manual, SW073-AB-MMO-010.                         tube. The tube is held close to a
                                                            suspected source        of chemical
6.3.5 Improved (Chemical Agent)                             contamination while air is pulled
Point Detector System (IPDS). The                           through the tube by electric or
IPDS is an installed (aboard ships),                        mechanical pump. Appropriate color
automatic vapor sensor that provides real                   change indicates positive reaction for
time point detection of several nerve and                   the agent in question. Draeger tubes
blister agents. The IPDS continuously                       are available for many chemical
samples outside air and automatically                       warfare agents and toxic industrial
indicates the presence of an agent by audible               materials. Damage control men on
and visual alarms. It detects G-series nerve                ships also use Dreager tubes on ships
agents (including GA, GB, GD and GF), V-                    to detect for choking agent CG
series nerve agents like VX and H-series                    (phosgene).
blister agent, for example, HD. Each system
has a port and a starboard External Air                  2. Photo Ion Detector (PID). The PID is
Sampling Unit (EASU) and a port and a                       a hand-held, battery-operated device
starboard Detector Unit (DU). Each EASU                     that contains sensors that will provide
continuously collects air from outside the                  the concentration of specific toxic
ship and sends some of it to the associated                 industrial materials (TIM). The TIM
DU for analysis. If a chemical agent is                     sensors can be changed to sample for
detected, the DU sends an alarm to the                      a variety of vapors. The PID also
Control Display Unit (CDU), which is                        contains an oxygen sensor that will
located in either DC Central (DCC) or the                   alarm      in     oxygen       deficient
Central Control Station (CCS), and to the                   environments.
Remote Display Unit (RDU) on the Bridge.
Although not specific to naval aviation, for             3. Hapsite. The Hapsite is a portable,
those ships on which the system is mounted,                 multi     power       source      gas
it can benefit embarked aviation units by                   chromatograph/mass      spectrometer
providing       warning     that    chemical                (GC/MS). It is designed to detect and
contamination is present and that protection                provide the concentration of volatile
and avoidance measures need to be taken. It                 organic compounds (VOC). VOCs are
may also give an indication of potential                    a principle constituent of nerve
decontamination requirements. A complete                    agents.


                                                6-9                                       ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

6.4 LIQUID CHEMICAL DETECTORS                                            WARNING

6.4.1 M8 Chemical Agent Detector                              When conducting agent tests at
Paper. M8 detector paper is a chemically                      night with M8 Paper, do not
treated, dye-impregnated paper, perforated                    perform the tests under red light.
for easy removal. Liquid nerve (G and V)                      A red light may conceal a positive
and H series blister agents can be identified                 response when testing for blister
by color changes on the paper. A packet of                    agents and can make the
M8 paper in booklets are a component of the                   interpretation of other results
M256A1/M256 kit. A booklet consists of 25                     difficult. If using a flashlight, the
split sheets (50 separate applications). It is                red lens should be removed.
used for detection and monitoring. M8 paper
can be ordered separately from the M256A1               When M8 paper contacts liquid chemical
kit under NSN 6665-00-050-8529.                         agents, the color changes are matched to a
                                                        color comparison chart, which is printed on
                                                        the inside front cover of the booklet, for
                 WARNING                                identification.

      Personnel who are color-blind                     M8 paper can be used for either point
      shall not analyze M8 paper test                   detection or monitoring. In the monitoring
      results. The tests are based on                   mode, the paper can be taped on aircraft
      color comparisons. An incorrect                   surfaces to monitor for the arrival of agent
      reading of test results could lead                droplets. Although it can detect an attack
      to     premature    removal     of                almost instantaneously, it must be monitored
      protective clothing and cause                     visually. In the point detection mode, during
      casualties.                                       post-attack survey, blot – do not rub – the
                                                        paper on the surfaces being monitored. A
                                                        complete description M8 paper is provided
                 WARNING                                in NSTM 470 or in Army TM 3-6665-307-
                                                        10.
      M8 Paper will give a false                        .
      positive response when exposed to
      certain    substances   including
      training    simulants   (oil    of
      wintergreen)       and       some
      decontaminants.




                            Figure 6-11 M8 Chemical Agent Detector Paper




ORIGINAL                                         6-10
                                                                                 NAVAIR 00-000-000

6.4.2 M9 Chemical Agent Detector
Paper. M9 chemical agent detector paper is                                WARNING
a chemically treated, dye-impregnated
paper. The presence of liquid chemical                          A number of substances or
agents can be detected by color changes to                       conditions      can     produce
M9 paper. M9 paper differs from M8 paper                         unreliable or false positive test
in that it will only detect the presence of                      results with M9 paper. These
liquid chemical agent; it will not identify the                  substances and conditions are
agent. The only color change associated                          listed below:
with M9 paper is red and shades of red (red,
red-brown, red-purple or pink). It is issued                    Temperature       above     125oF
                                                                    o
as single roll (30 feet of paper) and is                         (52 C)
contained in a cardboard dispenser with a                       Scuffs.
serrated metal edge for cutting. A moisture-                    Brake fluid.
proof, re-sealable bag is provided for storing                  Aircraft     surface     cleaning
the dispenser after it is removed from its                       compound.
original package. M9 paper has adhesive on                      Gasoline.
the reverse side for attachment to surfaces                     Grease.
and clothing. The adhesive side is covered in
                                                                Petroleum based hydraulic fluid.
the dispenser by a strip of olive drab (OD)
                                                                Insect repellent and spray.
paper. M9 paper will not stick to dirty, oily
or greasy surfaces. A complete description                      Lubricating oil.
of M9 paper is provided in NSTM 470 or in                       Antifreeze.
Army TM-3-6665-311-10.                                          Sand color camouflage stick.
                                                                FS smoke screen.

                  WARNING                                The detector paper will work in rain, snow,
                                                         and sleet but should be changed when
      Personnel who are color-blind                      soaked because the paper will not
      shall not analyze M9 paper test                    immediately respond to agents when wet.
      results. The tests are based on                    Response time increases at temperatures
      color comparisons. An incorrect                    below freezing. It may take several minutes
      reading of test results could lead                 for color to appear. M9 paper can be used
      to     premature    removal     of                 for either point detection or monitoring. For
      protective clothing and cause                      point detection, the paper can be placed on
      casualties.                                        equipment or aircraft surfaces or attached to
                                                         chemical protective clothing. When
                                                         monitoring for liquid agent contamination of
                  WARNING                                a surface during post-attack surveys, take a
                                                         piece of detector paper and blot the deck or
      When conducting agent tests at                     surface around the suspected area. Do not
      night with M9 paper, do not                        scrape or rub detector paper across rough
      perform the tests under red light.                 surfaces, as scuffmarks will cause false
      A red light may conceal a positive                 readings. M9 paper has an extendable 3
      response and can make the                          years shelf life. The discard date is stamped
      interpretation of other results                    on the shipping bag and the dispenser box.
      difficult. If using a flashlight, the
      red lens should be removed.




                                                  6-11                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                            Figure 6-12 M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper

6.5 BIOLOGICAL DETECTION                                 countermeasures is provided in NWDC TM
                                                         3-11.1-02, Guide to Biological Warfare and
6.5.1 Confirmation That A Biological                     Bio-terrorism Ashore and Afloat.
Attack Has Occurred. Establishing
definitively that a biological attack has                6.5.2 Dry Filter Unit (DFU) and Hand
occurred is difficult. It is normal for a small          Held Assay (HHA). The DFU is an
percentage of personnel to be ill due to the             environmental air sampling system designed
effects of naturally occurring pathogens.                to be used with biological agent assays and
Occasionally, there are outbreaks of illness             confirmatory laboratories to provide a
that affect a larger percentage. This could be           "Detect to Treat " capability for U.S. Naval
due to natural causes, but the following                 forces ashore and afloat. While the DFU
developments could indicate that a                       only collects samples, Hand Held Assay
biological warfare agent is responsible.                 (HHA) tickets can manually identify a
                                                         variety of biological agents. The DFU and
   1. The number of casualties reaches                   HHA may be employed for periodic
      epidemic proportions within hours to               environmental sampling to detect covert
      three days, most within a 24-hour                  releases or may be used to collect air
      period.                                            samples from a suspected incident scene.
                                                         The DFU is a high volume air sampler
   2. The infection rate or death rate is                designed to collect airborne particulate
      higher than normally expected for the              matter as it is drawn through a 1 micron
      disease.                                           filter. Used filters are removed from the unit
                                                         and the residue rinsed into a buffer solution.
   3. An outbreak of a disease occurs in an              The sample solution is analyzed via hand
      area of the world where it is not                  held assays (HHA's) for the detection and
      normally encountered.                              identification of biological agents. In
                                                         addition, the sample solution may require
   4. Personnel working in a protected                   transport to a confirmatory laboratory for
      environment do not contract the                    further analysis. DFU and HHA are not
      disease.                                           organic to USN and USMC squadrons
                                                         embarked on ships or ashore. However,
   5. Outbreak of multiple diseases occurs.              support can be coordinated with ship
                                                         damage       control       men,    shore-based
To confirm that a biological attack was                  preventative      medicine      and    disaster
responsible, samples collected by a                      preparedness officers, and MEU NBC
biological detection system, environmental               personnel (MEU enhanced NBC packages
samples collected by repair parties or                   are equipped with HHA only. MEU’s do not
biomedical samples collected by medical                  possess the DFU).
personnel are crucial. A comprehensive
discussion of biological weapons effects and


ORIGINAL                                          6-12
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                               Figure 6-13 Dry Filter Unit




                    XR   XR   W     W      W   N     LE      LE




                              Figure 6-14 Hand Held Assay




ORIGINAL                                6-14
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000

6.5.3      Interim   Biological       Agent             the IBADS prepares a sample which must be
Detection System (IBADS). IBADS is                      manually tested to confirm the presence and
an installed sensor that provides point                 identity of selected biological agents.
detection of several airborne biological                Although not specific to naval aviation, for
warfare agents on a near real time basis.               those ships or task groups on which the
Since the number of IBADS afloat is                     system is mounted, it can benefit embarked
limited, systems are cross-decked as                    aviation units by providing warning that
required by higher authority. One or more               biological contamination is present and that
ships in a task group may have IBADS                    protection and avoidance measures need to
installed. The IBADS continuously samples               be taken. It may also give an indication of
outside air and detects changes in the                  potential decontamination requirements. A
amount of airborne particles in several size            more complete description of the IBADS is
ranges. When a suspicious increase occurs               provided        in       NSTM          470.
in the number of particles of respirable size,




                                                 6-15                                     ORIGINAL
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000



                                           CHAPTER 7
 Chemical and Biological Contamination
                Control
7.1 OBJECTIVES OF                                            Yuma Proving Grounds identified
CONTAMINATION CONTROL                                        the aircraft crew chief’s ground
                                                             ICS cable as a secondary
NATO defines contamination control as                        (transferred) contaminant source
―procedures to avoid, reduce, remove or                      during simulated desert warfare
render harmless, temporarily or permanently                  operations. Use of hand signals
Nuclear, Biological or Chemical (NBC)                        vice      ICS     communications
contamination for the purpose of                             provided a suitable ―work around‖
maintaining or enhancing the efficient                       solution.
conduct of military operations‖. The goals
of contamination control are threefold.                 7.3 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
                                                        CONTAMINATION
   1. Minimize casualties.
                                                          1. Non-persistent Chemical Agents.
   2. Reduce    risk   of       damage      to               Chemical agents that linger or present
      equipment/materials.                                   hazardous affects for relatively short
                                                             periods are described as non-
   3. Minimize performance degradation by                    persistent. These      agents    have
      reducing the time which essential                      considerable    casualty    producing
      personnel must wear individual                         potential primarily from inhalation.
      protective equipment (IPE).                            Persistency varies with ambient
                                                             temperature (usually from 30 minutes
7.2 CONTAMINATION SOURCES                                    to an hour).

Contamination is the result of hostile forces             2. Persistent chemical agents. These
depositing CB agents in locations that                       agents produce contact, ingestion, and
inflicts casualties, or denies the use of                    respiratory hazards. They decompose
equipment or terrain. Contamination may                      naturally with time and can last from
result from the following:                                   hours to weeks depending on the type
                                                             of agent, amount deposited, and
   1. Direct deposition or absorption of CB                  weather conditions. Persistent agents
      agent(s) on personnel, equipment,                      may be delivered in liquid or solid
      and/or terrain immediately after an                    form (dusty agent). Unabsorbed agent
      attack.                                                primarily creates a contact/transfer
                                                             hazard and a vapor hazard while
   2. Transferring contamination from                        evaporating.      Long-term hazards
      contaminated personnel, equipment,                     result from the agent ―sorbing‖
      and/or terrain to uncontaminated                       (absorbing and/or adsorbing) into
      personnel, equipment, and/or terrain                   surfaces. Sorbed agents will off gas
      either by direct contact or as the result              (desorb) creating a respiratory hazard.
      of decontamination (removal).                          Agent(s) may also desorb as a liquid
                                                             creating a contact/transfer hazard.
                   Note16                                    Desorbtion results from agent that has
                                                             been allowed to penetrate surfaces.
      Navy air     interface testing
      conducted with a CH-53E at
                                                  7-1                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
   3. Thickened agents. The addition of                  1. Eliminates risk of injury or death to
      polymers to a liquid agent modifies its               personnel.
      basic properties and increases its
      deposition effectiveness. Persistency              2. Reduces the risk of damage and or
      and adhesion to surfaces are also                     degradation to aircraft, equipment,
      enhanced making decontamination                       and provisions due to the physical
      more difficult.                                       properties of CB contaminants.

   4. Biological Contamination. Biological               3. Eliminates the labor intensive task of
      agents are primarily anti-personnel                   decontamination, which requires time
      weapons that can take hours, days, or                 and materiel, and may have limited
      weeks to incapacitate and/or kill.                    effectiveness.
      Routes of entry include eyes,
      inhalation, transfer, ingestion17, and          7.5.3     Avoidance        Planning.       The
      skin (cutaneous anthrax). Due to their          effectiveness of contamination avoidance is
      small size and viability biological             directly related to the effort taken to protect
      agents can penetrate small areas in             assets. For maximum effectiveness, aviation
      sufficient quantity to present long-            commands afloat or ashore should minimize
      term hazards.        Regular medical            asset exposure and coordinate with co-
      surveillance after suspected biological         located aviation units, senior commands,
      exposure is highly recommended                  and host activities.
      along          with         prescribed
      immunizations/prophylactics.                    7.5.4 Coordination. Avoidance planning
                                                      should be a coordinated effort between the
7.4 ELEMENTS OF CONTAMINATION                         host activity (ship/station) and air
CONTROL                                               wing/group/ squadron. Coordination should
                                                      include representatives from but not limited
   1. Avoidance                                       to the following:

   2. Detection                                          1. Afloat.

   3. Warning/alarms                                        a. Ships Company. CO/XO, air
                                                               officer, aircraft handler, HDO,
   4. Marking                                                  operations officer, helicopter
                                                               control officer, DCA, First
   5. Contamination transfer control                           Lieutenant, combat cargo officer
                                                               (amphibious ships), AIMD officer,
   6. Mitigation/removal                                       supply officer, master at arms.

7.5 AVOIDANCE                                               b. Wing/CAG/MAG/MEU. CO/XO,
                                                               aviation maintenance officer,
7.5.1 Definition. The primary fundamental                      operations officer, logistics/supply
of contamination control is avoidance.                         officer, CBD staff, and/or
Chemical biological (CB) contamination                         MAG/MEU NBC officer, MEU
avoidance is the individual and or collective                  air officer.
actions taken to preclude the exposure of
personnel, aircraft, equipment and stores to                c. Squadron/Det.               CO/OIC,
CB contaminants.                                               operations     officer,      aviation
                                                               maintenance     officer,     unit/det
7.5.2 Benefits. Successful avoidance of                        CBD/NBC                 officer/petty
CB contamination provides the following                        officer/NCO, logistics officer,
benefits.                                                      aviation supply officer.

                                                         2. Ashore.

ORIGINAL                                        7-2
                                                                         NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                       b. Relocate aviation assets out of
      a. Air Station /Facility. CO/XO,                    threat area (evacuation, fly away).
         operations      officer,    disaster
         preparedness      officer   (DPO),            c. Send non-essential personnel to
         military police/master at arms,                  protected      areas     (collective
         crash fire rescue, fire department,              protection, safe haven etc.).
         facilities engineer, AIMD/MALS
         (Marine      Aviation     Logistics           d. Move      aviation    assets    into
         Squadron), DX (USAF).                            protected areas (hangar, hangar
                                                          deck, ships structure, sheds, tents,
      b. Wing.       CO/XO,        aviation               buildings, etc.).
         maintenance officer, operations
         officer, logistics/supply officer,            e. Temporary use of chemical agent
         CBD staff/NBC officer (USMC).                    resistant materiel and/or field
                                                          expedient covers (field clothing,
      c. Squadron/Detachment. CO/OIC,                     wet weather clothing, tarps,
         operations      officer,    aviation             canvas, tentage, ponchos, and
         maintenance                  officer,            plastic sheeting/bags) to cover
         unit/detachment          CBD/NBC                 ground     support    equipment,
         officer/petty          officer/NCO,              ordnance, food, medical supplies,
         logistics officer, and aviation                  etc.
         supply officer.
                                                       f. Relocating assets on site (dispersal
7.5.5      Considerations.        Avoidance               to minimize exposure).
planning should include actions to be taken
before, during and after a CB attack. These            g. Close all canopies, doors and
actions should be based on the principle of               hatches on aircraft. Put all covers
minimum exposure of assets, while meeting                 in place.
operational commitments. To the maximum
extent possible, divert contaminated aircraft          h. Place M8/M9 paper on parked
to a suitable location ashore.                            aircraft, structures, and equipment.
                                                          Check and ready all available
                    Note                                  detectors           (M256/M256A1,
                                                          CAM/ICAM, M22 ACADA).
      Ships designed by NAVSEA and
      constructed to required CBR                      i. Develop plans and SOPs for
      survivability standards should be                   immediate actions (automatic
      capable of safely recovering and                    masking, local alarms, reporting,
      mitigating    the    hazards   of                   immediate       decontamination),
      contaminated      aircraft   with                   detection, marking (area and
      minimum risk to ships company,                      segregation of contaminated/non-
      and embarked personnel.                             contaminated items), warning,
                                                          decontamination (operational and
If a suitable shore location is not available,            thorough).
commanders shall limit CB exposure to a
designated ship or ships.                              j. Plan     divert    locations    for
                                                          contaminated aircraft taking into
   1. Before attack.                                      consideration how contaminated
                                                          aircraft will be handled (hot turn
      a. Conduct CB vulnerability analysis                around/operate contaminated or
         outlined in chapter 1 of FM 3-3,                 isolate,    decontaminate,     and
         Chemical       and     Biological                weather).
         Contamination Avoidance.


                                                 7-3                                ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
        k. Consider including non-aircrew                     g. Minimize       support    equipment
           CB IPE as part of all aircrew flight                  exposure.
           kits. If space constraints preclude
           full IPE, recommend aircrews                       h. Follow     strict   contamination
           include the service specific, non-                    transfer control procedure, by
           aircrew, protective mask.                             conducting immediate/operational
                                                                 decontamination       of       all
   l.      Train to fight        in    a   CB                    contaminated or suspect personnel,
           environment.                                          surfaces and equipment.

  2. During attack.                                           i. Avoid taking contaminated assets
                                                                 into an uncontaminated area if
        a. Mask and assume highest level of                      other options exist.
           MOPP.
                                                        7.6 CB DETECTION
        b. Sound local alarm (voice/hand-
           and-arm).                                    CB detection devices will allow the aviation
                                                        unit to confirm CB attacks and identify the
        c. Report attack. Sound area alarm.             agent used. Use of detection equipment will
                                                        also allow the unit to locate clean/dirty areas
        d. Seek cover.                                  and segregate contaminated equipment from
                                                        uncontaminated       equipment.      Detection
  3. After attack.                                      devices will also assist in determining
                                                        decontamination requirements and check the
        a. Assess damage, casualties and                efficacy of decontamination operations (see
           contamination levels.                        figure 9-1). Aviation units must coordinate
                                                        CB detection requirements with host
        b. Notify     aircraft    aloft    of           activities. CB detection devices are
           contamination status. Execute                discussed in Chapter 6 of this manual.
           divert plans or prepare to recover
           unprotected (aircrew CB IPE)                 7.7 WARNINGS AND ALARMS
           aircrews.
                                                        7.7.1 CB Threat Conditions. Normally,
        c. Initiate decontamination plan.               theater commanders afloat or ashore provide
           (Immediate/spot decontamination              CB threat information for aviation units.
           or                         defer             This information is promulgated to
           decontamination/weathering                   subordinate commands as an area/theater
           (isolate)).                                  threat condition (THREATCON).

        d. Conduct contaminated aircraft                CB THREATCONs conform to NATO
           aviation                operations           STANAG 2984 and FM 3-3. Fleet
           (ingress/egress,      maintenance            Commanders may employ a supplemental
           (coordinate            AIMD/IMA              CB THREATCON system to notify
           emergency reclamation teams),                assigned   forces  of  CB    readiness
           ordnance loading, fueling)).                 requirements.     STANAG         2984
                                                        THREATCONs are presented below:
        e. Turnaround dirty aircraft rather
           than expose clean ones.                         1. CB THREATCON (0) Zero. No threat
                                                              has been identified, and probability of
        f. Limit personnel exposure to only                   attack is assessed as negligible.
           those required to execute mission                  Opposing forces do not possess any
           essential tasks.                                   CB equipment, are not trained in CB
                                                              warfare, and do not possess the
                                                              capability to employ CB agents or

ORIGINAL                                          7-4
                                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000
     systems. Assigned forces are not
     required to carry CB equipment.                                  WARNING

  2. CB THREATCON (1) One. The CB                       All personnel shall be familiar
     threat is low, and threat of attack is             with CB alarms and warning
     assessed as possible. Opposing forces              signals. Failure to recognize and
     possess offensive CB capabilities but              promptly respond to local CB
     there are no indications of intended               alarms and warning signal can
     use. Assigned forces must ensure that              result in serious injury or death.
     IPE and CB medicants are readily
     available.                                      1. Shipboard. Aboard U.S. Navy ships
                                                        the    operations     department       is
  3. CB THREATCON (2) Two. The CB                       responsible for        operating and
     threat is medium, and threat of attack             monitoring the bridge mounted
     is assessed as credible. Opposing                  shipboard CB detection equipment. In
     forces are trained and equipped in CB              the event CB agent(s) are detected,
     employment techniques. There are                   the bridge will sound the ships
     possible indications of intend use.                chemical alarm. The alarm will be
     Units based ashore will assume                     followed by a 1-MC announcement.
     MOPP level zero or higher (mask                    Information      will   be     provided
     carried    and     IPE    immediately              concerning        mission       oriented
     available). Medical personnel will                 protective posture (MOPP) and setting
     monitor cases of sickness closely for              protective level ―Circle William‖.
     symptoms of biological warfare
     agents and report suspected cases by            2. Shore based. Aviation units ashore
     quickest secure means.                             often occupy facilities that are remote,
                                                        extend over large areas, and do not
  4. CB THREATCON (3) Three. CB                         have public address systems. Aviation
     threat is high, and threat of attack is            units in these locations should
     assessed as probable. Opposing forces              develop and practice CB alarms as
     possess CB agents, weapons, and                    part of their standing operating
     delivery systems. CB attacks have                  procedures. Local alarms may take the
     occurred in theater. Indications                   form of sirens, metal on metal
     portend an enemy attack is imminent                percussion, vehicle horns, etc.
     or underway. Commanders will                       Standard voice and visual alarms
     establish highest practical level of               supplement area alarms and are
     MOPP based on local conditions and                 provided below.
     indications. Consider enemy attacks
     as CB until proven otherwise.                      a. Hand and arm signals. Extend
                                                           arms sideways horizontally from
7.7.2 Local Cb Alarms And Warning                          the body with upward clenched
Signals. CB warnings are passed directly                   fists. Rapidly pump fist/forearm
or indirectly by voice, visual signal or                   toward head and back to
audible alarm and may vary based upon                      horizontal while giving the vocal
local SOP.                                                 alarm.


                                                                      WARNING

                                                        Don, clear, and check field
                                                        protective mask before giving this
                                                        alarm. Failure to do so may result
                                                        in serious injury or death.


                                               7-5                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                    Note                                     flight decks and flight lines. Flags
                                                             may become a FOD hazard.
      CB attack hand and arm signal
      should not be confused with                       7.8.2 Marker Deployment. The label of
      helicopter hand and arm signal to                 the contamination marker shall face away
      lift off.                                         from the contaminated area and should be
                                                        prominently positioned for easy visibility
      b. Vocal alarm. ―GAS, GAS, GAS‖                   establishing a boundary around the
         is repeated as necessary. Once the             contaminated     area,   aircraft,  and/or
         CB hazard has passed the vocal                 equipment. Personnel shall use an indelible
         signal,       ―ALL        CLEAR,               ink marker to write specific information
         UNMASK,‖ is given.                             regarding type of agent and time/date of
                                                        detection on the face of the contamination
7.7.3 Area Warning Procedures. CB                       marker. Additional information on hazard
warning information in an area of operation             marking may be found in FM 3-3, chapter 5.
will be disseminated in accordance with the
Joint Warning and Reporting System                      7.9 CONTAMINATION TRANSFER
(JWARNS).        The reports generated by               CONTROL PROCEDURES
JWARNS are in standard STANAG 2103,
ATP 45 and FM 3-3 formats. These reports                7.9.1 General. The objective of
provide CB attack information such as,                  contamination control is to limit the spread
location of attack, type agent(s), persistency,         of CB contamination so that there is no
predicted hazard area, and duration of                  additional degradation to sustained air
hazard. These reports can be disseminated               operations.    Limiting the spread of
by     naval     message,     radio/telephone           contamination facilitates management of
communication, or digitally.                            contamination until mitigation/removal
                                                        returns the unit to normal aviation
7.8 HAZARD MARKING                                      operations

7.8.1 General. An important part of any                 Sustaining air operations in a CB
contamination avoidance/control effort will             contaminated environment requires careful
center on the identification of contaminated            analysis and planning. Many factors will
areas and appropriately marking them.                   influence air operations including, but not
Allied, Joint, and U.S. Naval Forces use                limited to:
color coded triangular markers labeled GAS,
BIO, or ATOM as described in figure 7-1.                   1. Type aircraft. Procedures that affect
                                                              contamination control such as
Local marker fabrication is acceptable as                     ingress/egress            procedures,
long as the shape, dimension, color, label                    spot/operational/thorough
and amplifying information follows the                        decontamination       methods    and
accepted design. Marking Kits are available                   maintenance implications may be
through the supply system (NSN 9905-12-                       unique to specific TMS aircraft
124-5955). These marking kits contain
contamination markers (in the form of                      2. Mission. Executing contamination
plastic flags) and stakes that are prohibited                 control plans in order to meet mission
for shipboard use, but may be appropriate                     requirements at an acceptable level of
ashore.                                                       proficiency and frequency.

                                                           3. Base (ship/shore). Aviation units will
                  CAUTION
                                                              have to adjust to differences between
      Plastic flags in marking kits may                       host    command’s       contamination
      not     withstand    winds    and                       control SOP and the unit SOP as well
      prop/rotor wash and jet exhaust on                      as adjusting to differences regarding
                                                              contamination control ashore versus

ORIGINAL                                          7-6
                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000
afloat. For example, doffing of           aircrew) ashore is different from the
contaminated  IPE   (aircrew/non-         procedures afloat.




                                    7-7                               ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                    28 cm


                     GAS
                                                     CHEMICAL
                                                 Yellow Background
                                    20 cm
        20 cm                                     with Red Letting




    Name of Agent (if known) Date and Time of
                    Detection

                      BIO
                                                     BIOLOGICAL
                                                Blue Background with Red
                                                        Lettering



    Name of Agent (if known) Date and Time of
                    Detection

                                                   RADIOLOGICAL
                 ATOM
                                                 White Background with
                                                    Black Lettering




                                  Figure 7-1 NATO Contamination Markers




ORIGINAL                                             7-8
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000

  4. Operational situation. Commanders                    interior hazard should be significantly
     will have to determine the priority of               less. Any contact with the aircraft,
     assigned missions and whether the                    including entry, shall be performed in
     necessity of operating in IPE justifies              a manner that prevents additional CB
     the risk to personnel and equipment.                 agent contamination. Parked aircraft
     Cargo aircraft that transload mission                with operating APE, ECS, air
     essential contaminated cargo from                    multiplier, powered ventilators, etc.
     shore-shore, shore-ship or ship-shore                may have a significantly elevated
     will    have     unique     operational              interior CB exposure level. Consult
     requirements. Procedures for handling                aircraft flight manual/handbooks for
     contaminated cargo can be found in                   CB intrusion path information.
     STANAG        2471     (Contamination
     Control for Airlift Operations). Air              2. Aircraft on the ground or in-flight are
     Force Manual 32-4017 and Air Force                   subject to chemical agent intrusion
     Manual 32-4005 (AMC CONOPS for                       into cockpit, cargo areas, and other
     Air Mobility in CB Contaminated                      interior spaces. 1819,20,21
     Environment).           Contamination
     avoidance/control       and       force         7.9.3 Basic Operational Scenarios.
     protection may be influenced when               Three CB contamination scenarios exist
     operating     under      actual     CB          under which aviation units will have to
     contamination conditions versus the             operate.
     threat of CB attack.
                                                       1. Uncontaminated              aircraft-CB
  5. CB challenge. Persistency of the CB                  contaminated base/ship.
     contaminant     influences    whether
     robust      contamination      control            2. CB       contaminated          aircraft-
     procedures will be required. The CB                  uncontaminated base/ship.
     challenge impacts how intrusive CB
     contamination is to aircraft, aircraft            3. CB     contaminated         aircraft-CB
     systems, and influences the type and                 contaminated base/ship.
     level of decontamination required.
                                                     7.9.3.1 Uncontaminated Aircraft-CB
  6. Ambient conditions. Weather impacts             Contaminated Base/Ship.
     the persistency of CB contamination
     and influences work/rest cycles.                  1. Recovery. Aircraft should be directed
                                                          to the least contaminated runway or
When developing contamination control                     spot and away from prop wash, rotor
standing operating procedures, commanders                 wash, and/or jet exhaust created by
should      review     aircraft   specific                other aircraft.
contamination paths, field test results,
commonly accepted aviation operating                   2. Handling (spot/park/re-spot). Use the
procedures (NAMP, NATOPS, etc.) and                       least contaminated, upwind parking
shipboard/shore based SOPs.                               spot. Spot decontaminate tow bars,
                                                          chocks, chains, and ground handling
7.9.2    Basic     Assumptions.   The                     gear assemblies before attaching to
following       assumptions     govern                    aircraft. Ground crews shall avoid
contamination control.                                    touching aircraft without conducting
                                                          decontamination of gloves first.
  1. A parked aircraft that has been closed
     up in accordance with present Navy-               3. Spot decontaminate tires, tail hooks,
     wide corrosion control procedures                    or other ground contact points.
     may be subject to exterior CB
     liquid/solid agent deposition, but its

                                               7-9                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
  4. Keep aircraft canopy, doors, hatches,
     and windows closed until directed to               4. Deplane aircrew and passengers per
     egress.                                               guidance provided in chapter 5 of this
                                                           manual. Provide supplemental IPE
  5. Deplane aircrew and passengers per                    (Disposable      footwear     covers,
     guidance provided in chapter 5 of this                disposable cape, and plastic bags for
     manual. Provide supplemental IPE                      gear) to aircrews and passengers. Use
     (disposable      footwear     covers,                 least contaminated transportation to
     disposable cape, and plastic bags for                 move aircrew and passengers to
     gear) to aircrews and passengers. Use                 decontamination site ashore, or
     clean transportation to move aircrew                  provide an escort to CCA when afloat.
     and passengers to decontamination
     site ashore, or provide an escort to               5. Confirm aircraft contamination status
     CCA when afloat.                                      using detection devices in chapter 6 of
                                                           this manual; report results
  6. Confirm aircraft contamination status
     using detection devices in chapter 6 of            6. Ingress aircrew in accordance with
     this manual; report results.                          guidance provided in Chapter 5 of this
                                                           manual.
  7. Perform spot decontamination on all
     contact points, access covers, and                 7. Spot decontaminate ports and access
     surfaces      before    performing                    covers before attaching ground
     maintenance, refueling, resupply,                     support equipment (GSE) when
     and/or rearming.                                      starting aircraft. Aircraft maintenance
                                                           personnel        shall      continuously
7.9.3.2 CB Contaminated Aircraft-                          decontaminate gloves and GSE
Uncontaminated Base/Ship.                                  contact points.

  1. Recovery. Aircraft should be directed              8. Taxi and launch aircraft in accordance
     to the least essential, down wind                     with established procedures. Avoid
     runway or spot, away from other                       directing prop wash, rotor wash,
     aircraft and away from prop wash,                     and/or jet exhaust toward other
     rotor wash, and/or jet exhaust created                aircraft.
     by other aircraft.
                                                      7.9.3.3 CB Contaminated Aircraft-CB
  2. Handling (spot/park/re-spot). Spot               Contaminated Base/Ship.
     decontaminate aircraft where tow
     bars, chocks, chains, and ground                   1. Recovery. Aircraft should be directed
     handling gear assemblies attach to                    to the least essential, down wind
     aircraft. Ground crews shall avoid                    runway or spot, away from other
     touching aircraft and conduct                         aircraft and away from prop wash,
     decontamination of gloves if contact                  rotor wash, and/or jet exhaust created
     is made.                                              by other aircraft.

  3. Perform spot decontamination on all                2. Handling (spot/park/re-spot). Spot
     contact points, access covers, and                    decontaminate aircraft where tow
     surfaces      before       performing                 bars, chocks, chains, and ground
     maintenance, refueling, resupply,                     handling gear assemblies attach to
     and/or rearming. Aircraft maintenance                 aircraft as well as tow bars, chocks,
     personnel      shall      continuously                chains, and ground handling gear
     decontaminate gloves, tools, and                      assemblies before attaching to
     diagnostic      equipment        while                aircraft. Ground crews shall avoid
     conducting services as part of the                    touching aircraft without conducting
     contamination control plan.                           decontamination of gloves. Aviation

ORIGINAL                                       7-10
                                                                             NAVAIR 00-000-000
   commanders may consider conducting                     support equipment (GSE) when
   aircraft washdown versus spot                          starting aircraft. Aircraft maintenance
   decontamination.                                       personnel        shall      continuously
                                                          decontaminate gloves and GSE
3. Perform spot decontamination on all                    contact points.
   contact points, access covers, and
   surfaces      before       performing               8. Taxi and launch aircraft in accordance
   maintenance, refueling, resupply,                      with established procedures. Avoid
   and/or rearming. Aircraft maintenance                  directing prop wash, rotor wash,
   personnel      shall      continuously                 and/or jet exhaust toward other
   decontaminate gloves, tools, and                       aircraft.
   diagnostic      equipment        while
   conducting services as part of the               7.10 CONTAMINATION MITIGATION
   contamination control plan.                      AND REMOVAL

4. Deplane aircrew and passengers per               7.10.1 General: The operational situation
   guidance provided in chapter 5 of this           directly influences the feasibility of
   manual. Provide supplemental IPE                 performing any contamination reduction or
   (Disposable      footwear     covers,            removal      efforts.   Complete      removal
   disposable cape, and plastic bags for            (thorough decontamination) at the earliest
   gear) to aircrews and passengers. Use            possible time is the goal. However, mission
   least contaminated transportation to             essential tasking can limit the opportunity of
   move aircrew and passengers to                   aircraft reclamation efforts. Generally,
   decontamination site ashore, or                  thorough decontamination will not be
   provide an escort to CCA when afloat.            possible or feasible while simultaneously
                                                    conducting air operations. Therefore,
5. Confirm aircraft contamination status            immediate and operational decontamination
   using detection devices in chapter 6 of          provide the best contamination control while
   this manual; report results.                     preserving the commanders capability to
                                                    conduct aviation operations. Aviation unit
6. Ingress aircrew in accordance with               commanders must implement contamination
   guidance provided in Chapter 5 of this           control procedures at the earliest possible
   manual.                                          time until thorough decontamination can be
                                                    performed. Decontamination is discussed in
7. Spot decontaminate ports and access              Chapter 8 of this manual.
   covers before attaching ground




                                             7-11                                       ORIGINAL
                                                                              NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                                22
                                         CHAPTER 8
                               Decontamination
8.1 INTRODUCTION                                            agents cannot penetrate the skin, but
                                                            contact with a contaminated surface
The use of CB weapons creates unique                        can       subsequently        transfer
residual hazards that may require                           contamination to the body or clothing,
decontamination.       The    presence      of              which may eventually enter the body
contamination generally reduces the                         by hand to mouth/eye contact or by
effectiveness of our combat power,                          ingestion of contaminated food or
especially the ability to generate sorties and              liquid. Disease caused by biological
sustain air operations. Contamination forces                agents may also be transferred among
us into protective equipment that degrades                  people similar to communicable
our ability to perform individual and                       diseases.
collective tasks.
                                                       8.3 AGENT PERSISTENCY –
8.2 CONTAMINATION HAZARDS -                            REQUIREMENT FOR
METHODS OF TRANSMISSION                                DECONTAMINATION

   1. Transfer. Anything that touches a                  1. Non-persistent. An immediate threat
      surface covered with liquid or solid                  that lasts a few minutes. Non-
      contamination will tend to pick up                    persistent materials rarely require
      that contamination and move it from                   decontamination.
      one surface to another.
                                                         2. Persistent. May last for days. In a
   2. Spread. Touching a surface covered                    protected environment, these agents
      with liquid chemical agent can spread                 can last for longer periods. All agents
      contamination on the same surface,                    are affected to some extent by the
      thereby, increasing the size of the                   weather. Persistent contamination will
      contaminated area.                                    usually require active or passive
                                                            decontamination.
   3. Vapor. Vapors can be carried through
      the air in the form of a dust, atomized            3. Biological organisms are greatly
      liquids (aerosols), or true gases.                    affected by sunlight. Chemical agents
      Vapors in an open/outdoor area                        can be decontaminated by the
      disperse rapidly, so there is no need to              weather. The duration of a hazard is a
      decontaminate.                                        complex estimation that is based on
                                                            numerous factors which include the:
   4. Desorption.           Liquid-chemical
      contamination absorbs into porous                     a. Type of contamination.
      surfaces. Once absorbed, it begins to
      desorb or give off gas; that is, low                  b. Contamination density and droplet
      levels of vapor pass out of the                          size.
      contaminated surface into the air and
      can be transferred to any surface that                c. Temperature
      contacts it, including bare skin. Also
      known as off gassing.                                 d. Wind speed.

   5. Biological. Biological agents cause                   e. Sunlight.
      casualties by entry into the body.
      Biological agents can enter the body                  f. Humidity and rain.
      through the eyes, respiratory system                  g. Composition of the contaminated
      and the digestive system. Biological                     surface.

                                                 8-1                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                                         Note
      h. Type of soil and terrain.
                                                           This principle will not apply to a
NSTM 470 provides estimates of hazard                      ship that is attacked and becomes
duration for selected persistent chemical                  contaminated along with the
materials.                                                 aircraft and support equipment on
                                                           the decks. However, it may have
8.4 DECONTAMINATION CONCEPTS                               application to a clean ship
                                                           considering whether to recover
Whenever personnel are unable to avoid                     contaminated aircraft, as opposed
contamination and have to use protective                   to diverting the aircraft to a shore
measures, decontamination is necessary to                  facility or other location.
allow them to remove their protective gear
and resume normal operations. Weathering                4. Decontaminate by priority. The
is the most desirable means of                             commander identifies which items are
decontamination; however, time and                         most critical to the mission. Restoring
operational needs may not permit that                      combat power and reestablishing
option.                                                    operating tempo are key.

Decontamination is the removal, destruction,
or neutralization of contamination. If you           8.5 DECONTAMINATION IN COMBAT
become           contaminated,        some
decontamination must occur as soon as                Combat effectiveness is degraded by MOPP.
possible.                                            Decontamination      can     remove     the
                                                     contamination and restore combat power.
8.4.1 Decontamination Principles.                    The detection and warning network is vital
Decontaminate immediately for a chemical             to ensure that persons and equipment are
agent on the skin. Perform higher levels of          protected    when      contamination      is
decontamination as a result of a risk                encountered. Figure 8-1 depicts the drop in
assessment. The following principles govern          effectiveness as the affected unit and
decontamination decisions:                           personnel    react.    Considerations    of
                                                     decontamination in combat are:
   1. Decontaminate as soon as possible.
      The sooner the contamination is                   1. Immediate decontamination. It saves
      removed, the sooner MOPP levels can                  lives and permits the use of individual
      be reduced and combat power can be                   equipment and key systems.
      restored.
                                                        2. Operational    decontamination.    It
   2. Decontaminate     only    what     is                reduces the spread and the level of
      necessary. Weathering is the least                   contamination. In some cases, when
      costly method of decontamination.                    combined with weathering, MOPP
      Expend resources where they count.                   levels may be reduced without further
                                                           decontamination.
   3. Decontaminate as far forward as
      possible. While mission, enemy,                   3. Thorough       decontamination.  It
      terrain, troops, time available, and                 removes the unit from the fight but
      civilian consideration (METT-TC)                     allows it to return with restored
      dependent,                performing                 effectiveness.
      decontamination as close to the point
      of contamination as possible reduces
      the spread of contamination and
      minimizes any transfer hazard.



ORIGINAL                                       8-2
                                                                                     NAVAIR 00-000-000



        MAX
                              CONTAMINATION
                                                                                        END COMPLETE

                                               TEMPORARY RELIEF FROM MOPP 4
         COMBAT POTENTIAL




                            IMMEDIATE
                              DECON

                                         OPERATIONAL DECON OPERATIONS


                                              THOROUGH DECON OPERATIONS


       MIN                                             TIME                                       MAX

                              Figure 8-1. How Decontamination Affects Combat Effectiveness

8.6 DECONTAMINATION DECISIONS
                                                              Solutions,   solvents,    and    equipment
The decision to decontaminate is a risk                       referenced in NAVAIR- 01-1A-509
                                                              (Aircraft Weapon Systems Cleaning and
assessment and is made within the context                     Corrosion     Control      Manual)     and
of mission, enemy, terrain and weather,                       NAVAIR-16-1-540 (Avionic Cleaning and
troops and support available, time and                        Corrosion Prevention/ Control Manual) are
civilian considerations (METT-TC) and the                     recommended for the decontamination of
resources available. Decontamination must                     aircraft and aircraft subsystems. Standard
be considered if the contamination levels                     and most non-standard decontaminants are
exceed the negligible risk levels as follows:                 highly corrosive and should be used at
                                                              shore-based installations only. They are
                                                              recommended for neutralization of the
Chemical and biological contamination                         contaminated runoff water after removal of
causes mild incapacitation in 5 percent or                    the agent from aircraft and equipment.
less of unprotected persons operating for 12                  Decontaminants are described as follows:
continuous hours within 1 meter of
contamination. For the chemical agent
monitor (CAM), this equates to a one-bar                                      WARNING
reading at a distance of 1 inch from the
surface.                                                           Decontaminants recommended for
                                                                   aircraft and aircraft systems/sub-
MOPP-gear exchange provides excellent                              systems are effective for removal
protection against field concentrations of                         only. Removal does not neutralize
agents; however, wearing the gear causes                           CB contamination nor render it
performance degradation. Decontamination                           harmless.
is performed to restore the normal operating
tempo, but the logistical support that is                       1. Natural. Weather (rain, wind,
required to keep persons in non-aircrew IPE                        temperature, sunlight and humidity).
impacts        operations.        Therefore,
decontamination should be conducted as
soon as practical. Figure 8-2 provides
comparison data for decontamination
levels/techniques.

8.7 DECONTAMINANTS
                                                       8-3                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                              equipment and should not be used.
                                                              Use extreme caution when using
                    WARNING                                   these solutions near aircraft and
                                                              support     equipment.     NSTM
       Natural    decontamination       or                    Chapter 470 prohibits DS2 use
       weathering can be an effective                         aboard ships.
       decontaminant,     however       as
       chemical material degrades, it                                      Note
       may off-gas and continue to
       present   a    contact     hazard.                     HTH      prepared    in    various
       Personnel required to work                             concentrations is the standard
       around, monitor or maintain                            shipboard           decontaminant
       equipment, structures or facilities                    excluding aircraft and sensitive
       must be in an appropriate level of                     aviation support equipment.
       IPE.
                                                         3. Nonstandard – Soaps and Detergents.
  2. Standard.    Supertropical       Bleach
     (STB), Decontaminating          Solution
     number     2     (DS2),         Calcium                            WARNING
     Hypochlorite (HTH).
                                                              Soaps and detergents can be
                                                               effective      for     removing
                      WARNING                                  contaminants, but do not
                                                               neutralize them. Run off should
        DS2 is extremely irritating to the                    still be considered contaminated
         eyes and skin. Protective mask and                    until neutralized with an
         rubber gloves must be worn. If DS2                    appropriate decontaminant.
         contacts the skin, wash the area with                For more information on the
         water. Do not inhale vapors.                          types of decontaminants, see
        DS2 ignites spontaneously on                          Appendix B. Refer to S9086-
         contact with STB and HTH.                             QH-STM-010/CH-470R3
        DS2 is a combustible liquid with a                    (NSTM 470) for information
         flash point of 160°F. Do not confuse                  regarding              shipboard
         the DS2 Portable Decontaminating                      decontaminants.
         Apparatus (M-11) with a fire
         extinguisher.                                 8.8 DECONTAMINATION LEVELS
        STB ignites spontaneously on                  AND PROCEDURES
         contact with liquid blister agent or
         DS2.                                          The three levels of decontamination
        STB gives off toxic vapors on                 operations are immediate, operational, and
         contact with G agent.                         thorough (see Figure 8-2). Immediate,
                                                       operational and thorough decontamination
                                                       are discussed in detail in sections 8.9
                  CAUTION                              (immediate), 8.10 (operational), and 8.11
                                                       (thorough).
       Standard decontaminants (DS2,
       HTH and STB) are highly
       corrosive to aircraft and support




ORIGINAL                                         8-4
                                                                                  NAVAIR 00-000-000

  Levels               Techniques1           Best Start Time          Performed by             Advantages
Immediate
                 Skin decontamination       Before 1 minute        Individual             Stops agent from
                                                                                          penetrating.
                 Personal wipe down         Within 15 minutes      Individual or crew

                 Spot Decontamination       As Required            Unit/work division/
                                                                   department/ Ground     Limits spread.
                                                                   support
                                                                   personnel/squadron
Operational
                 MOPP-gear exchange2        Within 6 hours         Unit/work division/    Provides possible
                                                                   department             temporary relief from
                 Aircraft/support                                                         MOPP4. Limits
                 equipment washdown3                               Ground support         liquid agent spread.
                                                                   personnel/squadron
Thorough
                 Equipment and Aircraft     When mission           Ground support         Provides probable
                 Decontamination            allows                 personnel/squadron     long-term MOPP
                                            reconstitution                                reduction with
                                                                                          minimum risk.

                 Personnel/Aircrew                                 Ship’s company
                 Decontamination
1
  The techniques become less effective the longer they are delayed.
2
  Performance degradation and risk assessment must be considered when exceeding 6 hours.
3
  Wash down is most effective if started within 1 hour.
4
  See paragraph 8.9, Immediate Decontamination.

                   Figure 8-2. Comparison Data for Decontamination Levels/Techniques

    8.9 IMMEDIATE DECONTAMINATION
                                                                                WARNING
    There are three components of immediate
    decontamination.      They   are    skin                     Start the skin-decontamination
    decontamination, personal wipe down and                       techniques within 1 minute of
    spot decontamination.                                         becoming contaminated. Some
                                                                  toxic      chemical      agents,
    8.9.1 Skin Decontamination. Skin                              especially nerve agents, kill in
    decontamination is a basic survival skill and                 minutes.
    should be performed within 1 minute of                       If aircrew IPE has not been
    being contaminated. Once an air crewman is                    donned prior to take-off and
    aware     of    chemical    or    biological                  cannot reasonably be donned in
    contamination on his bare skin, he should                     flight, and contamination is
    initiate     immediate      decontamination                   effecting pilot or co-pilot
    techniques, without command, by using his                     performance,      an    in-flight
    personal SDK (Skin Decontaminating Kit,                       emergency should be declared
    M291, Navy reference SS010-AA-MMO-                            and the aircraft landed as soon
    010, USMC reference TM 4230-10/1 Army                         as practical.
    reference TM 3-4230-229-10) and/or water
    from a canteen.                                       Immediate skin decontamination procedures
                                                          assume    aircrews      have     encountered
                                                          contamination in flight or on the ground and
                                                    8-5                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
are not dressed in appropriate aircrew CB                 outside of the kit itself and on the
IPE. If aircrew IPE is already on, check                  individual packets within the kit.
equipment     for    contamination     and                General procedure is to blot or tap
decontaminate in accordance with paragraph                areas of contamination on the skin.
8.9.2.                                                    Aircrew should immediately don the
                                                          aircrew mask (if practical) or the
  1. Chemical. Use the SDK (Figure 8.3)                   MCU 2/P or M40 series field
     within 1 minute of contamination.                    protective mask (if available and
     Instructions for use are listed on the               practical).




                                          Figure 8-3 M291 SDK

     If an SDK is not available, chemical                 effective biological decontaminant.
     contamination may be pinch-blotted                   See Appendix B for details on how to
     from the skin with a cloth and flushed               make this solution. If soap and water
     with water from a canteen. Soap, if                  or HTH solutions are not available,
     available, can also be used to wash the              bottled water or water from a canteen
     agent from the skin. Washing with                    can be used to flush biological agents
     soap and water (or hot water) is the                 from the skin.
     next best method for toxic-agent
     decontamination if SDKs are not                 8.9.2 Personal Wipe Down. Personal
     available, but this method is not as            wipe down is done to remove contamination
     effective as using the decontamination          from individual equipment. Personal wipe-
     kits.                                           down techniques are most effective when
                                                     done within 15 minutes of being
                                                     contaminated.
                WARNING
                                                     For chemical contamination, use the CAM
     SDK is for external use only and                and/or M8/M9 detector paper (if available)
     may be slightly irritating to skin              to locate the agent.
     or eyes. Keep decontaminating
     powder out of eyes, cuts and
     wounds. Use water to wash toxic
     agent out of eyes, cuts or wounds.

  2. Biological. Washing with soap and
     water removes nearly all biological
     agents from the skin. A 0.5 percent
     chlorine (calcium hypochlorite [HTH]
     or household bleach) solution is an
ORIGINAL                                       8-6
                                                                              NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                       The following steps should be used for
                    Note                               conducting spot decontamination ashore or
                                                       afloat:
      USN aviation units typically do
      not possess detection equipment.                   1. Determine          location        for
      This detection equipment will                         decontamination. The location at
      have to be requested as additional                    which        to     conduct       spot
      to equipment allowances or                            decontamination is dependant on the
      sourced from ships company or                         operating cycle and space available of
      shore facility. USMC aviation                         ship/facility and the size of aircraft
      units possess a modest amount of                      being decontaminated.
      detection equipment. If part of a
      MAGTF (Marine Air-Ground                              a. Aircraft capable ships (other than
      Task Force), other elements such                         CV class) and amphibious ships
      as the ground combat, combat                             (other than LHA/LHD) have little
      service support and command                              latitude as to the location of spot
      elements may have sufficient                             decontamination due to the smaller
      detection equipment to augment                           sizes of the flight deck. If multiple
      the air combat element.                                  landing spots are available, the
                                                               extreme        aft     spots      are
Wipe down your mask, hood, gloves, and                         recommended.
other essential gear. Do not attempt to
remove chemical contamination from your                     b. LHA/LHD. Spot decontamination
flight suit or survival vest unless there are                  should be conducted at the landing
obvious clumps of the agent. In this case,                     spot the aircraft has been directed
scrape off the material.                                       to land on. Spots aft of the
                                                               superstructure are recommended
   1. Chemical. Decontaminate individual                       as a contamination control
      equipment using the SDK. Washing                         measure.
      with soap and water and bleach
      solutions is partially effective (see                 c. CV. If time allows, perform spot
      Appendix B).                                             decontamination immediately after
                                                               the aircraft has taxied away from
   2. Biological. Wash with soap and                           the runout area and parked.
      water. If water is not available, use                    Otherwise,        conduct       spot
      SDKs in the same manner as                               decontamination as soon as
      described   for    chemical     agent                    possible before servicing the
      decontamination.                                         aircraft for follow-on missions.

8.9.3 Spot Decontamination. Spot                            d. Ashore. Permanent/expeditionary
decontamination       is     an      immediate                 airfield and FARP operations
decontamination technique that will                            personnel will determine where
normally be performed on aircraft that have                    spot decontamination is to be
been recovered and will be quickly turned                      performed. It is recommended that
around for continued flight operations. Spot                   spot       decontamination     be
decontamination may be required to safely                      performed by service providers at
egress aircrew and perform post-flight                         various service areas (fuel farm,
inspections. Spot decontamination reduces                      ordnance area, maintenance area)
contamination at/on areas that must be                         or at the area directed by the
touched during servicing. Conducting spot                      tower, if the aircraft is to be
decontamination will reduce contamination                      isolated and services brought to
at the service area and limit its spread.                      the aircraft.



                                                 8-7                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
  2. Spot decontamination should be                             soapy water or 9%          calcium
     performed by the crew, division or                         hypochlorite (HTH).
     work section responsible for the
     service     being     performed.   All                 e. Perform service.
     personnel       involved      in  spot
     decontamination         shall    wear                  f. Maintainers/service      providers
     appropriate non-aircrew CB IPE. Wet                       decontaminate     gloves    (SDK,
     weather clothing may be worn over                         soapy water or 9% calcium
     CB IPE to prevent saturation of the                       hypochlorite (HTH).
     non-aircrew protective ensemble. The
     following list provides a baseline for                 g. Run off cleaner should be
     areas that should be decontaminated                       decontaminated      by    applying
     prior to servicing the aircraft:                          standard       or     non-standard
                                                               decontaminant          to      the
     a. Refueling access.                                      deck/ground/airfield; and/or hosed
                                                               overboard or into collection
     b. Ordnance/armament/equipment.                           sumps. If hosed without prior
                                                               decontamination, run off should be
     c. Ingress/egress (ladders,       hand/                   treated as contaminated.
        footholds, steps, etc.).
                                                            Support personnel must ensure
     d. Preflight/post flight checks areas.                 that they are not transferring
                                                            contamination to service areas.
     e. Inspection areas.                                   For example contaminated fuel
                                                            nozzles and tools could re-
     f. Battle damage repair areas.                         contaminate spot decontaminated
                                                            areas.    If   contamination    is
     g. Canopies, windscreens, windows,                     suspected, support personnel
        optical sensors.                                    should use recommended cleaners
                                                            or soapy water to decontaminate
     h. Support      equipment        (seats,               items that they must touch during
        controls, chocks, chains, etc).                     servicing.

     i. Aircraft tie down and tow points.             8.10 OPERATIONAL
                                                      DECONTAMINATION
  3. Procedures.
                                                      The goal of operational decontamination is
     a. Sufficient quantities of soapy                to limit the spread of contamination to clean
        water or applicable aircraft cleaner          areas and to minimize the hazards to
        (NAVAIR technical manual 01-                  personnel, while allowing operations to
        1A-509) and fresh water must be               continue. Under some circumstances,
        available.                                    operational decontamination may be
                                                      sufficient to allow a reduction in IPE
     b. Scrub service areas using brushes,            protective        posture.       Operational
        rags, or sponges with soapy water             decontamination consists of two techniques,
        until deposited CB material and               one for personnel decontamination (MOPP
        dirt/grime are removed.                       gear      exchange)      and     one       for
                                                      equipment/aircraft decontamination (aircraft
     c. Rinse with fresh water from a                 wash down). Operational decontamination is
        bucket or hose.                               most effective when conducted within 6
                                                      hours of contamination.
     d. Maintainers/service      providers
        decontaminate     gloves    (SDK,             8.10.1 Mopp Gear Exchange. MOPP
                                                      gear exchange is a process by which

ORIGINAL                                        8-8
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000
contaminated non-aircrew IPE is removed               decontaminating surfaces, (exterior and
and then new, uncontaminated IPE is                   interior) which must be touched during
donned. MOPP gear exchange is typically               aircraft operations. All personnel involved in
performed by ground units, but is a standard          aircraft wash down shall wear appropriate
USMC        operational     decontamination           non-aircrew CB IPE. Wet weather clothing
technique for aviation personnel who use              or toxicological agent protective (TAP)
non-aircrew IPE. Aviation units operating             aprons worn over CB IPE are recommended
from ships or ashore will follow host unit            to prevent saturation of the non-aircrew
contaminated IPE doffing procedures, which            protective ensemble.
are based upon existing/purpose built ships
spaces or ashore decontamination sites. The
procedures for doffing contaminated aircrew                              WARNING
IPE at these facilities are included in the
thorough decontamination procedures of this                  Checks      with     appropriate
chapter. U.S. Army Field Manual 3-5 (NBC                      detection devices described in
Decontamination)       provides      detailed                 chapter 6 shall be conducted
information on MOPP gear exchange.                            prior to reducing MOPP levels
                                                              around aircraft that have been
                   Note                                       through the aircraft wash down
                                                              process.
      MOPP exchange procedures do                            Ships CMWDS should not be
      not exist for aircrew IPE. If                           used as decontamination method
      operating in a contaminated                             due to the corrosive properties
      environment, aircrews should                            of          salt          water.
      maximize crew day and then doff
      contaminated IPE at a ship
      decontamination station or at a
      similar facility ashore. Aircrew
      decontamination procedures are
      discussed in paragraph 8.11.1.

8.10.2 Aircraft Wash Down. Aircraft
wash      down      is    an    operational
decontamination technique that should be
employed to reduce the level of
contamination on aircraft when time allows
between sorties. Aircraft wash down should
be performed as a minimum contamination
reduction measure when time does not
permit detailed/thorough decontamination.
Performing aircraft wash down within 1-6
hours of contamination will speed the
weathering process and may allow the
aircraft to be operated or maintained in
reduced MOPP levels. Aircraft operational
decontamination is accomplished by




                                                8-9                                       ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
         Decontamination     When, Why, Who                Areas to             Types of
             Types              Performs                Decontaminate        Decontaminating
                             Decontamination                                     Agents
     Aircrew Spot
                            The crew                  Essential operating   SDK, soapy water
                            decontaminates            surfaces on the       or approved
                            after immediate           aircraft              cleaners1
                            decontamination to
                            allow continued
                            operations. Flight
                            deck and airfield
                            support personnel
                            and maintainers
                            perform when hot
                            turn around of
                            aircraft required.
     Aircraft Wash
                            The aviation unit         The entire exterior   Hot, soapy water
     Down
                            with coordination of      surface of the
                            the DCA or facility       aircraft3
                            Disaster
                            Preparedness officer
                            conducts within 6
                            hours to reduce
                            contact hazards2
     1
       NAVAIR 01-1A-509, NAVAIR 16-1-540, aircraft and aircraft systems technical
     manuals provide guidance for choosing appropriate cleaners.
     2
       An aircraft wash down is most effective if conducted within 1 hour of contamination.
     3
       An aircrew spot decontamination is performed to reduce contact hazards inside the
     aircraft. Do not spray water inside the aircraft.

               Figure 8-4 Aircraft Immediate/Operational Decontamination Methods

   The following steps should be used                           positioned so that relative wind
   for conducting aircraft wash down                            direction is from nose to tail.
   ashore or afloat:

  1. Determine        location        for                   b. LHA/LHD. Aircraft wash down
     decontamination. The location at                          can be conducted at the landing
     which to conduct aircraft wash down                       spot the aircraft has been directed
     is dependant on the operating cycle                       to land on. Spots aft of the
     and space available of ship/facility                      superstructure are recommended
     and the type of aircraft being                            for landing and wash down as a
     decontaminated.                                           contamination control measure. If
                                                               the aircraft is to be towed to a
     a. Aircraft capable ships (other than                     wash down location, tow bars,
        CV class) and amphibious ships                         aircraft wheels/tires, landing gear
        (other than LHA/LHD) have little                       and tow points should be spot
        latitude as to the location of                         decontaminated prior to moving
        aircraft wash down due to the                          the      aircraft    to      prevent
        smaller sizes of the flight deck. If                   contamination spread to the deck
        multiple spots are available, the                      or tow tractors. Aircraft should be
        extreme      aft      spots     are                    positioned so that relative wind
        recommended. Aircraft should be                        direction is from nose to tail.
ORIGINAL                                       8-10
                                                                     NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                    should be extrapolated based on
                                                    surface   area   compared    to
                  WARNING                           recommended water volumes
                                                    provided above.
   Decontamination techniques may
   require personnel to climb on top                b. Washing equipment that can
   of        aircraft.   Recommend                     produce 60 to 120 pounds per
   positioning aircraft toward the                     square inch (psi) of water pressure
   center line of the flight deck in                   is preferred. The capacity to heat
   order to minimize the chances of                    water and inject soap increases
   personnel going overboard should                    effectiveness. Lack of pressurized
   they slip and fall off of the                       washing equipment will decrease
   aircraft.                                           effectiveness of the wash down
                                                       and may require scrubbing to
   c. CV. Aircraft wash down may not                   achieve the desire effect. M17
      be feasible until all aircraft of a              light weight decontamination
      cycle have been recovered. If                    systems (USMC), M12 power
      possible, perform aircraft wash                  driven decontamination apparatus,
      down as soon as aircraft are                     standard water pumps and pressure
      parked following taxi away from                  washers as well as fire fighting
      the runout area. Otherwise,                      equipment are examples of
      perform aircraft wash down as                    standard and field expedient
      soon as possible, preferably in an               equipment.
      established area aft of the
      superstructure. Aircraft should be            c. Run off containment feature.
      positioned so that relative wind
      direction is from nose to tail.                 (1) Shore-based.        Operational
                                                          decontamination            sites
   d. Ashore. Permanent/expeditionary                     established at wash racks will
      airfield and FARP operations                        require a containment feature
      personnel will determine where                      such as sandbags, sand filled
      aircraft wash down is to be                         fire hoses or commercially
      performed. Aircraft wash down                       available containment berms
      will normally be performed at                       or pools (large enough to
      existing wash rack facilities or at                 accommodate the aircraft
      designated sites that are isolated                  being washed) to prevent run-
      and downwind from other                             off from going into sewer
      personnel and facilities.                           systems. Sites prepared at
                                                          isolated airfield locations or
2. Site Preparation.                                      FARPs will need to dig sumps
                                                          adjacent to decontamination
   a. Site must have sufficient fresh                     sites in order to contain
      water to wet entire exterior of the                 contaminated run off and may
      aircraft. For planning purposes, the                also require field expedient
      following recommendations are                       containment methods such as
      provided: CH46E-250 gallons,                        sand bagged berms and
      CH53E-350 gallons, C130-800                         channels         to      allow
      gallons.                                            contaminated run off to
                                                          gravity feed or be hosed into
                Note                                      sumps.

   Water      requirements       are                  (2) Ship-based.        Containment
   approximations.            Water                       features for ship based aircraft
   requirements for specific aircraft                     wash down procedures is also

                                             8-11                               ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
             desirable. Most ships are not
             equipped       to      collect                b. Aircrew egress. If contaminated,
             contaminated run off. Ships                      aircrew may remain with aircraft
             desiring      to       control                   in protective IPE or may be
             contaminated run off should                      directed     to     a    personnel
             request          commercially                    decontamination site (shore-based)
             available containment berms                      or contamination control area
             or devise field expedient                        (ship) for removal of contaminated
             methods,            otherwise                    IPE and flight gear.
             contaminated run off should
             be hosed overboard.                           c. Close all hatches, doors and
                                                              windows on the aircraft.
     d. Contamination              markings.
        Appropriate        barrier       and               d. Apply warm soapy water to the
        contamination hazard markings                         aircraft. Spray should be applied to
        should be available and put into                      the aircraft working upwind to
        place prior to commencing wash                        downwind and top to bottom. Do
        down. Recommended approach is                         not neglect the landing gear and
        to erect rope barriers to isolate the                 belly of the aircraft.
        decontamination site. Appropriate
        (chemical or biological) NATO
        contamination markers should be                                 CAUTION
        attached to the rope barrier to warn
        personnel      of     contamination                Consult appropriate aircraft
        hazard. Barriers should allow for a                 maintenance publications for
        single entry/exit point and have a                  areas that could be damaged by
        shuffle pit or boot wash to control                 application of water spray.
        contamination.                                      Prepare these areas for aircraft
                                                            wash down as specified in
     e. Stand or ladder. Aircraft stands or                 technical manuals for normal
        ladders should be available in                      washing. Spray streams should
        order to put spray on areas                         be angled from 15 to 30 degrees
        inaccessible from the ground/deck.                  in order to avoid water being
        As a last resort decontamination                    introduced behind hatch and
        personnel can climb on aircraft.                    cover seams that house sensitive
                                                            aircraft components.
                                                           Over spray should be controlled
                WARNING                                     to        avoid      transferring
                                                            contaminated run off to other
     Climbing on wet aircraft can                           personnel or to areas outside of
     result in falls. Field of view will                    the decontamination barrier.
     be restricted due to protective
     masks. Transfer of contaminants                       e. Rinse. Perform this optional step if
     from the aircraft to personnel                           required for corrosion control
     could       result     in     cross                      purposes and time allows.
     contamination and potentially
     injure or kill decontamination                        f. Check interior for liquid/solid
     personnel.                                               contamination with the appropriate
                                                              device described in Chapter 6 of
  3. Procedures.                                              this manual. If contamination is
                                                              discovered, spot decontaminate by
     a. Aircraft      lands      at   the                     wiping with rags dipped in warm
        decontamination site or is towed                      soapy water or other approved
        or taxied into position.                              aircraft cleaner.
ORIGINAL                                        8-12
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                        decontamination.     Normally,    thorough
      g. Site clean-up.                                 decontamination is conducted as part of a
                                                        reconstitution or during breaks in combat
         (1) Without containment pit. If                operations.
             possible, move aircraft to an
             area where it can weather.                 8.11.1 Aircrew Decontamination. This
             Decontamination site should                section describes techniques for removing
             be    decontaminated      with             contaminated aircrew IPE. A single
             standard or non-standard                   procedure is presented for decontamination
             decontaminant, using brooms                stations ashore. Two procedures are
             or     swabs      to     apply             presented for aircrew decontamination
             decontaminant. Hose residual               procedures afloat to capture the differences
             overboard or into sumps.                   between     ships     with     conventional
                                                        decontamination stations and those with
         (2) With containment pit. Pump                 collective protection systems (CPS)
             run off into drums or barrels              decontamination stations.
             for proper disposal, or
             overboard, or into sumps.                  8.11.1.1           Ashore          Aircrew
             Move aircraft to an area                   Decontamination Procedures. The
             where it can weather.                      procedures presented in this section are
             Decontaminate containment                  patterned after the current Army and USMC
             pit with standard or non-                  personnel     decontamination    procedures
             standard       decontaminant.              contained in Field Manual (FM) 3-5, NBC
             Pump residual into drums or                Decontamination, which are the same
             barrels for proper disposal, or            procedures taught to Disaster Preparedness
             overboard or into sumps.                   personnel at the Navy CBRD school, Ft
                                                        Leonard Wood, MO. The procedures
         (3) Decontaminate           washing            presented here use the same eight station
             equipment      if      required.           personnel decontamination site contained in
             Rubber, plastic and metal                  FM 3-5 and as shown at figure 8-5.
             buckets         can           be           However, some steps and equipment have
             decontaminated and re-used                 been modified for aircrew IPE and ALSS.
             for further decontamination if
             necessary. Store these items                                  Note
             outside     on      or      near
             decontamination            sites.               These procedures assume that the
             Discard all rags, sponges,                      aircrew has declared their
             brushes, brooms and swabs in                    contamination        status      to
             sumps or in drums or barrels                    airfield/FARP            operations
             for proper disposal.                            personnel and have been cleared
                                                             to land. These procedures also
8.11 THOROUGH                                                assume that airfield services has
DECONTAMINATION                                              initiated detection of the aircraft
                                                             and aircrew and have verified
The goal of thorough decontamination is to                   contamination present on the
reduce contamination to negligible levels or                 crew. Finally, these procedures
to eliminate it so that equipment can be                     also assume that a process is in
operated safely for extended periods of time                 place at the airfield that would
without aircrew IPE or non-aircrew IPE.                      have directed the aircraft to a
Thorough decontamination consists of two                     remote location on the field and
techniques,      one      for     personnel                  that ground transportation would
decontamination (sub-divided for aircrew                     bring the crew to the personnel
decontamination procedures ashore and                        decontamination site.
afloat) and one for aircraft/equipment

                                                 8-13                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
Ashore         facilities        such          as
permanent/expeditionary        airfields     and            (2) 2 long-handled brushes.
FARPs shall be responsible for establishing,
equipping     and       manning       personnel             (3) Sufficient hot, soapy water.
decontamination sites and for providing
emergency reclamation teams to recover                      (4) Rinse water.
ALSS (unless the aircrew is part of a tenant
unit). See section 8.11.1.3.2 for procedures                (5) 2 ponchos or plastic sheets.
to recover flight equipment. Aviation units
shall be responsible for understanding the                  (6) Engineer tape.
site processes and if a tenant, providing
personnel to process contaminated aircrews                  (7) 1 CAM/ICAM.
and     recovering      reclaimable      aircrew
equipment.                                                  (8) 1 book of M8 detector paper.

8.11.1.1.1 Site Set Up and Operation.                       (9) 1 M256A1 detector kit.
There are eight stations for a thorough
decontamination site. Spacing between the                  (10) 20 plastic trash bags.
stations is 10 to 16 feet (Figure 8-5).
Recapitulation of personnel and equipment                  Dig a sump that is 6 feet long, 6 feet
for a ashore thorough decontamination site                 wide, and 4 feet deep (minimum).
is provided in figure 8-6. Crewmen will                    Place three 30-gallon containers
proceed through the decontamination site                   near the sump for ease of changing.
one-at-a-time, and will be assisted at each                Fill one container with soapy water.
station by the station attendant(s).                       Fill the second container with clean
                                                           water for rinsing and place it about
   1. Station     1:     Individual      Gear              3 feet forward of the soapy water
      Decontamination. At this station,                    can. Place two long-handled scrub
      contamination is removed from                        brushes at the can of soapy water.
      individual gear (helmet, body armor,                 Place the third container nearby
      survival vest, g-suit, harness, cape) to             with a plastic liner. This can will be
      a negligible risk level (see paragraph               used to discard contaminated items
      8.7).                                                that     cannot     be     adequately
                                                           decontaminated.
       a. Preparation. At this station, the
          following equipment and supplies                 Change the soapy water mixture and
          are needed:                                      rinse water after 10 crewmen have
                                                           decontaminated their gear (place the
          (1) Three 30-gallon containers.                  waste mixture in the sump).




ORIGINAL                                            8-14
                                                          NAVAIR 00-000-000




Figure 8-5. Contaminated Aircrew Decontamination, Shore Based Site Layout


                               8-15                                ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

           STATIONS                               PERSONNEL                         EQUIPMENT/SUPPLIES
Station #1- Individual Gear             2 Attendants                             3 30-gallon containers
Decontamination                         1 Flight Equipment Specialist            2 long handled scrub brushes
                                        1 Monitor (Detection Equipment           2 ponchos or plastic sheets
                                        Operator)                                1 Roll Engineer Tape1
                                                                                 Water 2
                                                                                 General Purpose Soap
                                                                                 Plastic Trash Bags
                                                                                 1 Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM)
                                                                                 1 Book M8 Paper
                                                                                 1 M256A1 Detector Kit
Station #2- Disposable Footwear         1 Attendant                               Shuffle Pit Configuration
Cover and Aircrew CB Respirator                                                  1 M291 SDK per person
Gross Decontamination                                                            1 Drum STB
                                                                                 1 Shovel
                                                                                 Plastic Trash Bags (as req)
                                                                                  HTH Container Configuration
                                                                                 1 M291 SDK per person
                                                                                 1 Drum HTH w/ container3
                                                                                 Water
                                                                                 Plastic Trash Bags (as req)
Station #3- Flight Suit/Chemical        2 Attendants                                1 30-gallon container
Protective Undergarment Removal                                                     2 M291 SDK per person
                                                                                    Plastic Trash Bags (1 per crewman)
                                                                                    Scissors
Station #4- Disposable Footwear            1 Attendant (may need 2 attendants)      1 30-gallon container
Cover/Flight Boot/Chemical                                                          Engineer Tape
Protective Glove Removal                                                            2 M291 SDK per person
                                                                                    Plastic Trash Bags (1 per crewman)
                                                                                    Scissors
Station #5- Monitor                        1 Monitor (CAM Operator)                 1 (CAM/ICAM)
                                           1 Corpsman                               5 Book M8 Paper (per 100 crewmen)
                                                                                    M291 SDK (as req for spot decon)
                                                                                    First Aid Supplies (as req)
Station #6- Aircrew CB Respirator          1 Attendant                              M22 ACADA or MK26 Ship
Removal                                                                             ACADA
                                                                                    Engineer Tape
Station #7- Aircrew CB Respirator          3 Attendants                             4 Containers (no less than 3 gal
Decontamination                                                                     capacity)
                                                                                    1 30-gallon Container
                                                                                    1 CAM (chemical only)
                                                                                    Hot Soapy Water
                                                                                    Rinse Water
                                                                                    Mask Sanitizing Solution
                                                                                    1 Immersion Heater
                                                                                    2 Sponges
                                                                                    1 Case Paper Towels (per 100
                                                                                    crewmen)
Station #8- Re-issue Point                 As Required4                             As Required
1 Single roll of engineer tape or other suitable material should provide enough material to establish contamination
control lines at Station 1, Station 4 and Station 6.
2 Sufficient water for all stations for both soapy water wash and rinse for projected number of contaminated air
crewmen. Water requirements for all stations (for every 10 crewmen) is approx 72 gallons.
3 HTH bootwash can use either dry HTH mix or wet HTH solution. Mix dry HTH in same concentration as STB (App
B) for a dry ―shuffle pit‖. Wet mix prepared per instructions in App B. Wet mix containment can be achieved either by
using a container or by digging a shuffle pit and lining it with plastic sheeting.
4 IMA/AIMD Reclamation Teams may be required to perform maintenance on recovered ALSS and Aircrew CB
Respirators.
       Figure 8-6 Shore Based Contaminated Aircrew Personnel and Equipment Requirements




ORIGINAL                                                 8-16
                                                                   NAVAIR 00-000-000

   Place a poncho or a plastic sheet                the attendant may attempt
   on the ground at the checkpoint.                 decontamination. If it does not
   Divide the poncho or the sheet in                check contamination-free it will
   half using engineer tape. This is                remain at station #1 to weather or
   the contamination control line.                  be disposed of in the disposal can
   The checkpoint will be a                         for contaminated waste at station
   minimum of 10 feet from all other                #1. All paper products (schedules,
   stations in order to get a true                  smart packs, etc) will be disposed
   reading     on     the    detection              of in the can. Weapons should be
   equipment. Place the chemical                    unholstered and cleared at this
   detection/identification equipment               time.
   at     the    checkpoint.     More
   equipment may be required for                              Note
   multiple aircrews.
                                                 Segregate and account          for
   Four personnel are required to                classified documents.
   operate this station. One person
   assists     the     aircrew     and             (1)    Cape Removal. If capes have
   decontaminates their equipment. It                    not already been removed,
   is recommended that this person                       proceed as follows: Crewman
   be a qualified parachute rigger or                    faces attendant and bends
   flight equipment expert. The                          forward,      the    attendant
   unique nature of aircrew IPE                          removes the cape by grasping
   requires this type of support be                      near the crewman’s head and
   provided at station one. This is                      pulls the cape forward and off
   because all ALSS will be removed                      of the crewman. Dispose of
   at station 1 and the aircrew will                     the cape in the waste can or
   have to hold the canister, pusher                     sump. Repeat on remaining
   fan and battery as they process                       crewman.
   through the site. One person
   supervises the decontamination of               (2) Flight     Glove      Removal.
   the individual gear and takes the                   Detach the Velcro closure on
   decontaminated equipment to the                     the flight suit sleeve and
   checkpoint. He also changes                         reattach loosely around the
   decontaminant and rinse water as                    wrist. Crewmen loosen and
   necessary and assists the aircrew                   work flight gloves to a point
   assistant. One person remains at                    that each glove is almost off,
   the checkpoint and checks all the                   without       loosening      or
   gear     using     the     detection                removing       the    chemical
   equipment to ensure that it is                      protective glove underneath.
   decontaminated. One person                          Crewmember then hold hands
   transports the decontaminated                       over the waste can and allows
   gear to the reissue point.                          the flight gloves to drop into
                                                       the can. If unable to loosen
b. Execution.                                          the flight gloves or work them
                                                       off their own hands, the
   Helmet       bags,     kneeboards,                  station attendant can assist by
   canteens and all other items                        grasping the fingertip and
   carried by the aircrew are staged                   removing the flight gloves for
   at station one for the attendant to                 the crewman.
   segregate,    dispose      of,   or
   decontaminate. Generally, for all
   non-porous and fabric materials,

                                          8-17                               ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                            washes his hands. The
                                                            crewman washes his gloves in
                                                            soapy water. The attendant
                 WARNING
                                                            proceeds      with     survival
     Chemical      protective    gloves                     vest/overvest removal.
     underneath the flight gloves must
     remain on and in place. If a glove                 (5) Survival          Vest/Overvest
     comes off the crewman will have                        Removal. Station attendant
     no protection from transfer                            shall assist during this step.
     hazards. If a chemical protective                      The attendant will unzip
     glove is inadvertently pulled off,                     retention pouches and remove
     the        attendant        should                     the pusher fan, C2 canister
     decontaminate his gloves and                           and battery from the pouches.
     assist the crewmember in putting                       The other station attendant
     the chemical protective glove                          will assist as required.
     back on.
                                                                  Note
        (3) Remove      Intercom      Unit.
            Crewman turns his back to the            Pusher fan, C2 canister and
            attendant.    The     attendant          battery pouches may be detached
            grasps        the        helmet          from the vest vice removing them
            communications pigtail and               from their pouches if easier and
            disconnects       the     mask           more convenient to do so. Station
            microphone lead and the                  attendants assisting TACAIR
            intercom communication lead              crewman wearing an overvest will
            from the pigtail. He then                have to cut the pockets of the
            signals the crewman to turn              overvest or disconnect the oetiker
            and face him.                            clamp to facilitate removal of the
                                                     oxygen regulator and seat pan
            The attendant then grasps the            oxygen hose.
            intercom snap hook and
            disengages the intercom from                    Station attendant provides a
            the survival vest. He then                      plastic bag and assists
            places the intercom and                         crewman with placing the
            communications cable into a                     pusher fan, C2 canister and
            plastic bag designated and                      battery of his A/P22P-14
            labeled for the crewman’s                       Respirator Assembly into the
            flight gear. The attendant                      bag. The crewmember holds
            washes      his      chemical                   the bag. Station attendant will
            protective gloves in soapy                      then puncture a hole in the
            water and proceeds with the                     bag so that the canister can
            helmet removal.                                 draw air. The bag will assist
                                                            the crewman with holding
        (4) Helmet      Removal.     The                    these assemblies through the
            attendant grasps the helmet                     remainder of the contaminated
            chinstrap tab and disengages                    doff process. Recommend
            the snaps. The crewman or                       tying off or taping the top of
            attendant grasps each of the                    the bag so that the pusher fan,
            helmet receivers and squeezes                   C2 canister and battery fit in
            them to release the toggle                      one corner of the bag. Station
            harness assembly from the                       attendant then opens the
            helmet. The attendant then                      survival vest zipper and
            removes the helmet, places it                   unhooks waist and leg snap
            in the equipment bag and                        hooks and then unbuckles the

ORIGINAL                                      8-18
                                                                       NAVAIR 00-000-000
            helo hoist strap. The station
            attendant moves behind the                         CAUTION
            crewman and assists with the
            removal of the survival                 Sensitive ALSS gear should not
            vest/overvest and attached              be submerged in the soapy water
            floatation collar.                      can. Flight equipment personnel
                                                    understand the limitations of
                  Note                              ALSS and should be present at
                                                    station 1. Sensitive equipment
     All survival equipment should                 such as night vision devices,
      remain in the vest. It will be                survival radios, and intercom units
      segregated and decontaminated                 should be wiped with a sponge
      or disposed of by the station                 dipped in hot soapy water. All
      attendant      or     emergency               other non-sensitive equipment
      reclamation      teams.     Place             may be submerged and scrubbed.
      survival vest/overvest in the
      equipment bag.                                        The station attendant dips his
     Station attendant washes gloves                       gear into the clean water and
      and proceeds to body armor/G-                         rinses it for 4 minutes. The
      suit/torso harness removal.                           attendant takes the gear to the
                                                            equipment checkpoint and
                  Note                                      places the decontaminated
                                                            gear on the ―dirty‖ side of the
    Fixed wing aircrew will wear a                          contamination control line and
    survival vest under the overvest.                       returns to the containers to
    Station attendant will assist fixed                     pick up more gear. The
    wing crewman with removal of                            monitor at the checkpoint
    the fixed wing survival vest at this                    checks the gear using the
    time. Place fixed wing survival                         appropriate detection device
    vest in equipment bag.                                  and the procedures associated
                                                            with that device. If the
       (6) Body Armor/G-Suit /Torso                         residual         contamination
           Harness       Removal.     As                    exceeds negligible risks,
           applicable, station attendant                    recycle     the    gear    and
           will assist the other crewman                    decontaminate it again (see
           with removing body armor or                      paragraph 8.7). If the gear
           G-suit/torso harness. Place in                   passes the check, place it on
           equipment bag.                                   the clean side of the
                                                            contamination control line.
            Station attendant washes                        The attendant will carry the
            gloves and assists next                         equipment to the reissue
            crewman beginning with                          point.
            flight glove removal. Another
            station              attendant                 Depending on the time
            decontaminates aircrew gear                    available, more extensive
            by washing and scrubbing it                    washing        and        checking
            for     6   minutes     in   a                 procedures may be used. The
            decontaminant container with                   longer the gear is washed or
            hot, soapy water.                              left out in the air after washing,
                                                           the lower the contamination
                                                           level. The gear may be put in
                                                           closed areas or plastic bags and
                                                           checked for hazardous vapors
                                                           with      the     M256/M256A1

                                             8-19                                 ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
             detector      kit     or  the                    One person is required to operate
             CAM/ICAM. The CAM only                           this station. The attendant
             detects the G-series nerve                       decontaminates the aircrew mask
             agent vapors and the H-series                    and    assists   as     crewmen
             blister-agent vapors.                            decontaminate their disposable
                                                              footwear covers.

                   WARNING                                 b. Execution

     Many items of ALSS are difficult                         Each crewman walks into the
     to decontaminate to the no-effects                       shuffle pit or HTH container. The
     level. Station 1 procedures may                          crewman uses his feet to rub STB
     not remove contamination to                              dry mix or agitate and splash 9%
     negligible levels.                                       liquid HTH on his disposable
                                                              footwear covers and lower legs of
  2. Station 2: Disposable Footwear Cover                     his flight suit. He should take
     and     Aircrew      CB    Respirator                    special care to rub the rear of his
     Decontamination. At this station,                        disposable footwear covers.
     gross contamination on disposable
     footwear covers, flight suit legs and                                Note
     mask is neutralized/removed.
                                                           HTH bootwash can use either
     a. Preparation. Prepare a shuffle pit                  dry HTH mix or wet HTH
        by digging a shallow pit about 3                    solution. Mix dry HTH in same
        feet long, 3 feet wide, and 6 inches                concentration as STB (App B)
        deep. Fill the shuffle pit with an                  for a dry ―shuffle pit‖. Wet mix
        STB dry mix or an STB slurry,                       prepared per instructions in App
        depending on water availability.                    B. Wet mix containment can be
        Prepare the STB dry mix by                          achieved either by using a
        mixing three parts of earth to two                  container or by digging a shuffle
        parts of STB. Prepare the STB                       pit and lining it with plastic
        slurry following the instructions                   sheeting.
        contained in appendix B. Add                       For HTH solutions, crewman
        more STB to the mix after 10                        should wet only disposable
        persons have processed through                      footwear        covers.    Avoid
        the shuffle pit. In lieu of a shuffle               splashing HTH solution on
        pit, provide a container with                       flight suit legs.
        sufficient width and length that
        will allow personnel to stand in it                   The crewman will exit the shuffle
        with their feet shoulder width                        pit/HTH container. The station
        apart. Container should be deep                       attendant will use an SDK to
        enough to hold liquid HTH so that                     decontaminate the aircrew mask
        it covers the tops of flight boots.                   and attached hose. Attendant
        Prepare and pour a 9% solution of                     should start at the top of the head
        HTH into the container.                               and work down, moving around
                                                              the crewman so that all portions of
           At this station, the following                     the mask, hose, and plastic bag
           equipment and supplies are                         containing the pusher fan, C2
           needed for the mask and the                        canister and battery are covered
           shuffle pit: 1 SDK, (per person)                   with the SDK. Begin initially with
           plastic trash bags (as required),                  the crewman standing upright to
           STB or HTH, and 1shovel (to                        decontaminate      the    crewman
           mix) or container.                                 respirator. When ready to
                                                              decontaminate the hose, the
ORIGINAL                                        8-20
                                                                      NAVAIR 00-000-000
       crewman will bend forward,                      Two people are required to
       gently releasing the pusher fan                 operate this station. They assist
       assembly and allow it to dangle.                with the removal of flight suits
       The     attendant     will    then              and        chemical       protective
       decontaminate      the     exposed              undergarments. Due to the
       portion of the hose and the plastic             difficulty of crewman removing
       bag containing the pusher fan and               flight suits over flight boots while
       the crewman’s gloves. Once                      masked and holding the pusher
       complete, the crewman will again                fan, C2 canister and battery, it
       take the pusher fan and stand                   may be easier to remove the flight
       upright. The crewman will look                  suit by cutting.
       up so that the underside of the
       mask       bellows     can      be           b. Execution
       decontaminated.
                                                       An attendant assists the crewman
       Station attendant and crewmen                   with removing his flight suit and
       shall check disposable footwear                 undergarment. The attendant cuts
       covers, rubber gloves, and flight               and removes any M9 detector
       suits for damage. Any rips, tears,              paper from around the crewman’s
       or punctures in these items should              wrist and/or ankle. He unzips the
       be reported to the monitor at                   flight suit as far down as it will
       station 5. This allows the monitor              go. He unzips the leg closure to
       at station 5 to check the crewman               the flight suit. The attendant takes
       for chemical-agent symptoms and                 and holds the pusher fan package
       under clothing or skin for possible             from the crewman. The crewman
       contamination.                                  makes fists and holds his arms
                                                       straight and to the rear at
       Attendant decontaminates his own                approximately a 45 degree angle.
       gloves.                                         The other attendant assists the
                                                       crewman with pulling the arms
       Repeat for next crewman.                        out of the flight suit sleeves. Do
                                                       this by grasping the flight suit at
3. Station 3: Flight Suit/Chemical                     the crewman’s shoulders from
   Protective Undergarment Removal. At                 behind taking pulling down and
   this station, contaminated flight suits             away until the crewman’s arms
   and undergarments are removed                       come out of the sleeves. Take care
   before the agent penetrates the flight              that the chemical protective
   suits     or    chemical    protective              gloves do not come off. The
   undergarments and touches the                       attendant works the flight suit
   undergarments or the skin.                          down to the crewman’s ankles and
                                                       removes the flight suit one leg at a
   a. Preparation. At this station, the                time over the crewman’s flight
      following equipment and supplies                 boots. He has the crewman lift
      are needed:                                      one leg and point that foot down
                                                       and bend slightly at the knees for
      (1) A 30-gallon container.                       stability. The attendant grasps the
                                                       cuff of the elevated foot with a
      (2) Plastic trash bags (about one                hand on each side and pulls the
          per person).                                 cuff in an alternating, jerking
                                                       motion until the crewman can step
      (3) 2 M291 SDK per person.                       out of the trouser leg. The process
                                                       is repeated on the other leg.
      (4) Scissors


                                             8-21                                ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                          aircrew CB respirator apron and
                    WARNING                               unzips the undergarment top. The
                                                          other attendant continues to hold
        The attendant will avoid                         the pusher fan.
         touching the crewman's skin or
         inner clothing. Also avoid                       The attendant loosens the Velcro
         touching crewman’s skin or                       closures at the wrist, then moves
         clothing with the outside of the                 around to the back of the
         flight suit. If contact is made,                 crewman. He instructs the
         decontaminate        immediately                 crewman to make a fist and grasps
         with an SDK and then proceed                     the shirt from behind and rolls the
         with the overgarment removal.                    garment up and off of the
        The attendant ensures that the                   shoulders and then pulls it down
         crewman steps wide enough so                     and away, off of the crewman.
         as not to rub his clean leg                      Discard the CMU-34/P shirt in the
         against the contaminated boot                    disposal can.
         and overgarment.
                                                          The lower garment (CMU-35/P)
                     Note                                 will remain on the crewman until
                                                          station 4 of the shore based
       If unable to keep the disposable                   aircrew decontamination site
       footwear covers from coming off
       with the flight suit, do not become                Removal Procedures for the MK1.
       alarmed. The feet will still be                    The attendant reaches under the
       protected inside of the boots and                  aircrew CB respirator apron and
       chemical protective socks.                         unzips the undergarment to the
                                                          waist. Then the attendant cuts or
           If the crewman cannot maintain                 removes the tape that attaches the
           balance while the flight suit is               chemical protective gloves to the
           removed, he may place his gloved               sleeves of the MK1. The second
           hand on the attendant for balance.             attendant continues to hold the
           If the legs of the flight suit cannot          pusher fan.     He instructs the
           be pulled over the flight boots, use           crewman to make a fist and grasps
           scissors to cut the legs of the suit           the top of the garment from
           from the bottom of the front                   behind and rolls the garment up
           zipper to the bottom of the legs.              and off of the shoulders and then
           Dispose of the flight suit in the              pulls it down and away, until the
           disposal        can.       Attendant           garment is to the waist of the
           decontaminates his own gloves.                 crewman.

           Next, the station attendant will
           assist with the partial removal of
           the       chemical       protective
           undergarment.             Chemical
           protective undergarments are
           currently fielded in two styles, the
           2-piece CMU 34/P-35/P or the
           one-piece MK1. The following
           procedures apply:

           Removal Procedures for the
           CMU-34/P Chemical Protective
           Undergarment     Shirt. The
           attendant reaches under the
ORIGINAL                                           8-22
                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                    (4) Plastic trash bags (about one
                WARNING                                 per person).

                                                    (5) SDK (2 per person).
    The attendant will avoid
     touching the crewman’s skin or                  Set up the station as follows:
     inner clothing. Also avoid                      Establish the liquid-contamination
     touching crewman’s skin or                      control line on the ground with
     clothing with the outside of the                engineer tape. Place the cutting
     chemical              protective                tools, container, SDK and plastic
     undergarment. If contact is                     bags on the "dirty" side of the
     made,             decontaminate                 liquid-contamination control line.
     immediately with an SDK and                     The liquid contamination control
     then    proceed     with     the                line separates the liquid "dirty"
     overgarment removal.                            and vapor "dirty" areas. No liquid
    The attendant ensures that the                  agent should be tracked on the
     crewman steps wide enough so                    ground beyond the liquid-
     as not to rub his clean leg                     contamination control line.
     against the contaminated boot
     and overgarment.                                Two personnel are required to
                                                     operate this station. They assist
       Both attendants decontaminate                 with the removal of chemical
       their gloves and the scissors (if             protective gloves, disposable
       used).                                        footwear covers, flight boots,
                                                     chemical protective underclothing
       Repeat on the next crewman.                   and chemical protective socks.

                                                  b. Execution.
              CAUTION                                An attendant will hold the pusher
    Outside of the pusher fan bag may                fan, C2 canister and battery
    be contaminated. Crewmen shall                   package. The other attendant will
    hold the bag so that the bag does                then place a clean plastic bag over
    not touch any exposed skin or                    the pusher fan, canister, battery
    under clothing.                                  ―package‖ that was initially
                                                     bagged at station 1. Tie off the top
4. Station 4: Disposable Footwear                    of the bag so that the pusher fan,
   Cover, CMU-35P/MK1, Flight Boot                   C2 canister and battery fit in one
   and Chemical Glove Removal. At this               corner of the bag. Station
   station, contaminated overboots,                  attendant will then puncture a hole
   chemical protective clothing and                  in the bag so that the C2 canister
   chemical protective gloves are                    can draw air.
   removed to limit the spread of
   contamination.

    a. Preparation. At this station, the
       following equipment and supplies
       are needed:

      (1) A 30-gallon container.

      (2) Engineer tape.

      (3) 1 cutting tool.
                                           8-23                                ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                               glove at time and discards them in
                                                               the disposal can. The attendant
                    WARNING                                    returns the pusher fan, C2 canister
                                                               and battery to the crewman.
     The outside of the initial bag
     could be contaminated. The                                Both attendants      decontaminate
     second      bag     will    prevent                       gloves.
     contamination transfer to the
     crewman’s bare skin when he                               Repeat on the next crewman.
     removes his gloves. Failure to use
     the second plastic bag could result
                                                                         WARNING
     in death or injury if contamination
     transfers to the crewman’s
     exposed skin.                                         The attendant will avoid touching
                                                           the crewman’s skin or inner
           The attendant removes the                       clothing. If contact is made,
           disposable footwear covers and                  decontaminate immediately with
           unties or cuts the laces to the                 an SDK and then proceed with the
           crewman’s flight boots. Work the                overgarment removal.
           legs of the CMU-35P/MK1 down
           to the top of the crewman’s boots.
           The crewman faces the liquid-                                 Note
           contamination control line and
           steps back from it about 12                     The attendants at station 4
           inches. The crewman lifts one foot              performs their duties from the
           and the attendant bends down and                liquid ―dirty‖ side of the liquid-
           pulls the flight boot and CMU-                  contamination control line.
           35P/MK1 trouser leg off as one
           unit.    While      the   crewman             5. Station 5: Monitor. At this station,
           continues to hold that foot/leg off              contamination on personnel is
           the ground, the attendant removes                identified,       spot-decontamination
           the chemical protective sock from                capabilities are provided, and medical
           the crewman’s foot. The crewman                  aid is provided, as required.
           steps     across      the    liquid-
           contamination control line with                  a. Preparation. At this station, the
           that foot. Repeat the process on                    following equipment and supplies
           the other foot. Boots, disposable                   are needed:
           footwear covers, CMU-35P/MK1,
           and socks are discarded in the                      (1) First aid supplies.
           disposal can.
                                                               (2) 1 CAM/ICAM.
                     Note
                                                               (3) 5 books of M8 detector paper
     It may be necessary for the                                   per 100 persons.
     crewman to maintain his balance
     by placing a gloved hand on the                           (4) SDK (2 per crewman).
     disposal can or the attendants
     head while flight boots, chemical                         A CAM operator should be
     protective socks, and chemical                            present    to     monitor    for
     protective undergarments are                              contamination and a corpsman
     removed.                                                  should be present to treat any
                                                               persons suffering from chemical-
           The attendant pulls the fingertips                  agent symptoms.
           of crewman’s gloves off one

ORIGINAL                                          8-24
                                                                        NAVAIR 00-000-000
   b. Execution
                                                         The attendant takes the pusher
      The attendant checks the crewman                   fan, C2 canister and battery
      for contamination using the CAM.                   package from the crewman. The
      Liquid agents can be detected                      crewman takes a breath and holds
      with M8 detector paper. Small                      it. The crewman places his hands
      quantities of agent vapor can be                   under the respirator apron and
      detected     with     the    CAM.                  then under the respirator neck
      Symptoms of agent poisoning are                    dam seal and pulls the mask up
      the most obvious indication of                     and off of his head. The attendant
      skin contamination. At this                        takes the mask from the crewman
      station, the corpsman checks each                  and instructs the crewman to walk
      person for symptoms of agent                       ahead until he crosses the vapor
      poisoning and treats, as required.                 control line and then resumes
      Persons should report any damage                   breathing. The attendant brings
      to their IPE that was identified at                the mask to station 7.
      stations 2, 3, and 4. The attendant
      can decontaminate any areas                        If the wind direction remains
      identified as contaminated with an                 constant, no chemical vapor
      SDK. Crewmen are remonitored                       hazard is expected beyond the
      after decontamination. It is                       vapor-contamination control line.
      possible that all liquid-chemical                  Position the M22 ACADA or
      contamination is absorbed into the                 MK26 ship ACADA upwind of
      clothing. If so, M8/M9 detector                    the station to warn of vapor
      paper will indicate negative, even                 hazards. The crewman processing
      though there is a hazard.                          through the site moves straight
                                                         ahead while his mask, which may
6. Station 6: Mask Removal. At this                      still give off vapors, is held on the
   station, the aircrew CB respirator is                 vapor dirty side of the line and
   removed without contaminating the                     taken to station 7 where it is
   crewman. The mask is taken to a                       decontaminated.
   mask decontamination point, limiting
   agent transfer at the station.                        If the step is not done properly,
                                                         the crewman could breathe toxic
   a. Preparation                                        vapors. There is a high probability
                                                         that the vapor hazard is still
      At this station, the M22 ACADA                     present on the mask. The person
      or MK26 ship ACADA, and                            must not touch the outside of the
      engineer tape are needed. One                      mask      because      it     could
      attendant is needed to operate this                contaminate his bare hands. The
      station. He removes and carries                    person proceeds to station 8.
      masks to station 7.
                                                   7. Station 7: Aircrew CB Respirator
      Set up the station as follows:                  Decontamination. At this station,
      Establish the vapor-contamination               contamination on the aircrew mask is
      control line on the ground with                 reduced to negligible levels.
      engineer    tape.    The    vapor
      contamination      control    line
      separates the "dirty" and "clean"                            Note
      areas. No agent, vapor or liquid
      should be cross beyond the vapor-              Once 20 items have been
      contamination control line.                    processed in the wash containers,
                                                     replace the water. Once 10 item
   b. Execution                                      have been processed in the rinse

                                            8-25                                   ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
     water, replace it. Place the                             quart of water. Wipe the masks
     contaminated waste into the sump.                        with rags until they are almost
                                                              dry. Discard each container of
     a. Preparation                                           mask sanitizing solution into a
                                                              sump after every 10 masks. The
           At this station, the following                     attendant checks the masks for
           materials and equipment are                        contamination with a CAM. If the
           needed:                                            masks are still contaminated, the
                                                              attendant recycles them for more
       (1) 4 containers (about a 3-gallon                     decontamination        and    then
           capacity).                                         decontaminates his rubber gloves.
                                                              If the masks are not contaminated,
       (2) 1 CAM (for chemical only).                         the attendant takes the masks to
                                                              the reissue point. The attendant
       (3) Hot, soapy water.                                  must take care not to contaminate
                                                              the reissue point or himself.
       (4) Rinse water.

       (5) Mask sanitizing solution.                                   WARNING

       (6) Immersion heater.                              If this step is not done properly,
                                                          the     persons    may     become
       (7) One 30-gallon container.                       contaminated when the masks are
                                                          reissued to them at the reissue
       (8) 2 sponges.                                     point. Even though the step is
                                                          done correctly, there is still a
       (9) 1 case of paper towels per 100                 possible danger when many masks
           people.                                        are stacked together. Small
                                                          amounts of residual vapor from
       Dig a sump that is 4 feet long, 4                  each mask can become potentially
       feet wide, and 4 feet deep in which                dangerous. For this reason, the
       to discard used filters and canisters.             aircrew should not reuse the mask
       Place the equipment and materials                  for flight operations. The mask
       as shown in Figure 8-6. Three                      should be returned to flight
       persons are needed to operate this                 equipment personnel for detailed
       station. Two persons strip, wash,                  disassembly,      cleaning     and
       rinse, sanitize, and dry masks. The                maintenance or disposal.
       other person checks the masks and
       carries them to the reissue point.
                                                                     CAUTION
     b. Execution
                                                          The microphone, pusher fan
           Remove and discard the filters or              battery, and pusher fan on the
           canisters. Put the items into the              mask cannot be immersed in
           properly marked containers. Wash               water.
           the mask, and the hoses on the
           aircrew respirator in hot, soapy                             Note
           water. Rinse these items in clean
           water, dip them into the sanitizing            Runners between stations 7 and 8
           solution, agitate them for 5                   are in MOPP2 and are prepared to
           minutes, and then rinse them                   go into MOPP4.
           again in clean water. Add one
           tube of mask sanitizing solution             8. Station 8: Reissue Point. The reissue
           (calcium hypochlorite) to each                  point can be located at the

ORIGINAL                                         8-26
                                                                                  NAVAIR 00-000-000
      decontamination site or may be                           Embarked USMC units must
      situated away at normal facility                         bring their own IPE. Once
      activities.  Following   processing                      deployed, every aircrewman must
      aircrew will need at a minimum:                          have his aircrew IPE and service
      clothing, shelter, medical support,                      standard IPE (CPO/ACPG and
      food and water.                                          MCU      2/P    for   Navy    or
                                                               Saratoga/JSLIST and M40A1 for
                    Note                                       Marines).

      IMA/AIMD reclamation teams                       The conventional decontamination station
      may be required to perform                       consists of a gross decontamination area, a
      maintenance on recovered ALSS                    contamination control area (CCA) and a
      and Aircrew CB Respirators.                      decontamination station (shower).

8.11.1.2        Shipboard          Aircrew             The following capabilities in addition to the
Decontamination Procedures. The                        requirements of NSTM 470 must be present
procedures in this section are modified from           at the gross decontamination station to
the personnel decontamination procedures               support aircrew IPE doffing:
contained in NSTM 470. These procedures
recommend additions to equipment and                            Plastic bags (to collect aircrew
manning levels as required to support the                        ALSS, line disposal can and
unique doff requirements of contaminated                         package aircrew CB respirator
aircrew IPE. Aviation units must coordinate                      pusher fan, C2 canister and battery).
these requirements via the ships operations                     Hand Wash (9% HTH).
department, AO and DCA. Two procedures                          Disposal Can.
are provided, one for ships equipped with
collective   protection     system     (CPS)              1. Gross Decontamination Area. At this
decontamination stations and those with                      station, helmet bags, kneeboards,
conventional decontamination stations. See                   canteens and all other items carried by
NSTM 470 for details on shipboard                            the aircrew are staged for the
decontamination.                                             attendant to segregate. This attendant
                                                             is in addition to the team leader who
8.11.1.2.1                    Conventional                   is part of the damage control crew that
Decontamination Station. Ships with a                        operates the decontamination station.
conventional decontamination stations may                    Individual gear (helmet, body armor,
or may not have a built in or retrofitted                    survival vest, g-suit, harness, cape) is
collective protection system. This requires                  also     removed      at   the    gross
much of the ships crew to be in protective                   decontamination area. The attendant
masks (or higher levels) until the liquid                    cuts and removes any M9 detector
hazard is removed and the vapor hazard                       paper from around the crewman’s
dissipates. Because of this, and due to the                  wrist and/or ankle. The aviation unit
cumbersome characteristics of aircrew CB                     shall coordinate with the DCA on
protective respirators, aircrews will conduct                decontamination requirements for
a mask swap during the doffing process                       ALSS. See section 8.11.1.3.
from the aviation mask to a standard service
mask (MCU 2/P or M40A1).                                       The attendant assists the aircrew. It is
                                                               recommended that this person be a
                    Note                                       qualified parachute rigger or flight
                                                               equipment expert. The unique nature
      USN      aviation    units     must                      of aircrew IPE requires this type of
      coordinate standard service mask                         support be provided at the gross
      and       protective       clothing                      decontamination. This is due to ALSS
      requirements with the ship during                        being removed at station 1 and the
      pre-deployment             training.                     aircrew having to hold the canister,
                                                8-27                                         ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
     pusher fan, and battery as they process
     through the site.
                                                                   WARNING
     All paper products (schedules, smart
     packs, etc) will be disposed of in the           Chemical      protective    gloves
     can. Weapons should be unholstered               underneath the flight gloves must
     and cleared at this time.                        remain on and in place. If a glove
                                                      comes off the crewman will have
                  Note                                no protection from transfer
                                                      hazards. If a chemical protective
     Segregate and account          for               glove is inadvertently pulled off,
     classified documents.                            the        attendant        should
                                                      decontaminate his gloves and
     a. Cape Removal. If capes have not               assist the crewmember in putting
        already been removed, proceed as              the chemical protective glove
        follows: Crewman faces attendant              back on.
        and forward, the attendant
        removes the cape by grasping near             c. Remove Intercom Unit. Crewman
        the crewman’s head and pulls the                 turns his back to the attendant. The
        cape forward and off of the                      attendant grasps the helmet
        crewman. Dispose of the cape in                  communications        pigtail     and
        the waste can. Repeat on                         disconnects the mask microphone
        remaining crewman.                               lead      and      the      intercom
                                                         communication lead from the
     b. Flight Glove Removal. Detach the                 pigtail. He then signals the
        Velcro closure on the flight suit                crewman to turn and face him.
        sleeve and reattach loosely around
        the wrist. Crewmen loosen and                    The attendant then grasps the
        work flight gloves to a point that               intercom      snap     hook     and
        each glove is almost off, without                disengages the intercom from the
        loosening or removing the                        survival vest. He then places the
        chemical       protective    glove               intercom and communications
        underneath. Crewmember then                      cable into a plastic bag designated
        hold hands over the waste can and                and labeled for the crewman’s
        allows the flight gloves to drop                 flight gear. The attendant washes
        into the can. If unable to loosen                his chemical protective gloves in
        the flight gloves or work them off               soapy water and proceeds with the
        their own hands, the station                     helmet removal.
        attendant can assist by grasping
        the fingertip and removing the
        flight gloves for the crewman.                d. Helmet Removal. The attendant
                                                         grasps the helmet chinstrap tab
                                                         and disengages the snaps. The
                                                         crewman or attendant grasps each
                                                         of the helmet receivers and
                                                         squeezes them to release the
                                                         toggle harness assembly from the
                                                         helmet. The attendant then
                                                         removes the helmet, places it in
                                                         the equipment bag and washes his
                                                         hands. The crewman washes his
                                                         gloves in soapy water. The
                                                         attendant proceeds with survival
                                                         vest/overvest removal.

ORIGINAL                                       8-28
                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                     attendants assisting TACAIR
e. Survival Vest/Overvest Removal.                   crewman wearing an overvest
   Station attendant shall assist                    will have to cut the pockets of
   during this step. The attendant will              the overvest or disconnect the
   unzip retention pouches and                       oetiker clamp to facilitate
   remove the pusher fan, C2 canister                removal of the oxygen
   and battery from the pouches.                     regulator and seat pan oxygen
   Available          decontamination                hose.
   personnel or crewmen will assist
   as required.                                                Note

                Note                             All survival equipment should
                                                 remain in the vest. It will be
Pusher fan, C2 canister and battery              segregated and decontaminated or
pouches may be detached from the                 disposed of by the station
vest vice removing them from their               attendant      or     emergency
pouches if easier and more convenient            reclamation teams. Place survival
to do so. Station attendants assisting           vest/overvest in the equipment
TACAIR crewman wearing an                        bag.
overvest will have to cut the pockets
of the overvest or disconnect the                              Note
oetiker clamp to facilitate removal of
the oxygen regulator and seat pan                Fixed wing aircrew will wear a
oxygen hose                                      survival vest under the overvest.
                                                 Station attendant will assist fixed
   Station attendant provides a                  wing crewman with removal of
   plastic bag and assists                       the fixed wing survival vest at this
   crewman with placing the                      time. Place fixed wing survival
   pusher fan, C2 canister and                   vest in equipment bag.
   battery of his A/P22P-14
   Respirator Assembly into the                  Station attendant washes gloves
   bag. The crewmember holds                     and proceeds to body armor/G-
   the bag. Station attendant will               suit/torso harness removal
   then puncture a hole in the
   bag so that the canister can                  f. Body      Armor/G-Suit      /Torso
   draw air. The bag will assist                    Harness Removal. As applicable,
   the crewman with holding                         station attendant will assist the
   these assemblies through the                     other crewman with removing
   remainder of the contaminated                    body armor or G-suit/torso
   doff process. Recommend                          harness. Place in equipment bag.
   tying off or taping the top of
   the bag so that the pusher fan,                   Station attendant washes gloves
   C2 canister and battery fit in                    proceeds to aircrew respirator
   one corner of the bag. Station                    decontamination. and assists next
   attendant then opens the                          crewman beginning with flight
   survival vest zipper and                          glove removal.
   unhooks waist and leg snap
   hooks and then unbuckles the                  g. Aircrew        CB        Respirator
   helo hoist strap. The station                    Decontamination. The station
   attendant moves behind the                       attendant will use an SDK to
   crewman and assists with the                     decontaminate the aircrew mask
   removal of the survival                          and attached hose. Attendant
   vest/overvest and attached                       should start at the top of the head
   floatation    collar.   Station                  and work down, moving around

                                          8-29                                 ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
           the crewman so that all portions of
           the mask and hose are covered                a. Boot Wash. When signaled by the
           with the SDK. Begin initially with              CCA cutter and the door opens,
           the crewman standing upright to                 the air crewman will step into the
           decontaminate      the     crewman              boot wash. The aviation attendant
           respirator.   When      ready    to             will    scrub   the    crewman’s
           decontaminate the hoses, the                    disposable footwear covers with
           crewman will bend forward,                      the     brush    provided,     for
           gently releasing the pusher fan                 approximately 10 seconds.
           assembly and allow it to dangle.
           The      attendant     will    then                        Note
           decontaminate the exposed portion
           of the hose and the plastic bag              The crewman will be holding his
           containing the pusher fan and the            pusher fan and may not be able to
           crewman’s gloves. Once complete,             scrub his own disposable footwear
           the crewman will again take the              covers.
           pusher fan and stand upright. The
           crewman will look up so that the             b. Position 1. The crewman enters
           underside of the mask bellows can               CCA without touching door with
           be decontaminated                               his gloves and stands on Position
                                                           #1, as shown in figure 8-7. Cutter
           Station attendant washes and                    closes door and begins doffing
           assists next crewman beginning                  procedures. Two people are
           with flight glove removal.                      required to operate this station.
                                                           They assist with the removal of
  2. Contamination Control Area (CCA).                     flight suits and chemical protective
     The CCA is a 3 station area where                     undergarments. Due to the
     remaining      liquid   and    vapor                  difficulty of crewman removing
     contamination hazards are reduced                     flight suits over flight boots while
     and controlled. A typical CCA is                      masked and holding the pusher
     shown at figure 8-7. Aviation units                   fan, C2 canister and battery, it may
     must coordinate with the DCA to train                 be easier to remove the flight suit
     damage control men on procedures to                   by cutting. The cutter cuts and
     remove crewmen from aircrew IPE.                      removes any M9 detector paper
     Due to the unique characteristics of                  from around the crewman’s wrist
     the aircrew mask and the procedures                   and/or ankle. He unfastens the
     for doffing aircrew IPE, the aviation                 Velcro closure around the wrists
     unit should recommend a 2-cutter                      of the flight suit. He unzips the
     CCA, with only one aircrewman                         flight suit as far down as it will go.
     processing at a time.                                 He unzips the leg closure to the
                                                           flight suit. The other cutter takes
                     Note                                  and holds the pusher fan package
                                                           from the crewman. The crewman
     It will take at least two assistants                  makes fists and holds his arms
     to help the crewman safely                            straight and to the rear at
     remove his IPE in the CCA. One                        approximately a 45 degree angle.
     assistant (cutter) will help the                      The cutter assists the crewman
     crewman get out of his flight suit,                   with pulling his arms out of the
     flight    boots     and   chemical                    flight suit sleeves. Do this by
     protective ensemble. The other                        grasping the flight suit at the
     assistant (cutter) will hold the                      crewman’s shoulders from behind,
     pusher fan, canister and battery                      pulling down and away until the
     assembly so that it does not cause                    crewman’s arms come out of the
     a break in the aircrew mask.                          sleeves. Take care that the

ORIGINAL                                         8-30
                                                                  NAVAIR 00-000-000
chemical protective gloves do not                  .
come off. The cutter works the
flight suit down to the crewman’s                         WARNING
ankles and removes the flight suit
one leg at a time over the                       The attendant will avoid
crewman’s flight boots. He has the                touching the crewman's skin or
crewman lift one leg and point that               inner clothing. Also avoid
foot down and bend slightly at the                touching crewman’s skin or
knees for stability. The cutter                   clothing with the outside of the
grasps the cuff of the elevated foot              flight suit. If contact is made,
with a hand on each side and pulls                decontaminate        immediately
the cuff in an alternating, jerking               with an SDK and then proceed
motion until the crewman can step                 with the overgarment removal.
out of the trouser leg. The process              The attendant ensures that the
is repeated on the other leg                      crewman steps wide enough so
                                                  as not to rub his clean leg
                                                  against the contaminated boot
                                                  and                 overgarment.




                                       8-31                                 ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                                                             35 GALLON       35 GALLON
                                                                CAN             CAN


                                   BOOT WASH               CANS FOR DISPOSAL OF SKIN DECON KITS,
                                                           WET WEATHER GEAR, PROTECTIVE MASK
                                                           BAGS AND BATTLE DRESS ITEMS


                                   ENTRANCE FROM WEATHER AFTER GROSS DECON


                                                                       SCISSORS WASH (ANY
                                                1                      CONVENIENT LOCATION)
                       35 GALLON
           MINIMUM        CAN                                          CAN FOR DISPOSAL OF
             3 FT.                                                     SMOCKS AND TROUSERS




                                          X
                                                                       CUTTER #1 POSITION
                     RADIOLOGICAL                                      (SMOCK AND OUTER
                     DECON MARKINGS                                    GLOVE REMOVAL)
                     (CAN BE
                     DISREGARDED)
                         X


                                                                       CUTTER #2 POSITION
   MINIMUM                                                             (TROUSER AND BOOT
     8 FT.                                                             REMOVAL)
                                                    35 GALLON
                                                       CAN             CAN FOR DISPOSAL
                                                                       OF BOOTS AND GLOVES
                           2
                                                                       DRAIN
                                                                       (ANYWHERE IN CCA)
           MINIMUM
             3 FT.
                                                                      STOOL OR BENCH

                                                3                     HOTLINE
                                                                      (PAINTED OR TAPED)
                                                                      OR RAISED PLATFORM
                                                                      OR GRATING (IF AVAILABLE)

                        MINIMUM                               TO DECON STATION FOR INNER
                          2 FT.                               CLOTHING REMOVAL AND SHOWER

                                      MINIMUM
                                        5 FT.



                     Figure 8-7 Generic Layout for CCA for the Two Cutter Process




ORIGINAL                                            8-32
                                                                        NAVAIR 00-000-000

              Note                                          until station 2 of the non-CPS
                                                            CCA.
If unable to keep the disposable
footwear covers from coming off                             Removal Procedures for the
with the flight suit, do not become                         MK1. The attendant reaches
alarmed. The feet will still be                             under the aircrew CB respirator
protected inside of the boots and                           apron      and      unzips    the
chemical protective socks.                                  undergarment to the waist. Then
                                                            the attendant cuts or removes
      If the crewman cannot maintain                        the tape that attaches the
      balance while the flight suit is                      chemical protective gloves to
      removed, he may place his                             the sleeves of the MK1. The
      gloved hand on the attendant or                       second attendant instructs the
      the wall of the CCA for balance.                      crewman to make a fist and
      If the legs of the flight suit                        grasps the top of the garment
      cannot be pulled over the flight                      from behind and rolls the
      boots, use scissors to cut the                        garment up and off of the
      legs of the suit from the bottom                      shoulders and then pulls it down
      of the front zipper to the bottom                     and away, until the garment is to
      of the legs. Dispose of the flight                    the waist of the crewman.
      suit in the disposal can.

      Next, the station attendant will                           WARNING
      assist with the partial removal of
      the      chemical        protective              The attendant will avoid
      undergarment.            Chemical                 touching the crewman’s skin or
      protective undergarments are                      inner clothing. Also avoid
      currently fielded in two styles,                  touching crewman’s skin or
      the 2-piece CMU 34/P-35/P or                      clothing with the outside of the
      the one-piece MK1. The                            chemical              protective
      following procedures apply:                       undergarment. If contact is
                                                        made,             decontaminate
      Removal Procedures for the                        immediately with an SDK and
      CMU-34/P Chemical Protective                      then    proceed      with    the
      Undergarment      Shirt.    The                   overgarment removal.
      attendant reaches under the                      The attendant ensures that the
      aircrew CB respirator apron and                   crewman steps wide enough so
      unzips the undergarment top.                      as not to rub his clean leg
                                                        against the contaminated boot
      The attendant first loosens the                   and overgarment.
      Velcro closures at the wrist and                 Both attendants decontaminate
      unzips the front, the second                      gloves and scissors.
      attendant instructs the crewman
      to make a fist and grasps the
      shirt from behind and rolls the                            CAUTION
      garment up and off of the
      shoulders and then pulls it down                 Outside of the pusher fan bag may
      and away, off of the crewman.                    be contaminated. Crewmen shall
      Discard the CMU-34/P shirt in                    hold the bag so that the bag does
      the disposal can.                                not touch any exposed skin or
                                                       under clothing.
      The lower garment (CMU-35/P)
      will remain on the crewman

                                            8-33                                   ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
     c. CCA Position 2. The crewman                            The crewman hands the
        moves to position 2. Before sitting                    pusher fan, canister and
        on the bench provided, the cutter                      battery package to the cutter
        will grasp the legs of the CMU-                        who holds it. The 2d cutter
        35/P      chemical      protective                     pulls off the crewman’s
        undergarment         drawers/MK1                       gloves and drops them in
        chemical liner on the outside of                       second trash can, leaving
        the garment in the vicinity of the                     cotton liners on. It is not a
        crewman’s outer thighs. The cutter                     problem if cotton liner is
        will work the garment off of the                       inadvertently removed during
        crewman’s hips, down to knee-                          this process, in which case it
        level. The crewman sits on the                         would be placed in trash can
        bench.                                                 with glove.

                                                               Cutter decontaminates his
                    WARNING                                    gloves. Cutter opens inboard
                                                               door, the crewman takes a
     Ensure that no part of the                                breath and holds it. The
     crewman’s chemical protective                             crewman places his hands
     undergarment       or     chemical                        under the respirator apron and
     protective gloves touch the seat of                       then under the respirator neck
     the bench.                                                dam seal and pulls the mask
                                                               up and off of his head. The
           The crewman remains seated on                       cutter takes the mask from the
           the bench while the cutter uses                     crewman and instructs the
           scissors to cut laces on the                        crewman to walk out of the
           crewman’s flight boots. The                         CCA. The cutter closes the
           crewman then lifts his foot closest                 door.
           to the raised grating at Position
           #3. The cutter grasps heel of the                         Note
           flight boot and pulls it off, along
           with the leg of the chemical                 The aircrew mask will be passed
           protective undergarment. Then he             back through the CCA to the gross
           grasps the chemical protective               decontamination area when the
           sock by the toe and pulls it off.            next crewman enters the CCA.
           The crewman places this foot onto            The mask will be turned over to
           Position #3. The crewman                     the station attendant to be placed
           remains seated. The procedure is             with the remainder of the
           repeated with other foot. The                crewman’s ALSS.
           cutter places boots, chemical
           protective undergarment, and                        A corpsman or an individual
           chemical protective socks in the                    who has received training
           second trash can.                                   from medical department
                                                               gives the crewman the
     d. CCA Position 3. The crewman                            exchange mask, the crewman
        stands ensuring that his feet                          dons, clears and then checks
        remain on position #3. If                              the mask and resumes
        necessary, the cutter may assist,                      breathing. The corpsman
        but only glove-to-glove contact                        checks the crewman for signs
        can be made. The cutter signals                        of agent exposure (pinpoint
        the next station that the crewman                      pupils, feelings of nausea,
        is preparing to unmask and that the                    difficulty breathing, etc.) or
        mask exchange MCU 2/P or                               heat stress and recommends
        M40A1 needs to be ready.                               action. Healthy personnel are

ORIGINAL                                         8-34
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000
        sent     to    decontamination                    to    proper    procedures     and
        station. Individuals exhibiting                   screening for symptoms of
        symptoms of exposure to                           exposure are the best precautions.
        chemical agents or heat stress
        are treated and sent to                             Upon completion of shower,
        casualty collection stations.                       personnel don clean clothing and
                                                            proceed to assigned areas to await
e. Proceeding       Through       the                       assignments. Ensure clean clothing
   Decontamination           Station.                       is staged at decontamination station
   Crewmen proceed from the CCA                             exit.
   to the decontamination station by
   the designated route.                          8.11.1.2.2       Collective     Protection
                                                  System        (CPS)      Decontamination
                                                  Station. Ships with a CPS decontamination
           WARNING                                stations are equipped with built in
                                                  decontamination spaces that lead to spaces
The mask canister shall not be                    inside the ships skin that do not require
exposed to direct water spray or                  protective clothing or masks. The primary
the filter will clog. The doffee                  difference in aircrew decontamination with a
shall shield the canister to keep                 CPS        versus      the     conventional
water spray out. The doffee shall                 decontamination station is the there is no
not touch the mask with                           requirement for a mask exchange.
unprotected hands.
                                                  The conventional decontamination station
    When crewman arrives at                       consists of a gross decontamination area, an
    decontamination       station,   he           outer clothing undressing area (OCUA,
    removes all inner clothing except             equivalent to a CCA at a conventional
    mask and pullover shirts and                  decontamination station, an inner clothing
    places it in a plastic bag. He cuts           undressing area (ICUA), shower and
    off all pullover shirts (tee shirts,          contamination purge lock (CPL).
    flight deck jerseys, etc.) down
    front from top to bottom so he can            The following capabilities in addition to the
    remove them without disturbing                requirements of NSTM 470 must be present
    mask seal. The crewman removes                at the gross decontamination station to
    the cotton gloves last. He enters             support aircrew IPE doffing:
    station and showers with sea
    water. Shower can last until next                      Plastic bags (to collect aircrew
    person arrives.                                         ALSS, line disposal can and
                                                            package aircrew CB respirator
    Personnel                manning                        pusher fan, canister and battery).
    decontamination station shall                          Hand Wash (9% HTH).
    ensure orderly traffic flow and                        Disposal Can.
    that clothing is sealed in plastic
    bags to be checked later with                    1. Gross Decontamination Area. At this
    chemical detector kit. Monitor                      station, helmet bags, kneeboards,
    also looks for delayed signs of                     canteens and all other items carried by
    personnel exposure to agent.                        the aircrew are staged for the
                                                        attendant to segregate. This attendant
              Note                                      is in addition to the team leader who
                                                        is part of the damage control crew that
Complete        monitoring       of                     operates the decontamination station.
individuals for contamination is                        Individual gear (helmet, body armor,
not feasible or reliable with                           survival vest, g-suit, harness, cape) is
current detectors. Strict adherence                     also     removed      at   the    gross

                                           8-35                                       ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
     decontamination area. The attendant                  their own hands, the station
     cuts and removes any M9 detector                     attendant can assist by grasping
     paper from around the crewman’s                      the fingertip and removing the
     wrist and/or ankle. The aviation unit                flight gloves for the crewman.
     shall coordinate with the DCA on
     decontamination requirements for
     ALSS. See section 8.11.1.3.                                  WARNING

     The attendant assists the aircrew. It is          Chemical      protective    gloves
     recommended that this person be a                 underneath the flight gloves must
     qualified parachute rigger or flight              remain on and in place. If a glove
     equipment expert. The unique nature               comes off the crewman will have
     of aircrew IPE requires this type of              no protection from transfer
     support be provided at the gross                  hazards. If a chemical protective
     decontamination. This is due to ALSS              glove is inadvertently pulled off,
     being removed at station 1 and the                the        attendant        should
     aircrew will have to hold the canister,           decontaminate his gloves and
     pusher fan and battery as they process            assist the crewmember in putting
     through the site.                                 the chemical protective glove
                                                       back on.
     All paper products (schedules, smart
     packs, etc) will be disposed of in the            c. Remove Intercom Unit. Crewman
     can. Weapons should be unholstered                   turns his back to the attendant. The
     and cleared at this time.                            attendant grasps the helmet
                                                          communications        pigtail     and
                   Note                                   disconnects the mask microphone
                                                          lead      and      the      intercom
     Segregate and account           for                  communication lead from the
     classified documents.                                pigtail. He then signals the
                                                          crewman to turn and face him.
     a. Cape Removal. If capes have not
        already been removed, proceed as                  The attendant then grasps the
        follows: Crewman faces attendant                  intercom      snap     hook     and
        and forward, the attendant                        disengages the intercom from the
        removes the cape by grasping near                 survival vest. He then places the
        the crewman’s head and pulls the                  intercom and communications
        cape forward and off of the                       cable into a plastic bag designated
        crewman. Dispose of the cape in                   and labeled for the crewman’s
        the waste can. Repeat on                          flight gear. The attendant washes
        remaining crewman.                                his chemical protective gloves in
                                                          soapy water and proceeds with the
     b. Flight Glove Removal. Detach the                  helmet removal.
        Velcro closure on the flight suit
        sleeve and reattach loosely around             d. Helmet Removal. The attendant
        the wrist. Crewmen loosen and                     grasps the helmet chinstrap tab
        work flight gloves to a point that                and disengages the snaps. The
        each glove is almost off, without                 crewman or attendant grasps each
        loosening or removing the                         of the helmet receivers and
        chemical       protective    glove                squeezes them to release the
        underneath. Crewmember then                       toggle harness assembly from the
        hold hands over the waste can and                 helmet. The attendant then
        allows the flight gloves to drop                  removes the helmet, places it in
        into the can. If unable to loosen                 the equipment bag and washes his
        the flight gloves or work them off                hands. The crewman washes his

ORIGINAL                                        8-36
                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000
   gloves in soapy water. The                        vest/overvest      and     attached
   attendant proceeds with survival                  floatation collar.
   vest/overvest removal.
                                                               Note
e. Survival Vest/Overvest Removal.
   Station attendant shall assist                All survival equipment should
   during this step. The attendant will          remain in the vest. It will be
   unzip retention pouches and                   segregated and decontaminated or
   remove the pusher fan, C2 canister            disposed of by the station
   and battery from the pouches.                 attendant      or     emergency
   Available          decontamination            reclamation teams. Place survival
   personnel or crewmen will assist              vest/overvest in the equipment
   as required.                                  bag.

             Note
                                                               Note
Pusher fan, C2 canister and
battery pouches may be detached                  Fixed wing aircrew will wear a
from the vest vice removing them                 survival vest under the overvest.
from their pouches if easier and                 Station attendant will assist fixed
more convenient to do so. Station                wing crewman with removal of
attendants assisting TACAIR                      the fixed wing survival vest at this
crewman wearing an overvest will                 time. Place fixed wing survival
have to cut the pockets of the                   vest in equipment bag.
overvest or disconnect the oetiker
clamp to facilitate removal of the                  Station attendant washes gloves
oxygen regulator and seat pan                       and proceeds to body armor/G-
oxygen hose.                                        suit/torso harness removal.

   Station attendant provides a                  f. Body      Armor/G-Suit      /Torso
   plastic bag and assists crewman                  Harness Removal. As applicable,
   with placing the pusher fan, C2                  station attendant will assist the
   canister and battery of his                      other crewman with removing
   A/P22P-14 Respirator Assembly                    body armor or G-suit/torso
   into the bag. The crewmember                     harness. Place in equipment bag.
   holds the bag. Station attendant
   will then puncture a hole in the                  Station attendant washes gloves
   bag so that the canister can draw                 proceeds to aircrew respirator
   air. The bag will assist the                      decontamination. and assists next
   crewman with holding these                        crewman beginning with flight
   assemblies through the remainder                  glove removal.
   of the contaminated doff process.
   Recommend tying off or taping                 g. Aircrew        CB        Respirator
   the top of the bag so that the                   Decontamination. The station
   pusher fan, C2 canister and                      attendant will use an SDK to
   battery fit in one corner of the                 decontaminate the aircrew mask
   bag. Station attendant then opens                and attached hose. Attendant
   the survival vest zipper and                     should start at the top of the head
   unhooks waist and leg snap hooks                 and work down, moving around
   and then unbuckles the helo hoist                the crewman so that all portions of
   strap. The station attendant moves               the mask and hose are covered
   behind the crewman and assists                   with the SDK. Begin initially with
   with the removal of the survival                 the crewman standing upright to
                                                    decontaminate      the    crewman

                                          8-37                                 ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
           respirator.   When     ready    to          assistant (cutter) will hold the
           decontaminate the hoses, the                pusher fan, canister and battery
           crewman will bend forward,                  assembly so that it does not cause
           gently releasing the pusher fan             a break in the aircrew mask.
           assembly and allow it to dangle.
           The      attendant   will     then          a. Boot Wash. When signaled by the
           decontaminate the exposed portion              OCUA cutter and the door opens,
           of the hose and the plastic bag                the air crewman will step into the
           containing the pusher fan and the              boot wash. The aviation attendant
           crewman’s gloves. Once complete,               will    scrub   the    crewman’s
           the crewman will again take the                disposable footwear covers with
           pusher fan and stand upright. The              the     brush    provided,     for
           crewman will look up so that the               approximately 10 seconds.
           underside of the mask bellows can
           be decontaminated.                                       Note

           Station attendant washes gloves             The crewman will be holding his
           and    assists   next  crewman              pusher fan and may not be able to
           beginning with flight glove                 scrub his own disposable footwear
           removal.                                    covers.

  2. Outer Clothing Undressing Area. The               b. OCUA Position 1. The crewman
     OCUA is a 3 station area where                       enters the OCUA without touching
     remaining      liquid    contamination               door with his gloves and stands on
     hazards are reduced and controlled. A                Position #1, as shown in figure 8-9
     typical OCUA is shown at figure 8-8                  (CCA). Cutter closes door and
     and 8-9. The processes in the OCUA                   begins doffing procedures. Two
     are very similar to the CCA of                       people are required to operate this
     conventional decontamination station.                station. They assist with the
     Aviation units must coordinate with                  removal of flight suits and
     the DCA to train damage control men                  chemical                  protective
     on procedures to remove crewmen                      undergarments. Due to the
     from aircrew IPE. Due to the unique                  difficulty of crewman removing
     characteristics of the aircrew mask                  flight suits over flight boots while
     and the procedures for doffing aircrew               masked and holding the pusher
     IPE, the aviation unit should                        fan, C2 canister and battery, it may
     recommend a 2-cutter CCA, with only                  be easier to remove the flight suit
     one aircrewman processing at a time.                 by cutting.
     The OCUA will need to be equipped
     with sufficient plastic bags of suitable             The cutter cuts and removes any
     size to contain the components of the                M9 detector paper from around
     aircrew mask. This requirement is in                 the crewman’s wrist and/or ankle.
     addition to the equipment listed in                  He unfastens the Velcro closure
     NSTM 470                                             around the wrists of the flight suit.
                                                          He unzips the flight suit as far
                    Note                                  down as it will go. He unzips the
                                                          leg closure to the flight suit. The
     It will take at least two assistants                 other cutter takes and holds the
     to help the crewman safely                           pusher fan package from the
     remove his IPE in the OCUA.                          crewman. The crewman makes
     One assistant (cutter) will help the                 fists and holds his arms straight
     crewman get out of his flight suit,                  and to the rear at approximately a
     flight    boots    and     chemical                  45 degree angle. The cutter assists
     protective ensemble. The other                       the crewman with pulling his arms

ORIGINAL                                        8-38
                                                                 NAVAIR 00-000-000
out of the flight suit sleeves. Do
this by grasping the flight suit at
the crewman’s shoulders from                             WARNING
behind, pulling down and away
until the crewman’s arms come                   The attendant will avoid
out of the sleeves. Take care that               touching the crewman's skin or
the chemical protective gloves do                inner clothing. Also avoid
not come off. The cutter works the               touching crewman’s skin or
flight suit down to the crewman’s                clothing with the outside of the
ankles and removes the flight suit               flight suit. If contact is made,
one leg at a time over the                       decontaminate        immediately
crewman’s flight boots. He has                   with an SDK and then proceed
the crewman lift one leg and point               with the overgarment removal.
that foot down and bend slightly                The attendant ensures that the
at the knees for stability. The                  crewman steps wide enough so
cutter grasps the cuff of the                    as not to rub his clean leg
elevated foot with a hand on each                against the contaminated boot
side and pulls the cuff in an                    and overgarment.
alternating, jerking motion until
the crewman can step out of the
trouser leg. The process is
repeated on the other leg.




                Figure 8-8 Typical CPS Decontamination Station




                                      8-39                                 ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000




                          OUTER CLOTHING UNDRESSING        INNER CLOTHING                        CONTAMINATION
                                                                             SHOWER AREA
                                    AREA                  UNDRESSING AREA                         PURGE LOCK


                             LIQUID HAZARD AREA                      VAPOR HAZARD AREA                                 TOXIC FREE AREA

      SCISSOR WASH
                                                      3                                 CONTROL AREA WINDOWS

      BOOT & GLOVE
      DISPOSAL
                                               2                 4
      SMOCK &
      TROUSER                                                                   5               6
                                                          SCISSOR WASH
      DISPOSAL                  1
                                       DRAINS                                                            EXIT IS TO DRESSING
                                       (TYPICAL)


                                      WEATHER
                                                                         MULTI-NOZZLE               REMOVABLE GRATES
                                      ENTRANCE
                                                                         SHOWER

                                     WORKING UNIFORM
                                     DISPOSAL
           2’ X 2’ X 6’
           BOOT WASH

                                                                                                                                         Figure
                                    8-9 Typical CPS Decontamination Station Layout

                          Note                                                             Removal Procedures for the
                                                                                           CMU-34/P Chemical Protective
     If unable to keep the disposable                                                      Undergarment       Shirt..   The
     footwear covers from coming off                                                       attendant reaches under the
     with the flight suit, do not become                                                   aircrew CB respirator apron and
     alarmed. The feet will still be                                                       unzips the undergarment top.
     protected inside of the boots and
     chemical protective socks.                                                            The attendant first loosens the
                                                                                           Velcro closures at the wrist and
           If the crewman cannot maintain                                                  unzips the front, the second
           balance while the flight suit is                                                attendant instructs the crewman to
           removed, he may place his gloved                                                make a fist and grasps the shirt
           hand on the attendant or the wall                                               from behind and rolls the garment
           of the OCUA for balance. If the                                                 up and off of the shoulders and
           legs of the flight suit cannot be                                               then pulls it down and away, off
           pulled over the flight boots, use                                               of the crewman. Discard the
           scissors to cut the legs of the suit                                            CMU-34/P shirt in the disposal
           from the bottom of the front                                                    can.
           zipper to the bottom of the legs.
           Dispose of the flight suit in the                                               The lower garment (CMU-35/P)
           disposal can.                                                                   will remain on the crewman until
                                                                                           station 2 of the OCUA.
           Next, the station attendant will
           assist with the partial removal of                                              Removal Procedures for the MK1.
           the       chemical       protective                                             The attendant reaches under the
           undergarment.             Chemical                                              aircrew CB respirator apron and
           protective undergarments are                                                    unzips the undergarment to the
           currently fielded in two styles, the                                            waist. Then the attendant cuts or
           2-piece CMU 34/P-35/P or the                                                    removes the tape that attaches the
           one-piece MK1. The following                                                    chemical protective gloves to the
           procedures apply:                                                               sleeves of the MK1. The second
                                                                                           attendant instructs the crewman to

ORIGINAL                                                          8-40
                                                                       NAVAIR 00-000-000
       make a fist and grasps the top of
       the garment from behind and rolls
       the garment up and off of the                               WARNING
       shoulders and then pulls it down             Ensure that no part of the
       and away, until the garment is to            crewman’s chemical protective
       the waist of the crewman.                    undergarment       or     chemical
                                                    protective gloves touch the seat of
                                                    the bench.
              WARNING
                                                        The crewman remains seated on
    The attendant will avoid                           the bench while the cutter uses
     touching the crewman’s skin or                     scissors to cut laces on the
     inner clothing. Also avoid                         crewman’s flight boots. The
     touching crewman’s skin or                         crewman then lifts his foot closest
     clothing with the outside of the                   to the raised grating at Position
     chemical              protective                   #3. The cutter grasps heel of the
     undergarment. If contact is                        flight boot and pulls it off, along
     made,             decontaminate                    with the leg of the chemical
     immediately with an SDK and                        protective undergarment. Then he
     then    proceed      with    the                   grasps the chemical protective
     overgarment removal.                               sock by the toe and pulls it off.
    The attendant ensures that the                     The crewman places this foot onto
     crewman steps wide enough so                       Position #3. The crewman
     as not to rub his clean leg                        remains seated. The procedure is
     against the contaminated boot                      repeated with other foot. The
     and overgarment.                                   cutter places boots, chemical
    Both attendants decontaminate                      protective undergarment, and
     gloves and scissors.                               chemical protective socks in the
                                                        second trash can.

               CAUTION                              d. OCUA Position 3. The crewman
                                                       stands ensuring that his feet
    Outside of the pusher fan bag may                  remain on position #3. If
    be contaminated. Crewmen shall                     necessary, the cutter may assist,
    hold the bag so that the bag does                  but only glove-to-glove contact
    not touch any exposed skin or                      can be made.
    under clothing.
                                                        The crewman hands the pusher
    c. OCUA Position 2. The crewman                     fan, canister and battery package
       moves to position 2. Before sitting              to the cutter who holds it. The 2nd
       on the bench provided, the cutter                cutter pulls off the crewman’s
       will grasp the legs of the CMU-                  gloves and drops them in second
       35/P      chemical      protective               trash can, leaving cotton liners on.
       undergarment        drawers//MK1                 It is not a problem if cotton liner
       chemical liner on the outside of                 is inadvertently removed during
       the garment in the vicinity of the               this process, in which case it
       crewman’s outer thighs. The cutter               would be placed in trash can with
       will work the garment off of the                 glove.
       crewman’s hips, down to knee-
       level. The crewman sits on the                   Cutter decontaminates his gloves.
       bench.                                           He then takes a clean plastic bag
                                                        and while his assistant continues
                                                        to hold the pusher fan, he works
                                                        the bag around the pusher fan and

                                             8-41                                 ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
           then gathers the opening around                          compartment. Crewman secures
           the hood and mask inlet hoses.                           door between shower and CPL.
           The assistant lets go of the pusher
           fan and pulls his hands out of the                       At end of the two minute purge
           bag being careful not to touch the                       cycle, crewman picks up a plastic
           outside.         The         assistant                   bag. He places bag over his head,
           decontaminates his gloves and                            and pulls it down as far as it will
           assists the cutter with tying off the                    go. The crewman places his hands
           top of the bag and puncturing a                          under the respirator apron and
           hole for the canister inlet.                             then under the respirator neck
                                                                    dam seal and pulls the mask up
                     Note                                           and off of his head, ensuring that
                                                                    the mask, hoses, pusher fan,
     This procedure ensures an                                      canister and battery are in the bag.
     uncontaminated surface for the                                 He secures bag with a tie
     crewman to safely handle the                                   provided, and leaves it in CPL.
     pusher fan with his bare hands.                                Crewman exits CPL and closes
                                                                    door.
           The cutter hands the pusher fan
           back to the crewman. Cutter opens                     h. A medically trained person
           inboard door. The crewman                                monitors crewman in passageway
           moves into the ICUA. The cutter                          outside CPL looking for delayed
           closes the door.                                         signs of personnel exposure to
                                                                    agent, heat stress, or other injury.
     e. Crewman enters the Inner
        Clothing       Undressing     Area
        (ICUA). Cutter closes door to                                      WARNING
        OCUA. Crewman removes all
        inner clothing except mask and                          In the absence of a reliable way to
        pullover shirts. Crewman cuts all                       monitor      contamination      on
        pullover shirts (tee shirts, flight                     personnel or their clothing, strict
        deck jerseys, etc.) down the front                      adherence to proper procedures
        from the top to the bottom so he                        and screening for symptoms of
        can     remove      them   without                      exposure are the best precautions.
        disturbing mask seal. The cotton
        gloves are removed last. Clothing                           Upon completion of shower,
        is placed in plastic bag.                                   personnel don clean clothing and
                                                                    proceed to assigned areas to await
     f. The crewman enters shower when                              assignments.     Ensure       clean
        directed, removes mask bag that                             clothing     is     staged       at
        has been left from previous doffee                          decontamination station exit.
        and places this bag in ICUA.
        Crewman ensures that door to                       8.11.1.3     Aviation     Life    Support
        ICUA is secured and shields mask                   Systems       (ALSS).     Decontamination.
        canister with hands. Shower is                     Recovery, decontamination and reclamation
        activated by station assistant.                    of ALSS equipment should be accomplished
                                                           in a phased or stepped approach. Due to the
     g. Upon shower completion, station                    limitations of current decontamination
        assistant indicates when the                       methods and detection devices, some
        Contamination Purge Lock (CPL)                     equipment may not be recoverable for use in
        is empty. Crewman enters CPL,                      normal, uncontaminated operations. See
        picks up mask bag left by previous                 appendix c for decontamination methods for
        doffee and places it in shower                     selected materials.


ORIGINAL                                            8-42
                                                                        NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                   1. Collection. Gross decontamination
                CAUTION                               station attendant assists with the
                                                      removal and collection of aircrew
     Many items of IPE and ALSS                       ALSS. Crewman’s equipment is
     cannot         be        adequately              removed and bagged per section
     decontaminated and reclaimed.                    8.11.1.1.1, 8.11.1.2.1, or 8.11.1.2.2.
     Helmets, body armor, life                        Aircrew masks may be reverse
     preservers, G-suits and survival                 processed through CCA’s or OCUA’s
     vests      are      difficult    to              and collected separately or collected
     decontaminate and will likely be                 during           post-decontamination
     discarded or left outside to                     recovery.
     weather. Flight suits, flight
     gloves, flight boots and below the            2. Segregation. In coordination with the
     neck CB IPE should discarded.                    DCA and at the location specified by
                                                      the DCA, the aviation unit determines
                  Note                                the contamination status of the
                                                      aircrew ALSS. The following
     The       decision     to     reuse              procedures apply:
     contaminated flight equipment
     will be based on many factors.                   a. CAM/ICAM. Gather the top of the
     Weathering over time will have a                    bag leaving a small opening for
     decontamination effect on most                      the nozzle. Put the CAM into
     items, however porous materials                     operation according to the
     will not weather as rapidly as non-                 operating instructions. Place the
     porous. Current detectors do not                    nozzle near the open end of the
     detect to the low-exposure-affects                  equipment      bag.     If     no
     levels of most chemical agents.                     contamination is detected, move
     This fact is critical when                          equipment to flight equipment
     considering whether or not an                       spaces.
     aircrew should don previously
     contaminated flight equipment                                 Note
     without CB IPE. At the same
     time,        flight      operations             Higher temperatures will result in
     requirements will continue to have              more rapid off gassing and
     to be met. If sufficient aircrew                detection. In cooler temperatures,
     IPE is available, weathered flight              allow     more     time    before
     gear could be used. In this case,               determining the contamination
     the best course of action would be              status. Refer to the CAM/ICAM
     to use contaminated, weathered or               technical manual for response
     operationally       decontaminated              times.
     aircraft for the mission. At some
     point however, unless re-supplied                   If contamination is detected (1
     with aircrew IPE and/or new                         bar or more), each item
     flight     equipment,     normally                  should       be        checked
     embarked stocks will run out.                       individually       with       a
                                                         CAM/ICAM        and/or     M8
8.11.1.3.1 ALSS Decontamination                          paper. Individual items that
Afloat. At both variants of ship                         check contamination free (no
decontamination stations, all ALSS except                bars) can be moved to flight
the aircrew mask is removed at the gross                 equipment spaces.
decontamination station. The following
steps describe how ALSS may be recovered:                Items that continue to show
                                                         contamination should be
                                                         decontaminated.

                                            8-43                                  ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
                                                           rinse water. Scrub items in the hot
     b. M256/M256A1. Perform test                          soapy water and then rinse.
        procedures of the sampler-detector
        inside of the equipment bag
        following the steps on the                                      CAUTION
        package. When at the step that
        requires a 10-minute wait, place                  Refer to appropriate technical
        the sampler-detector inside of the                manuals to ensure that equipment
        equipment bag and close the top so                will not be damaged by
        that any vapor present cannot                     immersion in water. If immersion
        escape. After the 10-minute wait,                 is not recommended, wipe
        recover the sampler-detector and                  equipment with rags or sponges
        complete the remaining steps.                     dipped in hot soapy water.
        Observe test spot for positive or
        negative     results.    If     no                Use CAM/ICAM, M256/M256A1
        contamination is detected, move                   and/or M8 paper to check for
        equipment to flight equipment                     remaining           contamination.
        spaces.                                           Recommend bagging items in
                                                          order to concentrate vapors.
                    Note
                                                          Items that continue to show
     Higher temperatures will result in                   contamination will have to be
     more rapid off gassing and                           weathered and checked or a
     detection. In cooler temperatures,                   disposal decision made.
     allow     more      time   before
     determining the contamination                   8.11.1.3.2 ALSS Decontamination
     status.      Refer      to     the              Ashore. At the ashore site, one of the
     M256/M256A1 technical manual                    station #1 attendants collects and performs
     for response times.                             limited    decontamination     on    ALSS,
                                                     meanwhile, at station #7, limited
           If contamination is detected              decontamination of the aircrew mask is
           (color change), each item                 performed.
           should        be       checked
           individually       with      a              1. The following additional guidance is
           CAM/ICAM, M256/M256A1                          provided for recovery of ALSS at
           and/or M8 paper. Individual                    station 1: All individual aircrew
           items         that       check                 equipment should be collected in a
           contamination free (no bars or                 plastic bag and labeled with the
           color change) can be moved                     crewman’s name. Then, each item
           to flight equipment spaces.                    should be scrubbed and then rinsed
                                                          individually (Many items of survival
           Items that continue to show                    gear may have been pre-wrapped to
           contamination should be                        prevent contamination from getting on
           decontaminated.                                the equipment. If wrapped, do not
                                                          unwrap, decontaminate outside of
  3. Decontamination of ALSS. In                          packaging) in the soapy water/rinse
     coordination with the DCA and at the                 water, including all survival items
     location specified by the DCA, the                   contained in survival vests and
     aviation         unit        performs                overvests. Once scrubbed, the items
     decontamination of items of ALSS                     should be bagged again in a separate
     that are contaminated. Recommend                     clean equipment bag and placed on
     decontamination site be established on               the ―dirty‖ side of the contamination
     a weather deck, aft. Prepare a                       control line (figure 8-5). The attendant
     container of hot soapy water and fresh               on the ―clean‖ side of the

ORIGINAL                                      8-44
                                                                        NAVAIR 00-000-000
contamination control line will check                    Observe test spot for positive or
the contents of the equipment bag for                    negative      results.     If   no
contamination      by    using    the                    contamination is detected, move
M256/M256A1 or CAM/ICAM.                                 equipment bag to the clean side
Following         procedures      are                    and transport to station #8 for
recommended:                                             recovery. If contamination is
                                                         detected (color change), each item
a. CAM/ICAM. Gather the top of the                       should be checked individually
   bag leaving a small opening for                       with         a         CAM/ICAM,
   the nozzle. Put the CAM into                          M256/M256A1 and/or M8 paper.
   operation according to the                            Individual items that check
   operating instructions. Place the                     contamination free (no bars or
   nozzle near the open end of the                       color change) can be moved to
   equipment       bag.      If     no                   station #8. Items that continue to
   contamination is detected, move                       show contamination should be
   equipment bag to the clean side                       recycled and checked again. Items
   and transport to station #8 for                       that     continue       to    show
   recovery. If contamination is                         contamination will have to be
   detected (1 bar or more), each item                   weathered and checked or a
   should be checked individually                        disposal decision made.
   with a CAM/ICAM and/or M8
   paper. Individual items that check                              Note
   contamination free (no bars) can
   be moved to station #8. Items that                Higher temperatures will result in
   continue to show contamination                    more rapid off gassing and
   should be recycled and checked                    detection. In cooler temperatures,
   again. Items that continue to show                allow     more      time   before
   contamination will have to be                     determining the contamination
   weathered and checked or a                        status.      Refer      to     the
   disposal decision made.                           M256/M256A1 technical manual
                                                     for response times.
             Note
                                                8.11.2          Thorough          Aircraft
Higher temperatures will result in              Decontamination. Detailed or deliberate
more rapid off gassing and                      aircraft decontamination (DAD) and detailed
detection. In cooler temperatures,              equipment decontamination (DED) restore
allow     more     time    before               items so that they can be used without
determining the contamination                   aircrew IPE or non-aircrew IPE. Normally,
status. Refer to the CAM/ICAM                   the DED and the DAD are conducted as part
technical manual for response                   of a reconstitution or during breaks in
times.                                          combat operations.

b. M256/M256A1. Perform test                    8.11.2.1       Limitations.       Deliberate
   procedures of the sampler-detector           decontamination of aircraft can be costly in
   inside of the equipment bag                  terms of time and resources. The problem
   following the steps on the                   can be compounded aboard ships, if ships
   package. When at the step that               surfaces and flight decks are also
   requires a 10-minute wait, place             contaminated. The critical limitation to
   the sampler-detector inside of the           aircraft deliberate decontamination is
   equipment bag and close the top so           decontamination of interiors. Electronics,
   that any vapor present cannot                electrical systems and other sensitive
   escape. After the 10-minute wait,            components of cockpits, flight decks and
   recover the sampler-detector and             cargo areas can become damaged if
   complete the remaining steps.                subjected to the volume of water that would

                                         8-45                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
have to be introduced in order to effectively           requirement to scrub the aircraft. Scrubbing
remove contamination from these areas. As               the aircraft with soap will assist with the
discussed, there are no currently available             contaminant removal process and increase
decontamination technologies other than                 the effectiveness of decontamination. All
using standard aircraft soaps and cleaners to           personnel involved in detailed aircraft
displace contamination from aircraft.                   decontamination shall ear appropriate non-
Therefore, in considering deliberate                    aircrew CB IPE. Wet weather clothing or
decontamination of aircraft, commanders                 TAP apron, worn over CB IPE, is
must first determine the extent of                      recommended to prevent saturation of the
contamination to interior spaces of aircraft.           non-aircrew protective ensemble.
If these spaces are heavily contaminated, it
may make more sense to operationally                       1. Determine        location        for
decontaminate and allow the aircraft to                       decontamination. The location at
weather to an acceptable level instead of                     which to conduct aircraft wash down
spending the resources to conduct deliberate                  is dependant on the operating cycle
decontamination of the exterior knowing                       and space available of ship/facility
that spot decontamination of the interior is                  and the type of aircraft being
the best that can be achieved with current                    decontaminated.
decontamination technology.
                                                              a. Aircraft capable ships (other than
8.11.2.2 Methods. Army Field Manual 3-                           CV class) and amphibious ships
5 (Decontamination) discusses a thorough                         (other than LHA/LHD) have little
decontamination method for aircraft that is                      latitude as to the location of DAD
patterned after a similar method for ground                      due to the smaller sizes of the
equipment. With this method a series of five                     flight deck. If multiple spots are
stations are established (primary wash,                          available, the extreme aft spots are
application of decontaminant, interior decon,                    recommended. Aircraft should be
rinse, check). This method is feasible for                       positioned so that relative wind
established airfields, but may not be feasible                   direction is from nose to tail.
for expeditionary airfields and FARPs. The
benefit to conducting detailed aircraft                       b. LHA/LHD.        DAD       can    be
decontamination using stations is that with                      conducted at the landing spot an
an assembly line approach, multiple aircraft                     aircraft has been directed to land.
can be decontaminated in less time. Space                        Spots aft of the superstructure are
limitations on ships render anything other                       recommended as a contamination
than stationary techniques unpractical. In                       control measure. Aircraft parking
order to standardize detailed aircraft                           spaces can also be used for DAD.
decontamination for both ship and shore                          The aft bone is the recommended
environments, the stationary method shall be                     location as a contamination control
the standard. Shore facilities may adapt the                     measure. If the aircraft is to be
stationary methods to the methods contained                      towed to a wash down location,
in FM 3-5 (NBC Decontamination) if                               tow bars, aircraft wheels/tires,
considered appropriate.                                          landing gear and tow points should
                                                                 be spot decontaminated prior to
8.11.2.3         Detailed          Aircraft                      moving the aircraft to prevent
Decontamination Procedures. The                                  contamination spread to the deck
procedures      for    detailed     aircraft                     or tow tractors. Aircraft should be
decontamination are similar to the                               positioned so that relative wind
operational decontamination techniques                           direction is from nose to tail.
discussed in paragraph 8.10.2, Aircraft
Wash Down. The principle difference
between the two techniques is the amount of
time     required.     Detailed     aircraft
decontamination will take longer due to the

ORIGINAL                                         8-46
                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                      is preferred. The capacity to heat
                                                      water and inject soap increases
                  WARNING                             effectiveness. Lack of pressurized
                                                      washing equipment will decrease
   Decontamination techniques may                     effectiveness of the wash. M17
   require personnel to climb on top                  light weight decontamination
   of       aircraft.      Recommend                  systems (USMC), M12 power
   positioning aircraft toward the                    driven decontamination apparatus,
   center line of the flight deck in                  standard water pumps and pressure
   order to minimize the chances of                   washers as well as fire fighting
   personnel going overboard should                   equipment are examples of
   they slip and fall off the aircraft.               standard and field expedient
                                                      equipment.

   c. CV. Establish DAD station(s) aft             c. Run off containment feature.
      of the superstructure. Aircraft
      should be positioned so that                   (1) Shore-based.        Operational
      relative wind direction is from                    decontamination            sites
      nose to tail.                                      established at wash racks will
                                                         require a containment feature
   d. Ashore. Permanent/expeditionary                    such as sandbags, sand filled
      airfield and FARP operations                       fire hoses or commercially
      personnel will determine where                     available containment berms
      DAD is to be performed. DAD                        or pools (large enough to
      will normally be performed at                      accommodate the aircraft
      existing wash rack facilities or at                being washed) to prevent run-
      designated sites that are isolated                 off from going into sewer
      and downwind from other                            systems. Sites prepared at
      personnel and facilities.                          isolated airfield locations or
                                                         FARPs will need dig sumps
2. Site Preparation.                                     adjacent to decontamination
                                                         sites in order to contain
   a. Site must have sufficient fresh                    contaminated run off and may
      water to wet entire exterior of the                also require field expedient
      aircraft and to rinse the aircraft.                containment methods such as
      For planning purposes, the                         sand bagged berms and
      following recommendations are                      channels         to      allow
      provided: CH46E-500 gallons,                       contaminated run off to
      CH53E-700 gallons, C130-1600                       gravity feed or be hosed into
      gallons.                                           sumps.

                 Note                                (2) Ship-based.         Containment
                                                         features for ship based aircraft
   Water      requirements       are                     wash down procedures are
   approximations.            Water                      also desirable. Most ships are
   requirements for specific aircraft                    not equipped to collect
   should be extrapolated based on                       contaminated run off. Ships
   surface   area    compared      to                    desiring        to       control
   recommended water volumes                             contaminated run off should
   provided above.                                       request            commercially
                                                         available containment berms
   b. Washing equipment that can                         or devise field expedient
      produce 60 to 120 pounds per                       methods,              otherwise
      square inch (psi) of water pressure

                                            8-47                               ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
             contaminated run off should                      available, use the means at hand to
             be hosed overboard.                              rinse gross contamination from the
                                                              outside of the aircraft. Do not
     d. Contamination              markings.                  neglect the landing gear and belly
        Appropriate        barrier       and                  of the aircraft.
        contamination hazard markings
        should be available and put into
        place prior to commencing wash
                                                                      CAUTION
        down. Recommended approach is
        to erect rope barriers to isolate the              Consult appropriate aircraft
        decontamination site. Appropriate                   maintenance publications for
        (chemical or biological) NATO                       areas that could be damaged by
        contamination markers should be                     application of water spray.
        attached to the rope barrier to warn                Prepare these areas for aircraft
        personnel      of     contamination                 wash down as specified in
        hazard. See figure 7-1.                             technical manuals for normal
                                                            washing. Spray streams should
     e. Stand or ladder. Aircraft stands or                 be angled from 15 to 30 degrees
        ladders should be available in                      in order to avoid water being
        order to put spray on areas                         introduced behind hatch and
        inaccessible from the ground/deck.                  cover seams that house sensitive
        As a last resort, decontamination                   aircraft components.
        personnel can climb on aircraft.                   Ensure that only approved
                                                            aircraft cleaners are used.
                                                           Over spray should be controlled
                    WARNING                                 to        avoid        transferring
                                                            contaminated run off to other
     Climbing on wet aircraft can                           personnel or to areas outside of
     result in falls. Field of view will                    the decontamination barrier.
     be restricted due to protective
     masks. Transfer of contaminants                       d. Detailed exterior decontamination.
     from the aircraft to personnel                           Apply       appropriate     aircraft
     could       result     in     cross                      cleaner/soap to the exterior of the
     contamination and potentially                            aircraft using long handled brushes
     injure or kill decontamination                           or non-abrasive scrub pads.
     personnel.                                               Scrubbers should scrub the soap
                                                              into exterior surfaces of the
  3. Procedures.                                              aircraft working from upwind to
                                                              downwind and top to bottom.
     a. Tow or taxi aircraft into position.                   Particular attention should be paid
                                                              to areas that contamination tends
     b. Close all hatches, doors, and                         to accumulate. Landing gear,
        windows on the aircraft. Prepare                      landing gear bays, tires and areas
        aircraft as if for normal washing.                    with POL (petroleum, oils,
                                                              lubricants) should receive extra
     c. Gross exterior decontamination.                       attention.
        Apply warm soapy water to the
        outside of the aircraft. Spray                     e. Exterior rinse. Apply rinse water
        should be applied to the aircraft                     to the outside of the aircraft. Spray
        working      from    upwind    to                     should be applied to the aircraft
        downwind and top to bottom.                           working      from      upwind      to
        Heated and soap injected water                        downwind and top to bottom.
        will aid in contamination removal.                    Heated water will aid in
        If heated water or soap is not                        contamination removal.
ORIGINAL                                        8-48
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                           h. Site clean-up.

                                                             (1) Without containment pit. If
    Consult appropriate aircraft                                possible,    move     aircraft
     maintenance publications for                                upwind          of         the
     areas that could be damaged by                              decontamination station to
     application of water spray.                                 clean        areas.       The
     Spray streams should be angled                              decontamination site should
     from 15 to 30 degrees in order                              be    decontaminated      with
     to avoid water being introduced                             standard or non-standard
     behind hatch and cover seams                                decontaminant, using brooms
     that house sensitive aircraft                               or     swabs      to     apply
     components.                                                 decontaminant. Hose residual
    Over spray should be controlled                             overboard or into sumps.
     to       avoid       transferring
     contaminated run off to other                           (2) With containment pit. Pump
     personnel or to areas outside of                            run off into drums or barrels
     the decontamination barrier.                                for proper disposal, or
                                                                 overboard, or into sumps.
    f. Interior decontamination. Check                           Move aircraft upwind of the
       the interior spaces with a                                decontamination station to
       CAM/ICAM or M8 paper. If                                  clean areas. Decontaminate
       contamination is discovered or                            containment pit with standard
       suspected, spot decontaminate                             or               non-standard
       these areas with rags or sponges                          decontaminant. Pump residual
       dipped in warm soapy water or                             into drums or barrels for
       other approved aircraft cleaner.                          proper disposal, or overboard
       Wring excess water to avoid                               or into sumps.
       contaminated       runoff.    Porous
       material such as cargo straps,                        (3) Decontaminate washing and
       seats, and seat belts water cannot                        support equipment (stands,
       be          effectively         spot                      ladders, tow tractors, tow
       decontaminated. These items and                           bars, dollies etc.) if required.
       other porous items should be                              Rubber, plastic and metal
       removed and weathered or                                  buckets          can          be
       disposed of. Personnel performing                         decontaminated and re-used
       interior decontamination must                             for further decontamination if
       ensure that they are not                                  necessary. Store these items
       transferring contamination inside                         outside      on      or     near
       of the aircraft. If necessary,                            decontamination            sites.
       decontaminate footgear and gloves                         Discard all rags, sponges,
       before entering the aircraft.                             brushes, brooms and swabs in
                                                                 sumps or in drums or barrels
    g. Check for contamination. Use                              for proper disposal.
       CAM/ICAM, M8, M22 ACADA,
       MK26          Ship        ACADA,              8.11.3 Systems Decontamination And
       M256/M256A1, or Biological                    Maintenance Implications. Liquid and
       Hand Held Assay as required to                vapor contamination will likely permeate
       check exterior for contamination.             throughout an aircraft. DAD may not be
       If contamination is found, recycle            effective at removing contamination from
       aircraft through decontamination              internal aircraft systems and subsystems
       process     or     perform    spot            located behind panels and access hatches
       decontamination.                              and may continue to be a hazard to
                                                     maintenance personnel. All systems and sub

                                              8-49                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
systems located in these areas should be               8.11.3.5 Procedures.
treated as contaminated until monitoring
confirms lack of contamination. Systems                  1. Avionics. If aircraft avionics repair is
found to be contaminated shall be turned                    required     and      equipment       is
over to and decontaminated by emergency                     contaminated,      it     should     be
reclamation teams. Contamination may also                   decontaminated         by       Aircraft
be present within sealed components that are                Intermediate Maintenance Department
air-cooled; intermediate level maintainers                  (AIMD)      emergency reclamation
must ensure that these sealed components                    teams.       Avionics         requiring
are contamination free before performing                    decontamination should be opened
maintenance. Components of systems and                      and cleaned on the flight deck in an
subsystems not discussed in this section                    established decontamination area.
should be decontaminated and reclaimed by                   Avionics should be cleaned until
intermediate maintenance in accordance                      certified agent free by detectors.
with technical manuals applicable to the                    Avionics equipment exposed to CB
system.                                                     agents shall be handled in the
                                                            following manner:
                 WARNING                                    a. Apply MIL-C-85570 TYPE V
                                                               (Concentrate),        MIL-C-43616
      Opening a sealed component                               cleaner (diluted 1 part concentrate
      without IPE may result in death or                       to 4 parts water), or MIL-C-85704
      serious injury.                                          TYPE I, for 5 minutes. Rinse with
                                                               fresh water.
8.11.3.1 Precautions. Before opening
any panel or access cover to an aircraft that               b. Re-clean with MIL-D-16791
has been previously decontaminated,                            TYPE I detergent (1 part cleaner
maintenance personnel shall be in the                          to 100 parts water). Rinse with
appropriate IPE. At a minimum mask and                         fresh water.
gloves should be worn.
                                                            c. Rinse equipment by immersing in
8.11.3.2 Detection. Coordination shall be                      a tank of isopropyl alcohol for no
made to have trained personnel available                       more than fifteen (15) seconds.
with detection equipment to monitor internal
spaces for CB contamination.                                d. Allow to dry and vent in an open
                                                               space until monitoring with
8.11.3.3    AIMD/IMA        Coordination.                      detection device indicates no
Organizational maintenance control should                      contamination.
coordinate with intermediate maintenance to
have emergency reclamation teams available                  e. Monitor with appropriate detector.
to        conduct         system/subsystem
decontamination.                                            f. If detection certifies item is clean,
                                                               permanently mark or tag the item
8.11.3.4       DCA         Coordination.                       in a conspicuous location ―THIS
Organizational      and        Intermediate                    ITEM                 PREVIOUSLY
maintenance        shall          coordinate                   CONTAMINATED‖                    and
decontamination activities with the DCA.                       ―CERTIFIED CLEAN (date)‖ and
Recommend decontamination of aircraft                          cleaning     date.      Maintenance
components occur on flight or weather                          records and work requests shall
decks, downwind of other activities.                           also annotate decontamination
                                                               status. Avionics shall then be
                                                               moved to AIMD avionics cleaning
                                                               and corrosion control work centers
                                                               for detailed cleaning, drying, and

ORIGINAL                                        8-50
                                                                        NAVAIR 00-000-000
     corrosion prevention treatment in               aircraft must be taken to the
     accordance with NAVAIR 16-1-                    hangar deck for engine removal
     540, Avionic Cleaning and                       (either to maintain or to
     Corrosion        Prevention/Control,            decontaminate the engine or
     then tested and checked. No                     both), take every precaution to
     suspected equipment shall be                    ensure that contamination is not
     taken inside the skin of the ship               introduced to uncontaminated
     until certified to be agent free. If            hangar spaces. Exposing the
     Weapon Replaceable Assemblies                   engine on the flight deck and
     (WRA’s) must be transported                     weathering may be the best
     through interior spaces, double                 option.
     bag WRA in plastic.
                                                      c. Monitor with appropriate detector.
  g. Damage control (DC) personnel
     should    monitor    maintenance                 d. If detection certifies engine or
     personnel and maintenance spaces                    engine      component       clean,
     for       possible       residual                   permanently mark the item in a
     contamination.                                      conspicuous location ―THIS ITEM
                                                         PREVIOUSLY
2. Engines. Remove CB agents from                        CONTAMINATED‖                 and
   engines in the following ways:                        ―CERTIFIED CLEAN (date)‖ and
                                                         cleaning    date.     Maintenance
  a. If the engine must be serviced, but                 records and work requests shall
     operates within specifications,                     also annotate decontamination
     operating the engine is an easy                     status.
     field    expedient    method     to
     decontaminate. Run engine at                  3. Environmental      Control    System
     normal operating speeds. Heat                    (ECS)/ Onboard Oxygen Generating
     generated by the engine and hot                  System (OBOGS)/ Liquid Oxygen
     exhaust will tend to evaporate                   (LOX). These systems should be
     contamination on engine surfaces                 decontaminated using the cleaners and
     exposed to airflow. Ensure exhaust               methods described in appropriate
     gases are discharged into safe                   technical manuals.
     areas down-wind. Particular care
     must be taken whenever an engine                 a. OBOGS          may         become
     is first run after internal                         contaminated.         Maintenance
     contamination has been suspected                    personnel should treat the OBOGS
     since bleed air system may be                       system as contaminated.
     contaminated.
                                                      b. ECS/LOX system should be
  b. If the engine cannot be operated,                   cleaned as per Maintenance
     follow standard corrosion control                   Requirements Cards (MRC's).
     and cleaning methods as specified
     in engine maintenance instruction
     manuals. Wash down and flush                               WARNING
     external surfaces.
                                                     Although initial testing indicates
               Note                                  that OBOGS inherently provides
                                                     some degree of chemical agent
  Decontamination of the engine by                   filtration, under some conditions it
  this method assumes the engine is                  could become saturated. It must
  still in the aircraft and is                       be assumed agents could be
  decontaminated on the flight deck.                 passed through OBOGS.
  If this is not feasible and the

                                            8-51                                   ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
      c. Running engines may remove                     4. Avoid transferring contamination
         some contamination from the                       from the exterior of the aircraft,
         ECS, but probably will not remove                 weapons, and support equipment to
         all contamination from ECS.                       the interior where removal will be
                                                           more difficult.
8.11.4 Aviation Ordnance. Weapons
decontamination must be carried out in ways             5. Avoid        transferring     liquid
that are compatible with the ordnance and its              contamination from "dirty" pieces of
subsystems. In general, approved methods                   equipment to clean equipment.
of cleaning, and those specified in
subsection 8.11.2 for aircraft will reduce or           6. All personnel and material (aircrew,
remove contamination from surface                          passengers, cargo, etc.) which come in
                                                           contact with the aircraft or enter the
8.11.5 Ground Support Equipment                            contaminated area, must be monitored
(GSE)         Decontamination.           GSE               for contamination before entering a
decontamination should be carried out in                   clean area or inside the skin of the
ways that are compatible with interior or                  ship. If for any reason monitoring is
exterior systems or materials. In general, the             not possible, full decontamination
approved methods of cleaning and corrosion                 must be carried out.
control, as detailed in NAVAIR technical
manual 17-1-125, support equipment                      7. Sentries should be posted so that
cleaning, corrosion control and preservation               boundaries are respected.
manual,      will   reduce      or    remove
contamination from surfaces. Run-off must               8. All equipment, tools, and personnel
be treated as contaminated.                                used     in     the   process    of
                                                           decontamination must be monitored
8.11.6 Precautions. The following                          and decontaminated on completion of
precautions must be observed at all times                  the procedure. All tape, protective
when dealing with contaminated equipment:                  sheeting, etc., should be removed
                                                           from the aircraft, weapons, and
   1. Personnel should wear protective                     support equipment.
      clothing and avoid direct contact with
      the aircraft, weapons, and support                9. Contaminated equipment may give off
      equipment. During decontaminating                    chemical vapor, which will pose a
      operations and wash down, personnel                  downwind hazard to personnel.
      should wear wet weather gear over                    Personnel located downwind should
      their non-aircrew IPE as wetting the                 be dressed in IPE and be aware of the
      IPE can diminish protection.                         need for chemical agent vapor
                                                           monitoring.
   2. Aircraft, weapons, and support
      equipment should be taxied or moved               10. Ensure     compatibility    of  the
      by mechanical means.                                  decontaminant or decontamination
                                                            method before using on any material,
   3. Personnel who must sit on                             system, or piece of equipment.
      contaminated equipment should wear
      wet weather clothing over IPE.




ORIGINAL                                         8-52
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                          CHAPTER 9
    Aircraft Handling and Operations in a
    Chemical and Biological Environment
9.1 OPERATIONAL ISSUES                                      aircrews, in pairs, to perform pre-
                                                            flight inspections, on multiple aircraft.
The threat of hostile employment of CB                      This may reduce degradation to
agents requires aviation units and facilities               aircrew performance due to stress
to adopt special plans and procedures for                   associated with wearing IPE. Every
conducting operations. While aviation units                 effort should be made to reduce the
can operate in a CB environment, individual                 onset of heat stress and ensure a
and unit performance is degraded when any                   thorough preflight inspection is
level of mission oriented protective posture                completed.
(MOPP) is assumed. In addition,
contamination transfer to ships and facilities
constitutes a serious threat to the force.                             WARNING
Therefore, specific plans and procedures,
more complex than those required for                        Crews should use care around
conventional warfare23, must be produced                    cotter     pins,    safety    wire,
and implemented to maintain unit                            mechanical linkages, and edges of
effectiveness and provide for the                           the airframe to ensure IPE is not
containment       and      elimination      of              snagged or torn. Breaching
contamination. Planning is the key to                       protective barriers reduces the
successful operations in a CB environment.                  suits level of protection and could
Aviation unit commanders should study                       be fatal.
their operations to determine which
functional areas are affected by CB hazards            9.2.2 Launching Aircraft In A CB
and the implementation of MOPP24. All                  Environment. Aircrew.
aspects of aviation operations must be
routinely practiced in MOPP to minimize                  1. Aircrew should don appropriate
degradation to unit and individual                          IPE/ALSS and be familiar with the
performance.25                                              persistency of suspected agent(s).
                                                            Aircrew         should       familiarize
9.2 CB FLIGHT OPERATIONS                                    themselves with ingress procedures
ASHORE                                                      for contaminated aircraft and the
                                                            location of contaminated surfaces on
9.2.1 Preflight Procedures In A CB                          their aircraft before ingress. Aircrews
Environment.                                                should minimize personnel exposure
                                                            to rotor wash, propeller wash, and jet
   1. Preflight Brief. The aviation unit                    exhaust during movement to aircraft.
      operations officer shall provide
      detailed information concerning CB
      threat agents and their persistency,
      mandatory        MOPP          postures,
      contamination control measures, and
      provisions     for     decontamination
      (before, during, and after the mission)
      in the pre-launch brief26.

   2. Pre-flight Inspection. Aviation units
      should consider using alternate
                                                 9-1                                       ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

                WARNING
                                                                    WARNING
     Rotor wash, propeller wash, and                     Exposing IPE to POLs and other
     jet     exhaust     may     force                   fluids may reduce its protective
     contaminants through protective                     qualities.
     overgarments.     All   personnel
     should remain outside areas                    Before returning to aviation facilities
     affected by rotor wash, propeller              (maintenance shops, ready rooms, hangars,
     wash, and jet exhaust.                         etc.) ground crews shall execute the
                                                    decontamination plan in accordance with
                                                    locally established procedures.
                WARNING
                                                      3. Maintenance Personnel. Maintenance
                                                         personnel should remain in clean
     Exposing IPE to POLs and other                      areas until required to perform their
     fluids may reduce its protective                    duties. Maintenance personnel should
     qualities.                                          don appropriate IPE, op-check
                                                         detection devices, and familiarize
Before returning to aviation facilities                  themselves with suspected agents and
(maintenance shops, ready rooms,                         decontamination procedures before
hangars, etc.) aircrew shall execute the                 conducting       maintenance      on
decontamination plan in accordance                       contaminated aircraft.
with locally established procedures.

   2. Ground crews. Support personnel                                 WARNING
      should be equipped with appropriate
      IPE and familiarized with the                      Maintenance crews should use
      persistency of suspected CB agent(s).              care around cotter pins, safety
      Commanders and supervisors shall                   wire, mechanical linkages, and
      designate the appropriate level of                 edges of the airframe to ensure
      MOPP and designate specific                        IPE is not snagged or torn.
      personnel to handle dirty aircraft,                Breaching protective barriers
      equipment, and subsystems. Ground                  reduces the suits level of
      crews should avoid exposure to rotor               protection and could be fatal.
      wash, propeller wash and jet exhaust.
      Ground crews should assist/direct                                Note
      aircrews and maintenance crews along
      designated routes to detection and                 Work center supervisors should
      decontamination sites when returning               limit the size of maintenance
      from aircraft.                                     crews        in    contaminated
                                                         environments to those personnel
                                                         necessary to accomplish mission
                  WARNING                                essential tasks.

     Rotor wash, propeller wash, and                Maintenance crews should don the
     jet     exhaust     may     force              appropriate level of MOPP prior to
     contaminants through protective                departing a clean area, Limited Protection
     overgarments.     All   personnel              Zones (LPZ), or Total Protection Zones
     should remain outside areas                    (TPZ). Maintenance personnel should make
     affected by rotor wash, propeller              every effort to avoid transferring
     wash, and jet exhaust.                         contamination to clean surfaces, tools, and
                                                    diagnostic     equipment.     Maintenance
                                                    personnel should never assume that an

ORIGINAL                                      9-2
                                                                            NAVAIR 00-000-000
aircraft or component is clean, even after an
aircraft has undergone decontamination27
until certified clean by detection devices.                           WARNING
Maintenance personnel should avoid
exposure to rotor wash, propeller wash, and              Aircrews should use care around
jet exhaust.                                             cotter    pins,    safety      wire,
                                                         mechanical linkages, and edges of
                                                         the airframe during egress to
                 WARNING                                 ensure IPE is not snagged or torn.
                                                         Breaching protective barriers
      Rotor wash, propeller wash, and                    reduces the suits level of
      jet     exhaust     may     force                  protection and could be fatal.
      contaminants through protective
      overgarments.     All   personnel               2. Un-protected crew: The configuration
      should remain outside areas                        of ALSS does not allow most aircrews
      affected by rotor wash, propeller                  to don IPE while in flight. In the event
      wash, and jet exhaust.                             that an unprotected aircrew finds itself
                                                         in a contaminated area while in flight,
Maintenance personnel will execute the                   aircrews    should      consider     the
decontamination plan before returning to                 following protective measures.
aviation spaces, LPZs, or TPZs.
                                                                       Note
9.2.3 In-flight Procedures Before,
During, And After Entering A CB                          In high threat environments
Environment. The following procedures                    aircrew should consider carrying
are recommended when encountering CB                     ground field protective masks as
contamination aloft.                                     part of flight kit.

9.2.3.1 Procedures For Entering A                        a. Close all zippers, buttons, and
Contaminated Area.                                          fasteners on ALSS to cover all
                                                            exposed     skin.   Advise     all
   1. IPE Protected aircrew.      Before                    passengers to assume highest level
      entering a known contaminated area,                   of MOPP possible.
      aircrews should:
                                                         b. Secure aircraft hatches, ports and
      a. Close all zippers, buttons and                     windows          to       minimize
         fasteners on IPE and ALSS.                         contamination to the interior of the
         Advise all passengers to assume                    aircraft. Secure ECS.
         MOPP 4.
                                                         c. Plan and brief a route for
      b. Check position of H manifold on                    ingress/egress that minimizes
         aircrew CB respirator assembly.                    contamination transfer and the
         (See figure 5-1).                                  potential to snag or tear clothing.

      c. Secure aircraft hatches, ports and
         windows           to      minimize                           WARNING
         contamination transfer to the
         interior of the aircraft.                       Aircrews should use care around
                                                         cotter    pins,    safety    wire,
      d. Coordinate aircraft ingress/egress              mechanical linkages, and edges of
         with aircrew, passengers and                    the airframe to ensure clothing is
         marshal control/Air Operations                  not snagged or torn. Clothing
         Control          Center/Helicopter              provides a minimal barrier to CB
         Direction Center (AOCC/HDC)28.                  agents.

                                                9-3                                    ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
9.2.3.2     Considerations         In     A                  unprotected crews and passengers.
Contaminated Area. Aircrew should only                       Additionally, water and medications
deplane if absolutely necessary. When                        should be available for all aircrews.
deplaned,     aircrew    should     practice                 Ground crews should meet aircrews
contamination avoidance measures out lined                   deplaning and assist/direct them along
in FM 3-3. Aircrew should avoid actions or                   designated routes to detection and
maneuvers that could transfer contamination                  decontamination      sites.    Medical
to the interior of the aircraft. Helicopter                  personnel should evaluate condition
crew chiefs should pay special attention to                  of aircrews and passengers and
communications cord.                                         provide treatment to CB casualties.

9.2.3.3 Procedures For Returning                          3. Aircraft       Handling    Procedures.
From A Contaminated Area. Aviation                           Aircraft      shall    be   considered
units and Marshall Control/AOCC/HDC                          contaminated until certified as clean
shall consider aircraft and aircrew departing                by detection teams or certified as
a CB environment as contaminated until                       clean following decontamination.
certified clean using detection devices                      Spot decontamination of access
outlined in Chapter 6 or they have                           panels, tie down points, and contact
completed the decontamination process and                    surfaces should be conducted prior to
certified clean. Aircrew of potentially                      deplaning.      Additional areas that
contaminated aircraft shall ―declare‖ their                  require spot decontamination are
contaminated status when checking in with                    listed in section 8.9.3.
AOCC/HDC/Marshall Control. While in
flight,    aircrew       should     segregate                             Note
contaminated passengers and cargo,
implement         contamination       control                Aircrew should remain inside the
procedures,       and       conduct      spot                aircraft until ground crew has
decontamination as required.                                 completed               sufficient
                                                             decontamination for deplaning.
9.2.4 Recovery Of Contaminated
Aircraft. Air capable ships and air facilities         9.2.4.1     General      Decontamination
should recover potentially contaminated                Procedures. Aviation units and air
aircraft in a separate location from clean             facilities shall develop a decontamination
aircraft to reduce the risk of contamination           plan as part of the overall air plan for any
transfer.                                              operation where there is a probable threat of
                                                       hostile use of CB agents. Requirements for
   1. Aircrew Procedures. Aircrew shall                decontamination shall be weighed against
      coordinate recovery with Marshall                mission requirements to determine the best
      Control/AOCC/HDC to minimize                     time to execute the decontamination plan. At
      transfer of contamination. The aircrew           a minimum, contaminated aircraft should be
      should provide information as to type            segregated, marked, and positioned so that
      agent (if known), extent of                      weathering can initiate the decontamination
      contamination,        number         of          process.     Ashore, most of the Marine
      contaminated aircrew and passengers,             Aviation Combat Element’s (ACE) organic
      number        and     condition      of          decontamination assets are located in the
      contaminated casualties, and amount              Marine Wing Support Group (MWSG).29
      of contaminated cargo.                           Due to the manpower intensive nature of
                                                       decontamination, the MWSG alone cannot
   2. Ground Crew Procedures. Ground                   decontaminate aviation units. Therefore,
      crews     should     receive    aircraft         Marine aviation units in conjunction with
      information from the controlling                 the MWSG should develop a personnel
      agency and prepare to provide                    augmentation plan as part of the
      assistance to aircrews. Priority should          decontamination plan. Similarly, Navy
      be given to providing respirators to

ORIGINAL                                         9-4
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000
squadrons and aviation detachments must
coordinate with supporting agencies ashore.                                WARNING

9.2.4.2 Operational And Thorough                              Crews should use care around
Decontamination Procedures. See                               cotter     pins,    safety    wire,
sections 8.10 and 8.11.                                       mechanical linkages, and edges of
                                                              the airframe to ensure IPE is not
9.3 CB FLIGHT OPERATIONS                                      snagged or torn. Breaching
AFLOAT                                                        protective barriers reduces the
                                                              suits level of protection and could
The nature of operating contaminated                          be fatal.
aircraft aboard ship, and the necessity to
limit the transfer of contamination to the
interior of the ship, requires direct                                      WARNING
communication between the DCA, Air
Department, and embarked aviation units.                      Exposing IPE to POLs and other
Aviation units and aviation capable ships                     fluids may reduce its protective
shall develop a CB defense plan that                          qualities.
coordinates these agencies as part of the
overall air plan for any operation where                9.3.2 Launching Aircraft In A CB
there is a probable threat of hostile use of            Environment.
CB agents.      Communications shall be
established and maintained for the duration                1. Aircrew. Aircrew should be equipped
of the CB threat. Planners shall orchestrate                  with the appropriate IPE and
the distribution of IPE, contamination                        familiarized with the persistency of
control procedures, and decontamination                       suspected CB agent(s). Aircrew
planning to effectively minimize the threat                   should be familiar with flight deck
posed by CB agents to personnel, protect the                  ingress procedures for contaminated
ship, and maintain air operations.                            aircraft and the location of
                                                              contaminated surfaces on their
9.3.1 Preflight Procedures In A CB                            aircraft. Aircrews should make every
Environment.                                                  effort to minimize personnel exposure
                                                              to rotor wash, propeller wash, and jet
   1. Pre-flight Brief. The aviation unit’s                   exhaust while transiting the flight
      operations officer shall provide                        deck.
      detailed information concerning CB
      threat agent(s), their persistency,
      mandatory        MOPP        postures,                               WARNING
      contamination control measures, flight
      deck procedures, and provisions for                     Rotor wash, and propeller wash,
      decontamination (before, during, and                    and jet exhaust may force
      after the mission) in the pre-flight                    contaminants through protective
      brief. 30                                               overgarments. All nonessential
                                                              personnel should remain outside
   2. Preflight Inspection. Aviation units                    the area affected by rotor wash,
      should consider using alternate                         propeller wash, and jet exhaust.
      aircrews, in pairs, to perform pre-
      flight inspections, on multiple aircraft.         If it is necessary to return from the flight
      This may reduce the degradation to                deck (i.e. due to aircraft maintenance
      aircrew performance due to stress                 problems or completion of preflight
      associated with IPE. Every effort                 inspection), aircrew shall process through
      should be made to reduce the onset of             ship’s CCA before entering the ship.
      heat stress and ensure a thorough
      preflight inspection is completed.

                                                  9-5                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
   2. Ground Crew. Aviation units should
      equip     support    personnel   with
      appropriate IPE and familiarized                                   WARNING
      ground crews with the persistency of
      suspected CB agent(s). Commanders                     Maintenance crews should use
      shall, in coordination with the ship,                 care around cotter pins, safety
      establish the appropriate level of                    wire, mechanical linkages, and
      MOPP and designate personnel and                      edges of the airframe to ensure
      ground support equipment to handle                    IPE is not snagged or torn.
      dirty aircraft, equipment, and                        Breaching protective barriers
      subsystems. Ground crews should                       reduces the suits level of
      position themselves to avoid exposure                 protection and could be fatal.
      to rotor wash, propeller wash, and jet
      exhaust.
                                                                         WARNING

                   WARNING                                  Exposing IPE to POLs and other
                                                            fluids may reduce its protective
      Rotor wash, prop wash, and jet                        qualities.
      exhaust may force contaminants
      through protective overgarments.
      All nonessential personnel should               Maintenance crews should establish the
      remain outside the area affected                appropriate level of MOPP prior to
      by rotor wash, propeller wash, and              departing the ship’s CPS.
      jet exhaust.
                                                                         Note
                    Note
                                                            Wearing IPE/ALSS will partially
      Flight    deck     communication                      restrict     flight       deck
      systems will be partially restricted                  communications.
      due to personnel wearing IPE. Be
      prepared to use visual means of                 Maintenance personnel should make every
      communication.                                  effort to avoid transferring contamination to
                                                      other surfaces, tools and diagnostic devices.
Ground crew shall process through                     Maintenance personnel should never assume
contamination control areas (CCA) before              that an aircraft or component is clean, even
returning from the flight operations area to          after     an    aircraft    has    undergone
                                                                        31
the interior of the ship.                             decontamination .

   3. Maintenance Crews. Maintenance                  While conducting maintenance on the flight
      personnel should remain in clean                deck, maintenance personnel should avoid
      areas protected by the ships collective         exposure to rotor wash, propeller wash, and
      protection system (CPS) until required          jet exhaust.
      to perform their duties. Aviation units
      should ensure maintenance personnel
      have the appropriate IPE, detection
      devices, and are familiarized with
      suspected agents and contaminated
      surface/components on the aircraft
      they will maintain. Once exposed to
      contaminants, ground crews may be
      required to remain in unprotected
      areas, continuing to work for extended
      periods before decontaminating.

ORIGINAL                                        9-6
                                                                             NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                                          should follow directions from primary
                   WARNING                                flight control for deplaning.

      Rotor wash, propeller wash, and                  2. Ground Crew Procedures. Ground
      jet    exhaust      may      force                  crews and passengers should receive
      contaminants through protective                     aircraft    contamination       status
      overgarments. All nonessential                      information from the primary flight
      personnel should remain outside                     control before deplaning aircrews.
      the area affected by rotor wash,                    Ground crews should consider
      propeller wash, and jet exhaust.                    providing respirators to unprotected
                                                          aircrew the priority. Ground crews
Maintenance personnel shall process                       should coordinate the movement of
through CCAs before returning from flight                 aircrew     and      passengers     to
operations area to the interior of the ship.              decontamination stations with DC
                                                          Central. Medical personnel should
   4. Aircraft      Handling      Procedures.             evaluate condition of aircrews and
      Aircraft handlers shall consider                    passengers and provide treatment to
      aircraft contaminated until certified as            chemical casualties.
      clean by detection teams, or certified
      as clean following decontamination                                Note
      process. Spot decontamination of
      access panels, tie down points, and                 Wearing IPE/ALSS will partially
      contact surfaces should be conducted                restrict        flight    deck
      prior to tying down aircraft.                       communications          making
                                                          coordination difficult.
9.3.3 In-flight Procedures Before,
During and After Entering A CB                         3. Aircraft      Handling    Procedures.
Environment. (See section 9.2.3).                         Aircraft     shall   be    considered
                                                          contaminated by aircraft handlers
9.3.4 Recovery Of Contaminated                            until certified as clean by detection
Aircraft.       Recovering         potentially            teams or certified as clean following
contaminated aircraft in a separate location              decontamination      process.    Spot
from clean aircraft, as far aft as possible,              decontamination of access panels, tie
significantly    reduces    the     risk    of            down points, and contact surfaces
contamination      transfer   and       allows            should be conducted prior to tying
contaminated runoff from decontamination                  down aircraft.
to be washed overboard. The ship should be
turned into the wind, if possible, to                                   Note
minimize      contamination     transfer    to
uncontaminated areas of the ship.32                       Aircrew should remain inside the
                                                          aircraft until ground crew has
   1. Aircrew Procedures. Aircrew shall                   completed               sufficient
      coordinate recovery with Marshall                   decontamination for deplaning.
      Control/AOCC/HDC upon entering
      the ships control area.33 While                  4. General Decontamination Procedures.
      checking     in     with     Marshal                Aviation units and aviation capable
      Control/AOCC/HDC the aircraft or                    ships shall develop a decontamination
      flight leader shall declare itself                  plan as part of the overall air plan for
      contaminated and provide information                any operation where there is a
      regarding the type agent, extent of                 probable threat of hostile use of CB
      contamination,       number       of                agent(s). Aviation commanders shall
      contaminated aircrew and passengers,                weigh      the     requirements      for
      and    the    number/condition    of                decontamination against mission
      contaminated casualties. Aircrew                    requirements and collaborate with the

                                                 9-7                                    ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
     AO and DCA to determine the best                      9. Refer to chapter 8 of this manual for
     time to execute detection operations                     immediate, operational, and thorough
     and decontamination of aircraft. At a                    decontamination procedures.
     minimum,       contaminated     aircraft
     should be segregated, marked, and                  9.4 IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONAL
     positioned so that weathering can                  DECONTAMINATION
     initiate the decontamination process.
                                                        Air passing over the exterior or circulating
  5. Damage Control Assistant. The ships                in the interior of aircraft can have a
     DCA is responsible for maintaining                 decontamination effect. If an aircrew
     the currency of the ship’s CB Bill,                suspects contamination on the aircraft
     fitting and issue of protective                    during flight the following measures can
     clothing34, training for CBD, and                  reduce levels of contamination:
     maintenance of CB equipment. 35 The
     DCA is responsible for providing                      1. Tactical Aircraft (F18, F14, AV8B,
     hazard assessments and recommended                       EA6B, etc): flying aircraft at lower
     actions to the bridge. The DCA                           speeds or flying through rain can
     should assist aviation units in making                   reduce exterior contamination.
     hazard assessments and coordinating
     recommended courses of action for                     2. Multi engine fixed wing (C130, P3,
     detection and decontamination of                         C2A, etc): High speed flight and/or
     aircraft with the AO and aviation unit                   flying through rain can reduce
     commander.                                               exterior contamination. Opening
                                                              doors and cargo bays in flight can
  6. Air Officer (AO). The ship’s AO is                       create air circulations that may reduce
     responsible         for         fulfilling               interior contamination.
     responsibilities out lined in the ships
     CB bill. To ensure implementation of                  3. Helicopters: High speed flight and/or
     flight deck contamination control                        flying through rain can reduce
     measures in a CB environment, the                        exterior contamination. Open doors,
     AO shall coordinate launch, recovery,                    windows and cargo bays can create air
     movement,          detection,          and               circulation that may reduce interior
     decontamination of aircraft with the                     contamination.
     DCA and aviation unit. Advice and
     assistance of the DCA should ensure
     implementation       of     all       ship                          WARNING
     contamination control measures.
                                                              Above techniques are for aircraft
  7. Embarked Aviation Units. Embarked                        in flight. Consult the specific
     aviation unit commanders shall                           aircraft operating manual for
     familiarize themselves with the ships                    dangerous conditions created by
     CBR bill and coordinate aviation/                        operating aircraft with open doors.
     maintenance operations with the DCA                      Contamination avoidance on the
     and AO to ensure adherence to all                        ground will require aircraft to be
     ship contamination control measures.                     closed to the greatest extent
     Aviation unit commanders should                          possible in order to prevent
     direct all requests for CB support to                    contamination from entering the
     the DCA.                                                 interior of the aircraft. Only open
                                                              doors and windows when clear of
  8. Flight Deck Personnel. Department                        contaminated areas and the effects
     supervisors shall train flight deck                      of prop/rotor wash ceases to
     personnel in the duties outlined in the                  disturb contamination that may be
     ships CB bill.                                           deposited on the ground and could
                                                              become airborne.

ORIGINAL                                          9-8
                                                                                          NAVAIR 00-000-000


              Apply M8/M9 Paper
             to AC Initiate Standoff
                   Detection
                                 (note 1)




                   Conduct Periodic
                 Surveillance if M8/M9
                  Paper and Alarms



                                       Alarm from Standoff
                                              Detector
                            Check M8/M9 paper
                             applied to AC for
     Positive
                             positive Indication       No
    indication
    on M8/M9                                                Indication

                                    Positive indication on M8/M9
                                                                                       Assume
                                                                                        False
                  Use point Detection Device
                                                                                       Positive
                   to Define Contaminated
                                                                                       Replace
                             Area                      No
                                                                                       M8/M9
                                                       Indication
                                    (note 2)                                            Paper

                                   Positive indication


                         Validate w/M256A1 Kit
                                     Positive                   No
                                    Indication                  Indication



                           Commander
                           Determines
                             Action                                               Fly aircraft dirty
Decontaminate
Aircraft
                                                       (note 1) Coordinate standoff detection with ship's DCA or shore
                                                       facility operations


                                                       (note 2) Point detection and devices are defined in chapter 6 of
                                                       this manual.




                        Figure 9-1 Monitor & Surveillance Matrix


                                                 9-9                                                     ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

9.5 CB MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS                            in a CB environment. Intermediate
                                                         emergency reclamation teams shall be
9.5.1 Organizational Maintenance                         equipped with appropriate IPE and
Operations.         Aviation     maintenance             familiarized with the persistency of
personnel shall utilize detection devices                suspected CB agent(s). The intermediate
described in Chapter 6 to determine the                  emergency reclamation team shall evaluate
condition of aircraft prior to initiating                and decontaminate all aircraft parts,
organizational maintenance. When operating               components, ground support equipment
in locations where there is a heightened                 (GSE), and Aviation Life Support Systems
threat of hostile use of CB agents, or there is          (ALSS) identified as ―CONTAMINATED‖
an imminent threat of CB attack, aviation                by organizational maintenance activities
units should apply M8/M9 paper to exposed                prior to inducting items for intermediate
surfaces of aircraft to assist in rapidly                maintenance. The intermediate emergency
identifying contaminated aircraft visually.              reclamation     team       shall      conduct
The monitor and surveillance matrix in                   decontamination      of     aircraft    parts,
figure 9-1 provides aircrews, ground crews,              components, GSE, and ALSS using
and aviation maintenance personnel with a                procedures in chapter 8 of this manual. Once
recommended         decision   matrix      for           a    part or component            has    been
determining the condition of aircraft.                   decontaminated and certified as clean,
                                                         AIMD/IMA shall permanently mark the
Once an aircraft or component is identified              item in a conspicuous location, ―THIS
as contaminated, aviation maintenance                    ITEM PREVIOUSLY CONTAMINATED
personnel shall follow procedures outlined               AND CERTIFIED CLEAN (date).‖ Parts,
in Chapter 8 of this manual for                          components, GSE, and ALSS can be
decontamination procedures prior to                      inducted into the maintenance cycle at this
conducting maintenance.                                  time.

                                                         9.5.3 Fueling Aircraft. Ground crews
                  WARNING                                shall use procedures outlined in applicable
                                                         NAVSHIPS and NATOPS Flight Manuals
      Failure to properly identify                       for fueling and hot refueling aircraft.
      contamination and decontaminate                    Refueling personnel shall wear appropriate
      aircraft/ components prior to                      IPE and familiarized themselves with the
      initiating maintenance could result                persistency of suspected agents.
      in fatal exposure to CB agents and
      transfer of contamination to the
      interior    of   the    ships   or                                  WARNING
      maintenance facilities.
                                                               Exposing IPE to POLs and other
All parts and components removed from                          fluids may reduce its protective
aircraft shall be tagged36 and identified as                   qualities.
―CONTAMINATED (date)‖ before sending
them to the Intermediate Emergency
Reclamation             Team             for             Special care should be taken to limit the
processing/decontamination.                              transfer of contamination between refueling
                                                         equipment,      the     aircraft, and   the
9.5.2       Aviation       Intermediate                  environment. In some cases spot
Maintenance                 Department                   decontamination procedures outlined in
(AIMD)/Intermediate        Maintenance                   chapter 8 of this manual may be required
Activity (IMA) Operations. AIMD/IMA                      before or after refueling.
maintenance activities shall organize
intermediate emergency reclamation teams
while planning for maintenance operations

ORIGINAL                                          9-10
                                                                              NAVAIR 00-000-000
9.5.4 Ordnance. Ordnance personnel                    areas to provide a quick visual means of
should make every effort to prevent                   detecting contaminated ordnance. Once
contamination to aviation ordnance, tools,            contaminated ordnance is identified,
and equipment through the use of coverings            ordnance      handlers   shall   mark    it,
whenever possible. Ordnance personnel                 ―CONTAMINATED.‖                Contaminated
shall don the appropriate IPE and                     unexpended ordnance may be reclaimed
familiarized themselves with the persistency          after it is disarmed, removed from aircraft,
of CB agent(s) prior to working on                    and decontaminated.
contaminated ordnance. In high threat
environments, ordnance handlers should
apply M8/M9 paper to ordnance in staging




                                               9-11                                     ORIGINAL
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                          APPENDIX A
                               Medical Concerns
                              SECTION I: SPECIFIC AIRCREW ISSUES

A.1 GENERAL                                             are encouraged to drink plenty of water prior
                                                        to the mission. Drinking "on command" may
For general medical information, refer to               even be an operational consideration to
NAVMED P-5041, "Treatment of Chemical                   hydrate the body.
Agent Casualties and Conventional Military
Chemical Injuries" and BUMED INSTR                                         Note
3400.1, "Management of Casualties".
                                                              Familiarity  with    protective
A. 2 AIRCREW SPECIFIC MEDICAL                                 equipment is essential toward
ISSUES                                                        optimizing performance while
                                                              wearing IPE.
The following section contains information
of importance to aviators and should be                 A.1.2 Vision. Use of the aircrew CB
considered in addition to the general medical           respirator will reduce the peripheral vision
issues (such as antidotes) discussed in                 of the aviator. To overcome this, aircrews
NAVMED P5041.                                           must conscientiously scan in all directions.
                                                        The normal range of vision is 90 degrees
A.1.1 Heat Illness. The greatest                        from either side of the centerline. The
physiological effect from wearing IPE is the            aircrew CB respirator limits this. Therefore,
probability of heat-related casualties,                 the aviators must turn their heads more to
namely heat-stress and dehydration. Factors             look beyond the barriers caused by the mask
affecting this probability are temperature,             and regain the lost visual range.
humidity, and work rate. When an individual
is clothed in full Individual Protective                A.1.3 Miosis. The earliest ocular effect
Equipment (IPE), the body loses its ability             encountered below lethal or incapacitating
to cool down. Body temperatures increase                exposure to nerve agent vapor is papillary
and keep increasing rapidly as the ambient              constriction or miosis. The constriction may
temperature and humidity rise. Aircrews are             not be equal. Within a few minutes after the
affected differently depending on the                   onset of exposure, a redness of the eyes and
cockpit     characteristics   and      physical         a sensation of pressure with heaviness in and
tolerances. Personnel must adapt to wearing             behind the eyes occurs. Usually, vision is
aircrew IPE. This only comes from frequent              not grossly impaired, although there may be
training in IPE. Some cockpits have a                   a slight dimness especially in the peripheral
greenhouse effect. Doors and vents may be               fields or when in dim or artificial light.
opened to increase ventilation and help cool
the cockpit. This will increase mission                 A.1.4 Psychological Effects. History
performance time and may increase cockpit               shows that 10 percent of the casualties on a
contamination. However, aircrews are                    conventional battlefield are psychological.
already fully protected in IPE, and the                 In a Nuclear, Biological and Chemical
cockpit will become contaminated even with              (NBC) environment, the percentage will be
the vents and doors closed. Once an aircraft            even greater. Commanders must always be
becomes contaminated, opening the doors                 aware of the psychological effects that
and vents during flight will help                       personnel experience when they are wearing
decontaminate it by weathering. Flying at               protective clothing. Symptoms of these
higher altitudes yields cooler air but may not          effects   may     include    claustrophobia,
be compatible with the tactical situation. To           apprehension, paranoia, disorientation,
lessen the chance of dehydration, aircrews              distorted bodily sensations, hallucinations,

                                                  A-1                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000
confusion, and panic. Frequent training in             A.1.7 Panic Attack. Apprehension,
IPE     reinforces   familiarization     and           confusion, and possibly hallucinations,
confidence in proper donning procedures.               which     can    occur   individually   or
IPE training should also reduce the adverse            simultaneously, are some of the symptoms
physical    and    psychological     effects,          of panic attack. Most psychological
discussed in the following sections,                   problems occur because individuals have no
associated with repeated or prolonged                  previous experience with which they can
wearing of IPE.                                        compare their feelings. If personnel
                                                       understand that they will have these
A.1.5     Claustrophobia.        The     total         symptoms while they are wearing protective
encapsulation by full IPE gear may cause               clothing, they are prepared to deal with
personnel to experience symptoms of                    them. Then, they will not allow the
claustrophobia. This is possible even if they          symptoms to degrade their efficiency as
have never experienced the problem in the              much.
past. Personnel can even experience
claustrophobia when they wear only the                 Aircrews must operate in environments that
protective mask.                                       require their total awareness and
                                                       concentration. Unless they know how to
A.1.6 Impaired Perception. An example                  cope with these symptoms, they will not be
of impaired perception can best explain this           able to concentrate on their primary purpose
effect. Aircrew dressed in full IPE on a               - the safe and successful accomplishment of
windy day can see the leaves on the trees              the mission at an acceptable level of risk.
blowing, so they know the wind is hitting
their protective ensemble. Yet, on their skin          A.1.8 Physical Limitations. While
they feel no sensation such as a cooling               wearing IPE gear, ground crews and
effect or an air movement. They will have              aircrews experience physical limitations that
the same lack of sensation when the cargo              delay or prevent them from accomplishing
doors of a UH-1 are open while in flight.              assigned tasks in the cockpit and around the
Even though they know there is air                     aircraft. Some of these limitations are
movement through the cargo area, they                  degraded of manual dexterity, degraded of
cannot feel it. As another example Pilots in           senses, and restricted movement of the
IPE will travel at higher speeds when taxiing          entire body. They not only affect personnel
than they would in normal circumstances.               performance but also hinder aircraft,
                                                       logistical, and maintenance operations.




ORIGINAL                                         A-2
                                                                              NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                         APPENDIX B              37



                     Table B-1. Standard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System
      Decontaminates            Use                Remarks                   Cautions         Preparation
Decontaminating              Bio        Is effective against all      Is extremely          Mixing is not
Solution number 2            Chem         known toxic chemical and      irritating to the    required. Issued
(DS2); DS2 in a 1 ½                       biological agents (except     eyes and skin.       in ready-to-use
quart can (NSN 6850-00-                   bacterial spores) if          Must wear            solutions.
753-4827); DS2 in a 14-                   sufficient contact time is    protective mask
liter container for the                   allowed.                      and rubber
M13 DAP; (NSN 4230-                     Must remain in contact with     gloves. If DS2
01-136-8888); DS2 in a 5                  contaminated surface for      contacts skin,
gallon pail (NSN 6850-                    about 30 minutes.             wash area with
00-753-4870)                            Must be rinsed off with         water. Do not
                                          water. Recheck the item for   inhale vapors.
                                          contamination.                Will cause a
                                        Can be used at temperatures     green of black
                                          above -15o F.                 color change
                                        Is used with the M11 or         upon contact with
                                          M13 DAP or can be             M8 detector paper
                                          applied with brooms and       and cause a
                                          swabs.                        false/positive
                                        Is most effective when the      reading with M9
                                          application is accompanied    detector paper.
                                          by scrubbing action.        Will ignite
                                                                        spontaneously on
                                                                        contact with STB
                                                                        or HTH.
                                                                      Should not be
                                                                        spilled on the
                                                                        chemical
                                                                        protective
                                                                        overgarment.
                                                                      Is a combustible
                                                                        liquid with a flash
                                                                        point of 160oF.
                                                                        Do not confuse it
                                                                        with a fire
                                                                        extinguisher.
                                                                        Spraying DS2 on
                                                                        surfaces above
                                                                        168o F will ignite
                                                                        it.
                                                                      Must not be used
                                                                        on individual
                                                                        mask (damages
                                                                        Mylar diaphragm
                                                                        in voicemitter
                                                                        assembly).




                                                 B-1                                     ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
            Table B-1. Standard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)
  Decontaminates        Use              Remarks                    Cautions             Preparation
Decontaminating                                              Will corrode
solution number 2                                              aluminum,
(continued)                                                    cadmium, tin, and
                                                               zinc; will soften
                                                               leather. May
                                                               soften, remove, or
                                                               discolor paint.
                                                               Rinse well after
                                                               use and oil metal
                                                               surfaces.
                                                             Is ineffective
                                                               against bacterial
                                                               spores.
Supertropical bleach Bio      Is effective against lewisite, Will ignite           Slurry paste: mix one
(NSN 6850-00-297-      Chem     V and G agents, and            spontaneously on     50-pound drum of
6653)                           biological agents.             contact with liquid  STB with 6 gallons of
                              Must remain in contact with      blister agent or     water. Slurry paste
                                contaminated surface for at    DS2.                 consists of about
                                least 30 minutes; then,      Will give off toxic    equal parts (by
                                wash off with clear water.     vapors on contact    weight) of STB and
                              Does not effectively decon       with G agent.        water.
                                mustard if it has solidified Is not recommended Dry mix: mix two
                                at low temperatures.           for ship use. Store  shovels of STB to
                              Should be applied several        on deck only.        three shovels of earth
                                times to porous surfaces.    Is corrosive to most   or inert material
                                                               metals and           (ashes).
                                                               damaging to most    Slurry mix, chemical:
                                                               fabrics (rinse       mix will consist of 40
                                                               thoroughly) and      parts of STB to 60
                                                               lubricate metal      parts of water (by
                                                               surfaces when        weight). To mix in the
                                                               complete.            M12A1 PDDA, use
                                                             Should not be          1,300 pounds of STB,
                                                               inhaled or allowed   225 gallons of water,
                                                               to touch the skin.   12 ½ pounds of
                                                               When preparing a     antiset, 24 ounces of
                                                               slurry, wear a       antifoam.
                                                               protective mask or Slurry mix, biological:
                                                               respiratory          mix will consist of 7
                                                               protective device.   parts of STB to 93
                                                             Should be stored in    parts of water (by
                                                               an unheated          weight). To mix in the
                                                               warehouse away       M12A1 PDDA, use
                                                               from combustibles    150 pounds of STB,
                                                               and metals subject   225 gallons of water,
                                                               to corrosion.        12 ½ pounds of
                                                                                    antiset, and 24 ounces
                                                                                    of antifoam.
                                                                                   Camouflage: lamp-
                                                                                    black or dye mixes
                                                                                    may be added for
                                                                                    camouflage.
  ORIGINAL                                     B-2
                                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000

             Table B-1. Standard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)
  Decontaminates         Use             Remarks                  Cautions             Preparation
Mask sanitizing         Bio    Use on a previously cleaned                       Fill a standard plastic
solution (designator) Chem      mask with filter                                  canteen to the
                                elements/canisters                                shoulder with water.
                                removed.                                          Add a 0.5-gram tube
                               Place the mask face up;                            of calcium
                                attach the canteen to the                         hypochlorite from the
                                mask at the drinking tube.                        water p-purification
                                Drain one canteen full of                         kit (NSN 6810-00-
                                sanitizing solution through                       266-6976). Cover the
                                the mask. Rinse the mask                          canteen and shake
                                with two canteens of clear                        vigorously for 30
                                water.                                            seconds.
                               Immerse the mask and                              Mix bulk quantities as
                                outserts in the sanitizing                        follows: add 2.0
                                solution. Agitate the mask                        grams of calcium
                                for 5 minutes. Rinse it                           hypochlorite from a 6-
                                twice in clear water,                             ounce jar (NSN 6810-
                                agitating 2 to 3 minutes                          255-0471) to 1 gallon
                                each time.                                        of water.
                               Dry all parts of the mask and                     Use a ratio of about 1
                                reassemble.                                       pound of soap per
                               Use one gallon of solution                         gallon of water for
                                for every 10 masks                                smaller amounts of
                                                                                  solution. Mix 2 pints
                                                                                  of detergent to 450
                                                                                  gallons of water in the
                                                                                  M12A1 PDDA.
Soaps and               Rad    Scrub or wipe the             Are effective in    Mix 75 pounds of
detergents: detergent, Bio      contaminated surface with     physically          powdered soap in 350
GP, liquid (NSN         Chem    a hot, soapy water solution   removing            gallons of water. If
7930-00-282-9699)               or immerse the item in the    contamination.      powdered soap is not
                                solution.                     However,            available, use bar
                                                              casualty-           laundry soap (75
                                                              producing level of  pounds of soap cut
                                                              contamination       into 1-inch pieces and
                                                              may remain in the   dissolved in 350
                                                              runoff water and    gallons of hot water).
                                                              must be            Use a ratio of about 1
                                                              considered          pound of soap per
                                                              contaminated.       gallon of water for
                                                                                  smaller amounts of
                                                                                  soap solutions. Mix 2
                                                                                  pints of detergent to
                                                                                  450 gallons of water
                                                                                  in an M12A1 PDDA.




                                               B-3                                    ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
              Table B-1. Standard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)
  Decontaminates          Use              Remarks                 Cautions              Preparation
Calcium hypochlorite Bio        Is effective against          Precautions are the  Chemical: mix 5
(high-test               Chem     mustards, lewisite, V        same as for STB.     pounds of
hypochlorite [HTH]                agents, and all biological   Pure calcium         decontaminant to 6
or high-test bleach               agents, including bacterial  hypochlorite will    gallons of water (10
[HTB]). (NSN 6810-                spores.                      burn on contact      percent solution).
01-225-2682) (25                Will react rapidly (within 5   with VX, HD, or     Biological: mix 1
pounds). (NSN 6810-               minutes) with mustards and   DS2.                 pound of
00-225-0472) (100                 lewisite.                   Agent is more         decontaminant to 6
pounds)                         Should be allowed a 15-        corrosive than       gallons of water (2
                                  minute contact time for      STB. Will destroy    percent solution).
                                  biological agents.           clothing, has a     PDDE: mix a slurry of
                                Will act faster than STB.      toxic vapor, and     1 part decontaminant
                                  Can be used as a dry mix     will burn the skin.  to 2 parts water (any
                                  or slurry.                  Protective mask and   heavier slurry will
                                                               rubber gloves are    clog the decon
                                                               the minimum          apparatus).
                                                               protective          HTH should only be
                                                               equipment needed     used if STB is not
                                                               when handling.       available.


                  Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System
  Decontaminates         Use              Remarks                   Cautions             Preparation
Oxidizing agents        Rad     Are effective in dissolving   Are extremely        Aqua regia is prepared
(nitric acid, aqua               surfaces containing           corrosive. Use       by mixing 3 parts of
regia, sodium                    absorbed radioactive          only under the       concentrated
dichromate, and                  contamination.                supervision of a     hydrochloric acid and
potassium                       Are applied to a surface or    trained individual.  1 part of concentrated
permanganate)                    the item is dipped.          Will require the use  nitric acid. Other
                                 Exposure must be limited      of a neoprene or     oxidizing agents do
                                 due to the corrosive nature   rubber protective    not require mixing.
                                 of the solution. Rinse        apron, gloves,
                                 thoroughly with water and     boots, and safety
                                 detergent and then with       glasses when
                                 clear water.                  handling. (Rubber
                                                               offers only limited
                                                               protection.)
Iodine water            Bio     Are used when it is           None                 None
purification tablets             impractical to boil drinking
                                 water. Two iodine tables
                                 per canteen are effective
                                 against most biological
                                 agents.




  ORIGINAL                                      B-4
                                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000
             Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)
   Decontaminates         Use              Remarks                    Cautions          Preparation
Complexing               Rad    Will aid in the physical       Don not neutralize Mix 3 to 5 percent of
(chelating) agents                removal of absorbed            contamination.    the agent (by weight)
(versene, citric acid,            contamination on surfaces.     Runoff will be    in water.
sequesterene, sodium            Should be applied as a film      contaminated.
citrate, tartanic acid,           over the surface using the
sodium oxalate,                   PDDE, firefighting
sodium                            apparatus, or tree or garden
tartrategoxalic acid,             sprayer.
and similar agents)             Should be allowed a 30
                                  minute contact time and
                                  then flushed with water
Disinfectant chlorine Bio       Use to decon utensils, mess    None               Dissolve one package
(NSN 6840-00-270-                 gear, exteriors of sealed                        of disinfectant in 20
8172)                             containers, and food                             gallons of warm
                                  products that can withstand                      potable water (100oF)
                                  soaking. Dispose of any
                                  food or vegetables that are
                                  damaged and an outer
                                  leaves that are bruised or
                                  torn. Do not cut or peel
                                  fruits and vegetables before
                                  disinfecting them. Leave
                                  items in the solution for 30
                                  minutes and stir
                                  occasionally. Rinse
                                  thoroughly in potable
                                  water.
Ethylene oxide           Bio    Is effective against all       Is flammable. Not  None
                                  microorganisms, to include     recommended for
                                  bacterial spores.              interior use.
                                Should be applied in the
                                  strength of 30 pounds for
                                  every 1,000 cubic feet.
                                Should be allowed a 6 hour
                                  contact time (contact time
                                  must be double for each
                                  20oF drop in temperature
                                  below 75oF).
                                Should be used in an airtight
                                  enclosure.




                                               B-5                                   ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
         Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

   Decontaminates      Use             Remarks                       Cautions               Preparation
Formalin              Bio    Agent is effective against all   Vapors are very         No mixing is required.
(formaldehyde)                microorganisms, to include        toxic.                 However, less residue
                              bacterial spores.               Agent will curl and      remains and less
                             Agent is used for interior         discolor paper.        aeration is required if
                              decon of relatively close         Leaves a white         the mixture of 5 parts
                              areas.                            residue.               formalin and 3 parts
                             Vapors should remain 16          A self-containing        methanol is used.
                              hours in a closed structure;      breathing              (Use this mixture at a
                              then, aerate until the odor       apparatus is           rate of 4/5 quart per
                              is no longer objectionable.       required in closed     1,000 cubic feet of
                                                                spaces.                space).
                                                              Personnel handling
                                                                or spraying the
                                                                agents should
                                                                wear impermeable
                                                                protective
                                                                clothing.
                             Optimum conditions for           Personnel entering
                              spraying formalin are 70o         an area containing
                              to 80oF with an 85 percent        formalin vapors
                              relative humidity. The            should—
                              minimum effective relative         Wear a
                              humidity is 70 percent. At           protective
                              60oF, the exposure should            mask.
                              be increased to 24 hours.          Wear washable
                             Agent is applied as a vapor           outer clothing,
                              from standard insecticide            fastened to
                              sprayers or is vaporized by          prevent vapors
                              heat or a bubbling steam             from entering at
                              from a pan.                          wrists, ankles,
                                                                   or neck.
                                                                 Remove outer
                                                                   clothing after
                                                                   emerging from
                                                                   vapors.
                                                                 Shower and put
                                                                   on clean
                                                                   clothing as soon
                                                                   as possible.
                                                              Vapors are not
                                                              flammable; open
                                                              flame should not be
                                                              used for vaporizing
                                                              when methanol has
                                                              been added to the
                                                              agent. When steam
                                                              is used, the source
                                                              of the steam should
                                                              be outside the area
                                                              being
                                                              decontaminated.
  ORIGINAL                                     B-6
                                                                     NAVAIR 00-000-000
        Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

 Decontaminates     Use              Remarks                Cautions             Preparation
Detrochlorite      Bio     Agent is a thickened bleach Agent is very       Mix by weight 19.3
                            that is very useful on      corrosive           percent diatomaceous
                            vertical surfaces.         See Preparation      earth, 0.5 percent
                           Coverage is 1 gallon per 8   column.             anionic wetting agent,
                            square yards. Apply by                          2.9 percent calcium
                            means of the PDDA. Allow                        hypochlorite (70
                            30 minutes contact time,                        percent available
                            then rinse with water.                          chlorine), and 77.3
                                                                            percent water.
                                                                           Mix wetting agent and
                                                                            diatomaceous earth
                                                                            with water before
                                                                            adding the calcium
                                                                            hypochlorite. Mixing
                                                                            the wetting agent and
                                                                            calcium hypochlorite
                                                                            in a dry and undiluted
                                                                            state may cause an
                                                                            explosion.




                                          B-7                                 ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
          Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

  Decontaminates        Use              Remarks                     Cautions              Preparation
Peracetic acid (PAA)   Bio    Agent is effective against all   Fumes are highly       Available as a 40
                                microorganisms, to include      irritating.            percent solution. Mix
                                bacterial spores.              Prolonged exposure      1 quart of PAA to 3 ½
                              A contact time of 10              will damage most       gallons of water (add
                                minutes must be allowed.        material.              PAA to the water).
                              Item should be wiped with a      A 40 percent
                                rag or swab. Remove             solution has a low
                                excess acid and aerate for      flash point
                                10 to 15 minutes or until       (105oF); a 3
                                no objectionable odor           percent solution is
                                remains.                        nonflammable.
                              Small items should be            Burns and blisters
                                immersed for 10 minutes.        on the skin will
                                Remove excess acid and          occur.
                                aerate until no                Agent must be
                                objectionable odor              stored in original
                                remains.                        containers under
                                                                refrigeration to
                                                                prevent
                                                                decomposition.
                                                               Protective mask and
                                                                clothing are
                                                                required.
                                                               A violent explosion
                                                                may result if
                                                                heavy metal ions
                                                                come in contact
                                                                with the agent.
                                                               Prolonged exposure
                                                                will corrode iron
                                                                and deteriorate
                                                                rubber, plastic,
                                                                and leather.
Hyamine                Bio    Agent is effective against all   Agent is very toxic.   Use a 0.1 percent
(benzethonium                  bacteria.                       Estimated fatal dose    solution (1 pound of
chloride)                     A contact time of 5 to 30         to man is 1 to 3       hyamine for every 12
                               minutes should be allowed.       grams.                 gallons of water
                                                               Care should be          yields a 1 percent
                                                                taken when             solution).
                                                                mixing to avoid
                                                                inhalation of
                                                                powder.
                                                               Agent is not to be
                                                                used on aircraft or
                                                                ships.




  ORIGINAL                                      B-8
                                                                             NAVAIR 00-000-000
          Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

  Decontaminates       Use              Remarks                   Cautions               Preparation
Carbon dioxide and    Bio    Should be applied in the        Will blister the skin. None
ethylene oxide                 strength of 30 pounds for     Aerate items next to
mixture (with more             every 1,000 cubic feet.        the skin 18 to 24
than 87 percent              Should be allowed a 12 hour      hours.
ethylene oxide)                contact time (doubled for
                               each 20oF drop in
                               temperature below 75oF).
                             Is nonflammable and is
                               recommended for interior
                               use.
                             Should be used in an airtight
                               enclosure.
Sodium hypochlorite   Bio    Is effective against blister    Is harmful to the       For chemical decon, no
solution (household   Chem     and V agents and all            skin and clothing      mixing is required.
bleach)                        biological agents.              if undiluted.         For biological decon,
                             Will react rapidly (within 5      Remove from the        dilute by adding 2
                               minutes) with blister and V     skin and clothing      parts bleach to 10
                               agents.                         by flushing with       parts water.
                             Should be allowed a 10 to         water.                For decon of cotton
                               15 minute contact time for    Is corrosive to          clothing and utensils,
                               biological agents.              metals unless          dilute 2 cups of bleach
                             Should be applied undiluted       rinsed, dried, and     to 1 gallon of water.
                               with brooms, brushes, or        lubricated after      For application, dilute
                               swabs.                          decon.                 half and half with
                             Is the preferred decon for      Should be stored in      water and spray from
                               ship use. A 5:1                 a cool place.          the PDDE.
                               concentration is
                               recommended.
                             Has a limited storage
                               problem.
2-Propanone           Chem   Freezing point is-203oF;        Is extremely            None
(acetone)                      boiling point is 133oF          flammable.
                               (evaporates rapidly).         Does not neutralize
                             Good decontaminant for use        agents.
                               in arctic regions.            Is effective for
                             Commonly obtained as              dissolving and
                               fingernail polish remover       flushing agent by
                               or paint thinners.              physically
                             Scrubbing increases its           removing it.
                               effectiveness.
Dietyl ether          Chem   Freezing point is -241oF;       Is the same as for 2-   None
                               boiling point is 93oF.          propanone.
                             Good decontaminant for use
                               in arctic regions.
                             Available through medical
                               supply facilities.
                             Scrubbing increases its
                               effectiveness.



                                              B-9                                       ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
          Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

  Decontaminates         Use            Remarks                 Cautions              Preparation
Ethylene glycol         Chem   Scrub on contaminated     Removes                 Mix equal amounts of
                                surfaces and rinse         contamination, but     solution and water.
                                thoroughly.                does not neutralize
                                                           it. Therefore,
                                                           runoff residue
                                                           must be
                                                           considered
                                                           contaminated.
Solvents (gasoline,     Chem   Scrub on contaminated     Is the same as for      None
JP-4, diesel fuel,              surfaces and rinse         ethylene glycol.
kerosene, and similar           thoroughly.              May damage
solvents)                                                  materials such as
                                                           rubber and plastic.




  ORIGINAL                                    B-10
                                                                               NAVAIR 00-000-000
           Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

  Decontaminates         Use              Remarks                     Cautions               Preparation
Sodium hydroxide        Bio    Is effective against G agents,   Agent will damage      Small amount: 10
(caustic soda or lye)   Chem     lewisite, and all biological    the skin, eyes, and    pounds of lye to 12
(NSN 6810-00-174-                agents, including bacterial     clothes and can        gallons of water (10
6581) (100 pounds)               spores.                         cause upper            percent solution). Mix
                               Will neutralize G agents on       respiratory or lung    in an iron or steel
                                 contact.                        damage if inhaled.     container (never
                               Should be allowed to remain      Full rubber             aluminum, zinc, or
                                 in contact with the             protective             tin). Add lye to the
                                 chemically contaminated         clothing, gloves,      water to prevent
                                 surface for about 15            boots, and mask        boiling and splattering
                                 minutes.                        are required when      due to heat being
                                                                 using.                 emitted. Do not
                                                                Affected area must      handle mixing
                                                                 be washed              container with bare
                                                                 immediately with       hands.
                                                                 large amounts of      Large amount (PDDE
                                                                 water and flushed      use): Prepare a
                                                                 with diluted acetic    solution of 227 grams
                                                                 acid or vinegar.       ( ½ pound) of lye for
                                                                 Remove affected        each gallon of water.
                                                                 clothing. If eyes      Pump 350 gallons of
                                                                 are involved, flush    water into the tank
                                                                 them at once with      unit. Connect the tank
                                                                 large amounts of       unit, pump unit, and
                                                                 warm water and         heater together. Heat
                                                                 seek medical           the water to 122oF.
                                                                 attention.             Disconnect the heater
                                                                Runoff from decon       unit and add 175
                                                                 operations is          pounds of lye to the
                                                                 highly corrosive       heated water.
                                                                 and toxic. Drain       Circulate the solution
                                                                 runoff into a sump     with the pump unit
                                                                 and bury.              until al the lye is
                                                                Equipment must be       dissolved. The
                                                                 flushed with large     temperature will
                                                                 amounts of clear       increase noticeably.
                                                                 water.                 Use while hot.




                                                B-11                                      ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
           Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)
  Decontaminates        Use             Remarks                    Cautions               Preparation
Sodium hydroxide                                           Sodium hydroxide        Simultaneous mixing
(caustic soda or lye)                                         Is not                and applying:
(NSN 6810-00-174-                                               recommended for      Sprinkle dry lye on
6581) (100 pounds)                                              ship use. Store      the contaminated area
(continue)                                                      on top deck only.    and then dissolve it
                                                              Is corrosive to       with a spray of steam
                                                                most metals.         or hot water. Do not
                                                              Is not                wash the lye off the
                                                                recommended if       surface while
                                                                less toxic caustic   applying the steam or
                                                                decontaminants       hot water.
                                                                are available.     Paint removal: 1 pound
                                                                Will cause a red     of lye per 2 ½ gallons
                                                                color change         of water is capable of
                                                                upon contact         removing an average
                                                                with M8 detector     coat of paint from
                                                                paper.               about 11 square yards
                                                           Agent’s effectiveness     of surface. This
                                                             is directly             solution is effective in
                                                             proportional to the     removing paint on
                                                             strength of the         which chemical
                                                             solution.               contamination has
                                                                                     absorbed. (Can
                                                                                     substitute calcium
                                                                                     hydroxide, potassium
                                                                                     hydroxide, or
                                                                                     trisodium phosphate
                                                                                     for sodium
                                                                                     hydroxide).
Sodium carbonate       Chem Is effective against G         Should not be used      Mix 10 pounds of
(washing soda, soda             agents and CN.               for VX. It cannot       washing soda to 12
ash, sal soda, or             Will react rapidly with G      detoxify VX and         gallons of water (10
laundry soda)                   agents, normally within 5    creates extremely       percent solution).
                                minutes.                     toxic by-products.
                              Is the preferred             Does not dissolve
                                decontaminant for ship       mustard agents or
                                use. The recommended         detoxify them.
                                concentration is 5 percent
                                by weight. There is no
                                storage problem.
                              Should be used with a hot
                                solution to decon DN
                                effectively.
Potassium hydroxide Bio       Is the same as for sodium    Is the same as for      Is the same as for
(caustic potash)       Chem     hydroxide.                   sodium hydroxide.       sodium hydroxide.


Hexachloramelamine     Chem     Is effective against mustard   May require the use      Is not soluble in water
                                  agents.                        of a protective mask     but is soluble in
                                                                 and rubber gloves        organic solvents such
                                                                 when used.               as gasoline, kerosene,
                                                               Is corrosive to metal.     and paint thinner.
  ORIGINAL                                       B-12
                                                                                NAVAIR 00-000-000
          Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

  Decontaminates         Use              Remarks                     Cautions                Preparation
Ammonia or              Chem   Is effective against G agents.   May require the use     Ammonium hydroxide
ammonium                       Is slower acting than sodium       of a self-contained    is a water solution of
hydroxide                        hydroxide or potassium           breathing              ammonia. No further
(household                       hydroxide.                       apparatus or           mixing is required.
ammonia)                                                          special purpose
                                                                  mask.
Dichloramine-B and      Chem   Is effective against mustard     May require the use     Is not soluble in water,
Dichloramine-T                   agents                           of a protective         but is soluble in
                                                                  mask and rubber         certain organic
                                                                  gloves when used.       solvents.
                                                                Is corrosive to         Is normally mixed as a
                                                                  metal.                  10 percent solution in
                                                                                          dichloroethane.
Perchloroethylene       Chem   Freezing point is -8oF;          Physically dissolves    Requires no mixing
(tetrachloroethylene)           boiling point is 250oF.          and removes              (practically insoluble
                               Agent:                            contamination, but       in water).
                                 Is good for use in arctic      does not neutralize
                                   climates.                     it.
                                 Is a nonflammable,
                                   synthetic solvent widely
                                   used in dry cleaning
                                   plants.
                                 Dissolves H and V
                                   agents but not G.
                                 Has a low toxicity.
                               Scrubbing increase it
                                effectiveness.




                                                B-13                                        ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
           Table B-2. Nonstandard Decontaminants Available in the Supply System (Continue)

  Decontaminates         Use             Remarks                   Cautions             Preparation
Acids (sulfuric acid,   Rad    Are effective solvents for     Are difficult to     None
hydrochloric acid,              rust and mineral deposits      handle and are
oxalic acid, and                holding radioactive            harmful to the
similar acids)                  material on metal surfaces.    body, especially
                               Should be allowed a 1 hour      the eyes.
                                contact time.                 Can produce boiling
                               Must be flushed with water,     and splattering of
                                scrubbed with a water          the solution when
                                detergent solution, and        mixed.
                                flushed again with water.     May require the use
                                                               of rubber boots,
                                                               gloves, aprons,
                                                               and goggles when
                                                               used.
                                                              Will require the use
                                                               of respiratory
                                                               protection when
                                                               used in closed
                                                               areas.
                                                              Can cause serious
                                                               injury when they
                                                               come in contact
                                                               with the body.
                                                               Flush the area
                                                               immediately with
                                                               water. Use a 5
                                                               percent solution of
                                                               water and baking
                                                               soda (sodium
                                                               bicarbonate).




  ORIGINAL                                     B-14
                                                                                 NAVAIR 00-000-000
                                   Table B-3. Natural Decontaminants

 Decontaminates           Use            Remarks                        Cautions               Preparation
Water                    Rad    Can be used to flush             Is effective in         Hot water with soap
                         Bio     contamination from                physically             makes water more
                         Chem    surfaces.                         removing               effective in removing
                                                                   contamination, but     agents. Boiling for 15
                                                                   does not neutralize    minutes (30 minutes
                                                                   it. Do not use         at high altitude)
                                                                   water on lewisite.     destroys biological
                                                                                          agents.
Steam                    Rad    Is more effective when           Is effective in         None
                         Bio      accompanied by scrubbing.        physically
                         Chem                                      removing
                                                                   contamination, but
                                                                   does not neutralize
                                                                   it.
Absorbents (earth,       Chem   Are used to remove gross         The contamination     None
sawdust, ashes, rags,            contamination, physically,        is transferred from
and similar                      from surfaces.                    the surface to the
materials)                                                         absorbent. The
                                                                   absorbent becomes
                                                                   contaminated and
                                                                   must be disposed
                                                                   of accordingly.
                                                                 Sufficient
                                                                   contamination to
                                                                   produce casualties
                                                                   may well remain
                                                                   on surfaces.
Sealants (concrete,      Rad    Sealants are used to             A break in the        None
asphalt, earth, paint,   Bio     physically seal in or shield      surface of the
and similar              Chem    contamination. They are           sealant will expose
materials)                       effective as follows:             the contamination.
                                  12 inches of earth            Contaminated areas
                                    provides a good                covered with
                                    protection from fallout        sealants must be
                                    (3 inches will reduce the      marked with
                                    close rate about on half).     appropriate NBC
                                  1 inch of asphalt or            warning signs.
                                    concrete completely
                                    absorbs alpha and beta
                                    radiation.
                                  ¼ inch of grout shields
                                    alpha and beta radiation.
                                  4 inches of earth
                                    provides good
                                    protection from
                                    chemical contamination.
                                Burying items contaminated
                                 with biological agents is an
                                 effective means of sealing
                                 off contamination.

                                                 B-15                                       ORIGINAL
  NAVAIR-000-00-000
                              Table B-3. Natural Decontaminants (Continue)

 Decontaminates         Use               Remarks                   Cautions                  Preparation
Weather/time           Rad      UV light kills most bio-        Should be used         None
                       Bio       organism agents,                when time and the
                       Chem      organisms, and radiation        mission permits.
                                 decay overtime.
Burning                Bio      Must be approved by the         Creates downwind       None
                       Chem      first general officer in the    hazards.
                                 chain of command.              Requires that
                                                                 sentries be posted
                                                                 to keep people out
                                                                 of the danger area.
Undergrowth, tall               Burn (may cause a               Follow the same        Follow the same
grass (applicable to             downwind vapor hazard).         directions as for      directions as for earth.
small vital areas               Spray slurry with PDDE.          sand.
only): meadows,                 Explode drums of STB.
jungles, and forests            Clear a path with detonating
Burn.                           cord, Bangalore torpedoes,
                                or demolition snakes.
Sand (applicable to             Flush with water.               Burn.                  Follow the same
small vital areas               Use DS2.                                                directions as for earth.
only): beaches and              Spread STB (pure form) or
deserts Weather.                 spray an STB slurry over
                                 the surface.
                                Cover paths with roofing
                                 paper.
                                Scrape off 2 to 4 inches of
                                 contaminated top layer.




  ORIGINAL                                        B-16
                                                                    NAVAIR 00-000-000

                                 APPENDIX C             38



   Surface or                      Types of Contamination and How to Decon
    Material              Chemical                  Biological           Radiological
Asphalt roads      Flush with water.         Weather (remain        Brush or sweep.
 (applicable to    Spray with an STB          masked).              Flush with water (this
 small vital areas  slurry from the          Wet with water (will    may drive some of the
 only)              PDDE.                     help prevent           contamination into the
                   Cover with STB (pure       secondary aerosols     surface; waste must
                    form). When liquid        but does not decon).   be controlled).
                    contamination is         Apply 2 percent        Clean with a vacuum.
                    visible and personnel     household bleach
                    are nearby, use the       solution.
                    STB dry mix.             Spray with an STB
                   Weather.                   slurry from the
                   Cover small areas or       PDDE.
                    paths across roads       Pour, spray, or spread
                    with 4 inches of earth.   oil on the surface
                                              (will help prevent
                                              secondary aerosols,
                                              but does not decon).
Roofs              Follow the same           Follow the same        Follow the same
                    directions as for         directions as for      directions as for
                    asphalt roads.            asphalt roads.         asphalt roads.
                                             Apply detrochlorite;
                                              leave on at least 30
                                              minutes, then flush
                                              with water.
Brick and stone    Weather.                  Follow the same        Follow the same
 roads             Spray with an STB          directions as for      directions as for
 (applicable to     slurry from the PDDE      asphalt roads.         asphalt roads.
 small vital areas  or apply with brushes                           Use abrasion (sand
 only)              and brooms. Leave on                             blasting). This
                    for 24 hours, then                               provides direct and
                    flush with water.                                complete removal of
                   Wash with soapy water,                            contaminated dust;
                    preferable hot.                                  however, sand and
                   Cover small areas or                              equipment being used
                    paths across roads                               becomes
                    with 4 inches of earth.                          contaminated.




                                        C-1                                   ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

      Surface or                        Types of Contamination and How to Decon
       Material                Chemical                 Biological            Radiological
   Brick and stone      Spray with an STB         Follow the same       Follow the same
    buildings,           slurry from the PDDE      directions as for      directions as for
    bunkers, gun         or apply with brushes     asphalt roads.         asphalt roads.
    emplacements,        and brooms. Leave on Apply an STB slurry to
    and tank             for 24 hours, then        vertical surfaces by
    obstacles            flush with water.         manual means or with
                        Use STB (pure form) or     the PDDE. The slurry
                         an STB dry mix            may be left on
                         around buildings          exteriors.
                         where waste water
                         runs.
                        Wash with soapy water,
                         preferable hot.
                        Weather.
   Concrete roads       Spray with an STB         Follow the same       Follow the same
    (applicable to       slurry from the           directions as for      directions as for brick
    small vital areas    PDDE.                     asphalt roads.         and stone roads.
    only)               Cover with an STB
                         slurry or STB dry
                         mix.
                        Weather.
                        Cover small areas of
                         paths across roads
                         with 4 inches of earth.
                        Scrape the layer of
                         contaminated earth to
                         the side of the road.
   Earth (applicable    Spray with an STB         Follow the same       Earth moving
    to small vital       slurry from the           directions as for      (removal): Try to
    areas only):         PDDE.                     asphalt roads.         control contaminated
    roads, gun          Cover with STB (pure      Burn.                   dust, as equipment
    emplacements,        form). When liquid                               may become
    bivouac areas,       contamination is                                 contaminated.
    pathways, and        visible and personnel                            Consider waste
    bomb craters         are nearby, use an                               disposal.
                         STB dry mix.                                   Sealing (with earth):
                        Weather.                                          Does not create a
                        Cover small areas or                              waste-disposal
                         paths across roads                               problem; however,
                         with 4 inches of earth.                          equipment may be
                        Scrape the layer of                               contaminated.
                         contaminated earth to
                         the side of the road.




ORIGINAL                                     C-2
                                                                         NAVAIR 00-000-000

   Surface or                        Types of Contamination and How to Decon
    Material                 Chemical                 Biological              Radiological
Grass and low        Burn.                     Burn.                     Follow the same
 vegetation:         Spray with an STB         Follow the same            directions as for earth.
 fields and open       slurry from the           directions as for
 terrain               PDDE.                     asphalt roads.
                     Cover with STB (pure      .
                       form) or an STB dry
                       mix.
                     Clear paths through
                       area using detonating
                       cord or other
                       detonating devices.
Undergrowth, tall    Burn (may cause a         Burn.                     Follow the same
 grass                downwind vapor           Follow the same            directions as for earth.
 (applicable to       hazard).                   directions as for sand.
 small vital areas   Spray slurry with         .
 only):               PDDE.
 meadows,            Explode drums of STB.
 jungles, and        Clear a path with
 forests              detonating cord,
                      Bangalore torpedoes,
                      or demolition snakes.
Sand (applicable     Flush with water.         Burn.                     Follow the same
 to small vital      Use DS2.                                             directions as for earth.
 areas only):        Spread STB (pure
 beaches and          form) or spray an
 deserts              STB slurry over the
                      surface.
                     Weather.
                     Cover paths with
                      roofing paper.
                     Scrape off 2 to 4 inches
                      of contaminated top
                      layer.




                                           C-3                                      ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

      Surface or                      Types of Contamination and How to Decon
       Material              Chemical                  Biological             Radiological
   Fabrics: canvas,   Cotton: NOTE: Not for Cotton:                      Cotton and woolen:
    covers,            IPE.                     Boil in water for 15     Using DS2 is not
    tarpaulins,       Immerse in boiling,        minutes.                 recommended.
    tentage, mask      soapy water for 1        Autoclave for 45         Brushing removes
    carriers, web      hour (1 pound of soap     minutes at 253oF.        contamination dust,
    gear, and          to 10 gallons of         Immerse in a 2 percent    but it presents a dust
    clothing           water) and stir.          household bleach         hazard to personnel.
                      Use a 5 percent sodium     solution for 30         Laundering is the most
                       carbonate solution for    minutes and rinse        practical procedure;
                       G agents.                 immediately.             however, the fabric
                      Immerse in boiling        Launder (destroys or      may shrink. Try to
                       water for 1 hour.         inactivates all but      control waste.
                      Launder by standard        highly resistant
                       methods.                  spores).
                      Use an STB slurry.
                      Weather except for V      Woolen:
                       agents.                  Do not use DS2, as it is
                                                 not recommended.
                      Woolen:                   Launder (fabric may
                      Do not use DS2 as it is    shrink).
                       not recommended.
                      Immerse in warm,
                       soapy water (100oF)
                       for 1 hour or longer
                       with light agitation.
                      Dry items slowly
                       because the fabric
                       may shrink.
   Leather: boots,    Scrub with hot, soapy     Immerse in a 2 percent   Brush.
    gloves, and        water and rinse.          household bleach        Flush with water, or
    other items       Immerse in warm,           solution and rinse.      soapy water.
                       soapy water at 120oF     Immerse in a 2 percent
                       for 4 hours and rinse.    PAA for 10 minutes,
                      Use a 5 percent sodium     rinse, and air 10 to 15
                       carbonate solution for    minutes.
                       G agents.                Wipe with a 2 percent
                      Air.                       PAA, remove excess
                                                 agent, and air 10 to 15
                                                 minutes.
   Glass, windows     Use an IEDK or DS2.       Use an IEDK.             Use an IEDK.
                      Wash with hot, soapy      Wash with soap and       Wash with a detergent.
                       water.                    water.                  Flush with water.
                      Rinse with clear water    Wipe with a              Wipe with solvents.
                       or an organic solvent.    disinfectant solution
                      Blot off surface.          or a 2 percent PAA
                      Air.                       (see similar
                      Weather.                   procedures on page
                                                 C-7 for mess gear).




ORIGINAL                                    C-4
                                                                           NAVAIR 00-000-000

   Surface or                       Types of Contamination and How to Decon
    Material               Chemical                 Biological            Radiological
Glass, lens         Wash with hot, soapy      Wash with hot, soapy  Brush or wipe (be
                     water.                    water.                 careful so as not to
                    Rinse with clear water    Wipe with alcohol or    scratch then lens).
                     or an organic solvent.    household bleach.    Use compressed air to
                    Blot off surface.                                 blow contamination
                    Air.                                              from surface.
                    Weather.
Metal               Wipe with soapy water. Wipe with soapy water. Brush or wipe.
 (unpainted),       Wipe with organic         Wipe with a 2 percent
 ammunition          solvent and dry.          household bleach
                    Air.                       solution.
                                              Air.

Metal               Use DS2.                   Use DS2.                    Brush or wipe.
 (unpainted),       Follow the same            Wipe with a 2 percent       Wash with a detergent.
 machinery           directions as for          PAA, rinse, and air 10     Flush with water.
                     ammunition                 to 15 minutes.
Metals (painted):   Use DS2 (may soften        Wash with a detergent       Brush or wipe.
 vehicles,           paint).                    and a high-pressure        Wash.
 weapons, and       Wash with hot, soapy        water system.              Use organic solvents,
 equipment           water and rinse.          Apply detrochlorite.         caustic agents (not on
                    Spray with an STB           Leave it on for 30          aluminum or
                     slurry from the PDDE       minutes then remove         magnesium surfaces),
                     then remove it in 1        by washing with a           complexing agents (of
                     hour and oil the           stream of water.            small value on
                     surface.                  Steam clean using a          weathered surfaces),
                    Weather.                    detergent.                  or abrasives.
                    Air.                       Use a household bleach
                    Use an IEDK to decon        solution.
                     individual gear.          Use a 2 percent PAA.
Wood (unpainted     Weather.                   Apply detrochlorite.        Wash the interior with
 surfaces):                                     Leave it on for at least    large amounts of
 building,                                      30 minutes then flush       water (some
 vehicles bodies,                               with water.                 contamination may
 boxes, and                                    Apply an STB slurry to       soak into surfaces).
 crates, and                                    vertical surfaces. The
 similar items                                  slurry may be left on
                                                interiors.
                                               Weather 9sun and rain
                                                eliminate most
                                                microorganisms
                                                within 1 day).
                                               Burn.




                                         C-5                                         ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

      Surface or                        Types of Contamination and How to Decon
       Material                Chemical                  Biological             Radiological
   Wood (painted        Apply an STB slurry       Follow the same          Wash the interior with
    surfaces):           with the PDDE,            directions as for wood   large amounts of
    buildings and        brooms, or swabs. Let     (unpainted surfaces).    water.
    boxes                the slurry remain 12                              Wipe the contamination
                         to 24 hours then flush                             from the surface.
                         with water.
                        Scrub with hot, soapy
                         water and rinse.
                        Use DS2 and rinse.
                         DS2 may soften paint.
                        Weather.
   Plastics (opaque):   Use DS2 (may soften       Follow the same          Wash with a detergent.
    insulation,          or damage some            directions as for glass Flush with water.
    telephones, and      plastics).                lens.                   Wipe or brush.
    panel boards        Wash with hot, soapy
                         water and rinse.
                        Weather.
                        Air.
   Plastics             Use DS2 (may soften       Follow the same          Wash with a detergent.
    (transparent):       or damage some            directions as for glass Flush with water.
    eye pieces and       plastics).                lens.                   Wipe or brush.
    airplane            Wash with hot, soapy
    canopies             water and rinse.
                        Weather.
                        Air.
   Non-sealed           Use a mild, evaporative Use a mild, evaporative Use hot air blowers.
    electronic           solvent such as           solvent such as         Wipe or brush.
    equipment            alcohol.                  alcohol.
                        Use DS2.                  Use DS2.
                        Use a mild detergent      Use a mild detergent
                         and water.                and water.
                        Rinse with distilled      Rinse with distilled
                         water.                    water.
                        Keep the solution out     Keep the solution out of
                         of the adjustable         the adjustable
                         switches, connectors,     switches, connectors,
                         and relays.               and relays.
                        Use hot air blowers.      Use hot air blowers.




ORIGINAL                                     C-6
                                                                      NAVAIR 00-000-000

   Surface or                         Types of Contamination and How to Decon
    Material                Chemical                  Biological           Radiological
Rubber               Spray with DS2 and         Follow the same       Brush.
 (impermeable):       rinse after 30 minutes.    directions as for    Scrub or flush with
 aprons, suits,      Immerse in soapy water      leather.               water or soapy water.
 and other items      (just below the
                      boiling point) for 1
                      hour. Do not agitate.
                      Rinse with clear water
                      and hang to dry.
                     Use a 10 percent
                      sodium carbonate
                      solution for G agents,
                      rinse, and air.
                     Apply hot, soapy water
                      with brushes and
                      rinse.
                     Spray with an STB
                      slurry from the
                      PDDE.
                     Wash off, after a few
                      minutes, with clear
                      water
Rubber (natural      Spray with a 10 percent Follow the same          Brush.
 and synthetic):      mixture of HTH and         directions as for    Scrub or flush with
 gloves and           rinse.                     leather.               water or soapy water.
 boots               Immerse in STB slurry
                      for 4 hours, rinse, and
                      dry.
                     Use an IEDK in
                      emergencies.
                     Air.
Rubber: mask         Use an IEDK in             Follow the same       Brush.
 face pieces and      emergencies.               directions as for    Scrub or flush with
 other rubber        Wash with warm, soapy       leather.               water or soapy water.
 articles coming      water.
 in direct contact
 with skin
Rubber: tires,       Spray with a 10 percent     Follow the same       Brush.
 hoses, mats, and     mixture of HTH and          directions as for    Scrub or flush with
 insulation           rinse.                      leather.              water or soapy water.
                     Apply an STB slurry.
                      Allow the slurry to
                      remain at least 30
                      minutes then flush
                      with clear water (may
                      be left on tires).
                     Apply hot, soapy water.
                     Air.
                     Weather.




                                           C-7                                   ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000

     Surface or                      Types of Contamination and How to Decon
      Material              Chemical                  Biological              Radiological
   Water             Use trained water-        Boil small amounts 15    Flocculation (requires
                       purification personnel    minutes.                 special chemicals t
                       to decon                Chlorinate using a         remove suspended
                                                 chlorination kit.        matter).
                                               Add iodine water-        Ion exchange (removes
                                                 purification tables to   radians from
                                                 small amounts.           solution).
   Mess gear and     Immerse in boiling,       Wash with soap and       Wash with soap and
    canned rations    soapy water for 30        water. Then immerse       water and rinse.
                      minutes and rinse.        in disinfectant         Brush and then wipe
                     Immerse in boiling         solution (disinfectant,   contamination from
                      water for 30 minutes.     chlorine or 1/3 cup of    surfaces and
                     Spray with DS2.            household bleach per      containers.
                     Wash in hot, soapy         10 gallons of water).
                      water; rinse; and air.   Boil water for 15
                                                minutes (not effective
                                                on toxins and
                                                bacterial spores).
                                                Immerse in a 5
                                                percent sodium
                                                carbonate solution (4
                                                pounds of washing
                                                soda to 10 gallons of
                                                water) and rinse with
                                                potable water.
                                               Immerse in a household
                                                bleach solution (2
                                                gallons of bleach to
                                                25 gallons of water)
                                                for 30 minutes, rinse,
                                                and air for 10 to 15
                                                minutes.
                                               Immerse in an HTH
                                                solution (1/2 pound to
                                                25 gallons of water)
                                                for 30 minutes and
                                                rinse.
                                               Immerse in a 2 percent
                                                PAA for 10 minutes,
                                                rinse, and air 10 to 15
                                                minutes.




ORIGINAL                                  C-8
                                                                       NAVAIR 00-000-000

   Surface or                      Types of Contamination and How to Decon
    Material              Chemical                 Biological             Radiological
Food: not canned   Do not consume food       Boil water 15 minutes.  Wash or trim
 or protected by    that is suspected to be   Cook food               contamination from
 impermeable        contaminated with         thoroughly.             unpackaged food.
 container          chemical agents until Immerse in or spray
                    veterinary personnel      with a 2 percent
                    approve it.               household bleach
                                              solution. (Packaged
                                              food or food that is
                                              peeled or pared can be
                                              immersed or sprayed
                                              with the solution).
Food: canned,      Follow the same           Follow the same         Follow the same
 bottled, or        directions as for mess    directions as for mess  directions as for mess
 protected by       gear and canned           gear and canned         gear and canned
 impermeable        rations.                  rations.                rations.
 container
Paper currency     Destroy by burning. Do     Destroy by burning. Do   Destroy by burning. Do
                    not decon.                 not decon.               not decon.
Coins              Wipe with soapy water.     Use UV rays.             Brush or wipe.
                   Wipe with an organic       Wash with soapy water.   Wash with a detergent.
                    solvent.                  Wipe with a 2 percent    Flush with water.
                                               household bleach
                                               solution.
                                              Air.




                                        C-9                                     ORIGINAL
          NAVAIR 00-000-000

 INDEX




INDEX-1            ORIGINAL
NAVAIR-000-00-000


1
  MIL-M-85025A (AS) dtd 8 Dec 1980
2
  Modeled after NATOPS U.S. Navy Firefighting and Rescue Manual (00-80R-14) and NAVAIR 01-1A-509
(Corrosion Control Manual)
3
  OPNAV INST 3400.10F dtd 22 May 1998
4
  President’s National Strategy to Combat WMD, December 2002, www.whitehouse.gov link to policies in
focus/national security
5
  Joint Pub 3-11
6
  NAVY TM 3-11.1-02 Guide to biological warfare defense and bio-terrorism afloat and ashore.
7
  Joint Pub 3-11, Ch 1 Threat and Appendix C
8
  MCRP 3-37A/FM 3-7 NBC Field Handbook
9
  MCRP 3-37B/FM 3-6 Field Behavior of NBC Agents
10
   MCRP 3-37B/FM 3-6 Field Behavior of NBC Agents
11
   NAVAIR 13-1-6.10 chapter 3 ,4,5
12
   NAVAIR 13-1-6.10 chapter 5
13
   Original pub
14
   Original pub
15
   Source references provided in chapter 6 text.
16
   Department of the Army, west Desert Test Center, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Joint Contact Program
Management Office. DO-49 Final Test Report for Evaluation of Air-Platform Interface field Test, Test Project No.
8-CO-210-049-269, WDTC Report No. WDTC/JCP-00/005 (CH-53E)
17
   NAVY TM 3-11.1-02 Guide to biological warfare defense and bio-terrorism afloat and ashore
18
   Department of the Army, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, DPP/JCP-94/330, Tactical Aircraft
Decontamination Study (TADS Volume TECOM Project No. 8-CO-210-000-047 (F-111F)
19
   U.S. Army, Aberdeen proving Grounds, Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CREDC),
report TR-255 of 2/91 P2NBC2, Helicopter Air ambulance Operations in a Chemical Environment (UH-1 & H-60)
20
   U.S. Army, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Grounds report, DPG/TA-89/033 Black hawk Helicopter (UH-60)
maneuver in a Toxic Environment
21
   Department of the Army, west Desert Test Center, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Joint Contact Program
Management Office. DO-49 Final Test Report for Evaluation of Air-Platform Interface field Test, Test Project No.
8-CO-210-049-269, WDTC Report No. WDTC/JCP-00/005 (CH-53E)
22
   "All procedures based on procedures contained in FM 3-5, NSTM 470 and NAVAIR A1 NBCDR-OPM-000".
23
   FM 1-102, 4-2.c; p23
24
   FM1-102 Army Aviation in an NBC Environment, p19
25
   FM1-100,3-3.b
26
   NAVAIR 00-80G-105 2.3.8&9,p2-6
27
   FM 1-102,4-5, b. (1); p29
28
   NAVAIR 00-80T-106
29
   MCWP 3-21.1 p15
30
   NAVAIR 00-80T-105 2.3.8&9, p2-6
31
   FM 1-102,4-5, b. (1); p29
32
   original chapter 9.2
33
   NAVAIR 00-80T-106 5.2.1
34
   COMNAVAIRFOR msg 151534Z JAN 03; INTERIM GUIDANCE ON cbr-d TRAINING AND READINESS
REQUIREMENTS
35
   470-1.4
36
   NAVAIR 01-1A-509: 9-4.5
37
   FM 3-5 w/ch1 dtd 31 Jan 2002. Note: Replaces section 8.1.1 through 8.5.4.4 of revision 2 dd 27 Jan 2003 which
was reorganized from Chap 3, sections I, II and III of NAVAIR A1-NBCDR-OPM-000 dtd 15 Jul 1994.
38
   FM 3-5




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