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					Unmanned Aircraft                             Federal Aviation
                                              Administration
Systems - Access
to the National
Airspace System




Presented By: Central Service Center
              Air Traffic Unmanned Aircraft
              System

Date: 31 August 2009
  What are UAS?
• Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
  historically were called by various
  terms:
     Drone/ROA/RPV/UAV/Model/R-C
• Today they are Defined as:
    Unmanned Aircraft (UA)
    Aircraft Control Station
    Command & Control Link/s
    Pilot




                                        Federal Aviation   2
 19 December 2008                       Administration
                    Characteristics

 • UAS can range in weight from a few grams to thousands of
   pounds and can operate at altitudes from near surface to the edge
   of space.
 • Some UA can remain aloft for minutes or days for others.
 • Further designs allow for the possibility that some UAS will be able
   to remain aloft for months.
 • Some UA fly slowly while others are capable of very high speeds.
 • Some UA require a prepared runway while others can be launched
   and recovered from unprepared fields, ships, aircraft, rooftops, or
   by hand.




                                                     Federal Aviation     3
19 December 2008                                     Administration
See and Avoid is not an ATC Function
   Air Traffic Radar does not depict everything in the NAS




                                                        Federal Aviation   4
19 December 2008                                        Administration
    Special Use Airspace/Airspace for
              Special Use
• Part 73 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14
   …activities must be confined because of their nature…
• They are there to protect Pilots and Aircraft
• 6 Flavors of Special Use Airspace these 3
provide a “confined” environment
     – Prohibited Areas -- Regulatory
     – Restricted Areas -- Regulatory
     – Warning Areas (off-shore)
• Other types of Airspace that provide
  a cooperative/positive control:
     – Class A
     – Class C
     – Temporary Flight Restricted Areas


                                           Federal Aviation   5
19 December 2008                           Administration
     Who is Operating UAS in the NAS

Public Use Aircraft –                 Civil Aircraft – Special
  Certificate of Waiver or              Airworthiness
  Authorization                         Certificates -
•   Department of Agriculture           Experimental
•   Department of Commerce
•   Department of Defense
•   Department of Energy
                                      •   Issued in all 3 Service Areas
                                              Raytheon
•   Department of Homeland Security
                                              AAI Corporation
•   Department of Interior
                                              General Atomics
•   Department of Justice
                                              Boeing
•   NASA
                                              And more
•   State Universities
•   State Law Enforcement


                                                         Federal Aviation   6
19 December 2008                                         Administration
                   What are they doing?

•   Operational Missions
•   Training for Operational Missions
•   Research
•   Sensor Development and Testing
•   Marketing
•   Border Patrol
•   Firefighting
•   Disaster Relief
•   Search and Rescue



                                        Federal Aviation   7
19 December 2008                        Administration
                   When are they doing it?

• Daily
• Mostly Daylight Operations
• Some Night Operations




                                      Federal Aviation   8
19 December 2008                      Administration
                   Where are they doing it?

• Class A, C, D, E, and G Airspace
• Domestic and Oceanic
• Outside of SUA




                                       Federal Aviation   9
19 December 2008                       Administration
            Where are they not doing it?

• Class B Airspace
• Most 30 nm Mode C veil – Appendix D to Part
  91
• Over Populated Areas




                                   Federal Aviation   10
19 December 2008                   Administration
                   How are they doing it?

    Specific authorization is required for
    operations outside of active
    restricted/warning area airspace, with
    aviation activities authorized
    —NO EXCEPTIONS




                                     Federal Aviation   11
19 December 2008                     Administration
4 Ways to Fly an UAS in the National
         Airspace System
• Completely in active Restricted, Warning Area airspace
  approved for aviation activities – No FAA approval - range
  rules apply
• Private recreational use – Advisory Circular 91-57
• Special Airworthiness Certificate - Experimental Category
      –   Civil operators
      –   FAA determines Airworthiness
      –   Only one airframe (issued a “N” number)
      –   No commercial operations
• Certificate of Waiver or Authorization
      –   Public Use Aircraft
      –   Agency determines airworthiness
      –   FAA policy 08-01 is current GUIDANCE
      –   All are required to have a NOTAM issued outside Class A/C


                                                          Federal Aviation   12
19 December 2008                                          Administration
                   Certificate of Waiver or
                     Authorization (COA)
                    158 Active in US NAS
•   FAA Form 7711-1
•   Authorization to operate UAS in the NAS
•   We do not release/discuss with others
•   Consists of 4 sets of provisions:
       General
       Safety
       Standard
       Special



                                       Federal Aviation   13
19 December 2008                       Administration
                   Certificate of Waiver or
                    Authorization (COA)

• Standard Provisions:
      – Just that – Standard for most operators
• Special Provisions:
      – Tailored to individual mission and ATC facility
        requirements
      – Identifies requirements for the operator
      – Alternate means of compliance those sections of 14
        CFR part 91 that UAS are unable to comply with



                                              Federal Aviation   14
19 December 2008                              Administration
                                                           AJR-36
 Customer       AJR-36                           No
                              Admin                    release case to
  commits        admin
                              correct                   customer for          SA contacts          Acceptable     No
    case        review
                                                         corrections          customer to          resolution
                            Yes                                                work case            reached
                                                        Customer
                                                      makes changes
                              AJR-36                                                                Yes                  AJR-36
                                                       and commits                                                       formal         COA
                           email to SA                     case                                                        denial letter
                                                                                                  SA email to                          issued
                          for feasibility
 COA
                                                                                                                         issued
                                                                                                     AJR-36
                               check                  Yes
                                                                         No                      ―Release‖ case
                                                            Admin
                                                                                                  to customer
                                                            correct

 Process                       Case
                             feasible
                                            No                                                    Customer
                                                                                                makes changes
                                                                                                and ―Commits‖
                            Yes                                                                      case

                          SA email to
                              HQ to                                                              SA email to HQ
                         ―Validate‖ case                                                           ―Validate‖
60 Day Clock Starts
                             AJR-36
                           ―Validates‖
                         and sends case
                         to PO for review


                                            No     PO works case with
                           PO Concur                                            PO Concur
                                                  HQ, SA and customer
                           Yes

                           95% sent to
                          SA by AJR-36


                            SA final                               AJR-36 reviews and
                                                 SA emails                                         SA emails
                          coordination                            Signs 7711-1. Emails
                                                  100% to                                   final COA to customer
                          with affected                            final COA to SA for
                                                   AJR-36                                      and CC to AJR-36 Aviation
                                                                                                       Federal
                           AT facilities                               distribution                                                     15
    19 December 2008                                                                                  Administration
                                 2 Special COA’s

•   Disaster Relief – issued to JFACC
      –   Only Predator Class and Global Hawk
      –   This year may include additional assets
      –   General and Safety Provisions sections signed
      –   Special Provisions worked for each Disaster – they must be signed before flight
•   Emergency COA
      –   Issued in hours not months
      –   Proponent has current COA for aircraft
      –   A situation exists that is defined as a condition of distress or urgency where there is, or has
          the extreme possibility of loss of life, and;
      –   Manned flight is not possible due to a hazard or the operation cannot be conducted safely
          with manned flight, and;
      –   Emergency UAS COA's shall not be considered for:
            •   Demonstration flights
            •   Flights to test capabilities
            •   Training
            •   Flights in Class B Airspace
            •   Flights over populated areas




                                                                              Federal Aviation              16
19 December 2008                                                              Administration
          Some are Easier / Some are…

• Easier:                              • Not so Easy
      – Short duration / Small            – Long Duration/Large
        Operating Area                      Operating Area
      – Remote / Unpopulated Area         – Near Populated Areas
      – Low impact Lost Link              – First Aviation activity
        Procedures                        – Complex Lost Link
      – Established aviation program        Procedures
      – Visual Flight Rules               – Instrument Flight Rules
      – Line of Sight –                   – Beyond Line of Sight –
        Communication, Command              Communications, Command
        and Control                         and Control
      – Class E/G Airspace                – Class A/C/D Airspace (no
                                            current possibility of
                                            operations in or under Class
                                            B)


                                                      Federal Aviation     17
19 December 2008                                      Administration
    UAS Challenges
 Ensuring safety of the NAS
    – For all users and public on the ground
 Safety impacts:
    – Inherent low visibility of many UAS
      aircraft - more difficult to visually detect
    – Increased time between detection and
      avoidance
    – UAS aircraft performance limits in
      collision avoidance
 Developing standards,
  procedures and separation
  standards for an industry
  already in operation
 Supporting the national defense
  expanding access requests
 Other Government Agencies into
  the mix



                                                     Federal Aviation   18
 19 December 2008                                    Administration
                        Trends

• FAA UAS Program Office has seen a 100% increase in
  COA requests from law enforcement and universities
  this past year.

• Moving from “routine” to more sophisticated UAS
  missions requiring extensive coordination with multiple
  affected ATC facilities.

• Significant increase in requests from all users for
  operations outside of restricted airspace and for
  “sterile” airspace


                                             Federal Aviation   19
19 December 2008                             Administration
                                              Possible US Army UAS
                                                  Training Site
           Herington UAS Flight Facility
     Part of the Kansas UAS Network (KSUN)     Supporting Fort Riley




                                             Hand Launched Raven




                                             Shadow UAS
                                                          Federal Aviation   20
19 December 2008                                          Administration
                                  ALL REQUIRE FAA UAS COA APPLICATION
                                             Kansas State University
                                             CQ-10A Operator Course
           Herington UAS Flight Facility
     Part of the Kansas UAS Network (KSUN)          Fall 2010

     CQ-10A SnowGoose Base UAS Operator’s Course




Educational Training, Kansas National Guard Support, Payload Development
 19 December 2008
                                                      Federal Aviation
                                                      Administration
                                                                       21
                    THREE COMMERCIAL
                        VARIANTS
                     Under Development                                        ®
                    FIRST FLIGHT 17 Feb 2010
 Open Steel Frame Outsized Cargo: Designed
   to Transport ATVs, Snowmobiles, Generators etc. Mast
   & Rotor Easily Folded with Blades back (Grasshopper
   Fashion) to Enable Towing as a Ground Trailer.


 Re-Usable Steel Frame Covered Box: Parcel
  Delivery, Plywood, PVC Pipe, Construction Material, 55
  Gallon Drums


 Expendable Disaster Relief: One Time Use
  Wooden Fuselage with Wooden Blades, Hi-Dollar
  Rotor and Stabilization System Recoverable in Ruck




                                                           Federal Aviation
    All Average About 1500 lb GWT with 1,000 lb Payloads
 19 December 2008                                          Administration
                                                                              22
                        Unmanned Autogyro Cargo Aircraft
                               that can be Towed by
                   ®              Manned Aircraft
  JA-1A Half Ton       For Remote ―Bush‖ Aviation Delivery
                            in Canada and Alaska and
                                Military Applications




                          Prototype Staged at Herington
19 December 2008
                                   for Testing
                                        Federal Aviation
                                        Administration
                                                             23
              Herington UAS Flight Facility
        Part of the Kansas UAS Network (KSUN)
                                                Questions?
                                                      Federal Aviation
                                                      Administration




Presented By:




Date:
World’s First Production Cargo UAS




  34 Knot Cruise Speed
  Low Risk Engine Off Parachute Landing
                                           Federal Aviation   25
   19 December 2008                        Administration
                                             HUFF Current UAS Operators
             Herington UAS Flight Facility
       Part of the Kansas UAS Network (KSUN)
                                              MMIST CQ-10A SnowGoose

 World’s First Cargo UAS
                                    DoD Certified UAS
 Two MMIST Owned Aircraft
  Currently Based at HUFF

 Used in Iraq & Afghanistan

 40 mph, 200 mile Range

 Up to 500 lb Payload

 Loud Speakers for Public
 Address in Disasters

 Drop Emergency Supplies

 Illumination in Post Tornado
                                                     Federal Aviation
 19 December 2008
  Communications and Camera      Air Launched From C-130 – C-17 Aircraft
                                                    Administration
                                                                           26
                     CSA Contacts


• Carl Youngblood 817-321-7722

• Michael Rizzo 817-321-7733

• Roger McGrath 817-321-7735


                   • www.faa.gov/uas

                                       Federal Aviation   27
19 December 2008                       Administration
                       Information



                   http://www.faa.gov/uas




                                       Federal Aviation   28
19 December 2008                       Administration

				
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