AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Dear AP CHEM STUDENTS, I’m looking forward to the school year and the work we’re going to do together. This packet is meant to refresh you on several things you already learned so that you have them firmly in mind for the start of school I recommend that you review your Honors Chemistry notes, and start looking at this material several weeks before school starts in the fall. This assignment will be graded Good luck, and have a wonderful and Productive summer! Sincerely, J.Boppana Chem Sheets to Memorize SOLUBILITY CHART Soluble Exceptions Insoluble Exceptions - -2 + No NO3 --- Smoking S Group IA, NH4 +2 +2 +2 Sr Ba Ca CHeating CH3COO- --- Counter CO3-2 Group IA, NH4 + Cellphones Cl- + Ag Pb +2 Productive PO4-3 Group IA, NH4 + +2 Hg2 Bullying Br- '' O (ZERO) OH- Group IA, NH4 + +2 +2 +2 Sr Ba Ca Intimidating I- '' Students SO4-2 Sr +2 Ba Pb +2 +2 +2 Hg2 Acids Bases HF – weak LiOH – strong HCl – strong NaOH– strong HBr – strong KOH – strong (all IA Metal Hydroxides) HI – strong Ca, Ba and Sr Hydroxide too H2SO4 – strong HNO3 – strong HClO3 – strong AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 HClO4 – strong All else are weak H2CO3 → H2O + CO2 (very weak acid-breaks down!) Special Reactions Metal Nonmetal metal + acid → salt + H2 nonmetal + H2O → oxy-acid metal oxide + H2O → metal hydroxide SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 metal oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate SO2 + H2O → H2SO3 metal chloride + O2 → metal chlorate N2O5 + H2O → 2 HNO3 N2O3 + H2O → 2 HNO2 P2O5 + 3H2O → 2 H3PO4 P2O3 + 3H2O → 2 H3PO3 Oxidizers Acid Base Neutral MnO4- or MnO2→ Mn+2 Cr2O7-2 → CrO4-2 MnO4- → MnO2 CrO4-2 → Cr+3 Cr2O7-2 → Cr+3 NO3- (dil) → NO NO3- (conc) → NO2 metallic ions → metallous ions free halogens → halide ions Na2O2 → NaOH HClO4 → Cl- C2O4-2 → CO2 H2O2 → O2, H2O Reducers halide ions → free halogens free metals → metal ions metalous ions → metallic ions SO3-2 → SO4-2 NO2- → NO3- free halogens (dil) → hypohalite ions free halogens (conc) → halate ions AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Colors of Complex ions Ion Color +2 blue [Cr(H2O)6] +2 blue [Cu(H2O)6] +3 blue/violet [Cu(H2O)6] +2 very pale pink [Mn(H2O)6] +2 pink [Co(H2O)6] +2 pale green [Fe(H2O)6] +2 green [Ni(H2O)6] +3 yellow/brown [Fe(H2O)6] Flame Test Colors Ion Flame color Red (various shades) Li+, Sr2+, Ca2+ Yellow/Orange Na+ Lilac K+ Green Ba2+ Blue-green Cu2+ AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 TRANSITION METAL ION COLORS +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 colorless Sc VIOLET COLORLESS Ti V VIOLET GREEN BLUE YELLOW Cr BLUE GREEN YELLOW FOR CHROMATE ORANGE FOR DICHROMATE ION Mn PALE BROWN DARK GREEN PURPLE PINK Fe PALE REDDISH GREEN BROWN Co PINK ORANGE/ YELLOW Ni GREEN Cu COLORLESS BLUE Zn Colorless Common Precipitate colors: BLUE YELLOW BLACK GREEN REDDISH WHITE BROWN Many AgI Many Many Fe(II) Many Fe(III) AgCl Copper Sulfides ppt’s. ppt’s. (II) ppt’s. PbI2 BaSO4 PbCl2 Many nontransition metal hydroxides Many nontransition metal carbonates and sulfates AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Common Tests for gases GAS TEST Hydrogen gas Squeaky pop with lighted splint Oxygen gas Re-lights glowing splint Turns limewater (Calcium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide gas solution) milky Pungent odor, turns red litmus paper Ammonia gas blue,gives dense white fumes in contact with conc.HCl fumes Common tests for cations and anions ION TEST Carbonate and Hydrogen carbonate Release CO2 gas with acids Sulfate White ppt of BaSO4 with barium ions Chloride White of AgCl with silver ions Bromide Cream ppt of AgBr with silver ions Iodide Yellow ppt of AgI with silver ions Ammonium NH3 released with hydroxide ions HALOGENS: Fluorine gas – pale yellow/green, Chlorine gas – green, Bromine liquid –orange/brown, Iodine solid – dark purple NO2 gas – orange/brown Color Changes in REDOX reactions 1) MnO4-(aq) → Mn2+(aq) (Dark Purple) →(Pale Pink) 2) Cr2O72-(aq) →Cr3+(aq) (Orange) → (Green) AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Acid/Base Indicator Color changes INDICATOR ACID BASE Methyl orange RED YELLOW Methyl red RED YELLOW Litmus RED BLUE Universal RED BLUE/PURPLE Phenolphthalein COLORLESS PINK POLYATOMIC IONS Group IIIB or Group IVB or 14 Group VB or 15 Group VIB or 16 Group VIIIB or 13 17 Charge -3 Charge -2 Charge -1 -1 NO3 nitrate BO3-3 CO3-2 NO2-1 nitrite O F borate carbonate PO4-3 SO4-2 sulfate ClO4-1 SiO3-2 phosphate SO3-2 sulfite perchlorate silicate PO3-3 ClO3-1 chlorate one member in phosphite ClO2-1 chlorite the ion family ClO-1 hypochlorite AsO4-3 arsenate SeO4-2 BrO4-1 AsO3-3 arsenite selenate perbromate SeO3-2 BrO3-1 bromate selenite BrO2-1 bromite BrO-1 hypobromite Remember: Charge -3 TeO4-2 IO4-1 ions with the telurate periodate greater # of two members in TeO3-2 IO3-1 iodate -1 oxygens: ATE the ion family telurite IO2 iodite ions with the IO-1 fewer # of hypoiodite oxygens: ITE Charge -2 Charge -1 adding hydrogen in four members in front makes the ion family BI and reduces charge by 1 AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Other important polyatomic ions to remember: acetate C2H3O2-1 chromate CrO4-2 bisulfite HSO3-1 -1 hydroxide OH dichromate Cr2O7-2 bisulfate HSO4-1 permanganate MnO4-1 peroxide O2-2 bicarbonate HCO3-1 -1 cyanide CN oxalate C2O4-2 biphosphite HPO3-2 hydronium H3O+1 thiosulfate S2O3-2 biphosphate HPO4-2 +1 ammonium NH4 tartrate C2H4O6-2 hydrogen biphosphite H2PO3-1 I.NOMENCLATURE: NAMING AND WRITING FORMULAS OF CHEM.COMPOUNDS Formula Name 1. P4O10 2. ZnAt2 3. SBr6 4. CaF2 5. P2S3 6. carbon monoxide 7. sodium hydride 8. aluminum selenide 9. xenon hexafluoride 10. dinitrogen monoxide 11. KClO3 12. Pb(OH)2 13. Ca(MnO4)2 14. N2O4 15. Ti(HPO4)2 16. manganese (VII) oxide 17. francium dichromate 18. copper (II) dihydrogen phosphate 19. silver chromate 20. ammonium oxalate 21. (NH4)2SO3 AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 22. Ni3(PO4)2 23. Fe(IO2)3 24. NaBrO2 25. H3PO3 26. tartaric acid 27. hydrotellluric acid 28. mercury (I) nitrate 29. vanadium (V) oxide 30. tetraphosphorous decaoxide II. Significant Figures 1. Give the number of sig figs in each of the following numbers a. 123 b. 0.078 c. 89007 d. 12,000 e. 1,000,000,000.0 f. 0.009 g. 23,000. h. 34,000 i. 34.89 j. 101 2. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs. a. 1.23 + 75 b. 1.89 - .20 c. 45.6 x 8.2 d. 234/0.298 e. 0.887 + 0.3 f. 2340 - 100 g. 12.45 x 3 h. 25,600/ 3.0 3. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs a. 45.0 x 9.0 + 89.22/ 75 b. (2.88 + .5) x ( 23,000 - 0.11) c. 0.8897 x 2.15 + 0.002/.1 d. (8 + 9)/(34.0 – 20.) III. Reactions Please write net ionic balanced reactions (with states of matter included) for the following questions on a separate piece of paper. You’ll have reactions that are classified as precipitation, acid-base, or redox (reduction-oxidation…like, synthesis, decomposition, and single displacement/replacement). Any ion has an aqueous state of matter. For acid-base reactions, strong acids (HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HClO4, and HNO3) and strong bases (metal ions in groups 1 and 2 paired with hydroxide (OH-) completely dissociate. Weak acids and bases do not. For precipitation (and some redox) reactions, use the solubility rules below to determine which salts are soluble (aqueous) or insoluble (solid). Only aqueous solutions can dissociate…solids, liquids, and gases cannot. 1. Salts containing Group I elements are soluble (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+). Exceptions to this rule are rare. Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble. 2. Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) and acetate ion (C2H3O2) are generally soluble. AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 3. Salts containing Cl -, Br -, F-, and I - are generally soluble. Important exceptions to this rule are halide salts of Ag+, Pb2+, and (Hg2)2+. Thus, AgCl, PbBr2, and Hg2Cl2 are all insoluble. 4. Most silver salts are insoluble. AgNO3 and AgC2H3O2 are common soluble salts of silver; virtually anything else is insoluble. 5. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include BaSO4, PbSO4, Ag2SO4 and SrSO4 . 6. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements are soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+ are insoluble. Thus, Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3, and Co(OH)2 are not soluble. 7. Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble. Thus, CdS, FeS, ZnS, and Ag2S are all insoluble. Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead sulfides are also insoluble. 8. Most chromates, phosphates, bicarbonates, and carbonates are frequently insoluble except those with alkali metals and ammonium. Acid-Base Example: Hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of zinc hydroxide. *First, write a molecular equation. HCl + Zn(OH)2 ZnCl2 + H2O *Next, you need to see what dissociates and what does not. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, so it will completely dissociate into its ions while zinc hydroxide is a weak base, so it will not dissociate. Zinc chloride is a soluble salt according to the solubility rules above, so it will also dissociate into its ions. *Wait to balance the reaction until the end. H+ + Cl- + Zn(OH)2 Zn+2 + Cl- + H2O *Last, you need to see what can be cancelled out. Species that are identical on both sides of the reaction, called spectator ions, can be cancelled out. Cl- is present on both sides of the reaction and therefore can be cancelled out…giving you your net ionic reaction that you’ll now balance and put back on states of matter. 2 H+ (aq) + Zn(OH)2 (aq) Zn+2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l ) Redox Example: Silver metal reacts with a solution of sodium nitrate. Ag + NaNO3 Na + AgNO3 *Ag is a solid. NaNO3 is a soluble salt according to the solubility rules above, so it will dissociate into its ions. Na is a solid. AgNO3 is also a soluble salt and will dissociate. Ag + Na+ + NO3- Na + Ag++ NO3- AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 *NO3- is a spectator ion. Ag (s) + Na+ (aq) Na (s) + Ag+ (aq) Precipitation Example: Barium acetate is mixed with potassium sulfate. Ba(C2H3O2)2 + K2SO4 BaSO4 + KC2H3O2 *According to the solubility rules, barium sulfate is the only insoluble salt. So, everything else will dissociate. Ba+2 + C2H3O2- + K+ + SO4-2 BaSO4 + K+ + C2H3O2- *The potassium ions and acetate ions can be cancelled out. Ba+2 (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) BaSO4 (s) ***Here are your questions. Please do these on a separate piece of paper. 1. Solid sodium bicarbonate is mixed with copper (II) nitrate. 2. Magnesium oxide is heated. 3. Acetic acid is added to a solution of ammonia. 4. Iron (III) chloride is mixed with silver sulfite. 5. A solid piece of aluminum is put into a solution of nickel (II) chloride. 6. A solution of lithium chloride is added to a solution of lead (IV) nitrite. 7. Sulfuric acid is added to a solution of aluminum hydroxide. 8. Cadmium nitrate is added to sodium sulfide. 9. Chromium (III) sulfate is added to ammonium carbonate. 10. Methane combusts in air. In each of the equations below, the reactants are written correctly. You must write the correct products and then balance the equation. It might be useful to identify the type of chemical reaction before writing the products. 1. CaCO3 2. Al + O2 3. Fe + CuSO4 4. C6H12 + O2 5. Zn + H2SO4 6. Cl2 + MgI2 7. NaOH AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 8. Fe + HCl 9. NaOH + H3PO4 10. (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 11. AgNO3 + K2SO4 12. Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 13. Na + H2O 14. KClO3 15. Al2(SO4)3 + Ca3(PO4)2 16. SO2 + H2O 17. (NH4)3PO4 + Ba(OH)2 18. Ca(OH)2 + HNO3 19. C3H8 + O2 20. Li + S IV.Electron Structure and Periodicity *Please do all questions on a separate piece of paper. *You will need to know about valence electrons, electron shells, orbital notation, electron configuration, atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity to do these questions. 1. Draw the orbital notation for nickel. 2. How many unpaired electrons are in arsenic? 3. Write the electron configuration for palladium. 4. How many valence electrons are in mercury? 5. Write the electron configuration for uranium. 6. Write the noble gas electron configuration for lead. 7. Which is more electronegative, sulfur or chlorine, and why? 8. Which has a larger atomic radius, potassium or bromine, and why? 9. Which has the smaller ionization energy, nitrogen or phosphorus, and why? 10. Write the noble gas electron configuration for copper. AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Short Answer question from previous AP EXAM 11. Use the principles of atomic structure and/or chemical bonding to explain each of the following. In each part, your answer must include references to both substances. a. The atomic radius of Li is larger than that of Be. b. The second ionization energy of K is greater than the second ionization energy of Ca. c. The carbon-to-carbon bond energy in C2H4 is greater than it is in C2H6. d. The boiling point of Cl2 is lower than the boiling point of Br2. Atomic Structure Sample problems: 12. Give the symbols for the isotopes of Carbon, nitrogen and uranium and Determine the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in each isotope. 13. Given the data below determine the average atomic mass Isotope % Abundance Isotopic Mass a. Sb-121 57.25% 120.9038 amu Sb-123 42.75% 122.0041 amu b. Ag-107 51.82% 106.90509 amu Ag-109 48.18% 108.9047 amu Mole Concept Sample Problems 14. Convert each of the following to moles. a. 12.64 g NaOH b. 3.00 x 1024 atoms Au c. 40.0 L of Ne gas d. 800. g CaBr2 e. 3.011 x 1022 molecules H2O f. 6.78 L of Ar gas 15. Do the following a. Given 0.250 moles of krypton determine (i) the mass (ii) the number of atoms (iii) the volume at STP b. Given 0.750 moles of oxygen determine V. Bonding *Please do all questions on a separate piece of paper. *You will need to know about Lewis structures, covalent bonding, shape names, and bond angles to do these questions. *For the following questions, draw the Lewis Structure, name the shape, and state the bond angle. 1. SeCl2 2. NO3-1 3. OF2 4. BF3 5. SO4-2 AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 6. NH4+ 7. CO2 8. CH3NH2 9. HCOOH 10. HCN VI.Stoichiometry *Please do all questions on a separate piece of paper. *You will need to be able to write molecular chemical reactions and do mole conversions to do these questions. 1. 30.5 g of sodium metal reacts with a solution of excess lithium bromide. How many grams of lithium metal are produced? 2. How many molecules are in 100. L of potassium hydroxide solution at STP? 3. Propane, C3H8, undergoes combustion. How many grams of propane are needed to produce 45.9 g of water? 4. How many moles are in 3.02 x 1026 molecules of water? 5. Find the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound containing 11.66 g iron and 5.01 g oxygen if the molar mass of the compound is 320 g/mol. 6. A solution of 3.50 g of sodium phosphate is mixed with a solution containing 6.40 g of barium nitrate. How many grams of barium phosphate can be formed? 7. Find the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound containing 5.28 g of tin and 3.37 g of fluorine if the molar mass of the compound is 584.1 g/mol. 8. Octane, C8H18, undergoes combustion. How many grams of oxygen are needed to burn 10.0 g of octane? 9. Sodium azide, NaN3, decomposes into its elements. How many grams of sodium azide are required to form 34.8 g of nitrogen gas? 10. Ammonia reacts with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide and water. How many grams of nitrogen monoxide are formed when 1.50 g of ammonia react with 2.75 g of oxygen gas? AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 Short Answer Problems from Previous AP EXAMS 2. The reaction between silver ion and solid zinc is represented by the following equation: 2Ag+ (aq) + Zn (s) Zn+2 (aq) + 2Ag (s) A 1.50 g sample of Zn is combined with 250 mL of 0.110 M AgNO3 at 25°C. a. Identify the limiting reagent. Show calculations to support your answer. b. On the basis of the limiting reactant that you identified in part (i), determine the value of [Zn+2] after the reaction is complete. 3. Consider the hydrocarbon pentane, C5H12 (molar mass 72.15 g). a. Write the balanced equation for the combustion of pentane to yield carbon dioxide and water. b. What volume of dry carbon dioxide, measured at 25°C and 785 mmHg, will result from the complete combustion of 2.50 g pentane? 4) Find the mass percent of nitrogen in each of the following compounds: a. NO b. NO2 c. N2O4 d. N2O 5) Benzene contains only carbon and hydrogen and has a molar mass of 78.1 g/mol. Analysis shows the compound to be 7.74% H by mass. Find the empirical and molecular formulas of benzene. 6) Calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating, producing calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas. a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. b. How many grams of calcium oxide will be produced after 12.25 g of calcium carbonate is completely decomposed? c. What volume of carbon dioxide gas is produced from this amount of calcium carbonate, at STP? AP Chemistry Summer Review Winston Churchill High School 2011-2012 7) Hydrogen gas and bromine gas react to form hydrogen bromide gas. a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. b. 3.2 g of hydrogen gas and 9.5 g of bromine gas react. Which is the limiting reagent? c. How many grams of hydrogen bromide gas can be produced using the amounts in (b)? d. How many grams of the excess reactant is left unreacted? e. What volume of HBr, measured at STP, is produced in (b)? 8) When ammonia gas, oxygen gas and methane gas (CH4) are combined, the products are hydrogen cyanide gas and water. a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. b. Calculate the mass of each product produced when 225 g of oxygen gas is reacted with an excess of the other two reactants. c. If the actual yield of the experiment in (b) is 105 g of HCN, calculate the percent yield. 9) When solutions of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate are combined, the products are potassium nitrate and lead (II) iodide. a. Write a balanced equation for this reaction, including (aq) and (s). b. Calculate the mass of precipitate produced when 50.0mL of 0.45M potassium iodide solution and 75mL of 0.55M lead (II) nitrate solution are mixed. c. Calculate the volume of 0.50M potassium iodide required to react completely with 50.0mL of 0.50M lead (II) nitrate.
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