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AP CHEMISTRY

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					                               AP Chemistry
                              Summer Review
                  Winston Churchill High School                         2011-2012

Dear AP CHEM STUDENTS,

I’m looking forward to the school year and the work we’re going to do together. This
packet is meant to refresh you on several things you already learned so that you have
them firmly in mind for the start of school I recommend that you review your Honors
Chemistry notes, and start looking at this material several weeks before school starts in
the fall. This assignment will be graded

Good luck, and have a wonderful and Productive summer!

Sincerely,
J.Boppana

                                Chem Sheets to Memorize

                                SOLUBILITY CHART
                    Soluble        Exceptions                                  Insoluble      Exceptions
                            -                                                         -2                    +
      No             NO3                  ---                   Smoking           S         Group IA, NH4
                                                                                              +2   +2   +2
                                                                                            Sr Ba Ca
  CHeating         CH3COO-                ---                   Counter          CO3-2      Group IA, NH4
                                                                                                            +


  Cellphones          Cl-                +
                                       Ag Pb
                                                   +2
                                                               Productive        PO4-3      Group IA, NH4
                                                                                                            +
                                            +2
                                        Hg2
   Bullying           Br-                    ''                O (ZERO)          OH-        Group IA, NH4
                                                                                                            +
                                                                                              +2   +2   +2
                                                                                            Sr Ba Ca
 Intimidating          I-                    ''

   Students          SO4-2        Sr
                                    +2
                                         Ba Pb
                                              +2        +2
                                             +2
                                         Hg2



Acids                                                        Bases
HF – weak                                                    LiOH – strong
HCl – strong                                                 NaOH– strong
HBr – strong                                                 KOH – strong (all IA Metal Hydroxides)
HI – strong                                                  Ca, Ba and Sr Hydroxide too
H2SO4 – strong
HNO3 – strong
HClO3 – strong
                                AP Chemistry
                               Summer Review
                   Winston Churchill High School               2011-2012
HClO4 – strong
All else are weak
H2CO3 → H2O + CO2
(very weak acid-breaks down!)


Special Reactions
Metal                                                Nonmetal
metal + acid → salt + H2                             nonmetal + H2O → oxy-acid
metal oxide + H2O → metal hydroxide                  SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
metal oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate                  SO2 + H2O → H2SO3
metal chloride + O2 → metal chlorate                 N2O5 + H2O → 2 HNO3
                                                     N2O3 + H2O → 2 HNO2
                                                     P2O5 + 3H2O → 2 H3PO4
                                                     P2O3 + 3H2O → 2 H3PO3



Oxidizers
Acid                                    Base                     Neutral
MnO4- or MnO2→ Mn+2                     Cr2O7-2 → CrO4-2         MnO4- → MnO2
CrO4-2 → Cr+3
Cr2O7-2 → Cr+3
NO3- (dil) → NO
NO3- (conc) → NO2

metallic ions → metallous ions
free halogens → halide ions
Na2O2 → NaOH
HClO4 → Cl-
C2O4-2 → CO2
H2O2 → O2, H2O

Reducers
halide ions → free halogens
free metals → metal ions
metalous ions → metallic ions
SO3-2 → SO4-2
NO2- → NO3-
free halogens (dil) → hypohalite ions
free halogens (conc) → halate ions
                                    AP Chemistry
                                   Summer Review
                       Winston Churchill High School        2011-2012

Colors of Complex ions
Ion                                           Color
             +2                               blue
[Cr(H2O)6]
              +2                              blue
[Cu(H2O)6]
              +3                              blue/violet
[Cu(H2O)6]
                  +2                          very pale pink
[Mn(H2O)6]
              +2                              pink
[Co(H2O)6]
             +2                               pale green
[Fe(H2O)6]
             +2                               green
[Ni(H2O)6]
             +3                               yellow/brown
[Fe(H2O)6]



Flame Test Colors
                        Ion                                    Flame color

                                            Red (various shades)
Li+, Sr2+, Ca2+
                                            Yellow/Orange
Na+
                                            Lilac
K+
                                            Green
Ba2+
                                            Blue-green
Cu2+
                                 AP Chemistry
                                Summer Review
                    Winston Churchill High School                 2011-2012
TRANSITION METAL ION COLORS
     +1           +2       +3                +4              +5         +6           +7

                                 colorless
Sc
                                 VIOLET      COLORLESS
Ti
V                    VIOLET      GREEN       BLUE            YELLOW

Cr                   BLUE        GREEN                                  YELLOW FOR
                                                                        CHROMATE
                                                                        ORANGE FOR
                                                                        DICHROMATE
                                                                        ION
Mn                   PALE                    BROWN                      DARK GREEN   PURPLE
                     PINK
Fe                   PALE        REDDISH
                     GREEN       BROWN
Co                   PINK        ORANGE/
                                 YELLOW
Ni                   GREEN

Cu      COLORLESS    BLUE

Zn                   Colorless



Common Precipitate colors:
                BLUE             YELLOW           BLACK            GREEN         REDDISH
WHITE
                                                                                 BROWN
                Many             AgI              Many             Many Fe(II)   Many Fe(III)
AgCl            Copper                            Sulfides         ppt’s.        ppt’s.
                (II) ppt’s.
                                 PbI2
BaSO4

PbCl2

Many
nontransition
metal
hydroxides

Many
nontransition
metal
carbonates
and sulfates
                              AP Chemistry
                             Summer Review
                 Winston Churchill High School         2011-2012

Common Tests for gases

                 GAS                                    TEST
             Hydrogen gas               Squeaky pop with lighted splint

              Oxygen gas                Re-lights glowing splint

                                        Turns limewater (Calcium Hydroxide
          Carbon Dioxide gas            solution) milky
                                        Pungent odor, turns red litmus paper
             Ammonia gas                blue,gives dense white fumes in
                                        contact with conc.HCl fumes


Common tests for cations and anions
                ION                                          TEST
     Carbonate and Hydrogen carbonate   Release CO2 gas with acids

                 Sulfate                White ppt of BaSO4 with barium ions

                 Chloride               White of AgCl with silver ions

                 Bromide                Cream ppt of AgBr with silver ions

                  Iodide                Yellow ppt of AgI with silver ions

               Ammonium                 NH3 released with hydroxide ions



HALOGENS:

Fluorine gas – pale yellow/green,
Chlorine gas – green,
Bromine liquid –orange/brown,
Iodine solid – dark purple

NO2 gas – orange/brown

Color Changes in REDOX reactions

1) MnO4-(aq) → Mn2+(aq)
  (Dark Purple) →(Pale Pink)

2) Cr2O72-(aq) →Cr3+(aq)
  (Orange) → (Green)
                                  AP Chemistry
                                 Summer Review
                     Winston Churchill High School            2011-2012

Acid/Base Indicator Color changes

       INDICATOR                           ACID                             BASE
Methyl orange                              RED                             YELLOW
Methyl red                                 RED                             YELLOW
Litmus                                     RED                              BLUE
Universal                                  RED                           BLUE/PURPLE
Phenolphthalein                         COLORLESS                           PINK




POLYATOMIC IONS
   Group IIIB or      Group IVB or 14    Group VB or 15     Group VIB or 16      Group VIIIB or
        13                                                                             17
     Charge -3            Charge -2         Charge -1
                                           -1
                                        NO3      nitrate
  BO3-3               CO3-2             NO2-1    nitrite            O                   F
  borate              carbonate


                                        PO4-3               SO4-2      sulfate   ClO4-1
                      SiO3-2            phosphate           SO3-2      sulfite   perchlorate
                      silicate          PO3-3                                    ClO3-1 chlorate
  one member in                         phosphite                                ClO2-1 chlorite
  the ion family                                                                 ClO-1
                                                                                 hypochlorite
                                        AsO4-3   arsenate   SeO4-2               BrO4-1
                                        AsO3-3   arsenite   selenate             perbromate
                                                            SeO3-2               BrO3-1 bromate
                                                            selenite             BrO2-1 bromite
                                                                                 BrO-1
                                                                                 hypobromite
  Remember:                                Charge -3        TeO4-2               IO4-1
   ions with the                                           telurate             periodate
    greater # of                        two members in      TeO3-2               IO3-1   iodate
                                                                                     -1
    oxygens: ATE                        the ion family      telurite             IO2     iodite
   ions with the                                                                IO-1
    fewer # of                                                                   hypoiodite
    oxygens: ITE                                               Charge -2             Charge -1
   adding
    hydrogen in                                                                  four members in
    front makes                                                                  the ion family
    BI and reduces
    charge by 1
                                 AP Chemistry
                                Summer Review
                    Winston Churchill High School                   2011-2012

Other important   polyatomic ions to remember:
 acetate           C2H3O2-1         chromate         CrO4-2             bisulfite      HSO3-1
                       -1
 hydroxide         OH               dichromate       Cr2O7-2            bisulfate      HSO4-1
 permanganate      MnO4-1           peroxide         O2-2               bicarbonate    HCO3-1
                      -1
 cyanide           CN               oxalate          C2O4-2             biphosphite    HPO3-2
 hydronium         H3O+1            thiosulfate      S2O3-2             biphosphate    HPO4-2
                         +1
 ammonium          NH4              tartrate         C2H4O6-2           hydrogen biphosphite
                                                                        H2PO3-1




I.NOMENCLATURE: NAMING AND WRITING FORMULAS OF CHEM.COMPOUNDS
   Formula                         Name
1. P4O10

2. ZnAt2

3. SBr6

4. CaF2

5. P2S3

6.                                                carbon monoxide

7.                                                sodium hydride

8.                                                aluminum selenide

9.                                                xenon hexafluoride

10.                                               dinitrogen monoxide

11. KClO3

12. Pb(OH)2

13. Ca(MnO4)2

14. N2O4

15. Ti(HPO4)2

16.                                               manganese (VII) oxide

17.                                               francium dichromate

18.                                               copper (II) dihydrogen phosphate

19.                                               silver chromate

20.                                               ammonium oxalate

21. (NH4)2SO3
                                  AP Chemistry
                                 Summer Review
                     Winston Churchill High School                2011-2012
22. Ni3(PO4)2

23. Fe(IO2)3

24. NaBrO2

25. H3PO3

26.                                              tartaric acid

27.                                              hydrotellluric acid

28.                                              mercury (I) nitrate

29.                                              vanadium (V) oxide

30.                                              tetraphosphorous decaoxide


                                   II. Significant Figures
1. Give the number of sig figs in each of the following numbers
a. 123 b. 0.078 c. 89007 d. 12,000 e. 1,000,000,000.0
f. 0.009 g. 23,000. h. 34,000 i. 34.89 j. 101
2. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs.
a. 1.23 + 75 b. 1.89 - .20 c. 45.6 x 8.2 d. 234/0.298
e. 0.887 + 0.3 f. 2340 - 100 g. 12.45 x 3 h. 25,600/ 3.0
3. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs
a. 45.0 x 9.0 + 89.22/ 75 b. (2.88 + .5) x ( 23,000 - 0.11)
c. 0.8897 x 2.15 + 0.002/.1 d. (8 + 9)/(34.0 – 20.)

                                        III. Reactions

Please write net ionic balanced reactions (with states of matter included) for the following
questions on a separate piece of paper. You’ll have reactions that are classified as
precipitation, acid-base, or redox (reduction-oxidation…like, synthesis, decomposition, and
single displacement/replacement).

         Any ion has an aqueous state of matter.

         For acid-base reactions, strong acids (HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HClO4, and HNO3) and
          strong bases (metal ions in groups 1 and 2 paired with hydroxide (OH-) completely
          dissociate. Weak acids and bases do not.

         For precipitation (and some redox) reactions, use the solubility rules below to
          determine which salts are soluble (aqueous) or insoluble (solid). Only aqueous
          solutions can dissociate…solids, liquids, and gases cannot.

      1. Salts containing Group I elements are soluble (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+). Exceptions to
         this rule are rare. Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble.
      2. Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) and acetate ion (C2H3O2) are generally soluble.
                                 AP Chemistry
                                Summer Review
                    Winston Churchill High School                2011-2012

   3. Salts containing Cl -, Br -, F-, and I - are generally soluble. Important exceptions to
      this rule are halide salts of Ag+, Pb2+, and (Hg2)2+. Thus, AgCl, PbBr2, and Hg2Cl2 are
      all insoluble.
   4. Most silver salts are insoluble. AgNO3 and AgC2H3O2 are common soluble salts of
      silver; virtually anything else is insoluble.
   5. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include BaSO4,
      PbSO4, Ag2SO4 and SrSO4 .
   6. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements
      are soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are slightly
      soluble. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+ are insoluble. Thus, Fe(OH)3,
      Al(OH)3, and Co(OH)2 are not soluble.
   7. Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble. Thus, CdS, FeS, ZnS, and
      Ag2S are all insoluble. Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead sulfides are also
      insoluble.
   8. Most chromates, phosphates, bicarbonates, and carbonates are frequently insoluble
      except those with alkali metals and ammonium.


Acid-Base Example: Hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of zinc hydroxide.

*First, write a molecular equation.

HCl + Zn(OH)2  ZnCl2 + H2O

*Next, you need to see what dissociates and what does not. Hydrochloric acid is a strong
acid, so it will completely dissociate into its ions while zinc hydroxide is a weak base, so it
will not dissociate. Zinc chloride is a soluble salt according to the solubility rules above, so it
will also dissociate into its ions.

*Wait to balance the reaction until the end.

H+ + Cl- + Zn(OH)2  Zn+2 + Cl- + H2O

*Last, you need to see what can be cancelled out. Species that are identical on both sides of
the reaction, called spectator ions, can be cancelled out. Cl- is present on both sides of the
reaction and therefore can be cancelled out…giving you your net ionic reaction that you’ll
now balance and put back on states of matter.

2 H+ (aq) + Zn(OH)2 (aq)  Zn+2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l )

Redox Example: Silver metal reacts with a solution of sodium nitrate.

Ag + NaNO3  Na + AgNO3

*Ag is a solid. NaNO3 is a soluble salt according to the solubility rules above, so it will
dissociate into its ions. Na is a solid. AgNO3 is also a soluble salt and will dissociate.

Ag + Na+ + NO3-  Na + Ag++ NO3-
                                AP Chemistry
                               Summer Review
                   Winston Churchill High School               2011-2012

*NO3- is a spectator ion.

Ag (s) + Na+ (aq)  Na (s) + Ag+ (aq)

Precipitation Example: Barium acetate is mixed with potassium sulfate.

Ba(C2H3O2)2 + K2SO4  BaSO4 + KC2H3O2

*According to the solubility rules, barium sulfate is the only insoluble salt. So, everything
else will dissociate.

Ba+2 + C2H3O2- + K+ + SO4-2  BaSO4 + K+ + C2H3O2-

*The potassium ions and acetate ions can be cancelled out.

Ba+2 (aq) + SO4-2 (aq)  BaSO4 (s)

***Here are your questions. Please do these on a separate piece of paper.

   1. Solid sodium bicarbonate is mixed with copper (II) nitrate.
   2. Magnesium oxide is heated.
   3. Acetic acid is added to a solution of ammonia.
   4. Iron (III) chloride is mixed with silver sulfite.
   5. A solid piece of aluminum is put into a solution of nickel (II) chloride.
   6. A solution of lithium chloride is added to a solution of lead (IV) nitrite.
   7. Sulfuric acid is added to a solution of aluminum hydroxide.
   8. Cadmium nitrate is added to sodium sulfide.
   9. Chromium (III) sulfate is added to ammonium carbonate.
   10. Methane combusts in air.

In each of the equations below, the reactants are written correctly. You must write the
correct products and then balance the equation. It might be useful to identify the type of
chemical reaction before writing the products.

   1. CaCO3 

   2. Al + O2 

   3. Fe + CuSO4 

   4. C6H12 + O2 

   5. Zn + H2SO4 

   6. Cl2 + MgI2 

   7. NaOH 
                                AP Chemistry
                               Summer Review
                   Winston Churchill High School              2011-2012

   8. Fe + HCl 

   9. NaOH + H3PO4 

   10. (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 

   11. AgNO3 + K2SO4 

   12. Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 

   13. Na + H2O 

   14. KClO3 

   15. Al2(SO4)3 + Ca3(PO4)2 

   16. SO2 + H2O 

   17. (NH4)3PO4 + Ba(OH)2 

   18. Ca(OH)2 + HNO3 

   19. C3H8 + O2 

   20. Li + S 

                     IV.Electron Structure and Periodicity

*Please do all questions on a separate piece of paper.
*You will need to know about valence electrons, electron shells, orbital notation, electron
configuration, atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity to do these questions.

   1. Draw the orbital notation for nickel.
   2. How many unpaired electrons are in arsenic?
   3. Write the electron configuration for palladium.
   4. How many valence electrons are in mercury?
   5. Write the electron configuration for uranium.
   6. Write the noble gas electron configuration for lead.
   7. Which is more electronegative, sulfur or chlorine, and why?
   8. Which has a larger atomic radius, potassium or bromine, and why?
   9. Which has the smaller ionization energy, nitrogen or phosphorus, and why?
   10. Write the noble gas electron configuration for copper.
                                AP Chemistry
                               Summer Review
                   Winston Churchill High School            2011-2012

                   Short Answer question from previous AP EXAM

11. Use the principles of atomic structure and/or chemical bonding to explain each of the
following. In each part, your answer must include references to both substances.
       a. The atomic radius of Li is larger than that of Be.
       b. The second ionization energy of K is greater than the second ionization energy
           of Ca.
       c. The carbon-to-carbon bond energy in C2H4 is greater than it is in C2H6.
       d. The boiling point of Cl2 is lower than the boiling point of Br2.

                       Atomic Structure Sample problems:
12. Give the symbols for the isotopes of Carbon, nitrogen and uranium and Determine
the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in each isotope.

13. Given the data below determine the average atomic mass

Isotope %            Abundance Isotopic Mass
a. Sb-121 57.25%      120.9038 amu
Sb-123 42.75%        122.0041 amu

b. Ag-107 51.82%     106.90509 amu
Ag-109 48.18%        108.9047 amu

                           Mole Concept Sample Problems
14. Convert each of the following to moles.
a. 12.64 g NaOH      b. 3.00 x 1024 atoms Au       c. 40.0 L of Ne gas
d. 800. g CaBr2      e. 3.011 x 1022 molecules H2O f. 6.78 L of Ar gas

15. Do the following
a. Given 0.250 moles of krypton determine
(i) the mass (ii) the number of atoms (iii) the volume at STP
b. Given 0.750 moles of oxygen determine

                                      V. Bonding

*Please do all questions on a separate piece of paper.
*You will need to know about Lewis structures, covalent bonding, shape names, and bond
angles to do these questions.

*For the following questions, draw the Lewis Structure, name the shape, and state the bond
angle.
   1. SeCl2
   2. NO3-1
   3. OF2
   4. BF3
   5. SO4-2
                               AP Chemistry
                              Summer Review
                  Winston Churchill High School             2011-2012
   6. NH4+
   7. CO2
   8. CH3NH2
   9. HCOOH
   10. HCN

                                  VI.Stoichiometry

*Please do all questions on a separate piece of paper.
*You will need to be able to write molecular chemical reactions and do mole conversions to
do these questions.

   1. 30.5 g of sodium metal reacts with a solution of excess lithium bromide. How many
      grams of lithium metal are produced?

   2. How many molecules are in 100. L of potassium hydroxide solution at STP?


   3. Propane, C3H8, undergoes combustion. How many grams of propane are needed to
      produce 45.9 g of water?

   4. How many moles are in 3.02 x 1026 molecules of water?


   5. Find the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound containing 11.66 g iron
      and 5.01 g oxygen if the molar mass of the compound is 320 g/mol.

   6. A solution of 3.50 g of sodium phosphate is mixed with a solution containing 6.40 g
      of barium nitrate. How many grams of barium phosphate can be formed?


   7. Find the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound containing 5.28 g of tin
      and 3.37 g of fluorine if the molar mass of the compound is 584.1 g/mol.

   8. Octane, C8H18, undergoes combustion. How many grams of oxygen are needed to
      burn 10.0 g of octane?


   9. Sodium azide, NaN3, decomposes into its elements. How many grams of sodium
      azide are required to form 34.8 g of nitrogen gas?

   10. Ammonia reacts with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide and water. How many
       grams of nitrogen monoxide are formed when 1.50 g of ammonia react with 2.75 g of
       oxygen gas?
                               AP Chemistry
                              Summer Review
                  Winston Churchill High School               2011-2012


                 Short Answer Problems from Previous AP EXAMS

2. The reaction between silver ion and solid zinc is represented by the following
   equation:
             2Ag+ (aq) + Zn (s)  Zn+2 (aq) + 2Ag (s)

      A 1.50 g sample of Zn is combined with 250 mL of 0.110 M AgNO3 at 25°C.

          a. Identify the limiting reagent. Show calculations to support your answer.

          b. On the basis of the limiting reactant that you identified in part (i),
             determine the value of [Zn+2] after the reaction is complete.

3. Consider the hydrocarbon pentane, C5H12 (molar mass 72.15 g).
         a. Write the balanced equation for the combustion of pentane to yield carbon
             dioxide and water.

          b. What volume of dry carbon dioxide, measured at 25°C and 785 mmHg,
             will result from the complete combustion of 2.50 g pentane?


4) Find the mass percent of nitrogen in each of the following compounds:

   a. NO
   b. NO2
   c. N2O4
   d. N2O

5) Benzene contains only carbon and hydrogen and has a molar mass of 78.1 g/mol.
    Analysis shows the compound to be 7.74% H by mass. Find the empirical and
    molecular formulas of benzene.

6) Calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating, producing calcium oxide and carbon
   dioxide gas.

   a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.

   b. How many grams of calcium oxide will be produced after 12.25 g of calcium
       carbonate is completely decomposed?

   c. What volume of carbon dioxide gas is produced from this amount of calcium
       carbonate, at STP?
                               AP Chemistry
                              Summer Review
                  Winston Churchill High School               2011-2012


7) Hydrogen gas and bromine gas react to form hydrogen bromide gas.

   a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.

   b. 3.2 g of hydrogen gas and 9.5 g of bromine gas react. Which is the limiting
       reagent?

   c. How many grams of hydrogen bromide gas can be produced using the amounts in
       (b)?

   d. How many grams of the excess reactant is left unreacted?

   e. What volume of HBr, measured at STP, is produced in (b)?

8) When ammonia gas, oxygen gas and methane gas (CH4) are combined, the products
   are hydrogen cyanide gas and water.

   a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.

   b. Calculate the mass of each product produced when 225 g of oxygen gas is reacted
       with an excess of the other two reactants.

   c. If the actual yield of the experiment in (b) is 105 g of HCN, calculate the percent
       yield.

9) When solutions of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate are combined, the products
   are potassium nitrate and lead (II) iodide.

   a. Write a balanced equation for this reaction, including (aq) and (s).

   b. Calculate the mass of precipitate produced when 50.0mL of 0.45M potassium
       iodide solution and 75mL of 0.55M lead (II) nitrate solution are mixed.

c. Calculate the volume of 0.50M potassium iodide required to react completely with
    50.0mL of 0.50M lead (II) nitrate.

				
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