Anna Story, RN, MS, MSN
Online Instructional Designer
What is Instructional Design? ( ID)
"the systematic development of
instructional specifications using learning
and instructional theory to ensure the
quality of instruction."
Seels, B. and Glasgow,Z. (1990).
Nursing Process and ID : Different?
Subjective Assess Needs
Objective Analyze Learners
Assessment Create Objectives
Plan Develop Materials
The Keys in PPT:
Educational Objectives Always Drive the
Technology Not Vice Versa.
PPT should supplement not replace lecture
Designing to use a PPT in-class may be
different from one put on the Web.
Brief notes and bullets
Study guide? Include blanks?
Could make speaker notes available if online.
If save the PPT presentation as an html, save for
Netscape and Internet Explorer.
Can also save as a PPT and post online, but.
Student must have the viewer
Benefits of Using PPT (Cleland,
Multimedia: Animation, video and sound
Links to the WWW: Simple access to other resources.
Editing: Can easily update
Distribution: Printing or exporting to WWW
Cost: Low cost, assuming projection facilities are available
Non-linear: Have capability of breaking away from linear
presentation of materials to non-linear organization models.
Lack of interactivity: Teacher no longer interacts with the media.
Promotes passive learning.
Resolution: Best resolution is 1024 X 768 but 35 mm slides are 4000 X
Brightness: Room lights must be dimmed which promotes sleeping
and reduced interaction
Pacing: PPT slides can be displayed very quickly, leaves illusion that
the pace is too quick.
Distractions: Some get too carried away with bells and whistles and
forget the educational objectives of the presentation.
Linear straight jacket: Although have the ability to do non-linear
presentation, can get locked into linear mind-set.
Twelve Tips for Effective PPT
1. Develop a visual story board or representation for your
presentation, keep it in front of you throughout
2. Use sound and video only for educational purposes.
3. Look for relevant ways to provide learning cues, such
as color and icons.
Use the same color when discussing the same topic.
Use icons that represent a topic or step.
Serif or San Serif?
4. Pre-select a standard sans-serif font for clarity and
Serif is the little tail added at the end of letters, for
example in Times New Roman.
This is Times New Roman. See the little tails?
Sans serif means without the tails, Arial.
This is Arial. Notice the plain block type lettering.
5. Consider the size of the room when choosing
> 200 seats = Headings: 42 point; Main text: 36
< 200 seats = Headings: 36 point; Main text: 28
< 50 seats = Headings: 32 point; Main text: 24
6.For maximum effect choose predominantly
lower case letters.
7. Preview the effect of your chosen colors:
Have no more than 4 regions of color
Be consistent with your colors
8. Consider the cultural significance of color
Text color should complement and be
distinguishable from background color
If you grade colors (light to dark) the
intensity should increase as you move to
the bottom of the frame.
9. Consider the psychological effect of color.
Bright colors project energy.
Pastels are more delicate than bright colors.
Reds, oranges are "hot".
Blues, greens are "cool".
10.When choosing build (movement within a
slide) and transition (movement between
slides) effects, consider effect on audience
1 sec. Transition between slides.
11. Choose pictures and clip art that enhance your
12.Know what version of PPT is on the machine
where you will be doing the presentation.
Always have a back-up: transparencies, handouts,
Audio and Video
Carefully consider when you would want to
insert audio and video. Make sure the files
enhance the content of the presentation, rather
than simply provide glitz.
Here is a handout on how to insert audio and
You will need to have Acrobat Reader on your
machine. Click this button to go to Adobe:
Narrating a Presentation
Consider when you would want to narrate a
Sight impaired audience
Here is a handout on how to narrate a PPT
presentation. This is a Word file.
Enhance Learning in Class with
Fill-in-the-blank: Provide print-outs or have them bring
print-out to class if online.
Don’t provide every little detail in the presentation-
require that students actively listen, take notes.
Mix other activities in with PPT.
Emphasize points on a "real" Blackboard.
Switch to the virtual Blackboard (the online course management
Small groups to discuss a point written on a PPT slide.
Can ask questions and list answers in PPT
Cleland, C. (Fall, 2001). Why I dislike PowerPoint.
Biology Newsletter. p.3.
Holzl, J. (1997). Twelve tips for effective PowerPoint
presentations for the technologically challenged. Medical
Teacher, 19 (3): 175-179.