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31379815-Report-on-Zigbee

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					              A SEMINAR REPORT ON

   ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4-2003 Standard



SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
           BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN
             COMPUTER ENGINEERING




                  SUBMITTED BY:-


               Amit Shah            56
               Ramesh Shekelli      58
               Gauri Sawant         54



             UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
                   Mr. Alone




 PADMABHUSHAN VASANTDADA PATIL PRATHISHTHAN
            COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
                MUMBAI – 400022
                    2010– 2011.
                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


         It is indeed a matter of great pleasure and privilege to present the seminar on
“ZigBee ” under the valuable guidance of Mr. Alone


          I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide and Head of
department Mr. Alone. For her valuable guidance, advice and constant aspiration to my
work.All the teachers and principle Mr.R.P.KULKARNI of P.V.P.P.C.O.E for providing
me constant support and facilities.


          Lastly I would like to express my sincere gratefulness to dear GOD, my
parents and my dear friends and all those people who have helped me directly and
indirectly for the completion of this work.




                                              Mr.   Amit Shah                       56
                                              Mr. Ramesh Shekelli                   58
                                              Ms. Gauri Sawant                      54
                           ABSTRACT


ZigBee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh networking
proprietary standard. The low cost allows the technology to
be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring
applications, the low power-usage allows longer life with
smaller batteries, and the mesh networking provides high
reliability and larger range.

The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working
together to enable reliable, cost-effective, low-power,
wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based
on an open global standard. As per its main role, it
standardize the body that defines ZigBee, also publishes
application profiles that allow multiple OEM vendors to
create interoperable products.

The current list of application profiles either published or in
the works are:

  * Home Automation
  * ZigBee Smart Energy 1.0/2.0
  * Commercial Building Automation
  * Telecommunication Applications
  * Personal, Home, and Hospital Care
  * Toys
                         CERTIFICATE


   This is to certify that    Mr. Amit Shah,
                              Mr. Ramesh Shekelli
                              Ms. Gauri Sawant
  has successfully completed seminar work on Zigbee in
  the partial fulfilment for the bachelor’s degree in
  COMPUTER ENGINEERING during the year 2010-2011
  as prescribed by P.V.P.P.C.O.E.




   GUIDE                                            HOD

Mr. Alone                                Ms.MANJIRI PATHAK




Internal                                       External




                             Principal
                           Table of Contents
1. Introduction                                               3

2. Existing Standards                                         4
2.1. Wi-Fi (IEEE standard 802.11)                             4
2.1.1. Standards                                              6
2.1.2. Network Types                                          7
2.2. Bluetooth (IEEE standard 802.15.1)                       7
2.3. ZigBee (IEEE standard 802.15.4)                          8

3. Introduction to ZigBee                                     10
3.1. The ZigBee Alliance                                      11
3.2. The Name ZigBee                                          12
3.3. Why ZigBee                                               14
3.4. IEEE 802.15.4                                            16
3.5. Components of IEEE 802.15.4                              18

4. ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 – General Characteristics             20

4.1. ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 – Typical Traffic Types Addressed   22

5. ZigBee Protocol Stack                                      24
5.1. The Physical Layer (PHY)                                 25
5.2. Media Access Layer (MAC)                                 26
5.2.1. Frame Structure                                        26
5.3. Network and Security Layer                               27
5.4.1. ZigBee Device Object                                   28
5.4.2. Application Support Layer                              30

6. ZigBee Applications                                        31

7. Acknowledgments                                            32

8. References                                                 34
LIST OF FIGURES



Figure 1.1   Zigbee application       …………………………………...2
Figure 1.2   Autonomic Maturity Levels………………………………………...4
Figure 2.1   Architecture of Autonomic computing……………………………..9
Figure 3.1   Autonomic Computing Control Loop……………………………..11
Figure 4.1   General Computing System……………………………………….17.
Figure 4.2   Autonomic Computing Self-Healing System……………………...19





Build an IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Network for Emergency Response
Notification for Indoor Situations

    Abstract— In today’s world we are faced with many different
  types of emergencies in the indoor environment. Response to
  such emergencies is critical in order to protect resources
  including human life. In this paper, we present an emergency
  response system which is easy to deploy and can report the
  emergency to the users in various forms, such as pop-ups on a
  computer screen, SMS on their cell phones and so on. Due to
  this flexibility of reporting, low cost and easy of deployment,
  wireless sensor network (WSN) emergency response systems
  will be the preferred emergency response systems of the future.
  We show a design for a WSN emergency response system using
  temperature sensors as a proof of concept. Comparison to other
  emergency response systems within the SIUC campus is also
  drawn out.

   Index Terms — IEEE 802.15.4, 802.11, emergency response,
  WSN, ZigBee, Emergency Services, Networks, Sensors.




  INTRODUCTION
  In today’s world we are faced with increasingly many types of
  emergencies in our environments. One example which stands out is
  the gun violence which has plagued our universities and communities
  alike. In addition, institutions with poor infrastructure may not be able
  to minimize loss of resources and human life in times of natural
  catastrophes. The objective of this project is to design a wireless
  network using 802.15.4 and Zigbee to respond to any emergency and
  inform appropriate individuals in a timely and cost effective manner.
  The project further aims to enable ease of installations of variety of
  sensors and networking possibilities with a variety of networks such
  as CISCO messaging client or a desktop program in order to make
  messaging easily integrated with existing systems.
II. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
     A wireless sensor network (WSN) is as a wireless network which
consists of equally distributed autonomous devices using sensors
capable of monitoring the physical or environmental conditions such
as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at
various different locations especially for buildings in campus [17-19].
In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is
typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless
communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy
source, usually a battery [17].
     The envisaged size of a single sensor node can vary from
shoebox-sized nodes down to devices the size of grain of dust,
although functioning 'motes' of genuine microscopic dimensions have
yet to be created. The cost of sensor nodes is similarly variable,
ranging from hundreds of dollars to a few cents, depending on the
size of the sensor network and the complexity required of individual
sensor nodes [18]. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result
in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory,
computational speed and bandwidth [19].
Fig 1: Typical Multihop Wireless Sensor Network Architechture [24]




III. Current Emergency SystemS

Before ZigBee based wireless sensor networks are tested for their
efficacy, we first present existing technology in place to do
emergency response. The efficacy of ZigBee based wireless sensor
networks is studied over and above existing systems.

    A. Wireless Emergency Notification System

    Wireless Emergency Notification System (WENS) by Inspiron
Logistics uses True text messaging to notify people on campus of an
emergency. True text messaging or SMS is the top recommendation
for implementing a campus-wide notification solution as indicated in
the Governor of Virginia’s report on the Virginia Tech Incident that
came out in September of 2007 [2]. The WENS connectivity protocols
to the Carriers ensure delivery in a timely manner, even during phone
network overloads similar to the VA Tech campus scenario. WENS
has a high reliability rate because they have gone through the proper
process with all North American Carriers [2]. The cost for a WENS
system is much lower when offering service to unlimited users [2].
    The WENS system can be initiated by a mobile device by texting
to 69310. Most systems rely on a phone call or web access to initiate
a notification.

     In the WENS system a authorized person chooses a group to
notify, types the message and hits send [2]. The WENS system tries
every 5 seconds, indefinitely, until the text message is delivered.
WENS can track each and every text message with a delivery receipt
and subsequent report This gives school officials a way to know that
the message was delivered.
The WENS system has a proprietary service called an Imaging and
Video Delivery System (IVDS). IVDS provides the campus community
with the ability to send images and video to campus police

  B. Internet

    Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) continuously puts
the latest alerts on their website at http://www.siuc.edu/emergency.
The website has listed various procedures to be taken in
emergencies [1]. This method is passive emergency response and
hence does not compete with others in its time efficiency.

  C. E-mail

    All employees and students of SIUC receive a @siu.edu e-mail
without charge. SIUC Alerts are sent by e-mail to all employees with a
@siu.edu address and to all individuals who register for the wireless
emergency notification system (WENS) [1].

  D. Telephone

SIUC has established a toll-free and a local telephone number that
you can call to receive the latest SIUC Alert [1]. Those numbers are
(866) 264-6420 and (618) 453-5375. This is also passive emergency
information. In the event of emergency, other options, including call-
centers, media alerts, and other pre-recorded messages may be
available using the same toll-free number [1].

  E. Emergency Radio Notification Network (ERNN)

    SIUC has selected a network of locations and personnel on
campus to receive SIUC Alerts from the Department of Public Safety
(DPS) and in turn, notify the occupants of their building of the
emergency [1]. These messages are communicated through a radio
notification system that can reach the Southern Illinois Airport, the
SIUC Carterville campus, and Touch of Nature (Environmental Center
which serves SIUC as a field site for research). Over 200 scanners
were provided to campus personnel for the network. You can listen to
the SIUC emergency broadcasts on 453.800 MHz [1].
IV. Response Time
    Based on the study from WENS website [2], in the event of an
emergency it will take four minutes after the occurred emergency for
the administrators to issue an alarm, it then takes another two
minutes for all subscribers of the system to be notified of the
emergency. The response time of campus emergencies depends on
current load, emergency type and how quickly it is detected [3]. Data
suggests that the average response time to emergency calls on
campus has been in the range of three to four minutes. Effort is being
made to reduce response time to as short as possible such as
increase patrol of campus police, easy emergency reporting platforms
and installation of smart sensors [3].

Given below are some key factors we look into, as we develop a
wireless emergency notification network:

1. Effectiveness of the sensors to detect an emergency.
2. Transmission delay between sensing and reporting of
 information from the sensor to the central processing unit, personal
 area network coordinator (PANC)?
3. Threat validation delay once the emergency has been detected.
4. Overall notification delay to end user.

V. Implementation plan

The project will utilize open hardware for realizing its goals.
Specifically we intend to use Arduino’s Xbee solution to conduct a
feasibility study. The reason to choose Arduino platform is also to
have a cost effective and a robust design. The eventual goal is for the
project to use PC’s as the 'sink' in order to collect data from various
sensors and provide them in a user friendly fashion. This data can
then be stored appropriately as well. Client software can be
developed and can be programmed to read out messages or pop out
notifications that are deemed as emergency based on a preexisting
criterion. Our project will focus on fire emergency and temperature
sensors are used to conduct the feasibility study of the system.

VI. IEEE 802.15.4 PHY AND MAC STANDARD

IEEE 802.15.4 standard offers an implementation for the lower layers,
PHY and MAC, for a typical WSN as discussed in [13]. 802.15.4
focuses mainly on low-cost, low-speed communication between
devices. The basic IEEE 802.15.4 framework defines a 10-meter
communications area with a maximum transfer rate of 250kbits/s. It is
the basis for the ZigBee specification, which further attempts to offer
a complete networking solution by developing the upper layers which
interface with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC [7].


802.15.4 Standard
The protocol structure of 802.15.4 contains PHY and MAC layers only
[13]. The upper layers are user defined.

Physical layer:
      The physical layer (PHY) provides the data transmission
service, as well as the interface to the physical layer management
entity. It manages the physical RF transceiver and performs channel
selection and energy and signal management functions.

The PHY is responsible for the following tasks:

 Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver
 Energy detection (ED) within the current channel
 Link quality indicator (LQI) for received packets
 Clear channel assessment (CCA) for carrier sense multiple
   access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA).
 Channel frequency selection
 Data transmission and reception

The standard specifies the following four PHYs, [13]:

 An 868/915 MHz direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) PHY.




    ZigBee adds network, security, and application-services layers to the PHY and
                      MAC layers of the IEEE 811.15.4 radio
                                                                                          Example               Example
                                                                                          Members               Technologies
                                                                                          Retailers             Internet Protocols
                                                                                          Aggregators           World-Wide Web
 External                                                                                 Regulators            ebXML
                                                                                          Customers             IEC 60870-6 ICCP
                                                                                          Providers
                                                                        Portal

                                                                                          MDMS                  IEC 61970
                                                                                          CIS/Billing           IEC 61968
Enterprise                                                                                OMS                   Web Services
                                                                                          WMS                   Multispeak
                                                                                          EMS/DMS               Message Buses
                                                                        Metering System
                                                                                                                SONET, WDM, ATM
                                                                                          Routers               MPLS
                                                                                          Towers                Frame Relay
                                                                                          Ground Stations       Satellite
  WAN                                                                                     Repeaters             Microwave
                                                                                          Rings                 IEC 61850
                                                                       Collector                                DNP3
                                                                                                                WiMAX
                                                                                          Relays                BPL / PLC
                                                                                          Modems
  Meter                                                                                   Bridges
                                                                                                                Wireless Mesh
                                                                                                                ADSL
  LAN                                                                                     Access Points         Cellular
                                                                                          Insertion Points      Cable (DOCSIS)
                                                                       Meter
                                                                                                                ZigBee
                                                                                          Thermostats           WiFi
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              Employing binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation.
              An 868/915 MHz DSSS PHY employing offset quadrature phase-
               shift keying (O-QPSK) modulation.
              An 868/915 MHz parallel sequence spread spectrum (PSSS) PHY.
              Employing BPSK and amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation.
              A 2450 MHz DSSS PHY employing O-QPSK modulation.

             Medium access control (MAC) layer
                The MAC layer is responsible for point-to-point delivery between
             nodes. Besides the data service, it offers a management interface
and itself manages access to the physical channel and
network beaconing. It also controls frame validation, guaranteed time
slots (GTS) and handles node associations.

The MAC sub layer handles all access to the physical radio channel
and is responsible for the following tasks:
- Generating network beacons if the device is a coordinator
- Synchronizing to network beacons
- Supporting PAN association and disassociation
- Supporting device security
- Employing the CSMA-CA mechanism for channel access
- Handling and maintaining the GTS mechanism
- Providing a reliable link between two peer MAC entities

    The MAC sub layer provides an interface between the service
specific convergence sublayer and the PHY. The MAC sub layer
conceptually includes a management entity called the MLME. This
entity provides the service interfaces through which layer
management functions may be invoked. The MLME is also
responsible for maintaining a database of managed objects pertaining
to the MAC sub layer. This database is referred to as the MAC sub
layer PIB [13].
Fig.2: Components and interfaces of the MAC sublayer.

ZigBee
     ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication
protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE
802.15.4 standard for WSN. ZigBee devices can be interfaced to the
computer or other end points [8]. We need a ZigBee modem in order
to connect to user understandable digital interface, such as the
computer. Zigbee Modems connect to the USB port of the computer,
and mounts on a COM port (a standard serial port).

      The ZigBee provisions for devices to communicate with each
other using a Mesh, Tree or Star topology. As a result, ZigBee
modems can be used to talk to many ZigBee devices and we can
choose which device we want to talk to at any time. There are two
ZigBee modules, series 1 and series 2. The module shown in Fig. 1 is
the ZigBee 1 module. A ZigBee Series 2 Modem is needed to talk to
ZigBee Series 2 devices. ZigBee Series 2 offers a new feature called
mesh networking. Mesh networking allows our computer to talk to
devices that are out of range by talking to devices that are in between
[11].
C) Rationale to choose ZigBee as preferred communication
backbone for emergency response

One of the main design goals of our emergency response system is
to have a cost effective WSN. Currently blue tooth offers short
personal area coverage however it does not offer the Mesh or Tree
networking of ZigBee. Bluetooth is also an IEEE 802.15 WPAN
standard and also uses the 2.4-GHz unlicensed frequency band. Like
ZigBee Bluetooth also uses small form factors and low power. Some
technical differences between Bluetooth and ZigBee can be found in
[15].

IEEE IEEE 802.11 standard specification provides MAC and PHY
layers which can also be used for effective indoor communication
over several hundreds meters. Here we compare IEEE 802.11,
802.15.4 wireless standards with an emphasis on the physical layer
[15]. Interfacing of 802.15.4 to 802.11 devices can be found in [16].

VII. OTHER WIRELESS STANDARDS
    The standards given below are version of 802.11 and 802.15
which apply to lo-latency WSNs only, a comphrensive study is found
in [12],[15].

A. IEEE 802.11 - WLAN/Wi-Fi
     Wireless LAN (WLAN, also known as Wi-Fi) is a set of low tier,
terrestrial, network technologies for data communication. The WLAN
standard’s operates on the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Industrial, Science
and Medical (ISM) frequency bands. It is specified by the IEEE
802.11 standard and it comes in many different variations like IEEE
802.11a/b/g/n. The application of WLAN has been most visible in the
consumer market where most portable computers support at least
one of the variations [15].
VIII. NETWORK STRUCTURE FOR WSN

      Wireless networks can have two distinct modes of operation: Ad
hoc and infrastructure. Infrastructure wireless networks usually have
a base station which acts as a central coordinating node. The base
station is usually AC provided in order to enable access to the
Internet, an intranet or other wireless networks. Base stations are
normally fixed in location. The disadvantage over ad hoc networks is
that the base station is a central point of failure. If it stops working
none of the wireless terminals can communicate with each other [15].
      [14] suggests a protocol for providing a WSN with a hierarchical
organization. Differently from previously proposed solutions, the
protocol, termed clique clustering (CC), includes in its operation a fail-
safe mechanism for dealing with node failure or removal, which are
typical of WSN, [14]. More specifically, the network is partitioned into
clusters that are cliques i.e., nodes in each cluster are directly
connected to each other. An efficient mechanism for building a
connected backbone among the clique clusters is provided.
Clustering, backbone formation and backbone maintenance are
completely localized, in the precise sense that only nodes physically
close to a failing node are involved in the reconfiguration process. For
more details on the protocol refer [14].
    Both the standards described earlier differ by the frequencies they
use and this affects the data rate and range they can cover. The
given table shows the comparison of the frequency data rate and the
range of the standard [15]. We use 802.15.4 due to its low power
requirements.

Standard     Frequency       Data rate       Range     Type
802.11a       5 GHz           54 Mbps        120m      LAN
802.11b       2.4 GHz        11 Mbps         140m      LAN

802.11g       2.4 GHz         54 Mbps        140m      LAN
802.11n       2.4/5 GHz       248 Mbps       250m      LAN
802.15.4      0.868/0.915     240 kbps       75m       PAN
               /2.4 GHz

Table1: Frequencies of Operation for 802.11 and 802.15

One of our main design goals is to be able to interface Zigbee
devices to a PC. ZUXPProXR Zigbee Interface Module allows for this
to happen. Zigbee Interface Module with XR Allows us to Add more
relays to this Device and UXP allows us to Add I/O Expansion
Modules to the Device expansion ports. This Device Acts like it is
Directly Connected to the Serial Port of a PC. This ProXR series
controller offers wireless serial communications, requiring only a
12VDC Power Supply. Once powered up, the relay controller waits
for a command. A command consists of a few bytes of data, usually
between 2 and 6 bytes. You can send commands to activate relays,
deactivate relays, control all the relays at one time, plus you can send
commands that tell a relay to turn on for a few seconds, minutes, or
hours. For more information about interfacing ZigBee to PC refer [11].




Fig.2: ZUXPProXR Zigbee Interface Module



IX. SENSORS

A sensor node is also typically known as a 'mote' a term which is
chiefly used in North America. A sensor node in a wireless sensor
network is capable of gathering sensory information, processing and
communicating with other connected nodes in the network [20]. The
typical architecture of the sensor node is shown in Fig. 3.
Fig3: Sensor Node Architecture [25]



     The microcontroller in the sensor performs tasks such as data
processing and controls the functionality of other components in the
sensor node [5]. Microcontrollers are most suitable for sensor nodes
[4].

    Most of the sensor nodes make use of the ISM band which gives
free radio, a huge spectrum allocation and global availability. The
Radio Frequency (RF) based communication is the most relevant
form of communication that fits to most of the WSN applications [20].
The WSN use the communication frequencies between about 433
MHz and 2.4 GHz, Table 1. Transceivers lack a unique identifier. The
operational states are Transmit, Receive, Idle and Sleep [21].

   From an energy perspective, the most relevant kinds of memory
are on-chip memory of a microcontroller and FLASH memory - off-
chip RAM is rarely if ever used. Flash memories are used due to its
cost and storage capacity [20].
   The power is stored either in Batteries or Capacitors. Batteries are
the main source of power supply for sensor nodes [20]. They are also
classified according to electrochemical material used for electrode
such as NiCd (nickel-cadmium), NiZn (nickel-zinc), Nimh (nickel
metal hydride), and Lithium-Ion [21]. It is also possible to power
sensor using alternatives energies such as solar power, wind and
many others as research in those areas are making breakthroughs
[21].

A. Temperature Sensing
      In this paper, we use temperature sensing as a case study to
show the validity of WSN in the field of emergency responses. We
use the WML-WSO-04002, Zigbee Wireless Temperature Sensor
from Wireless Measurement Ltd [23] for temperature sensing.
     A temperature sensor produces a voltage that is proportional to
the temperature of the die in the device. This voltage is supplied as
one of the single-ended inputs to the Analog to Digital Converter
(ADC) multiplexer [22]. When the temperature sensor is selected as
the ADC input source and the ADC initiates a conversion, the
resulting ADC output code can be converted into a temperature in
degrees [22]. The increase of temperature in the room due to fire will
increase the voltage of the sensor in this case the die in the device
[22].
    In order to find the ambient temperature, the temperature increase
due to self-heating must be subtracted from the result [22]. The value
of this temperature increase can be calculated or measured. There
are many factors that contribute to the amount of device self-heating
[22].
     Chief among these are: power supply voltage, operating
frequency, the thermal dissipation characteristics of the package,
device mounting on the PCB, and airflow over the package [22]. The
temperature increase can be calculated to the first order by
multiplying the device's power dissipation by the thermal dissipation
constant of the package, usually called θJA [22].
      For a C8051F005 chip from Silicon Labs operating at 11.0592
MHz and a 3.3 V power supply, the power dissipation is
approximately 35 mW. The θJA value for the 64-pin TQFP package is
39.5 degrees C/W [22]. This equates to a self-heating number of 39.5
* 35e-3 ~1.4 degrees C. The temperature increase due to self-
heating can be measured in a number of ways [22].
     One method is to initiate a conversion soon after applying power
to the device to get a 'cold' temperature reading, and then measure
again after about a minute of operation, to get a 'hot' temperature
reading [22]. The difference between the two measurements is the
contribution due to self-heating [22].

D. Equation to calculate the temperature:
     The temperature sensor produces a voltage output which is
proportional to the absolute temperature of the die in the device. The
relationship between this voltage and the temperature in degrees C is
shown in Equation 1 [22].

Equation 1:
                mV
Vtemp = (2.86      ) x Temp + 76mV
                C
Vtemp = the output voltage of the temp sensor inmV
Temp = the die temperature in degrees C


     The temperature sensor voltage is not directly measurable
outside the device. Instead, it is presented as one of the inputs of the
ADC multiplexer, allowing the ADC to measure the voltage and
produce an output code which is proportional to it [22].
    The code produced by the ADC in left-justified single-ended mode
is proportional to the input voltage as follows:

Equation 2:
                Gain
CODE = Vin x         x 216
                VREF
CODE = the left-justified ADC output code
Gain = the gain of the ADC’s PGA
VREF = the value of the voltage reference, which is around
         2.43 V if the internal VREF is used.

Substituting Equation 1 into Equation 2, assuming Gain=2 and VREF
= 2.43V, solving for Temp and rearranging, we obtain an output
Temperature which in terms of CODE and a pair of constants.

Equation 3:
         (CODE  41857)
Temp =
             154
Temp = the temperature in degrees C
CODE = the left-justified ADC output code.
E. Sensor Unit
     The project will be utilizing the, WML-WSO-04002, Zigbee™
Wireless Temperature Sensor, Wireless Measurement Ltd. The
Wireless temperature sensor from Wireless Measurement has a wide
range of applications and is designed for monitoring harsh
environments [23]. The sensor has a temperature range between -
40°C to +110°C with an accuracy of ±0.3°C at 25°C ±1.5°C across
full range and also has resolution of 0.01°C [23].
     The sensor is composed of Acetyl and Stainless Steel and
weighing 300g [23]. The wireless temperature sensor from Wireless
Measurement Ltd operates in the range of -40°C to +85°C [23]. It can
be easily interfaced with Arduino systems and make a end-to-end
temperature sensing WSN.



X. APPLICATION OF THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM

A. Autonomous early detection
    Autonomous early detection of an emergency is a primary way of
minimizing damages or life threatening events on campus. We model
the emergency detection problem as a node k-coverage problem (k
>= 1) in wireless sensor network [4].
Constant-factor centralized algorithms are used to solve the node K
problem.

B. Self Powered/ Renewable Energy System
    With current advancements in alternative energy the sensors
used in the system can be solar powered. Such systems can benefit
outdoor sensing and indoors where there are huge skylights or open
areas with access to sunlight.
    Power consumption is a problem currently being addressed in
WSN. Solar powered sensors can provide value to WSN for
emergency response by prolonging the life-times of the sensing
nodes.
      Experimental results have proved that certain prototypes like
the MPWiNodeX, can manage simultaneously energy from Solar,
wind and for charging a NiMH battery pack, resulting in an almost
perpetual operation of the evaluated ZigBee network router. In
addition to this, the energy scavenging techniques double up as
sensors, yielding data on the amount of solar radiation, water flow
and wind speed, a capability that avoids the use of specific sensors.
C. Digital Image Threat Verification System
     WSN can be attached with a camera as a sensor instead of a
temperature sensor, to record a certain area in the building. This
systems can be then use as a surveillance network. Existing research
discusses optimizing image segmentation algorithms based on image
properties without manual intervention [5]. These methodologies
compute image properties such as average edge gradient strength,
inter- vs. intra-cluster distances using image color features, and color
purity of resultant regions, to train a neural network that maps these
to ground-truth labeling on the acceptability whether it is good or bad
of the solution in the resultant segmentation [5]. There are
methodologies that perform extremely well by correctly predicting the
optimal parameters of image segmentation algorithms used [5].
     Improvement of data quality: Images viewed by human operators
can be enhanced by the computer so that contraband appears in
stark contrast to its surroundings so that humans can easily detect it
[5].
     Automated detection of dangerous explosives: The methodology
will depend on the modality of gathering data. In the case of images,
the system will have to automatically process such data to enhance
its quality, segment objects of interest and then use some features to
characterize the resulting regions [5]. However, if the data for analysis
is a one-dimensional signal or spectra, the task involves template
matching where test spectra are matched with known templates [5].
The data could be simply a measurement or a point in n-dimensional
feature space that needs to be classified using pattern recognition
techniques [5].

XI. Comparison with other systems
    There is currently no emergency notification which is specially
developed for campus emergencies. However the technology has
been used in other types of emergency situations such as forest fire
detection, navigation during emergency situations, wireless internet
information system for medical response in disasters and many more.

XII. Disadvantages AND IMPLIMENTATION ISSUES
     The disadvantages of the system will be inherited from the IEEE
802.15.4 standard and Zigbee. Another problem in response to
emergency situation which hugely depend on the validity of the threat
or situation of a real emergency in which emergency service can cut
cost by not responding to false emergencies and their time can be
better utilized to fight or manage real emergencies.
CONCLUSION
    It is feasible to construct a WSN for emergency response
notification using IEEE 802.15.4 and Zigbee. Moreover there is a
range of sensing applications which can be developed using 802.15.4
MAC and PHY along with ZigBee stack. This system has the potential
to reduce the response time in a cost-effective way. The system is
robust and efficient methods can be incorporated to validate the
threat by adding some additional options to the sensors, such as
image processing and multiple sensors. This can help reduce false
positives.
     This system at the moment will be focusing on one aspect of the
emergency detection which is fire which occurs mostly in many
campuses across the states. The system can be further developed to
detect other emergencies such as gas leaks, gunman on campus and
severe weather changes.

APPENDIX

Product specifications for WML-WSO-04002, Zigbee™ Wireless
Temperature Sensor, from Wireless Measurement Ltd.

Type: Proprietary low temperature cell
Part No. WML-ELC-BAT-0000 Radio
ZigBee compatible: 2.4GHz, IEEE 802.15.4
Power: 1mW
Range: Up to 100m line of sight
Meshing capability: Range extended with ZigBee Mesh technology
Compatible Receivers: USB, RS232, GSM/GPRS
Details on request
Functionality
Reporting Interval: Programmable 6s to 18h
Logging: Up to 6 weeks data logged when out of range
Other parameters: Reports calibration and service dates as well as
device description, serial number and part number
Memory type: Non volatile memory retains data permanently
Calibration: Full service available on request.
Fig4: WML-WSO-04002, Zigbee™ Wireless Temperature Sensor
from Wireless Measurement Ltd. [23].



                           Practical Application of Zigbee


1.1      Statement of Purpose

      The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost tsunami warning system for
use in impoverished regions where tsunamis pose a threat. This report, which is
broken into chapters, details the design and experimental process of an online
sensor suite used for tsunami detection. We begin in Chapter 2 by first
considering the method of communications used to provide the sensor suite with
an online reporting capability. Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides a discussion of the
control parameters that will be utilized for the decision process – distinguishing
the passing of a tsunami wave. Finally, existing tsunami warning communications
infrastructure and its problems are discussed in Chapter 5.




                                      Chapter 2


                         METHOD OF COMMUNICATIONS
2.1   Communication system selection

      The ZIGBEE is a wireless personal area network (WPAN) technology
based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. ZIGBEE is targeted at radio-frequency
(RF) applications which require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure
networking. The ZIGBEE was chosen for this project over other WPANs, such as
Bluetooth and wireless USB because it was cheaper, simpler to use and has a
lower power requirement.

      ZIGBEEs are used for wireless monitoring and remote control solutions.
Unlike Bluetooth or wireless USB devices, ZIGBEE devices have the ability to
form a mesh network between nodes, which are embedded in sensors for
automation and control. Meshing is a type of daisy chaining from one device to
another. This technique allows the short range of an individual node to be
expanded and multiplied, covering a much larger area. One ZIGBEE network can
contain more than 65,000 nodes (active devices).




                      Fig. 2.1. Diagram of ZIGBEE network set-up.


                                     Chapter 3
                                       SENSOR SUITE DATA ANALYSIS


       The sensor suite comprised of three Keller America depth sensors, an 8-
bit Rabbit microprocessor, two ZIGBEE units and a laptop. The depth sensors
are lowered into and rigidly held in place at three different areas in a wave tank.
The wave generator produces a shallow water wave that propagates down the
wave tank and pressure readings are recorded by the sensor suite. The data
collection process is done through a Dynamic C code which uses a loop to
record 3000 pressure and its corresponding time data points from each pressure
sensor. This set of measurements is then saved as a .out file, which is wirelessly
transferred to the laptop via the ZIGBEE network for data analysis. Data analysis
is performed using MATLAB (code attached as Enc. 1).

       The following graphs were generated from the data analysis:

                                                     Averaged single waveform
                           980
                                                                                           data 1
                                                                                           data 2
                           970
                                                                                           data 3


                           960
            Voltage (mV)




                           950


                           940


                           930


                           920


                           910
                                 0   500   1000   1500   2000 2500 3000     3500   4000   4500   5000
                                                             Time (ms)


                                                           Fig. 3.1.
The pressure and time data from each pressure sensor are normalized and
averaged to produce 3 separate waveforms.
As the wave passes above each pressure sensor, the height of the water column
over the sensor changes in a sinusoidal fashion as a function of time. This
measurement relates to the depth of the sensor. The pressure sensor reads the
pressure experienced at that depth and outputs a voltage. This pressure is a
combination of static pressure from the water column above the sensor and
dynamic pressure generated from the kinetic energy of the wave. As such, the
sensor voltage output is related to the sensor pressure reading. This graph is a
fourth order curve fit that exhibit the output sensor voltage in relationship to the
depth.
                                            Sensor Voltage relating to Dynamic Pressure (4th Order Curve Fit)
                                    190

                                    180

                                    170

                                    160
              Sensor Voltage (mV)




                                    150

                                    140

                                    130

                                    120

                                    110

                                    100
                                       74         76           78          80          82           84          86
                                                                       Depth (cm)


                                                                     Fig. 3.1.

         A relationship between static pressure and sensor voltage was
established by creating the sensor application curve. Using this information,
sensor voltage derived from static pressure was subtracted from the sensor
voltage data relating to pressure readings. This plot describes the output sensor
voltage relating to dynamic pressure as a function of depth.
         The minimum value of the sensor voltage reading relating to dynamic
pressure is 110mV. This value correlates to a pressure equivalent to 11 cm of
water depth according to the sensor application curve. Since the maximum depth
the sensor was approximately 85 cm (depth of sensor = 80 cm, maximum wave
height = 5.0 cm), an 11 cm spike in water depth pressure reading will be
significant in detecting the shallow water wave.

                                     Chapter 4


                            DECISION PARAMETERS


       The goal of the project was to design a tsunami warning system that could
reliably detect the existence of shallow water waves. Existence of dynamic
pressure and its characteristic pressure range have been identified as possible
decision parameters. Other possible decision parameters are the existence of
low frequency, high amplitude signals and abnormal spikes in sensor voltage
readings. A suitable combination of design parameters will be investigated in this
project.
                                     Chapter 5

                    COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE


5.1    Background

       An early warning system for tsunamis is already in operation in the Pacific
Ocean and consists of a network of seismograph and tidal gauges linked via
satellite to monitoring centers based in Alaska, US, and Hawaii. Seismographs
provide the first line of defense, alerting monitoring staff to any earthquakes large
enough to produce a tsunami. But not every such quake produces these deadly
waves, so tidal gauges that record changes in ocean depth are then used to
determine whether a tsunami is actually on its way. However, a problem with the
system is that three in four tsunami alerts are false alarms. Evacuations in such
cases are costly and can breed complacency.

5.2    Current realities

       Detection and prediction of tsunamis is only half the work of the system.
The most important part of the tsunami early warning system is the ability to get
the information to people who are in immediate danger. It is hence vital to have a
reliable and timely communications system and to educate people about what to
do after the alarm is raised. Primary responsibility for this rests with governments
and most of the 27 nations bordering the Indian Ocean have been setting up
individual programs for issuing tsunami alerts to their own people. Thailand, India
and Indonesia are forging ahead with their own systems and Australia, Malaysia
and Singapore are planning to develop warning capacities. Thailand has opened
a disaster warning centre which currently receives data from Hawaii and Japan.
Thailand is also installing a network of 76 siren towers along part of its coastline
and recently staged a tsunami simulation exercise for emergency services. India
has also set up an alert centre which is monitoring data from seismographs and
11 tide gauges. The UN is helping countries with other long-term measures
including teaching tsunami awareness in schools, training decision-makers and
broadcasters, and making sure information is available in all local languages and
                                  staging practice drills.




                                                                     Fig. 6.2 Simple
                                                                    Tsunami Warning.




Fig. 6.1. Siren tower at Patong

beach in Phuket province, Thailand.
                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


We hereby acknowledge our advisors Mr. Alone and Ms.MANJIRI
PATHAK guiding us in the right direction and for giving tremendous
support and encouragement to make this project a success.
                            REFERENCES

[1] M.Reddy, ―File:WSN.svg‖ in Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia (June
2007). [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WSN.svg,
[Accessed Mac 22, 2009].

[2] Inspiron Logistics, Leveraging Mobile Technologies, ―Inspiron
Logistic Cooperation-WENS-Wireless Emergency Notification System
for Emergency
    Mobile        Alert‖       2009.     [Online],      Available:
http://www.inspironlogistics.com/
    [Accessed: March 13, 2009].

[3] Facilitiesnet, ―Evaluating Campus Emergency Response Plans
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Campus-Emergency-Response-Plans-After-Virginia-Tech—6616
[Accessed: March 24, 2009].

[4] H. Mohamed and B. Majid, ―Forest Fire Modeling and Early
Detection using Wireless Sensor Network‖ in Ad Hoc & Sensor
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[5] R. Morais, et.al, ‖Sun, wind and water flow as energy supply for
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Electronics In Agriculture, Vol 64, 2nd issue, Oxon England: Elsevier
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[6] M. Singh and S. Singh, ―Image Segmentation Optimisation for X-
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Conference On Computational Intelligence for Homeland Security
and Personal Safety Venice, Italy, 21-22 July, 2004, pp. 10

[7]Wikipedia contributors Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia ―IEEE
802.15.4-2006‖.

[8] Wikipedia contributors Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
―Zigbee‖.

[9]Free Scale semiconductor ― Free scale Zigbee‖
Available:
http://www.61ic.com/fanga/wxtx/ZigBee/200703/12494.html

[10]Joanie Wexler (March 16, 05) ―Bluetooth and ZigBee: compare
and contrast‖
Available:http://www.techworld.com/mobility/features/index.cfm?featu
reid=1261

[11] National Control Devices, LLC ―ZigBee Wireless ProXR Interface
Controller with UXP and XR Expansion Ports‖
http://www.controlanything.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=P
ROD&Product_Code=ZUXPPROXR&Category_Code=UXP

[12] IEEE 802.15.4e Standard on Wireless MAC and PHY
Specifications for Low-Latency MAC for WPANs.

[13]IEEE 802.15.4 Standard on Wireless MAC and PHY
Specifications for Low-Rate WPANs.

[14] S. Basagni, C. Petrioli, R. Petroccia, ―Fail-Safe Hierarchical
Organization for Wireless Sensor Networks‖, MILCOM 2007, PP:1-7.

[15] IEEE Standard for Comparison of the IEEE 802.11, 802.15.1,
802.15.4 and 802.15.6 wireless standards-Jan Magne Tjensvold.
Available: http://janmagnet.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/comparison-
ieee-802-standards.pdf

[16]Distributed cognitive coexistence of 802.15.4 with 802.11 Sofie
Pollin, Mustafa Ergen, Antoine Dejonghe, Liesbet Van der Perre,
Francky Catthoor, Ingrid Moerman, Ahmad Bahai
http://wow.eecs.berkeley.edu/ergen/docs/robustcrowncom.pdf

[17] K.Römer and M.Friedemann "The Design Space of Wireless
Sensor Networks" in IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 6, no.11,
(December                    2004).            [Online].Available:
http://www.vs.inf.ethz.ch/publ/papers/
wsn-designspace.pdf. pp. 54–61. [Accessed Mac 15, 2009].

				
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