Satish kumar.O K.N.K.Teja A. Ajay,
III B.Tech (IT), III B.Tech (IT), III B.Tech (CSE),
GITAM, GITAM, ANITS,
Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam.
E-mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact no: 9885054346, 9885559232 and 9885129827
Silicon microprocessors information processing tools such as
have been the heart of computing world enzymes, copying tools, proofreading
for more than forty years. Computer chip mechanisms and so on, that evolution
manufacturers are furiously racing to has spent millions of years refining.
make the next microprocessor that will Now we are taking those tools in large
topple speed records and in the process numbers molecules and using them as
are cramming more and more electronic biological computer processors.
devices onto the microprocessor. Sooner DNA computing has a great
or later the physical speed and deal of advantage over conventional
miniaturization limits of silicon silicon-based computing. DNA
microprocessors is bound to hit a wall. computers can store billions of times
Chipmakers need a new more data than your personal computer.
material to produce faster computing DNA computers have the ability to work
speed with fewer complexities. You in a massively parallel fashion,
won‟t believe where scientists have performing many calculations
found this new material. DNA, the simultaneously. DNA molecules that
material our genes are made of, is being provide the input can also provide all the
used to build the next generation of necessary operational energy.
microprocessors. Scientists are using DNA computing has made a
this genetic material to create nano- remarkable progress in almost every
computers that might take the place of field. It has found application in fields
silicon computers in the next decade. like biomedical, pharmaceutical,
A nascent technology that information security, cracking secret
uses DNA molecules to build computers codes, etc.
that are faster than the world‟s most Scientists and researchers
powerful human-built computers is believe that in the foreseeable future
called DNA computing. Molecular DNA computing could scale up to great
biologists are beginning to unravel the heights!
Man‟s thirst for knowledge binary data is encoded with ones and
has driven the information revolution. zeros, a strand of DNA is encoded with
Human brain, a master processor, four bases, represented by letters A
processes the information about the (Adenine), T (Thymine), C (Cytosine)
internal and external environment and and G (Guanine).
sends signals to take appropriate actions.
In nature, such controls exist at every
level. Even the smallest of the cells has a
nucleus, which controls the cell. Where
does this power actually come from? It
lies in the DNA. The ability to harness
this computational power shall
determine the fate of next generation of
DNA computing is a novel
technology that seeks to capitalize on the Graphical representation of Illustration of
inherent bonding properties double helix
enormous informational capacity of of DNA shape of DNA.
DNA, biological molecules that can
store huge amounts of information and
are able to perform operations similar to The bases (nucleotides)
that of a computer, through the are spaced every 0.35 nanometers along
deployment of enzymes, biological the DNA molecule, giving it a
catalysts that act like software to execute remarkable data density of nearly
desired operations. The appeal of DNA 18Mbits per inch. These nucleotides will
computing lies in the fact that DNA only combine in such a way that C
molecules can store far more always pairs with G and T always pairs
information than any existing with A. This complementarity makes
conventional computer chip. Also, DNA a unique data structure for
utilizing DNA for complex computation computation and can be exploited in
can be much faster than utilizing a many ways.
conventional computer, for which
massive parallelism would require large Computer in a test tube
amounts of hardware, not simply more The idea of using DNA to
DNA. store and process information took off in
the year 1994 when Leonard Adleman, a
Structure of DNA computer scientist at the University of
All organisms on this planet Southern California, came to the
are made of the same type of genetic conclusion that DNA had computational
blueprint, which bind us together. potential. Adleman caused an avalanche
Within the cells of any organism is a in the fields of biology; mathematics and
substance called Deoxyribonucleic Acid computers by solving a problem called
(DNA), which is a double-stranded helix the Directed Hamiltonian Path problem
of nucleotides, which carries the genetic or sometimes referred to as the Traveling
information of a cell. The data density of Salesman Problem. The „salesman‟ in
DNA is impressive. Just like a string of this problem has a map of several cities
that he must visit to sell his wares where bonding tendencies of nucleotides to
these cities have only one-way streets DNA strands representing pathways
between some but not all of them. The between the cities.
crux of the problem is that the salesman By placing a few grams of
must find a route to travel that passes every DNA city and street in a test tube
through each city (A through G) exactly and allowing the natural bonding
once, with a designated beginning and end. tendencies of the DNA building blocks
The salesman does not want to backtrack to occur, the DNA bonding created over
or go more than once through any of the 10^9 answers in less than one second.
paths. This is a non-deterministic Out of the answers that came about the
polynomial time problem. correct answers were determined
considering that the correct path must
start at A and end at G, it must pass
through all cities at least once and must
contain each city in turn.
The correct answer was
determined by filtering the strands of
DNA according to their end-bases to
determine which strands began from A
and end in city G. The remaining strands
were then measured through
electrophoreic techniques to determine if
Basic outline of Traveling Salesman Problem the path they represent has passed
through all seven cities. Finally the
resulting sets of DNA were examined
Adleman used a basic seven city,
individually to determine if they contain
thirteen street model for Traveling
each city in turn. That strand(s) that
Salesman Problem and created randomly
remained was then determined to be the
sequenced DNA strands 20 bases long to
answer(s). This process took Adleman
chemically represent each city and a
about a week. A conventional computer
complementary 20 base strand that
is better suited for deterministic
overlaps each city‟s strand half way to
computation permitting at most one next
represent each street. This representation
move at any step in computation. The
allowed each multi-city tour to become a
inherent parallel computing ability of
piece of double stranded DNA with the
DNA, however, is perfectly suited for
cities linked in some order by the streets.
solving such non-deterministic type of
A Successor to
have been the heart of computing world
for more than forty years.Computer chip
manufacturers are furiously racing to
make the next microprocessor that will
Representation of 20 bases DNA topple speed records and in the process
strand representing a city showing the
are cramming more and more electronic would take one DNA computer only 1
devices onto the microprocessor. Many year to polish off!
have predicted that Moore‟s law (which
states that the microprocessors would Scope and recent updates
double in complexity every two years) Scientists have taken
will soon reach its end, because of the DNA from the free-floating world of the
physical speed and miniaturization limits test tube and anchored it securely to a
of silicon microprocessors. surface of glass and gold. University of
DNA computers have the Wiscosnin-Madison researchers have
potential to take computing to new developed a thin, gold-coated plate of
levels, picking up where Moore‟s law glass about an inch square. They believe
leave off. DNA computers could surpass it is the optimum working surface on
their silicon-based predecessors. The which they can attach trillions of strands
several advantages of DNA over silicon of DNA. Putting DNA computing on a
are:As long as there are cellular solid surface greatly simplifies the
organisms, there will be a supply of complex and repetitive steps previously
DNA. The large supply of DNA makes it used in rudimentary DNA computers.
a cheap resource. Unlike the toxic Importantly it takes DNA out of the test
materials used to make traditional tube and puts it on a solid surface,
microprocessors, DNA biochips can be making the technology simpler, more
made cleanly. DNA computers are many accessible and more amenable to the
times smaller than today‟s computers. development of large DNA computers
DNA molecules have a capable of tackling the kind of complex
potential to store extensively large problems that conventional computers
amount of information. It has been now handle routinely. Researchers
estimated that a gram of dried DNA can believe that by the year 2010 the first
hold as much information as a trillion DNA chip will be commercially
CD‟s. More than 10 trillion DNA available.
molecules can fit into an area of 1 cubic
centimeter. With this small amount if
DNA a computer would be able to hold Applications
10 terabytes of data, and perform 10 DNA logic gates are the
trillion calculations at a time. first step towards creating a computer
In a biochemical reaction-taking that has a structure similar to that of an
place in a tiny surface area, a very large electronic PC. Instead of using electrical
number of DNA molecules can operate signals to perform logical operations,
in concert, creating a parallel processing these DNA logic gates rely on DNA
system that mimics the ability of the code. They detect fragments of genetic
most powerful supercomputer. DNA material as input, splice together these
computers have the ability to perform fragments and form a single output.
many calculations simultaneously; Recent works have shown how these
specifically, on the order of 10^9 gates can be employed to carry out
calculations per ml of DNA per second! fundamental computational operations,
A calculation that would take 10^22 addition of two numbers expressed in
modern computers working in parallel to binary. This invention of DNA logic
complete in the span of one human‟s life
gates and their uses are a breakthrough algorithms in the world of information
in DNA computing. security.
A group of researchers at Advantages
Princeton University in early 2000 The advantage of DNA approach is
demonstrated an RNA computer similar that it works in parallel, processing
to Adleman‟s, which had the ability to all possible answers simultaneously.
solve a chess problem involving how DNA computing is an example of
many ways there are to place knights on computing at a molecular level,
a chessboard so that none can take the potential a size limit that may never
others.While a desktop PC is designed to be reached by the semiconductor
perform one calculation very fast, DNA industry.
strands produce billions of potential It can be used to solve a class of
answers simultaneously. This makes the problems that are difficult or
DNA computer suitable for solving impossible to solve using traditional
"fuzzy logic" problems that have many computing methods.
possible solutions rather than the There is no power required for DNA
either/or logic of binary computers. In computing while the computation is
the future, some speculate, there may be taking place. The chemical bonds
hybrid machines that use traditional that are the building blocks of DNA
silicon for normal processing tasks but happen without any outside power
have DNA co-processors that can take source. Its energy-efficiency is more
over specific tasks they would be more than a million times that of a PC.
suitable for. DNA computing is a cost-effective
DNA computing is in its method for solving complex
infancy, and its implications are only computational problems.
beginning to be explored. But DNA
computing devices could revolutionize Disadvantages
the pharmaceutical and biomedical
fields. Some scientists predict a future DNA computers require human
where our bodies are patrolled by tiny assistance.
DNA computers that monitor our well- Technological challenges remain
being and release the right drugs to before DNA computing. Researchers
repair damaged or unhealthy tissue. need to develop techniques to reduce
They could act as „Doctors in a cell‟. number of computational errors
DNA computing research is going so produced by unwanted chemical
fast that its potential is still emerging. reactions with the DNA strands.
They need to eliminate, combine, or
DNA computing can be used by national accelerate the steps in processing the
governments for cracking secret codes, DNA.
or by airlines wanting to map more The extrapolation and practical
efficient routes. The concept of using computational environment required
DNA computing in the fields of are daunting. The „test tube‟
cryptography, steganography and environment used for DNA
authentication has been identified as a computing is far from practical for
possible technology that may bring everyday use.
forward a new hope for unbreakable
To the naked eye, DNA computer looks
like clear water solution in a test tube.
There is no mechanical device. Hence
to make the output visible, human
manipulation is needed.
The beauty of DNA
research is found in the possibility of
mankind‟s utilization of its very life
building blocks to solve its most difficult
problems. DNA computing research is
going so fast that its potential is still
emerging. Scientists and mathematicians
around the world are now looking at the
application of DNA computers to a
whole range of “intractable” computing
problems. In any case, we will not be
tossing out those PCs for test tubes of
DNA anytime soon and the use of DNA
computing in every walk of life is a long