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					BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
 SERVICES TRAINING FOR
   COMPASS GRANTEES



                DOCUMENT 76
              DECEMBER 2003



     i
ii
Community
Partnerships for
Sustainable
Resource
Management in
Malawi


                                    Business Development Services
                                    Training for COMPASS Grantees
Prepared by:

Moses Mwalyambwile (Consultant)

Development Alternatives, Inc.              COMPASS
7250 Woodmont Ave., Suite 200               Phekani House
Bethesda, MD 20814                          Glyn Jones Road
USA                                         Private Bag 263
                                            Blantyre
Tel: 301-718-8699                           Malawi
Fax: 301-718-7968
e-mail: dai@dai.com                         Telephone & Fax: 622-800
                                            Internet: http://COMPASS-Malawi.com
In association with:

Development Management Associates           USAID Contract: 690-C-00-99-00116-00
Lilongwe                                    Activity: 612-0248




                                      iii
iv
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                       Page

Acronyms                                               ii
Executive summary                                      1
Background                                             2
Methodology                                            3
Methods used in evaluation training                    4
Summary matrix of training results                     7
Cross-cutting issues                                   9
Potential business opportunities for diversification   11
Conclusion                                             12

Annex 1: Names of the participants                     13

Annex 2: COMPASS Publications                          16




                                            i
                                ACRONYMS


CABUNGO     Capacity Building Unit for Non-Governmental Organisations

COMPASS     Community Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Management in
            Malawi

ED          Entrepreneurship Development

BDS         Business Development Services

GoM         Government of Malawi

B/SHEET     Balance Sheet Statement

P&L         Profit and Loss Statement

SME         Small and Medium Enterprise

SOVCRAFT South Viphya Craft Association

NGO         Non Governmental Organisation




                                        ii
1   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Most studies on Micro enterprise development reveal that the intrinsic
    problem facing the creation of successful SMEs is lack of entrepreneurial
    skills. The COMPASS project in Malawi therefore has a programme that
    places a sharp focus on ED (Entreprenuership Development) for certain
    targeted business groups. COMPASS carefully selected those groups that
    seemed most enterprising: SOVCRAFT, Magomero Fruit Processors, Tsogolo
    la Ana, Ndirande women briquette makers, Matindi Youth Organisation and
    Chiwembe women mushroom growers.

    Through the provision of business development services to the targeted
    beneficiaries, the COMPASS project has been able to provide training in
    business management and capacity building skills. This document reports on
    how such training was conducted in the months of June, July and August
    2003. This was a demand-driven programme that was heavily participatory. A
    sound accomplishment of this task depended a lot on participation, which took
    place at all levels including the evaluation of the programme. Participation
    brought with it cross fertilisation of various ideas on what could easily work
    well and truly benefit the participants. Where possible, attempts were made to
    try to internalize this initiative to ensure sustainability of the programme.
    However, due to time and resource constraints, the training programme had
    limited follow-up support.

    Profound and sincere thanks are due to the COMPASS staff and other NGOs
    such as CABUNGO for constructive support and intellectual advice on this
    training programme. Thanks should also be extended to Magomero Fruit
    Processors, Matindi Youth Organisation and SOVCRAFT for their enthusiasm
    and level of participation in this programme.




                                      1
2   BACKGROUND

    The COMPASS project in Malawi has been involved in the creating
    sustainable natural resource-based businesses. Several studies have been
    undertaken to work out how best this can be achieved. Through such studies
    COMPASS has been able to explore a number of business development needs
    for the targeted beneficiaries. A consultant was therefore engaged to provide
    Business Development Services meant to build on, and incorporate training in
    the fundamentals of entrepreneurship.

    The business development consultant visited the targeted groups to conduct
    training whose standard contents addressed at least the following areas

       Managing income and expenses, managing revenues and profits, sharing
        benefits and apportioning costs
       Principles of supply and demand
       Marketing concept and customer focus
       Quality assurance (products and services)
       Individual and group responsibilities and performance
       Financial management fundamentals including cash flow management
       Transparency, responsibility and accountability
       Business planning
       Legal aspects of registration and incorporation and liability




                                      2
3       METHODOLOGY

        A number of meetings with COMPASS officials and project-targeted
        beneficiaries were held to discuss the contents, structure and methodologies
        for the training and relevant Business Development Services.

        Initial contacts with the members of each targeted group were of critical
        importance in providing information concerning conditions at the start of the
        training (baseline data) and expected conditions at end of the training.
        Baselines eventually provided a basis against which progress was to be
        measured monitored and reported upon. The baseline revealed the following
        picture:

Ndirande briquette            Absence of record keeping skills.
makers                        Ignorance about marketing issues, customer focus, & quality
                               control.
                              Dissatisfaction and arguments about benefits sharing
                               arrangements. Punctuality & absenteeism being singled out as
                               the main problems.
                              Lack of proper administrative and operational structures
                               resulting in work inefficiencies.

Magomero fruit                Poor record keeping skills.
processing enterprise         Lack of knowledge on basic product costing, issues of demand
                               and supply, market equilibrium and product pricing.
                               Inability to manage working capital—stocks and cash
                               management.

Tsogolo la Ana                Absence of record keeping.
                              Financial mismanagement.
                              Little education.
                              No transparency and accountability.
                              Insufficient knowledge on product costing and poor pricing.
                              Lack of basic internal controls.

Matindi Youth                 Need for group reorganisation in readiness for a planned major
Organisation                   expansion.
                              Ignorance about marketing concepts.
                              No idea about sharing benefits fairly.
                              Lack of accounting knowledge.

SOVCRAFT                      Problem of sharing benefits fairly.
                              Hazy idea on price determination by market forces.
                              Poor knowledge about product costing and pricing.


The concept of participation was employed and proved essential. It provided
spontaneous cooperation between the targeted beneficiaries, their agreement to work
together and to contribute actively to the choice and implementation of training
interventions and programs that would help achieve their goals as viable
entrepreneurs. This therefore avoided application of a standard training package for
all targeted groups. For example, most groups sought to include a session that looked


                                           3
at how they can write business proposals for funding community projects. In other
groups, it was found that they lacked most record keeping skills. The Matindi Group
became particularly interested in establishment and running of cooperatives.

Participation is considered a strategic choice and a necessary requirement to meet the
challenges that the business environment imposes on the socio-economic, political,
and cultural aspects of life in all societies. Accordingly, participation allowed all
groups to take part in decision-making processes that affect their lives. Given the
advantages of participation, it was essential that all interventions be based on
participation. As a result, any attempted follow up and evaluations were also
participatory.
Training sessions conducted for each group were subjected to continuous monitoring
and evaluation by the trainers and trainees. The inclusion of the trainees in the
evaluation process was extremely helpful in updating and modifying the course
contents for both the betterment and satisfaction of all participants. Evaluation was an
integral part of the activity’s continuous improvement process. Additionally, it was
used as a basis for observing results. It therefore became necessary that measurable
objectives and performance indicators be developed.




                                           4
4        METHODS USED IN EVALUATING TRAINING
         The methods of evaluation used were objective observation, comments and
         feedback from the participants and assignments.
         Throughout the training, participants were continuously asked to comment on
         how well they liked a topic under discussion. Participants were later asked to
         discuss any problems they faced and demonstrate how they would solve them.
         Hands on problem solving therefore became the hallmark of the continuous
         evaluation exercise.
         The participants felt the time for training was not enough and did ask if
         follow-up visits could be arranged to check on their progress. This would
         allow more reinforcement of the concepts learnt.
         At the end of training, each group was left with a hands-on assignment to do.
         This was a practical task, which differed depending on each group’s needs.
         However, common tasks given to all groups included:
              1)        Up-date the set of accounting ledgers.
              2)        Record a list of all assets and liabilities.
              3)        Prepare profit and loss statement.
              4)        Strategize and plan how to keep focus on the customer.
              5)        Decide what each group would do to improve and maintain quality
                        of their products.
         At the time of writing this report, most groups had not finished their
         assignments.
         Meeting and training the targeted groups took place as follows:



 Group                                        No of Participants        Dates Held
                                                   trained
                                              Intended    unintended


Chiwembe dam mushroom growers 6                          None          24 June 03

(total trained were 6 out of which 5 were
females)

SOVCRAFT                                     20          23            30 June to 4 July 03


(Total  trained were 43 of which 38 were
females)

Ndirande briquette makers                    15          None          9 – 13 July 03

(total trained were 15 and all women)




                                                  5
Magomero Fruit Processors                  12       None     14-18 July 03

(total trained were 12 and all women)

Tsogolo la Ana                             25       10       4 – 8 Aug 03

(total trained were 35 and 8 were women)

Matindi Youth Organisation                 15       10       11–15 August 03

(total trained were 25 and 6 were women)




The intended participants are those that were drawn from the target groups. Since the
targeted groups were in some cases a part of a larger business group, beneficiaries of
the training inevitably included unintended participants. Inclusion of unintended
participants in the training programme was a positive externality that added synergy
and avoided discrimination to some group members, which in turn promoted group
cohesion.




                                                6
5        SUMMARY MATRIX OF TRAINING RESULTS

TRAINING                     IMPACT INDICATORS              RESULTS
COMPONENT                    USED AND TRACKED
Record keeping skills          Ability to keep &               Ledgers were set up & being up-dated.
                                 maintain ledgers                Matindi Youths and Magomero Food
                               Satisfaction &                   processing Enterprise did best in this
                                 relevance on a scale            exercise
                                 of 1-5 (1 being low)           Satisfaction & relevance rated 5

Transparency &,                  Satisfaction &                Satisfaction & relevance rated 5
accountability, internal          relevance on a scale          Internal controls agreed and implemented
controls (audit)                  of 1-5 (1 being low)           on payments, receipts, cash & stocks.
                                 Groups discuss &               Sovcraft, Matindi youths and Magomero
                                  agree what controls            were best performers
                                  are necessary & cost          Groups agreed on policies aimed at
                                  effective                      improving transparency e.g. right of
                                 Groups discuss on              access to books of accounts for everyone,
                                  how transparency can           democratic decision-making
                                  be promoted
Financial management, -          Satisfaction &                Satisfaction & relevance rated 5
working capital                   relevance on a scale          Assignments given to prepare basic P&L
management and                    of 1-5 (1 being low)           and list group’s assets. Only one group
preparation of profit and        Ability to prepare             from Sovcraft submitted the assignment
loss statement;                   basic P&L statement
preparation of the balance        and B/sheet
sheet                            Ability to monitor &
                                  keep adequate
                                  working capital

Marketing issues, quality        Satisfaction &                Satisfaction & relevance rated 5
assurance & control,              relevance on a scale          Assignment given to come up with a plan
demand & supply                   of 1-5 (1 being low)           on how they intend to ―keep eye on their
analysis, product pricing;                                       customer‖. Only one group from
customer focus,                                                  Sovcraft submitted the assignment
managing expenses &                                             More assignments were given to each
revenues                                                         group to come up with; a) basic market
                                                                 plan, b) a reasonable & profitable price
                                                                 for the product, c) internal controls on
                                                                 managing revenues & expenses. Initial
                                                                 results were encouraging for all but one
                                                                 of the groups (Tsogolo la Ana)
                                                                Time insufficient for this component
Business associations –          Satisfaction &                Satisfaction & relevance rated 5
legal issues including            relevance on a scale          Time insufficient for this component
member liability                  of 1-5 (1 being low)          Follow-up visits not done to check on
                                 Groups to come up              skills
                                  with a written                Matindi Youth & Tsogolo la Ana were
                                  partnership                    enthusiastic about having a properly
                                  agreement or                   constituted organisation.
                                  memorandum &
                                  articles of association
Project proposal writing         Satisfaction &                Satisfaction & relevance rated 5
                                  relevance on a scale          Time insufficient for this component
                                  of 1-5 (1 being low)          Follow-up visits not done to check on
                                 Groups coming up               skills
                                  with project                  Matindi Youths & Magomero Fruit
                                  proposals meeting              Processing Enterprise had already


                                                  7
    donor requirements    identified business ideas for funding &
   Groups coming up      had started preparing proposals for
    with ideas that can   funding.
    attract funding




                   8
6   CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES.

    To all business groups trained, the trainer noted a number of common issues
    relevant to all targeted beneficiaries and their goals. Such issues include,
    business association development, demand for increased access to business
    development facilities, sustainable livelihoods and gender. These issues
    represent some commonalties across the goals of the targeted beneficiaries.
    They are also important to sustainable business development.


    6.1 Increased Access to business development facilities

    All targeted business groups visited were appreciative of the technical
    assistance needed to build commercially viable businesses. Such facilities
    have also been useful in giving the business groups an opportunity to take
    other broader initiatives to develop sustainable and dynamic enterprises.

    It has also been noted that such facilities will help the targeted business groups
    to attract necessary financing for their ventures apart from increasing
    entrepreneurial skills. Most business groups are now organisationally able to
    handle finances at a basic level.

    There is now apparent demand for the training of trainers and facilitators in
    the business development programme underway. To achieve this, there is need
    to encourage innovative approaches to learning through, for example, the
    formation of entrepreneur clubs under the guidance of a facilitator. It would be
    most appropriate if such training focused more on entrepreneurial attitudes.


    6.2. Business Association Development

    There is need to support the establishment of a business association. The
    business association can play a central role in providing support services to
    member business groups and in representing their interests to the government.

    6.3. Sustainable livelihoods

    All members of the business groups see their entrepreneurial activities as a
    means to generate income for improved livelihoods and employment as well
    as sustainable development.

    6.4. Gender

    The term gender broadly refers to balanced participation (between men and
    women) in economic, political and social life. In Malawi, however, as in most
    parts of the developing world, women have lagged in economic, political, and
    social life.

    Gender equality is an internationally promoted ideal and has significant
    development implications as far as equity and efficiency is concerned. Gender


                                        9
balance is also important in maximising the economic development potential
of any society.

It is therefore pleasing to note that women’s participation in all these targeted
groups is significant thus contributing to narrowing of the gap between men
and women in economic life.




                                    10
7        POTENTIAL BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FOR
         DIVERSIFICATION
    Most of the business groups visited felt they could make more money in
    addition to reducing the variability of their earnings if they had a chance to
    diversify. The table below shows some of the viable business ideas.

      BUSINESS GROUP                         POTENTIAL AREA OF
                                              DIVERSIFICATION
    SOVCRAFT                         Handicraft
                                     fruit juice making
                                     bee keeping
                                     poultry—guinea fowls
    Chiwembe dam mushroom            mushroom spores multiplication
    growers
                                     mushroom juice making
    Magomero Fruit                   Bee keeping
    Processors
    Matindi Youth                    Grafting other fruits apart from citrus fruits
    Ndirande Briquette Makers        Mushroom growing
    Tsogolo La Ana                   Fruit juice making
                                     Passenger transport service




                                        11
8      CONCLUSION

Support to these business groups requires a sustained focus on providing business
development services. To achieve this, there is need to make sure that the services are
tailor-made and that the groups themselves are able to train their members. More
trainings and follow-up visits are required to re-inforce concepts learnt. To ensure
sustainability in the availability of such a service, there must be an increased effort on
internalization of the training so that there is local capacity to continue. In addition,
internalized training would be sustainable only if the service was provided at a fee.




                                            12
                     ANNEX 1: NAMES OF PARTICIPANTS

SOVCRAFT

Mhone Catherine
Nyirenda Rose
Gausi Salome
Matimba Monica
Moyo Kennedy
Kumwenda Mercy
Ngoma Laurence
Nkhoswe Ovaline
Mtika Patricia
Nyika Lusia
Phiri Stainess
Manda Oline
Theu Dorothy
Phiri Monica
Luhanga Masozi
Nyirenda Jeremia
Chirwa Stain
Chirwa Mathews
Nkhata Byson
Nyirenda Moir
Chilita Austin
Shaba Fresher
Banda Austin
Mwale Khwima
Nkhata Velonica
Bnada Chrissy
Nkhata Paulina
Nsingogo Tales
Shaba Dafules
Kanyinji Griles
Njikho Margret
Mkhonjera Margeret
Sato Eliza
Lowole lolecia
Mwale Emilia
Kanyasko Julita
Nkhata Esinati
Chavula Justina
Mphande Tereza


TSOGOLO LA ANA

Asitala .
Moffat Emanuael
Ngilazi Raffique


                                   13
Jamu Stantorn
Puleni Damita
Chilemba Oscar
Divala Aroni
Maendaenda P.E.
Chamwalira Samson
Milanzi Julita
Gemu Elizabeth
Nowa Maria
Joni Elizabeth
Steven Gute
Changateya G.
Banda S.
T/A Chapananga
Chitungwani
Kalima
Chaphata
Zuze
Gaga
Seza
Banda G
Masiku F
Kauye M
Banda Y
Mpombe Fadison
Nandale James
Gogo Malumbe
Dzimphonje T
Chikoti C
Chilemba P
Sekeya F
Divala


MAGOMERO FOOD PROCESSORS
(All women group)

Shuga Elizabeth
Gomani Violet
Chibweza Chrissy
Luka Ellen
Moses Christina
Makopa L.ucy
Chapusa Ida
Magombo Gertrude.
Stolo Ethel
Chagwa Mervis
Nyachipeta




                           14
NDIRANDE BRICKET MAKERS
(All women group)

Ndeule
Zalanje
Kumchezera
Mofat
Malosa
Benjamin
Zingwangwa
Lyness Naphazi (deceased)
Chitala Christina (deceased)
Banda (deceased)
Banda Rhoda
Chipatala
Kamponda
Kakhobwe
Zelina
Ngazi
Kondwani
Asiyatu Mussa
Kamala
Kachoka
Kazembesi
Saizi
Rafael
Maliro
Mageleti


CHIWEMBE MUSHROOM GROWERS

Dauda F
Katumbi Chawinga
Banda J.
Matiyasi J
Zongeni James
Zongeni Mrs


MATINDI YOUTH ORGANISATION
(Names of active members who attended all training sessions)

Chimwaza Cliffton
Chabwera William
Nanthambwe Nedson
Njilika Harrison
Kalonga Matilda
Kamwendo Jane
Kaliati Chiyembekezo


                                        15
Zimbota Francis
Mwalwanda Jones
Kalonga Francis




                  16
                                           ANNEX 2: COMPASS PUBLICATIONS
   Document                                      Title                                                    Author(s)               Date
    Number
Document 1    COMPASS Year 1 Work Plan                                                       COMPASS                             Jul-99
Document 2    COMPASS Small Grants Management Manual                                         Umphawi, A., Clausen, R., Watson,   Sep-99
                                                                                             A.
Document 3    Year 2 Annual Work Plan                                                        COMPASS                             Dec-99
Document 4    July 1 - September 30, 1999: Quarterly Report                                  COMPASS                             Oct-99
Document 5    Training Needs Assessment: Responsive Modules & Training Approach              Mwakanema, G.                       Nov-99
Document 6    Guidelines and Tools for Community-Based Monitoring                            Svendsen, D.                        Nov-99
Document 7    Policy Framework for CBNRM in Malawi: A Review of Laws, Policies and           Trick, P.                           Dec-99
              Practices
Document 8    Performance Monitoring for COMPASS and for CBNRM in Malawi                     Zador, M.                           Feb-00
Document 9    October 1 - December 31, 1999: Quarterly Report                                COMPASS                             Jan-00
Document 10   Workshop on Principles and Approaches for CBNRM in Malawi: An                  Watson, A.                          Mar-00
              assessment of needs for effective implementation of CBNRM
Document 11   January 1 - March 31, 2000: Quarterly Report                                   COMPASS                             Apr-00
Document 12   Thandizo la Ndalama za Kasamalidwe ka Zachilengedwe (Small Grants Manual       Mphaka, P.                          Apr-00
              in Chichewa)
Document 13   Njira Zomwe Gulu Lingatsate Powunikira Limodzi Momwe Ntchito Ikuyendera        Svendsen, D. - Translated by        May-00
              (Guidelines and Tools for Community-based Monitoring in Chichewa)              Mphaka, P. and Umphawi, A.
Document 14   Grass-roots Advocacy for Policy Reform: The Institutional Mechanisms, Sector   Lowore, J. and Wilson, J.           Jun-00
              Issues and Key Agenda Items
Document 15   A Strategic Framework for CBNRM Media Campaigns in Malawi                      Sneed, T.                           Jul-00
Document 16   Training Activities for Community-based Monitoring                             Svendsen, D.                        Jul-00
Document 17   April 1 - June 30, 2000: Quarterly Report                                      COMPASS                             Jul-00
Document 18   Crocodile and Hippopotamus Management in the Lower Shire                       Kalowekamo, F.                      Sep-00
Document 19   Cost-Sharing Principles and Guidelines for CBNRM Activities                    Moyo, N.                            Sep-00
Document 20   Work plan: 2001                                                                COMPASS                             Nov-00
Document 21   July 1 - September 30, 2000: Quarterly Report                                  COMPASS                             Oct-00
Document 22   Opportunities for Sustainable Financing of CBNRM in Malawi: A Discussion       Watson, A.                          Nov-00
Document 23   Framework for Strategic Planning for CBNRM in Malawi                           Simons, G.                          Nov-00




                                                                 17
   Document                                       Title                                                Author(s)                 Date
    Number
Document 24   Kabuku Kakwandula Ndondomeko ya Thumba Lapadera la Wupu wa                   Umphawi, A., Clausen, R. &           Dec-00
              COMPASS (ChiTumbuka version of the COMPASS Small-grant Manual)               Watson, A. Translated by Chirwa,
                                                                                           T.H. & Kapila, M.
Document 25   COMPASS Performance and Impact: 1999/2000                                    COMPASS                              Nov-00
Document 26   October 1 - December 31, 2000: Quarterly Report                              COMPASS                              Jan-01
Document 27   COMPASS Grantee Performance Report                                           Umphawi, A.                          Mar-01
Document 28   January 1 - March 31, 2001: Quarterly Report                                 COMPASS                              Apr-01
Document 29   Natural Resource Based Enterprises in Malawi: Study on the contribution of   Lowore, J.                           Apr-01
              NRBEs to economic development and community-based natural resource
              management in Machinga District
Document 30   Proceedings of the First National Conference on CBNRM in Malawi              Kapila, M., Shaba, T., Chadza, W.,   Jun-01
                                                                                           Yassin, B. and Mikuwa, M.
Document 31   Natural Resource Based Enterprises in Malawi: Action Plans                   Watson, A.                           Jun-01
Document 32   Examples of CBNRM Best Practices in Malawi                                   Moyo, N. & Epulani, F.               Jun-01
Document 33   Media Training for CBNRM Public Awareness                                    Kapila, M.                           Jun-01
Document 34   April 1 - June 30, 2001: Quarterly Report                                    COMPASS                              Jul-01
Document 35   Strategic Plan for CBNRM in Malawi                                           CBNRM Working Group                  Sep-01
Document 36   Work plan: 2002                                                              COMPASS                              Oct-01
Document 37   July 1 - September 30, 2001: Quarterly Report                                COMPASS                              Oct-01
Document 38   COMPASS Performance and Impact: 2000/2001                                    COMPASS                              Dec-01
Document 39   Coordination of CBNRM in Malawi: Financing Options                           Watson, A.                           Jan-02
Document 40   Performance Monitoring for CBNRM in Malawi                                   CBNRM Working Group                  Oct-02
Document 41   October 1 – December 31, 2001: Quarterly Report                              COMPASS                              Jan-02
Document 42   COMPASS Field Level Training Impact Evaluation                               Moyo, N.                             Feb-02
Document 43   COMPASS Grantee Performance Report: 2001                                     Umphawi, U.                          Apr-02
Document 44   COMPASS Assessment: 2001                                                     Sambo, E., Carr, S., Omambia, D.     Apr-02
                                                                                           & Moore, T.
Document 45   January 1 - March 31, 2002: Quarterly Report                                 COMPASS                              Apr-02
Document 46   Community Tourism and Enterprise Training Manual                             Kacal, S.                            Jun-02
Document 47   Charcoal, Chiefs and Chambo: Status of CBNRM Policies in Malawi              Trick, P. & Manning, L.              Jun-02
Document 48   April 1 - June 30, 2002: Quarterly Report                                    COMPASS                              Jul-02
Document 49   Business Development Services for Natural Resource Based Enterprises         Magai, G. & Nthambi, T.              Sep-02


                                                                  18
   Document                                     Title                                               Author(s)               Date
    Number
Document 50   July 1 – September 30, 2002: Quarterly Report                             COMPASS                            Oct-02
Document 51   Work plan: 2003                                                           COMPASS                            Dec-02
Document 52   COMPASS Performance and Impact: 2001/2002                                 COMPASS                            Oct-02
Document 53   GIS for Natural Resources Managers                                        Craven, D.                         Nov-02
Document 54   Proceedings of the Second National Conference on CBNRM in Malawi          Malembo, L., Chadza, W.,           Dec-02
                                                                                        Kamuloni, S. & Kanjedza, R.
Document 55   Impact of HIV/AIDS on Natural Resource Management in Malawi               Page, S.                           Dec-02
Document 56   October 1 – December 31, 2002: Quarterly Report                           COMPASS                            Jan-03
Document 57   The Role of the Private Sector in CBNRM in Malawi                         Watson, A.                         Jan-03
Document 58   COMPASS Grantee Performance: 2002                                         Ndovi, W. & Godfrey, G.            Apr-03
Document 59   COMPASS Gender Policy Development Workshop                                Omambia, D.                        Mar-03
Document 60   January 1 – March 31, 2003: Quarterly Report                              COMPASS                            Apr-03
Document 61   Advanced GIS for Natural Resource Managers                                Craven, D.                         Apr-03
Document 62   Introduction to Appreciative Inquiry                                      Msukwa, C.A.P.S., Svendsen, D.S.   Apr-03
                                                                                        & Moyo, N.
Document 63   COMPASS Gender Training Manual                                            Omambia, D.                        May-03
Document 64   Monitoring CBNRM Performance and Impact: 2002                             Watson, A.                         Sep-03
Document 65   Introduction to Appreciative Inquiry: Training Manual                     Msukwa, C.A.P.S., Svendsen, D.S.   May-03
                                                                                        & Moyo, N.
Document 66                                                                             Flaming, L.
              Assessing the Economic and Financial Benefits of Compass-Supported Community                                 Jun-03
              Enterprises
Document 67   April 1 – June 30, 2003: Quarterly Report                                 COMPASS                            Jul-03
Document 68   COMPASS Performance and Impact: 2002/2003                                 COMPASS                            Sep-03
Document 69   Training for Transformation for Six COMPASS Grantees                      Mwakanema, G.                      Sep-03
Document 70   COMPASS Summary Report: 1999 - 2003                                       Watson, A.                         Sep-03
Document 71   Bukhu Lophunzitsira Anthu Mabizinezi A Ntchito Zokopa Alendo M’madera     Kacal, S.                          Nov-03
              Mwawo
Document 72   Zokambirana Zokhudza Mgwirizano Pantchito Yosamalira Malo Osungirako      Betha, M.R.B.                      Nov-03
              Zachilengedwe A Mwabvi
Document 73   Chambo Restoration Strategic Plan: 2003-2015                              Balarin, J.                        Oct-03
Document 74   July 1 – September 30, 2003: Quarterly Report                             COMPASS                            Oct-03
Document 75   COMPASS Grantee Performance Report Addendum: 2003                         Ndovi. W.                          Dec-03


                                                              19
    Document                                              Title                                                      Author(s)        Date
     Number
Document 76          Business Development Services Training for COMPASS Grantees                      Mwalyambwile, M.               Dec-03
Internal Report 1    Building GIS Capabilities for the COMPASS Information System                     Craven, D.                     Nov-99
Internal Report 2    Reference Catalogue (2nd Edition)                                                COMPASS                        Feb-01
Internal Report 3    Workshop on Strategic Planning for the Wildlife Society of Malawi                Quinlan, K.                    Apr-00
Internal Report 4    Directory of CBNRM Organizations (2nd Edition)                                   COMPASS                        Jan-01
Internal Report 5    Proceedings of Water Hyacinth Workshop for Mthunzi wa Malawi                     Kapila, M. (editor)            Jun-00
Internal Report 6    COMPASS Grantee Performance Report                                               Umphawi, A.                    Jun-00
Internal Report 7    Examples of CBNRM Best-Practices in Malawi                                       Moyo, N. and Epulani, F.       Jul-00
Internal Report 8    Software Application Training for COMPASS                                        Di Lorenzo, N.A.               Sep-00
Internal Report 9    Directory of COMPASS ListServ Members                                            Watson, A.                     Jan-01
Internal Report 10   Introductory Training in Applications of Geographic Information Systems and      Kapila, M.                     Feb-01
                     Remote Sensing
Internal Report 11   COMPASS TAMIS Grants Manual                                                      Exo, S.                        Mar-01
Internal Report 12   Review of Recommendations of the Lake Chilwa and Mpoto Lagoon Fisheries          Nyirenda, K.                   May-01
                     By-Laws Review Meeting
Internal Report 13   End-of-Term Evaluation of the Co-Ordination Unit for the Rehabilitation of the   Sambo, E.Y.                    Sep-01
                     Environment (CURE)
Internal Report 14   Mwabvi Wildlife Reserve Co-Management Agreement Negotiations                     Betha, M.R.B.                  Feb-03
Internal Report 15   Reducing Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among COMPASS Grantees                        Page, S.                       Mar-03
Internal Report 16   COMPASS Gender Policy                                                            Omambia, D.                    Mar-03
Internal Report 17   Assessment of Experiences with Participatory Approaches in CBNRM                 Msukwa, C.A.P.S. & Svendsen,   Apr-03
                                                                                                      D.S.
Internal Report 18 HIV/AIDS Adaptation & Mitigation Activities in Rural Malawi                        Irwin, B.                      Jun-03
Internal Report 19 Board Management Training for the Lower Shire Protected Area CBOs and              Bita, R.                       Jun-03
                   Extension Staff
Internal Report 20 COMPASS Close-Out Plan                                                             COMPASS                        Jun-03
Internal Report 21 Review of HIV/AIDS Adaptation/Mitigation Pilot Project                             Irwin, B.                      Sep-03




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