The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy by wuyunyi

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									The Contribution of Heritage to the East
Midlands Economy
A Final Report to the East Midlands Heritage Forum
  The Contribution of Heritage to the
  East Midlands Economy
  A Final Report to the East Midlands Heritage
  Forum


  C3149 / April 2006




  ECOTEC

 6-8 Marshalsea Road
  London
  SE1 1HL
  United Kingdom

  T   +44 (0)20 7089 5550
  F   +44 (0)20 7089 5559
      www.ecotec.com
        Contents                                                                                                               PAGE


        Executive Summary ............................................................................... i

1.0     Introduction ........................................................................................... 1
1.1     Defining the Sector .................................................................................................... 1
1.2     Our Approach ............................................................................................................. 2
1.3     Structure of the Report .............................................................................................. 5


2.0     Policy and Strategic Framework .......................................................... 6
2.1     Policy Overview .......................................................................................................... 6
2.2     Regional Framework .................................................................................................. 8
2.3     Heritage and Regeneration ...................................................................................... 12
2.3.1   The role of partnership ............................................................................................... 12
2.3.2   Developing the economic case................................................................................... 13
2.3.3   From policy to practice ............................................................................................... 15


3.0     Socio-Economic Profile ...................................................................... 17
3.1     Socio-Economic Profile ........................................................................................... 17
3.2     Social profile ............................................................................................................. 17
3.2.1   Demographic profile ................................................................................................... 17
3.2.2   Age profile .................................................................................................................. 18
3.2.3   Deprivation ................................................................................................................. 18
3.3     Economy ................................................................................................................... 20
3.3.1   Local employment by sector ....................................................................................... 21
3.3.2   Local employment in Heritage and Tourism ............................................................... 22
3.4     Tourism in the East Midlands .................................................................................. 24


4.0     Heritage Assets Across the Region ................................................... 32
4.1     Introduction and Purpose ........................................................................................ 32


5.0     The Case Studies................................................................................. 39
5.1     Introduction .............................................................................................................. 39
5.2     Buxton Town Centre ................................................................................................ 39
5.3     Chatsworth................................................................................................................ 45
5.4     Kelmarsh Hall ........................................................................................................... 51



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5.5       The Lincoln Cluster (Lincoln Castle, Cathedral, the Medieval Bishops Palace
          and the Collection) ................................................................................................... 57
5.6       Peak District National Park Authority ..................................................................... 63
5.7       Snibston Discovery Park ......................................................................................... 71
5.8       Evidence from Previous Work Undertaken in the East Midlands (for HLF) ........ 76
5.8.1     The Adams Building and the Lace Market, Nottingham ............................................. 77
5.8.1.1   Local Context ............................................................................................................. 77
5.8.1.2   Overview of Asset ...................................................................................................... 77
5.8.1.3   Employment ............................................................................................................... 78
5.8.1.4   Education ................................................................................................................... 78
5.8.1.5   Regeneration and Strategic Linkages ........................................................................ 78
5.8.2     The Workhouse, Southwell......................................................................................... 79
5.8.2.1   Local Context ............................................................................................................. 79
5.8.2.2   Overview of Asset ...................................................................................................... 79
5.8.2.3   Employment ............................................................................................................... 79
5.8.2.4   Visitor Impacts ............................................................................................................ 80
5.8.2.5   Education and Volunteering ....................................................................................... 80
5.8.2.6   Overview .................................................................................................................... 80
5.9       Issues and Key Lessons .......................................................................................... 81


6.0       Survey Evidence and Overall Analysis .............................................. 83
6.1       Introduction .............................................................................................................. 83
6.2       Asset Type and Core Activities ............................................................................... 84
6.3       Direct Impacts........................................................................................................... 84
6.4       Visitor Impacts.......................................................................................................... 86
6.5       Indirect and Induced Impacts .................................................................................. 88
6.5.1     Indirect Effects............................................................................................................ 88
6.5.2     Induced Effects........................................................................................................... 88
6.6       Overview of Economic Impacts .............................................................................. 89
6.7       Regional-level Economic Impacts .......................................................................... 89
6.8       Social Impact Assessment ...................................................................................... 92
6.9       Volunteers ................................................................................................................. 92
6.9.1     Demographic profile ................................................................................................... 93
6.10      Overview of Social Impacts ..................................................................................... 96


7.0       Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................. 97
7.1       Introduction and Purpose ........................................................................................ 97
7.2       Contribution of the sector to the East Midlands Economy................................... 97
7.3       Heritage and Regeneration ...................................................................................... 99

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7.4   Key Challenges and Drivers .................................................................................. 100
7.5   Overview of Current Activity ................................................................................. 102
7.6   The Role of Heritage in Supporting the RES ........................................................ 105
7.7   Recommendations for the EMHF .......................................................................... 107

      Table of figures
      Figure 1.1 Economic Impact Model: Schematic Representation ................................. 4
      Figure 4.1 Scheduled Monuments in the East Midlands Region against the
      Rural/Urban Classification of Local Authorities........................................................... 33
      Figure 4.2 Listed Buildings in the East Midlands Region against the Rural/Urban
      Classification of Local Authorities ............................................................................... 34
      Figure 4.3 Battlefields in the East Midlands Region .................................................. 35
      Figure 4.4 Historic Landscapes in the East Midlands Region.................................... 36
      Figure 4.5 Museums and Archives in the East Midlands Region ............................... 37
      Figure 4.6 Parks and Gardens in the East Midlands Region ..................................... 38
      Figure 5.1 LA IMD ranking........................................................................................ 40
      Figure 5.2 Skills Profile ........................................................................................... 41
      Figure 5.3 IMD Ranking for LA Area ......................................................................... 46
      Figure 5.4 Skills profile for LA Area ........................................................................ 47
      Figure 5.5 Skills Profile for Surrounding LA Area ..................................................... 52
      Figure 5.6 IMD Ranking across LA area ................................................................... 53
      Figure 5.7 Skills Profile for Local Authority Area ....................................................... 58
      Figure 5.8 IMD ranking across LA area ..................................................................... 59
      Figure 5.9 IMD Status of the LA Area ....................................................................... 64
      Figure 5.10 Skill Levels across the LA Area ............................................................. 65
      Figure 5.11 IMD ranking across LA area .................................................................. 72
      Figure 5.12 Skill Levels across LA Area ................................................................... 73



      Table of tables
      Table 3.1 Population change, 1994-2004 .................................................................. 17
      Table 3.2 Age profile, 2004 ....................................................................................... 18
      Table 3.3 Index of multiple deprivation, 2004 ............................................................ 19
      Table 3.4 GVA per capita, 2002 ................................................................................ 20
      Table 3.5 Local employment by sector, 2004 ............................................................ 21
      Table 3.6 Heritage Employment in the East Midlands ............................................... 23
      Table 3.7 Local employment in tourism ..................................................................... 23
      Table 3.8 Volume of tourists in the East Midlands, 2000-2004 (trips millions)........... 25
      Table 3.9 Spending of tourists in the East Midlands, 2000-2004 (£ millions) ............ 25


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Table 3.10 Nights spent by tourists in the East Midlands, 2000-2004 (million
nights)......................................................................................................................... 26
Table 3.11 Location stayed at in the East Midlands, 2000-2003 (% of trips) ............. 26
Table 3.12 Purpose of Trip to the East Midlands (Volume) 2004 .............................. 27
Table 3.13 Accommodation Used in the East Midlands (Spending) 2000 - 2004 ...... 27
Table 3.14 Average Expenditure in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (UK
Residents) .................................................................................................................. 28
Table 3.15 Tourism Spend by category in the East Midlands 2004 (UK Residents) . 28
Table 3.16 Seasonality of Tourism in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (% of trips) .... 29
Table 3.17 Origin of Tourists to the East Midlands 2000 - 2004 ................................ 29
Table 3.18 Transport Used in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (% of trips) ............... 30
Table 3.19 Age Profile of Tourists in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (% of trips) ..... 30
Table 3.20 Major paid attractions, 2003 .................................................................... 30
Table 3.21 Major free attractions, 2003 ..................................................................... 31
Table 4.1 East Midlands Heritage Assets .................................................................. 32
Table 5.1        Employment by industry, High Peak ...................................................... 41
Table 5.2 Employment by industry, Derbyshire Dales ............................................... 47
Table 5.3 Employment by industry, Daventry .......................................................... 52
Table 5.4 Employment by industry, Lincoln .............................................................. 57
Table 5.5 Employment by industry, Peak District National Park .............................. 63
Table 5.6 Employment by industry, North West Leicestershire ................................ 72
Table 6.1 Total and Average FTE Employment ....................................................... 84
Table 6.2 Residence of staff ...................................................................................... 85
Table 6.3 Annual Spending on Wages and Salaries ................................................. 85
Table 6.4 Procurement Spending and FTE jobs ........................................................ 86
Table 6.5 Visitor numbers, estimated spend and FTE jobs ....................................... 87
Table 6.6 Supply Linkage Effects (FTE) .................................................................... 88
Table 6.7 Induced Effects (FTE) ................................................................................ 89
Table 6.8 Direct Employment / Wages and Salaries ................................................. 90
Table 6.9 Procurement Spend and Employment – First Round ................................ 91
Table 6.10 Visitor Numbers, Estimated Spend and FTE jobs.................................... 91
Table 6.11 Total and Average Number of Volunteers ............................................... 92
Table 6.12 Demographic profile of volunteers ........................................................... 93
Table 6.13         Residence of volunteers ...................................................................... 94
Table 6.14 Estimated contribution of volunteers to the economy ............................ 94
Table 7.1 Overview of emda Targets ...................................................................... 106




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Executive Summary
The main objectives of this study for the East Midlands Heritage Forum are to :

 To assess the contribution of heritage to the East Midlands economy in terms of output,
  employment and quality of life;

 To assess the contribution of heritage to regeneration activities in the East Midlands;

 To identify the key challenges and drivers for increasing the contribution of the heritage
  economy in the region; and,

 To provide initial recommendations on how this can be achieved and the role that
  heritage can play in the implementation of the RES.

For the purposes of the study heritage is taken to comprise : Listed Buildings; Historic
Landscapes and areas; Museums; Libraries and Archives; Scheduled Monuments and
Archaeology; Registered Parks and Gardens; and, Battlefields.

The study is based on a combination of a review of the policy framework and relevant
datasets; the mapping of the region's heritage assets and activities, a postal survey of 300
heritage assets (which achieved a response rate of 19%); a set of six case studies to
explore different aspects of the contribution of heritage; quantitative assessments of the
economic and social impacts of heritage; and, a programme of consultations with very
stakeholders.

The policy framework for heritage is currently under review, with a White Paper expected
later this year. This will seek to provide a positive approach to managing the historic
environment with the development of a legislative framework for managing change. The
existing national policy framework emphasises a number of key themes: partnership and
leadership; realising educational potential; inclusion and involvement; protecting and
sustaining; and, optimising economic potential.

At regional level the Regional Spatial Strategy focuses heavily on sustainable
development with an emphasis on the development of previously used buildings and sites.
There are also a range of other potential links to the aims of the heritage sector.




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The new emerging Regional Economic Strategy also includes a number of aspects to
which heritage has strong links, including the focus on ensuring the region is an attractive
place to live, the need for activity to be sustainable, the role of market towns, and urban
and rural renaissance. Heritage has clear potential to contribute to several of the ten
identified strategic priorities.

Heritage is also important to a range of aspects of the Regional Tourism Strategy. On a
wide basis is a strong case for heritage investments to support regeneration and the
added value and local distinctiveness agendas.

The population of the region has been growing fairly rapidly with particular growth planned
for the future in the MKSM Growth Area. However, levels of GVA per head still lag behind
the national average and there are significant concentrations of deprivation, especially in
the cities.

The heritage sectors – narrowly defined – reportedly directly employ some 3,900 people or
0.22% of the region's total employment, although this is likely to be a significant
underestimate. They are also crucial to the region's tourism industry. Sectors directly
associated with tourism employ some 91,000 people within the East Midlands, with
tourism spend amounting to over £1.2bn a year.

The region's heritage assets are well distributed across the region – being well
represented both in urban areas with major regeneration needs and in rural areas with
major regeneration needs and in rural areas where economic opportunities are limited and
tourism plays a crucial role, as well as in many of the market towns.

The case studies illustrate a range of aspects of the economic and social contributions of
heritage:

 In Buxton there has been a longstanding strategy to conserve and refurbish the key
  town centre heritage assets. Heritage has been crucial to the attraction of the university
  and has been central to the regeneration process;

 Chatsworth is one of the country's leading historic houses, attracting 650,000 paying
  visitors a year. As well as being an important source of employment, the estate
  provides a range of wider economic and social benefits to its locality and plays an
  increasingly important educational role.




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 Kelmarsh Hall is a significant visitor attraction which provides an example of how a
  heritage asset can become an increasing focus for commercial activity – partly in
  response to pressures to cover maintenance costs;

 The Lincoln Cluster (The Castle, Cathedral, Medieval Bishops Palace and Collection) is
  a major – although arguably still underdeveloped - visitor draw which provides an
  international profile to both the city itself and the wide region;

 The Peak District Park is a prime example of the region's natural heritage. The park
  represents both a major recreational resource for the region's population and a major
  tourism draw – attracting in total 19m visitor days a year;

 Snibston Discovery Park is an example of an attraction developed on a brownfield site
  in a deprived area. It attracts around 90,000 visitors a year and plays important
  educational and social roles, providing a range of volunteering opportunities.

Analysis based on the survey returns indicates that in total the heritage sector probably :

 Supports in total some 10,000 – 11,210 FTE jobs, made up of :
  ► Direct employment of 3,960 – 4,750
  ► Visitor spend related employment perhaps amounting to some 3,500;
  ► Providing some 2,500 – 2,900 jobs through 'multiplier' type effects.


 Assets benefit from some 670 FTE impacts by volunteers, with important social benefits
  to those involved and involving a potential economic contribution of some £18.7m -
  £26.7m pa. These figures are likely to miss much of the major contributions of
  volunteers in relation to assets which do not attract significant numbers of visits.

The evidence as a whole also underlines the role of the assets as educational and
community resources and as important elements in the regeneration process – particularly
in cases where there is no obvious alternative focus – and in the quality of life. The latte is
particularly critical both in itself and for its role in supporting efforts to attract new
investment.

Examples of good practice relating to such aspects as:

 The role of heritage in supporting the development of sustainable places and
  communities;



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 The efforts to develop sector specific skills;

 Initiatives to widen participation and open up heritage to a wider audience;

 Developing understanding of heritage and its role.

Our recommendations relate to:

 The need for an accessible dissemination strategy, highlighting in particular the
  economic role of the sector;

 The need to strengthen strategic and operational links to related sectors (in particular
  the natural environment, culture and tourism), providing for an holistic approach to
  regeneration;

 Clarification of the sector's offer, particularly in relation to the delivery of
  RES/emda/SSP priorities;

 Lobbying to ensure that the 'hooks' in the regional policy framework are developed and
  strengthened;

 Continued development of the evidence base.

Above all the sector needs to focus on developing a cohesive focus and voice, marketing
the successes in this area of the natural environment lobby.




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1.0   Introduction
      ECOTEC Research and Consulting was appointed by English Heritage, on behalf of the
      East Midlands Heritage Forum, with funding from emda, to undertake research to review
      the contribution the heritage sector is making to the economic and social development of
      the region. The main objectives of the study are set out below:

       To assess the contribution of heritage to the East Midlands economy in terms of output,
        employment and quality of life;

       To assess the contribution of heritage to regeneration activities in the East Midlands;

       To identify the key challenges and drivers for increasing the contribution of the heritage
        economy in the region; and,

       To provide initial recommendations on how this can be achieved and the role that
        heritage can play in the implementation of the RES.



1.1   Defining the Sector


      Heritage is a diverse and complex sector with a plethora of specialist areas reflecting the
      richness and diversity of the assets which it comprises. However, for the purposes of this
      study it is necessary to adopt a working definition of 'heritage' in order to provide a
      framework for the analysis and discussion. Following discussions with the Steering Group,
      the definition set out in the invitation to tender is used throughout:

        'Heritage of the East Midlands firstly consists of 'assets' such as the built environment,
        archaeology and the historic landscape, historic properties and museums, archives and
        libraries with specific heritage collections. Secondly, heritage will be measured on a
        community level, through volunteering and membership of heritage organisations,
        public participation in heritage events and the public's cultural background or personal
        'sense' of place and heritage.'

      This definition has been developed for the purposes of presentation, with the following
      groupings used for the analysis:



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         Listed Buildings;
         Historic Landscapes and areas;
         Museums;
         Libraries and Archives;
         Scheduled Monuments and Archaeology;
         Registered Parks and Gardens; and,
         Battlefields.



1.2   Our Approach


      The objectives of the study are wide ranging and complex and our approach and
      methodology reflects the need for multi-dimensional analysis. The sector, as discussed
      further in Section 3, is not supported by an easily accessible and useable evidence base
      and therefore we have adopted a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods in
      order to ascertain the most robust overview of the sector and the support it provides to
      regeneration and economic development. The analysis seeks to reflect the range of
      impacts of the sector, quantifying impacts wherever possible but also seeking to identify
      and draw out the importance of social and other aspects which may not always be able to
      be analysed in these terms.

      The key stages in the research process are set out below:

      Policy / Strategic Framework and Socio-economic Profile – the initial element of the
      process was a review of the policy and strategic framework which guides and informs the
      sector, setting the context for funding and delivery. A socio-economic profile was also
      developed to highlight key features of the region's economy and trends in its performance;

      Mapping of Assets and Activities – using the sub-sets identified above, identified assets
      and activities in the region have been mapped to illustrate spatial patterns and to provide a
      platform for understanding the significance of the varying types of heritage across the
      counties which form the region;

      Postal Survey – in order to access a large amount of up-to-date information in a cost-
      effective manner, a postal survey was distributed to the managers of heritage assets
      across the region. The sample reflected the population in terms of both type of asset and
      numbers within the five counties. A total of 300 survey forms were distributed and, where
      necessary, followed up by telephone or through the Steering Group's networks. A

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response rate of 19% was achieved. The results from the survey were used to inform the
economic and social impact assessments;

Case-Study Reviews – in order to supplement the findings of the postal survey and to
obtain a deeper understanding of the impacts of a range of different asset types, a series
of case-study reviews have been being carried out. The chosen case-studies are:
Chatsworth, the Lincoln cluster (the Castle, Cathedral, the Collection and Medieval
Bishops Palace), Buxton town centre, Peak National Park, Kelmarsh Hall and Snibston
Discovery Park. These case-studies undertaken specifically as part of the research have
been supplemented by recent Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) project reviews, undertaken by
ECOTEC for a separate study of the Workhouse in Southwell and the Adams Building/
Lace Market in Nottingham. Thanks are due to the HLF for their permission to use this
material.

Economic Impact Assessment - the economic impact model which is appropriate for this
study is a relatively straightforward adaptation of the generic model which is typically
applied in economic impact studies. The focus of this model is on the flows of expenditure
associated with heritage assets themselves, with the visitors they attract, and on the way
these flows work through the local economies concerned, generating incomes and
employment in the process. The key elements of this micro-level, or ‗bottom up,‘ analysis
are direct employment and income generated by the assets themselves along with the
expenditure undertaken within the local economy by visitors; however, additional elements
are also captured. A schematic representation of the model used for the analysis is
included at Figure 1.1.




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Figure 1.1 Economic Impact Model: Schematic Representation


i) Direct Effects                                               ii) Visitor Spend Related Effects

    Employment and Income                                          Gross Local Spend of Heritage
   Generation Associated with
            Heritage


                                                                       Less deadweight element
                                                                      not dependent on Heritage

                Procurement Spend
                                                                    Net Employment and Income
                                                                     Generation Associated with
                                                                       Ancillary Visitor Spend



                                       Supply Linkage Effects


                                                plus


                                          Induced Effects

                                                plus

                                        TOTAL NET IMPACT
Social Impact Assessment – utilising the findings from the survey, supplemented with additional
information we have undertaken a social impact assessment to capture the extent to which the
region's heritage impacts on community, quality and life. Issues considered through the assessment
include:

             Education;
             Volunteering;
             Social and community activity; and,
             Links to regeneration activities.

          Consultation – underpinning the process has been a series of consultations with key
          stakeholders and members of the East Midlands Heritage Forum. This included the
          holding of a workshop which provided members with an overview of initial findings and
          provided the opportunity to comment on a number of emerging 'big questions', notably how
          the sector can support emda and partners to deliver the priorities set out in the RES and
          the constraints on realising its potential contributions.



1.3       Structure of the Report


          Having set out our approach the following illustrates how these have been incorporated in
          to this draft final report.

          Section 2 – sets out the current and emerging policy and strategic framework for the
          sector;
          Section 3 – provides an overview of the region's economic and social profile;
          Section 4 – provides an overview of the region's heritage assets and related activities;
          Section 5 – sets out the findings from the case studies;
          Section 6 – sets out the overall findings on the economic and social impacts of the sector
          drawing on the survey findings and other evidence; and,
          Section 7 – details our conclusions and recommendations.




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2.0   Policy and Strategic Framework

2.1   Policy Overview

      The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the policy and strategic framework
      which guides the sector. The policy and legislative framework is crucial to the sector as
      heritage is vulnerable and any losses are clearly irrevocable.

      The Government recognises that there needs to be a clearer structure and policy
      framework for the heritage sector and greater integration into decision making processes,
      The sector also needs to be more embedded in holistic responses and joined up in its
      activity, not working in isolation. Culture Minister, David Lammy, has set the task for the
      sector as:

          '…to revive that radical, empowering conception of heritage; to engage that mass of the
          public interested in the historic environment and its meaning for them; and to help build
          a Britain at ease with its present because it understands, values and is able to access
          its past.'
          1



      The sector's policy framework is evolving and is currently under review with the publication
      of the Historic Environment White Paper due in October 2006. Although not yet published,
      there are indications of its likely content, with key proposals identified to date including:

       The development of a new unified register for all asset types;
       Unification of consent regimes for listed buildings and scheduled monuments;
       Introduction of optional Heritage Protection Partnership Agreements for owners as
        alternative proactive management regimes;
       English Heritage to have strategic responsibility for designations at a national level;
       Introduction of strategic rights of appeal on decisions to designate, or not, a site;
       New overarching strategic definition of historic assets.

      A core aim of the White Paper will be to provide a positive approach to managing the
      historic environment and develop a legislative framework for managing and embedding
      change, not preventing change. Heritage can be misconstrued as a barrier to
      development and, particularly by developers, a source of uncertainty for costs and

      1
       Culture Minister David Lammy key heritage speech at the 'Capturing The Value of Heritage' conference at the Royal
      Geographical Society 26/01/06.



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timescales. The issues involved, and others, are being overcome by developing a more
joined up and holistic approach to heritage. The sector is increasingly engaged in the
regeneration and development agendas (Sections 4 and 7 provide more detail on such
progress).

There are a wide range of reports, papers and documents which have influenced the
development of national policy on heritage and the historic environment. Work undertaken
by English Heritage, the National Trust and DCMS has informed the creation of a series of
policy documents. 'The Historic Environment: A Force for our Future' sets out the
Government's key strategies with regard to heritage and the historic environment. This
paper was published in 2001 in conjunction with the then DTLR and was the first
significant Government policy document focussing solely on the historic environment. The
diagram below outlines the themes that the document addresses, which have been
identified as drivers for the heritage sector in the UK:




    Partnership        Realising        Inclusion &         Protecting &             Optimising
         &            Educational      involvement           Sustaining              Economic
    Leadership         Potential                                                      Potential




                                National 'Heritage' Policy




In terms of overall performance management the key driver for the sector which underpins
these national policies is PSA 3:




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      PSA 3 – By 2008, increase the take-up of cultural and sporting opportunities by adults and
      young people aged 16 and above from priority groups, by …

       Increasing the number accessing museums and galleries collections by 2% and
        increasing the number who attend arts events at least twice a year by 3%;
       Increasing the number accessing museums and galleries collections by 2%;
       Increasing the number visiting designated Historic Environment sites by 3%.

      Priority groups have been identified. These are; Physical or mental disability; BME; Socio-
      economic groups C2, D and E (skilled working class, other working class, lowest level of
      subsistence).



      In a broader policy sense the Sustainable Communities Plan 2003 sets the framework for
      sustainable development and places significant emphasis on the need to ensure a sense
      of place if community cohesion and sustainability are to be successful.

      These key policies are being taken forward at national, regional and local levels. The
      following sub-section sets out the regional policy framework for the East Midlands.


2.2   Regional Framework

      The East Midlands Integrated Regional Strategy (IRS) provides the framework for ensuring
      that regional strategies (RES, RSS, RRDF, RTS etc.) are developed in a co-ordinated and
      integrated way and not in isolation, ensuring that the regional policy framework combine to
      help the region move towards its vision, objectives and priorities. Of particular significance
      to the sector at the regional level are the Regional Economic Strategy (RES), Regional
      Spatial Strategy (RSS) and the Regional Tourism Strategy (RTS). The former provides
      the framework for long term sustainable economic growth with the aim of improving
      economic performance and enhancing the region's competitiveness by addressing market
      failures (where there is often a heritage opportunity) and supporting regeneration and
      business growth, with the RSS providing the longer term development framework for the
      region.

      The RSS focuses very much on sustainable patterns of development with a focus on
      optimising the development of previously used buildings and sites. The RSS supports the
      aims of the heritage sector in a number of ways and there are a number of synergies
      which can be harnessed. These include; the focus on the vitality of market towns; the


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development of Lincoln as a regional centre; the principle that regeneration should be
underpinned by the sensitive management of natural and cultural assets; and the potential
of heritage based regeneration, particularly in the northern areas.

The emerging RES, which is currently a Government submitted consultation draft, builds
on the progress made to date and benefits from a maturing evidence base, through
interventions such as the establishment of the Regional Observatory. Within the
document there are a number of elements which provide the opportunity for the sector to
support emda and the regional partners to deliver identified objectives. The document
recognises that to be a 'flourishing region' it must be an attractive place to live and that
activity needs to be sustainable. The significant role played by market towns is
acknowledged, as too is the diversity of the region and the benefits to be derived from both
urban and rural renaissance.

The RES sets a series of ten strategic priorities including:

 Environmental Protection – which focuses on harnessing and protecting the region's
  environment and which naturally derives support from the heritage sector;

 Land and Development – sustainable practices and the re-use of buildings and land
  are a focus for this priority and fit with the sector as the re-use and adaptation of
  heritage assets is at the heart of sustainable development. This is a particular issue for
  areas where the availability of land and premises is cited as a major barrier for rural
  businesses.

 Economic Renewal – there is a key focus here on reducing disparities in economic
  activity between urban and rural areas; quality is also a focus with a key challenge for
  the region being the current low skill / low wage equilibrium. The focus of activity will be
  at the local level in order to develop sustainable communities, with existing assets (such
  as heritage) providing the building blocks for the future (the Buxton case-study provides
  a good example of such an approach and the Lincoln case study illustrates the
  importance of heritage tourism as an economic driver);

 Social Capital – which includes a focus on formal volunteering activities, an area in
  which the sector performs strongly ; and,

 Economic Inclusion – which focuses on increased economic activity, with a focus on
  the bottom decile of LA/UA. Heritage has the opportunity here to support routes to work
  in a number of ways, including the provision of volunteering opportunities which offer a


                                         9                                                          ECOTEC
                                                  The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
     route (back) to employment and procurement. Although there is by no means a perfect
     correlation, heritage and tourism in particular (which is a key component of the sector)
     are often major employers in the target areas such as north Nottinghamshire. ICT has a
     key role in this with libraries and museums having a role to play based on their existing
     track record in delivering ICT based projects with a high footfall and the diverse socio-
     economic profile of their visitors (including many of the regions currently under-
     represented groups).

The above illustrations some of the opportunities for heritage to support the delivery of the
aims of the RES but is by no means exhaustive.

In terms of delivery, a significant proportion of decisions are taken through the Sub-
Regional Strategic Partnerships which have developed sub-regional investment plans to
reflect local conditions. These partnerships have been targeted by the Forum and
dialogue is evolving. Some SSPs have already invested in ‗heritage‘ projects.

The Regional Tourism Strategy 2003 – 2010 'Destination East Midlands' sets the context
for the sector, but is fundamentally linked to the RES which sets two key targets for
tourism related activity:

 To raise visitor expenditure to 4.5% of the region's GDP in 2010 (in 1999 it was 3.5%);
  and,
 To increase visitor value rather than volume, by placing emphasis on increasing
  overnight stays. The target is to increase visitor spend in the region by an average of
  1.6% per annum by 2005 and 2% by 2010.

Tourism in the East Midlands is a major industry which has been shown to:

    Contribute £5 billion pa to the economy;
    Represent about £3.5% of GDP;
    Support 30,000 businesses;
    Employ 200,000 people2.

Some 90% of trips are day trips, 9% are staying trips from other parts of the region, and
1% are from overseas3. Some 800,000 visits are made from overseas annually to the
East Midlands.


2
    East Midlands Tourism
3
    Destination East Midlands – The East Midlands Tourism Strategy 2003-2010



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                                                              The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
The East Midlands Tourism Strategy aims to build on the existing position and to further
promote and develop the region's offer; the quality of the built and natural environment are
identified as major assets. Emerging areas of opportunity include: festivals and events
programmes, sporting holidays and, particularly in respect of international visitors,
genealogy. Specific aspirations noted in the East Midlands Tourism Strategy complement
the focus of the RSS and RES and include:

 The region will be famous for the quality of its rural destinations - like the Peak District,
  Sherwood Forest, the National Forest – with world-class facilities, accommodation, pubs
  and restaurants, and leaders in reconciling the increasing desire for environmental
  protection with the demands placed by the motor car;

 The cities and towns will be popular destinations for short breaks. They will be known
  for their vitality and quality of their cultural offer and nightlife, for the quality and variety
  of their shopping and of their sports and recreational opportunities. Their image will be
  of highly desirable places to live, work and visit, enriched by their ethnic diversity;

 Nottingham will be commonly regarded as being in the top division of provincial short
  break and business destinations;

 Lincoln will have been lifted into the top rank of heritage city destinations in Britain, its
  magnificent cathedral and castle recognised as glories and a ―must see‖;

 Leicester will have firmly established a reputation for having one of the most interesting
  and diverse communities, cultural offers, and festival programmes in the country;

 The other cities and large towns will have continued their progress in creating a
  stimulating, cosmopolitan ambience that is attractive to visitors and locals alike. The
  region will be known for having some of the finest and most vibrant market towns in the
  country;

 The coastline will be treasured as a recreational resource. The resorts will have
  embarked on a new era of prosperity and dedication to quality such as Skegness –
  home of Butlins and one of the UK‘s top five resorts. All over the region, the
  conservation and improvement of natural habitats will have created wildlife destinations
  of top quality;

 The region will feature outstanding pubs and restaurants, hotels, cottages for hire, and
  bed and breakfasts;


                                           11                                                          ECOTEC
                                                     The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
         It will be known for high profile events, hosting major sports and cultural events that will
          attract national attention, as well as being known for the quality of community events
          that are deeply entrenched in local tradition;

         It will be possible for customers to find out about and make reservations for all
          accommodation on-line. It will also be easy for them to get hold of printed information
          and to find the information that they need when they reach their destination;

         The East Midlands will have improved its share of the market for meetings and
          conferences, taking advantage of the convenient location of many parts of the region in
          relation to major commercial centres. It will have invested in infrastructure in a way that
          responds to market demands;

         Tourism will be regarded as an attractive career option with clearly defined career paths
          available.

        Aspects of the above are addressed in the following sections with specific sector related
        recommendations included in Section 7.



2.3     Heritage and Regeneration

2.3.1   The role of partnership
        The role of heritage in regeneration is an increasing area of focus at all levels and many of
        the aspects of the regional policy framework set out above provide the context for such
        activity. Agencies such as English Heritage and the National Trust are playing key
        lobbying roles in ensuring that the increasing body of evidence to support this agenda is
        disseminated widely and given due consideration when policy and strategy are developed.
        The East Midlands Heritage Forum has been established to co-ordinate and strengthen
        the sector at the regional level. The agency also pays particular attention to partnership
        and leadership in the document 'English Heritage in the East Midlands 2006-08' which sets
        the vision, objectives and priorities for a the year period. In terms of partnership English
        Heritage aims to further develop opportunities to work with partners on the East Midlands
        Heritage Forum in order to:

         Promote understanding and appreciation of the East Midland's historic environment;

         Develop a more integrated approach to the marketing of the historic environment;


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                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
         Review and develop policies within the framework of national, regional and local
          strategies;

         Share information and explore opportunities for collaboration;

         Share and promote best practice in the management and preservation of the historic
          environment.



2.3.2   Developing the economic case


        In terms of a definition – 'Regeneration is defined as the positive transformation of a place
        – whether residential, commercial or open space – that has previously displayed
        symptoms of physical, social and/or economic decline4'. When considering best practice
        in regeneration BURA analysis concluded that 'historic buildings can act as focal points
        around which communities will rally and revive their sense of civic pride' – a key issue in
        the context of the Sustainable Communities Plan. The role and additionalilty of heritage in
        regeneration is also illustrated in the findings of the interim evaluation of HLF's Townscape
        Heritage Initiative which found that the majority of schemes had been a catalyst for
        regeneration that would not have happened otherwise. In addition, the English Heritage
        led 'Heritage Economic Regeneration Schemes' found that on average for every £10,000
        of heritage investment £46,000 of match funding was secured – the so-called ‗heritage
        dividend‘.

        Other key aspects of promoting the 'economic case' for heritage investments arise from
        the added value and local distinctiveness agendas. The Core Cities Group reported in
        2002 that culture plays a key role in the 'economic drawing power' of an area which is
        central to economic transformation:

              "Drawing power is a multi-dimensional concept which seeks to combine an assessment
              of both hard and soft factors giving more equal weighting to both as well as assessing
              factors and assets in economic, social, cultural and environmental terms. Drawing
              power seeks to combine internal and external factors and perceptions in order to
              assess how wealth creation and social cohesion can be addressed simultaneously."




        4
            Culture at the Heart of Regeneration' DCMS 05 p.9



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                                                                 The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Findings such as these strengthen the economic case for investments to sustain the
Nation's heritage and unlock the benefits.

Traditionally the regeneration impact of heritage has predominately focused on the direct
economic benefits which can be captured, such as jobs created, investment, buildings
improved and brownfield land reclaimed, with the harder to quantify implications on the
areas social, environmental and broader economic fabric being largely captured through
anecdotal evidence. However, the increasing focus on sustainability and the economic
and environmental benefits of, for example, renovation over new build5 are broadening the
debate.

Regardless of purpose, the necessity for indicators to be SMART (specific, measurable,
accurate, relevant and time-bound) remains and an approach needs to be developed
which can capture the impact of heritage on local distinctiveness, community cohesion,
sense of place etc (especially in terms of the impact this has on both residential and
commercial decisions). Developing a longitudinal methodology which incorporates survey
analysis using a broad range of data sources is key - capturing qualitative research
analysis in a quantitative format. The HEART study 'Measuring the Benefits of Heritage
Regeneration' provides a strong starting point for this. In addition DCMS has set a series
of potential economic benefits which regeneration should address. This not only provides a
context for priorities but the areas broadly reflect and complement the Strategic Priorities
and Tier 3 targets of emda:

   Inward investment (public / private leverage)
   Higher resident and visitor spend;
   Job creation / wealth creation;
   Employer location / retention;
   Retention of graduates;
   More diverse workforce;
   Driver in the development of new business, retail and leisure areas;
   More public-private-voluntary sector partnerships;
   More corporate involvement in the local cultural sector; and,
   Increased property prices.




5
  English Heritage research showed that depending on the level of refurbishment that based on projections over 30 years
the cost of repairing a typical Victorian terrace was between 40-60% cheaper than replacing it with a new home. The
Nationwide Building Society 2003 report found that pre-1919 house are worth on average 20% more than an equivalent
more recent house.



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2.3.3   From policy to practice
        The aspirations of the heritage sector are therefore aligned closely with the regional
        framework and with the agencies charged with development and delivery. There is thus a
        clear role for heritage led regeneration. The role of heritage will vary across the region and
        will reflect local issues and pressures. Lincolnshire, for example, offers a good case-study
        for heritage led regeneration in rural areas. Many of the market towns in the county have
        focused regeneration around their heritage and built environment for well over a decade,
        with initial English Heritage funding acting as a catalyst for activity in a number of towns
        through the Conservation Area Partnership schemes (e.g. Horncastle, Spilsby and
        Wainfleet). More recently a number of market towns, including Caistor, Market Rasen and
        Gainsborough have driven this agenda forward utilising HLF Townscape Heritage funding
        (matched with other sources such as ERDF). The programme is designed to address
        problems in areas of particular social and economic need and encourages partnerships to
        carry out repairs and other works to a number of different historic properties, and improve
        the quality of life for all those who live, work or visit there. Although not exclusive, there
        has been a focus of activity on utilising redundant sites and buildings for a mixture of uses.
        Whitton's Mill is an instructive example which promoted good design, complementing the
        setting of a flagship historic building.

        The key challenge for the sector is harnessing the potential and engaging the necessary
        partners to ensure that interventions are holistic, sustainable and supports community
        cohesion and economic development. English Heritage has developed a checklist for
        successful regeneration which provides a useful foundation for putting policy in to action in
        a sustainable format (section 7 further develops these issues):

              A Checklist for Successful Regeneration – lessons for successful historic
                                 environment regeneration schemes:
           A strong vision for the future
           A respect for local residents and businesses
           A tangible link to the past
           An understanding of the area
           A respect for what already exists
           A record of the area before work starts
           An integrated, sustainable approach
           Achieving the right pace
           The highest quality design and materials
           Early discussions between the community, the local authority and other interested
            parties.



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     The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
3.0     Socio-Economic Profile

3.1     Socio-Economic Profile

        The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of key indicators to illustrate the
        overall performance of the East Midlands region (economic and social). This is followed by
        a more detailed review of the tourism sector as this is the aspect of the regional economy
        which is most closely linked to the heritage sector.


3.2     Social profile

3.2.1   Demographic profile
        As the table below illustrates, between 1994 and 2004, the population in the East Midlands
        increased by some 5% or 208,000 people. In comparison, the overall population in the UK
        only increased by just over 3%.

        Table 3.1 Population change, 1994-2004
                                      1994                 2004                        % change
        Derby City                    226,500              233,700                     3.2
        Derbyshire                    717,400              745,500                     3.9
        Leicester City                289,500              285,100                     -1.5
        Leicestershire                586,100              623,900                     6.4
        Lincolnshire                  605,500              673,500                     11.2
        Northamptonshire              593,300              646,700                     9.0
        Nottingham City               277,200              275,100                     -0.8
        Nottinghamshire               743,900              759,700                     2.1
        Rutland                       32,200               36,500                      13.4
        East Midlands                 4,071,700            4,279,700                   5.1
        Great Britain                 56,218,400           58,124,600                  3.4
        Source: Mid-Year Population Estimates, 2005

         Population change varied appreciably across individual counties within the region.
          Whilst Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland all recorded large increases in their
          resident population between 1994 and 2004, there was a slight population decline in the
          cities of Nottingham and Leicester. However, population numbers increased in the city
          of Derby.




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3.2.2   Age profile
        Overall the age profile of the region is broadly similar to that of the country as a whole.
        There are differences across the region; for example, the proportion of the resident
        population aged 50+ is particularly high in Rutland, Lincolnshire and Derbyshire.

        Table 3.2 Age profile, 2004
                              0-19     20-24     25-34      35-49       50-64        65+        Total
        Derby City            25.7     7.6       13.9       20.9        16.1         15.9       233,700
        Derbyshire            23.8     4.8       11.7       22.7        19.8         17.1       745,500
        Leicester City        27.3     10.1      15.3       20.4        13.9         12.9       285,100
        Leicestershire        24.4     6.1       11.6       22.4        19.3         16.1       623,900
        Lincolnshire          23.5     5.2       10.6       21.1        20.4         19.3       673,500
        Northamptonshire      25.9     5.5       12.8       22.9        18.5         14.3       646,700
        Nottingham City       25.1     13.6      15.5       19.3        12.9         13.5       275,100
        Nottinghamshire       23.9     5.4       12         22.5        19.4         16.8       759,700
        Rutland               26.4     3.9       11.1       21.2        19.9         17.4       36,500
        East Midlands         24.6     6.3       12.3       21.9        18.5         16.2       4,279,700
        Great Britain         24.6     6.3       13.3       21.9        17.8         16         58,124,600
        Source: Mid-year population estimates, 2006



        Nottingham and Leicester have a significantly greater proportion of their resident
        population that is aged 20-24, which is likely to be result of their comparatively large
        student populations. However, there are no very significant differences between the
        counties in respect of the resident population aged 25-49.


3.2.3   Deprivation


        The Index of Multiple Deprivation represents the standard official measure of local
        deprivation and poverty. The table below presents six summary measures which focus on
        different aspects of multiple deprivation in the East Midlands counties/unitary authority
        areas. It should be noted that no single summary measure is favoured over another, as
        there is no single best way of describing or comparing counties. The extent of the relative
        deprivation on each of these measures is described in more detail below.




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Table 3.3 Index of multiple deprivation, 2004




                                                               Concentr
                      Average



                                Average




                                                                                                  Employ
                                                                                 Income
                                                 Extent
                      Score
                      (rank)



                                (rank)




                                                 (rank)




                                                               (rank)




                                                                                 (rank)




                                                                                                  (rank)
                                                                                 Scale




                                                                                                  Scale
                                                               Local
                                Rank




                                                               ation




                                                                                                  ment
Derbyshire            19.67     15,959.99        0.14         28,784.85         87,168.00        47,131.00
                      (91)      (90)             (88)         (88)              (12)             (9)
Leicestershire        10.98     9,009.58         0.01         22,210.08         44,014.00        22,269.00
                      (136)     (136)            (137)        (137)             (67)             (47)
Lincolnshire          18.46     15,127.97        0.11         28,601.14         72,649.00        34,798.50
                      (94)      (96)             (93)         (91)              (18)             (16)
Northamptonshire      15.97     12,624.45        0.10         28,036.14         62,724.00        27,583.75
                      (107)     (109)            (96)         (97)              (28)             (26)
Nottinghamshire       20.92     16,541.59        0.17         29,702.73         88,166.00        48,892.25
                      (86)      (88)             (82)         (75)              (11)             (8)
Derby                 27.68     19,183.68        0.32         31,873.92         41,068.00        16,638.50
                      (55)      (65)             (49)         (17)              (70)             (80)
Leicester             32.8      23,350.55        0.41         31,725.30         63,736.00        23,205.00
                      (29)      (27)             (31)         (26)              (26)             (44)
Rutland               6.62      4,481.22         0.00         10,452.89         1,557.00         692.50 (148)
                      (148)     (148)            (146)        (149)             (148)
Nottingham            41.75     26,497.92        0.63 (8)     32,164.14         66,538.00        25,988.50
                      (7)       (8)                           (9)               (23)             (29)
Source: IMD, 2004

Average of Super Output Area (SOA) scores - This measure is useful because it
summarises the county/UA as a whole, taking into account the full range of SOA scores.
Using this measure the most deprived areas are the major urban centres of Nottingham
and Leicester. The region's rural areas vary with Rutland and Leicestershire being the
least deprived; however, Lincolnshire shows issues across all areas.

Average of SOA ranks - This measure also describes the county/UA as a whole; however,
it does not reveal the more ―extreme scores‖ to the same extent as the measure above.
With an average SOA rank of 26,498 (the most deprived area is given a rank of 32,482),
Nottingham is ranked the 8th most deprived area in England. By contrast, Rutland's score
of 4,481 makes it one of the least deprived counties/UAs in England.

Extent - This measure is slightly different to the others as it identifies the proportion of a
county/UA‘s population living in the most deprived SOAs. In other words, it measures how
widespread high levels of deprivation are in the area concerned. In the East Midlands the
county/UA with the highest proportion of the population living in its most deprived areas is




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                                                         The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
      Nottingham followed by Leicester, whilst Rutland again has the lowest proportion of people
      living in the most deprived areas.

      Local concentration - The local concentration score is the population weighted average of
      the rank of a county/UA‘s most deprived SOAs that contain exactly 10 % of its population.
      Using this measure of deprivation, Nottingham is again the most deprived area in the
      region followed by Derby. Rutland and Leicestershire are again the least deprived.

      Income scale - This measure of deprivation indicates the number of people who are
      experiencing income deprivation. In 2004, 527,620 people in the East Midlands were
      income deprived. This represents more than a tenth of the region's resident population.
      Although Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire have the highest absolute number of income
      deprived, the greatest proportions of income deprived are found in the major urban areas
      of Nottingham and Leicester.

      Employment scale - Similar to the income scale measure above, the employment scale
      measure indicates the overall number of people experiencing employment deprivation.
      Compared to the scale of income deprivation, a significantly lower number of people are
      experiencing employment deprivation in East Midlands (5.7 % or 247,200 people). Again,
      Nottingham and Leicester have the highest proportions of employment deprived, whilst
      Rutland has the lowest.


3.3   Economy

      The table below outlines GVA per capita levels (absolute and as an index of the national
      average) in the local areas of the East Midlands.

      Table 3.4 GVA per capita, 2002
                                                            £ per head          Index of national average
                                                                                (UK= 100)
      Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire                         £ 13,500           86.5
      Derby                                                  £ 19,195           122.9
      East Derbyshire                                        £ 10,958           70.2
      South and West Derbyshire                              £ 12,076           77.3
      Nottingham                                             £ 20,113           128.8
      North Nottinghamshire                                  £ 11,436           73.2
      South Nottinghamshire                                  £ 10,793           69.1
      Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire           £ 15,084           96.6
      Leicester                                              £ 16,921           108.4



                                                     20                                                     ECOTEC
                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                                                                                        £ per head         Index of national average
                                                                                                           (UK= 100)
        Leicestershire CC and Rutland                                                   £ 13,200           84.5
        Northamptonshire                                                                £ 16,188           103.7
        Lincolnshire                                                                    £ 11,289           72.3
        East Midlands                                                                   £ 13,746           88.0
        United Kingdom                                                                  £ 15,614           100.0
        Source: ONS, 2005

        Typically, GVA per capita levels in the local areas of the East Midlands are lower than the
        national average, with the regional average GVA per capita level being only 88 % of the
        national average.

        There is a clear urban/rural divide – as indicated by the higher GVA per capita levels in the
        predominately urban areas of Nottingham, Derby and Leicester, although the picture is
        likely to be significantly distorted by the effects of commuting.6 The lowest GVA per
        capita levels are apparently found in South Nottinghamshire, East Derbyshire and
        Lincolnshire.


3.3.1   Local employment by sector
        The table below sets out local employment by broad sector for 2004.

        Table 3.5 Local employment by sector, 2004
                                                                                           communica


                                                                                           finance and
                                                                                           restaurants
                                                 Energy and




                                                                                           on & health
                                                              Manufactur




                                                                                           administrat
                                   Agriculture
                                   and fishing




                                                                                           ion,educati
                                                                                           insurance,
                                                                           Constructi



                                                                                           Distributio



                                                                                           Transport



                                                                                           Banking,
                                                                                           n, hotels




                                                                                           services
                                                                                           Public



                                                                                           Other
                                                 water




                                                                                           tions
                                                                                           and
                                                                                           and
                                                              ing




                                                                                           etc
                                                                           on




                                   %             %            %            %              %          %        %        %         %
        Derby City                 0.1           0.6          19.9         3.7            22.4       4.0      17.4     27.7      4.2
        Derbyshire                 0.3           0.6          23.0         4.3            22.4       5.2      13.1     27.0      4.1
        Leicester City             0.0           0.9          15.8         3.5            21.9       3.9      17.8     31.7      4.5
        Leicestershire             0.6           1.0          19.0         4.6            28.6       8.1      15.8     18.2      4.3
        Lincolnshire               1.3           0.4          16.8         6.4            28.9       4.8      9.7      27.3      4.3
        Northamptonshire           0.1           0.1          18.4         4.7            24.8       8.2      18.7     20.6      4.4
        Nottingham City            0.0           1.2          7.8          3.1            23.4       4.5      22.8     32.4      4.8


        6
         With the GVA of in-commuters counted in the urban areas within which they work whilst they appear in the
        denominators of the more rural areas in which they live.



                                                                   21                                                               ECOTEC
                                                                                  The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                                                                                   communica


                                                                                   finance and
                                                                                   restaurants
                                            Energy and




                                                                                   on & health
                                                         Manufactur




                                                                                   administrat
                              Agriculture
                              and fishing




                                                                                   ion,educati
                                                                                   insurance,
                                                                      Constructi



                                                                                   Distributio



                                                                                   Transport



                                                                                   Banking,
                                                                                   n, hotels




                                                                                   services
                                                                                   Public



                                                                                   Other
                                            water




                                                                                   tions
                                                                                   and
                                                                                   and
                                                         ing




                                                                                   etc
                                                                      on
        Nottinghamshire      0.3            1.6          17.5         6.6          26.6      4.9       11.2       27.0      4.4
        Rutland              0.6            0.2          16.7         3.0          29.7      3.0       11.8       30.8      4.2
        East Midlands        1.2            0.8          17.4         4.8          25.1      5.7       15.2       25.5      4.3
        Great Britain        0.9            0.6          11.9         4.5          24.7      5.9       20.0       26.4      5.1
        Source: ABI, 2006

         In terms of the industrial structure, it is notable that the manufacturing sector accounts
          for a significantly higher proportion of employment in the East Midlands compared to the
          national average, 17 % compared to 12 %.

         The Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants sector (25.1 %) and the Public Administration
          sector are the largest employers in the East Midlands, accounting for more than half of
          all employment.

         The industrial structure varies slightly among the various counties in the East Midlands.
          Notably, the agriculture and fishing sector accounts for a significantly higher proportion
          of employment in Lincolnshire than in any other county in the East Midlands.

         The manufacturing and construction sector in Nottingham accounts for a comparatively
          small proportion of total jobs, reflecting the city's shift to a more service based economy.

         The distribution, hotels and restaurants sector employs a comparatively larger
          proportion of the total workforce in counties such as Rutland, Lincolnshire and
          Leicestershire.


3.3.2   Local employment in Heritage and Tourism


        A narrow perspective on the employment significance of the heritage sector is provided by
        the data under Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 9251 and 9252 which cover
        library and archive activities; and museum activities and preservation of historic sites and
        buildings respectively. Analysis of this data will inevitably provide a low estimate. A
        proportion of relevant employees are likely to be captured elsewhere, such as in public
        administration, whilst associated independently operated businesses within a site may be
        classified under other sectors, such as catering and restaurants. The self employed are



                                                              22                                                               ECOTEC
                                                                             The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
also excluded. With these caveats in mind the table below illustrates that within the region
a total of 3,879 people are employed in the sector, providing 0.22% of the region's total
employment.

Table 3.6 Heritage Employment in the East Midlands
                   9251 : Library and     9252 : Museum activities        Total          % of total
                   archive activities     and preservation of             Heritage       employment
                                          historical sites and
                                          buildings
Great Britain      44,104                 35,634                          79,738         0.31%
England            37,150                 29,022                          66,172         0.30%
East Midlands      2,246                  1,633                           3,879          0.22%
Source: Annual Business Inquiry, 2004

Section 6 which sets out the economic and social impact assessment elements of the
study utilises the figures in Table 3.6 as a basis for the regional aggregation of the
employment impacts indicated by the survey sample. The sample returns represent
13.5% of employees in Table 3.6 and therefore a multiplier of 7.5 has been applied to
provide a minimum estimate of the relevant impacts.

Heritage tourism is a key aspect of the tourism sector. The UK Tourism Day Visitor
Survey highlights that nationally 49% of visits undertaken in 2004 were to sites with a
heritage link. No separate figure is available for the East Midlands. However, applying the
national proportion to the overall East Midlands day visits figure for 2004, of around 8
million, suggests a figure for the region of some 4 million heritage related day visits.

When analysing the tourism sector there is no clear definition of employment in official
statistics, with employment even in sectors such as hotels and restaurants significantly
dependent on local spend and some tourism related employment concealed in other
sectors such as retailing. The table below includes sub-sectors that are commonly used to
measure employment in the tourism sector.

Table 3.7 Local employment in tourism
                 Hotels and         Activities of travel    Recreational, cultural       Total
                 restaurants (SIC   agencies and tour       and sporting
                 551-553)           operators (SIC 633)     activities (SIC 925-
                                                            927)
                 number      %      number         %        number             %         number        %
Derby City       2,622       2.2    40             0.6      2,311              1.9       5,616         4.7
Derbyshire       7,183       2.7    118            0.5      5,075              1.9       13,156        4.9




                                          23                                                         ECOTEC
                                                   The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                         Hotels and         Activities of travel    Recreational, cultural       Total
                         restaurants (SIC   agencies and tour       and sporting
                         551-553)           operators (SIC 633)     activities (SIC 925-
                                                                    927)
      Leicester City     3,179       2.0    65             0.6      3,377              2.2       7,578         4.8
      Leicestershire     6,058       2.5    116            0.5      4,845              1.9       11,941        4.8
      Lincolnshire       10,667      4.4    93             0.4      3,662              1.5       14,942        6.2
      Northamptonshire   6,651       2.1    104            0.4      5,360              1.8       13,303        4.3
      Nottingham City    5,332       3.0    48             0.5      3,468              1.9       9,118         5.1
      Nottinghamshire    8,542       3.3    115            0.5      5,171              2.0       14,426        5.6
      Rutland            530         4.3    8              0.5      140                1.2       736           6
      East Midlands      50,764      2.8    707            0.5      33,410             1.9       90,816        5.1
      Great Britain      959,793     3.7    11,971         0.5      503,170            1.9       1,587,323     6.1
      Source: ABI, 2006

       In the East Midlands, more than 90,000 people are employed in the tourism sector
        which represents some 5 % of all people employed.

       As the data illustrates a substantial proportion of employment in the tourism sector is
        based in the counties of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Northamptonshire and
        Derbyshire, highlighting the significance of the sector in rural locations. Together these
        four counties account for nearly 75 % of all employment within the sector.

       In relative terms, Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire have the highest proportions of
        employment within the tourism sector, 6.2 % and 5.6 % respectively.

      Statistical evidence shows that recreational, cultural and sporting activities employ a
      relatively large proportion in Leicester City, whilst the hotels and restaurants sub-sector
      employs a relatively large proportion of people in Rutland and Lincolnshire. Activities of
      travel agencies and tour operators account for a relatively small proportion of employment
      in all counties.



3.4   Tourism in the East Midlands


      The following section provides analysis of data provided by the UK Tourism Survey, a
      survey of trips undertaken by UK residents carried out by the National Tourist Boards (this




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                                                           The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
data is only available at County level and therefore is not directly comparable to the
previous sub-section).

The volume of tourists in the East Midlands fluctuates slightly year on year but has largely
remained around 9-10 million trips per year since 2000, although 2004 saw a decrease of
16%. However, overall the region is performing better than the England average which
saw a decline in volume over the period of 28% (16% in 2004). At a county level the two
dominant areas in 2000, Lincolnshire and Derbyshire have seen the most significant
declines (29% and 35%). The trends will, of course, have been distorted by the Foot and
Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in 2001.


Table 3.8 Volume of tourists in the East Midlands, 2000-2004 (trips millions)
                   2000     2001    2002         2003        2004
Nottinghamshire    2.0      2.3     2.9          2.4         1.8
Derbyshire         2.8      2.7     2.0          1.9         1.8
Leicestershire     1.6      1.2     1.6          1.3         1.1
Rutland            *        *       0.1          0.1         0.1
Northamptonshire   1.0      0.8     1.3          1.1         1.0
Lincolnshire       3.1      2.7     3.1          2.9         2.2
EAST MIDLANDS      10.5     9.6     10.9         9.6         8.0
ENGLAND            140.4    131.9   134.9        121.3       101.4
Source: Star UK


In terms of spend, a particular policy focus, the region's performance has also been
relatively strong, showing an increase of 2.7% at a time when at the England level there
was a decrease of 4.7% (2000-2004). Nottingham and Northampton have performed
particularly well - despite declining or static visitor numbers both areas report an increase
in spend of 40%. Derbyshire and Lincolnshire saw a decrease in spend, although this was
less than their fall in visitor numbers (Derbyshire visitor numbers fell 35% with spend
decreasing by 16% and Lincolnshire saw a drop in numbers of 29% while spend only fell
21%).


Table 3.9 Spending of tourists in the East Midlands, 2000-2004 (£ millions)
                           2000            2001               2002              2003             2004
Nottinghamshire            251             368                400               328              352
Derbyshire                 311             273                285               259              260
Leicestershire             147             124                187               162              169




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                                                        The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                               2000               2001               2002              2003             2004
Rutland                        7                  7                  13                6                14
Northamptonshire               81                 90                 136               178              114
Lincolnshire                   373                319                364               418              293
EAST MIDLANDS                  1,169              1,182              1,385             1,352            1,201
ENGLAND                        19,890             20,278             20,788            20,560           18,960
Source: Star UK


As Table 3.10 below illustrates, the number of nights spent by tourists in the East Midlands
peaked in 2002 at 30.3 million. Lincolnshire accounts for 34% of all nights spent in the
East Midlands. Nottinghamshire has seen the largest increase in nights spent, with
Rutland and Leicestershire also reporting steady increases. Derbyshire saw a decline in
numbers of visitor nights between 2000 and 2003; however, it was the only county to
report an increase between 2003 and 2004, a period when the region as a whole saw a
significant drop in nights spent.


Table 3.10 Nights spent by tourists in the East Midlands, 2000-2004 (million nights)
                   2000        2001        2002         2003        2004
Nottinghamshire    4.3         6.1         6.8          6.0         4.8
Derbyshire         7.0         8.1         5.7          5.0         5.3
Leicestershire     3.3         3.0         3.8          4.0         3.4
Rutland            0.1         0.1         0.3          0.2         0.2
Northamptonshire   2.4         2.2         3.0          2.3         2.1
Lincolnshire       10.2        8.5         10.8         10.5        8.3
EAST MIDLANDS      27.4        27.9        30.3         28.0        24.1
ENGLAND            439.2       409.2       415.8        371.9       314.0
Source: Star UK


The table below shows the type of location stayed at in the East Midlands. Notably,
approximately half of the tourists stayed in the countryside/village or in a small town. Large
cities/towns accommodated around a third of all tourists, whilst only 15 % of the tourists
stayed at the seaside. No clear trends are evident in the relative importance of different
types of location of stay.


Table 3.11 Location stayed at in the East Midlands, 2000-2003 (% of trips)
                     2000           2001    2002         2003       2004
Seaside                  13%         15%     13%          15%        11%



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                                                               The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                           2000    2001      2002      2003        2004
Large city/large town       35%     31%        36%     34%          35%
Small town                  21%     25%        23%     23%          23%
Countryside/village         31%     28%        28%     27%          30%
Not stated                  1%       1%         *       1%          1%
Source: Star UK


The majority of trips to the East Midlands are made for the purpose of a holiday. Almost
quarter of trips are made for visiting friends and family; however, such trips only represent
14% of spending in the East Midlands. By comparison, business trips account for just 17%
of trips but for 25% of spending.


Table 3.12 Purpose of Trip to the East Midlands (Volume) 2004
                                                        Millions of trips        %     £ millions          %
Holiday, pleasure/leisure                                         3.4            43          569           47
Visiting friends and relatives, mainly as a holiday               1.2            15          126           11
Business                                                          1.3            17          299           25
Visiting friends and relatives                                    1.8            22          171           14
Other                                                             0.2              3         37            3
All Purposes                                                      8.0                       1,201
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


These figures are reflected in the accommodation used, with approximately a third of
tourists in the East Midlands staying in a hotel, motel or guesthouse, and just over a
quarter staying with friends and family. Approximately 10 % of tourists stay in a rented
house, flat or chalet, and a further 6% stay in a B&B.


Table 3.13 Accommodation Used in the East Midlands (Spending) 2000 - 2004
                                                2000          2001          2002        2003          2004
Hotel/Motel/Guesthouse                          32            31            32          32            33
B&B/Farmhouse B&B                               6             7             6           7             6
Rented House/Flat/Chalet                        18            15            12          10            10
Hostel/School/University                        1             1             1           3             2
Friends and Relatives Home                      33            30            30          26            25
Own Second Home                                 *             *             *           *             *
Camping                                         1             1             2           1             4




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                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                                                    2000           2001          2002          2003          2004
Towed Caravan                                       3              4             2             1             2
Other                                               14             16            14            20            16
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


The following table details average expenditure per trip and per night for UK residents
visiting the East Midlands. Average spend per trip in 2003 was £149, a 67% increase from
2000, where average spend was £89. Average spend per night has also increased, from
£43 in 2000 to £50 in 2004, which represents an 16% increase. Both increases are above
inflation and represent progress towards the RES target of increased spend over volume.


Table 3.14 Average Expenditure in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (UK Residents)
                               2000     2001            2002      2003      2004
Average Spend per Trip         £89      £91             £96      £115       £149
Average Spend per Night        £43      £42             £46       £48        £50
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


In terms of how money is spent, as the table below illustrates, around a third of tourism
spend in the East Midlands goes on accommodation, which accounted for £350 million of
spend in 2004. A large proportion of spend (22% - £260 million) is accounted for by eating
and drinking. Travel accounts for 18% of spend, and buying clothes for a further 12%.
Table 3.15 Tourism Spend by category in the East Midlands 2004 (UK Residents)
                                        £ Millions             % of Total
Package trip                                   30                 3%
Accommodation (non package trip)           350                   30 %
Travel                                     210                   17 %
Services or advice                             30                 2%
Buying clothes                             130                   10 %
Eating & drinking                          260                   22 %
Other shopping                                 70                 5%
Entertainment                                  70                 6%
Other expenses                                 50                 4%
Total                                     1,200                 100 %
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)
Note: Spending is rounded to the nearest £10 million.




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                                                                 The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
In terms of when visitors spend their leisure time in the region, as the table below shows
there is a relatively even split across the four seasons, although the dip in the first quarter
increased in 2004 compared with previous years. The fact that fluctuations are not
especially significant is a major benefit for the region and indicates a tourism sector which
is less seasonal than other areas. There are a number of reasons for this - The Peak
National Park is the largest and most popular national park in the country and walking
holidays and also proactive interventions by the sector such as the focus in Buxton on
securing festivals are fairly well spread across all seasons with, for example, a major Jazz
festival taking place in January each year.


Table 3.16 Seasonality of Tourism in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (% of trips)
                   2000    2001      2002      2003    2004
Jan,Feb,Mar        24       19       21        22      17
Apr,May,Jun        28       24       26        25      27
Jul,Aug,Sept       28       32       30        32      32
Oct,Nov,Dec        21       26       23        21      24
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


Approximately a quarter of all tourists in the East Midlands originate from within the region.
A large proportion of tourists also come from Yorkshire & the Humber (however this is
decreasing), the South East and the North West. Interestingly only 10% of tourists
originate from the West Midlands, although this is increasing; visitors from London are also
increasing slightly.
Table 3.17 Origin of Tourists to the East Midlands 2000 - 2004
                             2000     2001      2002    2003    2004

Yorkshire & the Humber        17       13        15     15        11
North West                       8        8      7      11        10
East Midlands                 20       21        24     23        20
South East                    11       13        12     13        13
East of England               11          8      10     11        11
North East                       4        4      3       4         4
West Midlands                    8     10        8       6        10
South West                       5        5      6       4         6
London                           9     10        10      8        11
Scotland                         2        3      2       2         2
Wales                            3        2      3       2         3
Northern Ireland                 *        *      1       1         1



                                                29                                                         ECOTEC
                                                         The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Total                           100          100         100            100        100
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


In terms of modes of transport, 78 % of tourists use a car for travel in the East Midlands,
and a further 9% use the train; the use of a regular bus / coach is steadily increasing.
Table 3.18 Transport Used in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (% of trips)
                           2000        2001        2002        2003           2004
Car                        81          80          81              81         78
Train                      10          10          10              10          9
Regular Bus/Coach           4            4           2             3           5
Organised Coach             1            1           1             1           *
Plane                       2            *           1             2           3
Source: United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


In terms of age profile, around a quarter of all tourists in the East Midlands in 2003 are
aged 35 to 44 years. The proportion of tourists aged 65+ years has decreased from 13%
in 2000 to 11% in 2004. By comparison the proportion of tourists aged 45-54 years has
increased from 14% in 2000 to 19% in 2004.
Table 3.19 Age Profile of Tourists in the East Midlands 2000 – 2004 (% of trips)
             2000    2001         2002        2003        2004
16 - 24      16       16          19          15              15
25 - 34      22       24          24          20              19
35 - 44      25       21          21          24              24
45 - 54      14       17          16          20              19
55 - 64        9      11          11          12              11
65+          13       12          10           9              11
United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS)


The final element of this profile of the sector sets out the major attractions visited in the
East Midlands for both paid and free attractions.


Table 3.20 Major paid attractions, 2003
Attraction                                                         County/Unitary Authority                 Visits 2003
Chatsworth                                                         Derbyshire                               687,297
Twycross Zoo                                                       Leicestershire                           476,343
Lincoln Cathedral                                                  Lincolnshire                             193,525E




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                                                                        The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Attraction                                                County/Unitary Authority                Visits 2003
Belton House                                              Lincolnshire                            171,166
Lincoln Castle                                            Lincolnshire                            153,421
Skegness Natureland Seal Sanctuary                        Lincolnshire                            143,411
Midland Railway Centre                                    Derbyshire                              120,000E
Kedleston Hall                                            Derbyshire                              116,899
Sudbury Hall                                              Derbyshire                              115,781
National Tramway Museum                                   Derbyshire                              111,832
Source: Star UK
Note: The table above contains data only for attractions which responded to the(East Midlands Tourism) survey and
gave permission for their total visits to be published. E=estimate



Table 3.21 Major free attractions, 2003
Attraction                                              County/Unitary Authority                  Visits 2003
Wicksteed Park                                          Northamptonshire                          750,000E
Abbey Pumping Station                                   Leicester City                            286,949
Denby Pottery Visitor Centre                            Derbyshire                                226,521
Ye Olde Pork Pie Shoppe                                 Leicestershire                            224,190
Ferrers Centre for Arts & Crafts                        Leicestershire                            190,000E
Skegness Water Leisure Park                             Lincolnshire                              160,000E
Central Museum & Art Gallery                            Northamptonshire                          142,891
Newark Castle                                           Nottinghamshire                           130,000E
Derby City Museum and Art Gallery                       Derby City                                117,350
Fun Farm                                                Lincolnshire                              90,000E
Source: Star UK
Note: The table above contains data only for attractions which responded to the (East Midlands Tourism) survey and
gave permission for their total visits to be published. E=estimate




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                                                              The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
4.0   Heritage Assets Across the Region

4.1   Introduction and Purpose


      The purpose of this section is to illustrate the spatial distribution of assets across the
      region. Heritage is an important part of the region's built environment and landscape. The
      assets are ubiquitous but sub-regional variations reflect the diversity of the historic
      environment in the East Midlands.
      Table 4.1 East Midlands Heritage Assets
                             Listed         Museums          Scheduled       Registered          Conservation
                             buildings                       monuments       parks and           areas
                                                                             gardens and
                                                                             battlefields
      Derbyshire                5569             36              476                30                  272
      Derby                      372              8               7                  3                   14
      Leicestershire            3915             18              181                14                  200
      Leicester                  388             13              10                  6                   22
      Rutland                   1398              3              28                  2                   34
      Lincolnshire              6936             37              478                28                  155
      Northamptonshire          6448             32              174                29                  159
      Nottinghamshire           3762             22              157                17                  128
      Nottingham                 791              3              10                  8                   29
      East Midlands            29,579            172             1521               137                1,013
      Source: English Heritage, Heritage Counts, East Midlands


      As well as their intrinsic interest, scheduled monuments and listed buildings in both urban
      rural areas are valued for their contribution to tourism and as the cornerstone of
      regeneration in historic places. Although data are not available for comprehensive
      mapping, conservation areas are a strong indicator for the quality of environment across
      the region, the highest number of designations being recorded in Derbyshire and
      Leicestershire. In terms of particular landscape areas Derbyshire includes the major
      proportion of the Peak National Park whilst the Lincolnshire Wolds constitute a unique
      environment. Ancient woodlands are spread across the region, with particular
      concentrations in Derbyshire, south Lincolnshire / Rutland and north Northamptonshire.




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                                                                  The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 4.1 Scheduled Monuments in the East Midlands Region against the Rural/Urban
Classification of Local Authorities




Source: East Midlands Heritage Counts, English Heritage




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                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 4.2       Listed Buildings in the East Midlands Region against the Rural/Urban
Classification of Local Authorities




Source: East Midlands Heritage Counts, English Heritage




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                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 4.3 Battlefields in the East Midlands Region




Source: ECOTEC Research and Consulting using EH data




                                              35                                                         ECOTEC
                                                       The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 4.4 Historic Landscapes in the East Midlands Region




Source: ECOTEC Research and Consulting using Countryside Agency and English Nature data




                                               36                                                           ECOTEC
                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 4.5 Museums and Archives in the East Midlands Region




Source: ECOTEC Research and Consulting using MLA data




                                              37                                                          ECOTEC
                                                        The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 4.6 Parks and Gardens in the East Midlands Region




Source: ECOTEC Research and Consulting using EH data




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                                                       The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
5.0       The Case Studies

5.1       Introduction

          The purpose of this section is to provide a more in-depth analysis of a series of assets
          across the region to illustrate the role and contribution heritage is making to economic and
          social regeneration. The case-studies, set out below, were selected by the Project
          Steering Group7 to cover a range of heritage assets and contexts:

             Buxton;
             Chatsworth;
             Kelmarsh Hall;
             Lincoln Cluster;
             Peak District National Park; and,
             Snibston Discovery Park.

          The case-studies were assessed using a common framework of themes, however the
          responses reflect the particular areas of focus of each asset. The purpose of the process
          was to identify good practice, lessons which can be shared etc. and not to undertake an
          economic impact assessment of the asset which would be problematic from the available
          data.


5.2       Buxton Town Centre

Buxton Town Centre

This case study provides an overview of a continuing and successful heritage led regeneration
process. The town has benefited from a long term partnership approach to regeneration which has
sought to build on the areas' built and environmental heritage. The combination of a number of key
assets – the market place, the Pavilion Gardens, the Crescent and the University (the former
Devonshire Royal Hospital) has led to a catalytic effect and enhanced the areas' performance and
investment levels. The key lessons which can be learnt include the importance of:

 Focused partnership activity;
 Capturing the multiplier effects of HE/FE investments; and,
 The development of an 'all year' round offer.

          7
           Made up of representatives from English Heritage, the National Trust, emda and the Museums, Archives and Libraries
          Partnership.



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                                                                       The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Local Context

Buxton is a unique and historic town centre which lies within the High Peak local authority
area and the Peak National Park in Derbyshire. In terms of access the town has greater
links with Manchester and Sheffield which are 26 and 28 miles away respectively, whilst
Derby is 34 miles from the town. As the Figure 5.1 below illustrates, within the area there
are pockets of deprivation in the urban area. The area, as Table 5.1 and Figure 5.2 show,
has a relatively strong skills base (in part due to the increasing number of commuters
relocating to the area). Its industrial profile is similar to that of Derbyshire as a whole, with
manufacturing and distribution, hotels and restaurants and public sector employment being
the strongest sectors (the latter is set to increase as the recent University development will
not be fully captured in the 2004 figures).



Figure 5.1 LA IMD ranking




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                                                   The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Table 5.1                                    Employment by industry, High Peak
                                                                        England      East Midlands         Derbyshire         High Peak
Agriculture and fishing                                                 0.8%         1.2%                  0.3%               0.7%
Energy and water                                                        0.5%         0.8%                  0.6%               1.7%
Manufacturing                                                           11.9%        17.4%                 23.0%              22.9%
Construction                                                            4.4%         4.8%                  4.3%               3.2%
Distribution, hotels and restaurants                                    24.9%        25.1%                 22.4%              21.2%
Transport and communications                                            6.0%         5.7%                  5.2%               4.8%
Banking, finance and insurance                                          20.6%        15.2%                 13.1%              13.1%
Public administration, education & health                               25.8%        25.5%                 27.0%              28.1%
Other services                                                          5.1%         4.3%                  4.1%               4.4%
Source: Annual business Inquiry, 2004


Figure 5.2                                    Skills Profile
                                                                   Skills Profile                     NVQ4+
                                                                                                      NVQ3
                                      100%                                                            Trade Apprenticeships
                                                                                                      NVQ2
                                      90%                                                             NVQ1 or no

                                      80%
 Percentage with NVQ Qualifications




                                      70%

                                      60%

                                      50%

                                      40%

                                      30%

                                      20%

                                      10%

                                       0%
                                                England        East Midlands             High Peak




Overview of Asset

Buxton town centre has been the focus of a long term conservation strategy for over a
decade and since the mid-1980s significant sums have been spent on conserving its
heritage assets. One of the town's key functions is as a tourist destination, with 64% of the
National Park's serviced accommodation located in the town; therefore the local authority,
along with partners, are committed to ensuring that the built environment is maintained


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and that the history of the area is recognised and its environment enhanced. The town
can be seen to have a number of key assets:

   Market Place;
   Pavillion Gardens;
   Opera House;
   The Crescent; and,
   University of Derby in the former Devonshire Royal Hospital.

Each of these assets plays an important role in the town and they combine to provide
cohesion for the different functions of the town centre (commerce, leisure, education).
However, as the tourism sector has become more competitive there is an increasing
pressure on the town to create additional 'pull factors'. One approach has been to market
Buxton as a festival town. Partners (public, private and voluntary) have worked together to
secure a festival programme which spans the entire year, including a Jazz festival in
February and a food festival in the Autumn. There are many benefits to the creation of a
'full season' and the programme reduces the 'risk' of investment for associated businesses
such as hotels and caterers, therefore stimulating a higher quality and more sustainable
service sector.

The key assets which make up the town centre are at different stages in the regeneration
process. The re-modelling and enhancement of the market place is reaching completion
and the Pavilion Gardens and Opera House are both complete, providing the town with
venues for all year round leisure and educational activities. The Opera House has been
transformed in recent years by an extensive refurbishment (late 1990s) and provides the
town with an extremely high quality theatre which has been developed to offer a
programme for all ages and tastes, including music, cinema, musicals, plays and children's
entertainments. The Pavillion Gardens, as well as providing a high quality restored park,
have facilities for events such as antique fairs and regularly host the area‘s farmers
market. One effect of the restoration is illustrated by the fact that since the investments in
the park a Friends of Pavillion Gardens has been established.

Buxton's best known asset is The Crescent, beneath which lies the source of Buxton
water. The building, which is currently unoccupied, is the subject of development
proposals which build on the town's desire to continuously improve and diversify – the
proposed spa hotel will revive a compelling reason to visit the town (and therefore provide
the town with a ‗new‘ customer group). Initial ideas were developed in 2000 and revised
proposals were subsequently awarded funding by HLF. The scheme has been further




                                        42                                                         ECOTEC
                                                 The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
developed and is currently being appraised by key funding agencies (HLF and emda –
through the Derby and Derbyshire Economic Partnership).

The final major heritage asset located in the town is the former Devonshire Royal Hospital
which was acquired by the University of Derby in 1999. The grade II* listed building was
surplus to NHS requirements. At the time of its construction, it had the largest
unsupported dome in Europe. The university purchased the building for the nominal sum
of £100,000, reflecting the very substantial conservation deficit.

The university has spent around £22m on refurbishing the building which opened to
students in September 2005, providing a mix of FE and HE courses. For FE the site is a
centre of excellence in culinary arts (hospitality/restaurants) and for HE programmes the
main subject area is culture and lifestyle (including leisure, tourism, hospitality, health and
beauty) reflecting the historic (and future) role of Buxton as a Spa Town and a centre for
tourism, leisure and wellbeing. Initial student numbers (2006) are as follows:

HE:       FT – 483      PT – 133
FE:       FT - 1,188    PT – 3,000

Student numbers are expected to increase well beyond those achieved during the first
year of opening (there is capacity to double the number of HE students by 2008).

In terms of rationale, the university was looking to extend and find premises elsewhere in
the county. It is the only university in Derbyshire and the current campus in Derby is not
easily accessible to the entire catchment area. The university already had a presence in
Buxton; in 1997 it had taken over High Peak College which offered a range of FE
programmes. This college is now closed and all teaching has transferred to the new
campus at the former hospital site.

The refurbishment was undertaken with support from emda, Derby and Derbyshire
Economic Partnership, HEFC, LSC , HLF and English Heritage. The university also raised
£1m from the private sector and individuals as part of its development campaign. The
development has:

 Increased the number of students in Buxton;
 Increased the number of jobs (new jobs created by the university and also safeguarded
  the employment of those who worked at High Peak College); and,
 Generated visitor days and nights (visitors to open days, university ceremonies etc).




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                                                   The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
There have been no problems with staff recruitment as Buxton is regarded as a good
place to live and the university development was regarded as a welcome contribution to
the local economy. The majority of staff live nearby, in and around the town, with a small
number commuting from Derby.

The university has undertaken its own research and estimates that every 20 students
generate one job. In addition, even in the short time since opening, there have been over
1,600 visitors from outside of the region (e.g. for open days) and this is estimated to have
generated over 200 bed nights. The university has also taken £98,000 worth of orders for
conferences.

In addition to the teaching facilities, the university has opened a hall of residence. This was
a new build development that has provided a solution for a derelict site in the centre of
town. It has 289 places and in the summer will provide a conference and tourist hotel
which coincides with the timing of the Buxton Festival.

Currently there are nearly 300 HE students from outside of the region who are bringing
additional spend to the town. The university has estimated that students spend around
£30,000 per week in Buxton (based on an analysis of patterns of spend amongst full-time
16-19 year olds and the spending of those from outside of the area). However, this
underestimates the broader economic and social impact that the university is beginning to
have on the town, e.g. student volunteers getting involved in the local community,
discussions with the council about the provision of new sports facilities, and an increase in
enquiries about business premises based on monitoring of the student population (Toni
and Guy, Pizza Express and Waitrose have all recently opened). The arrival of the
university – to which heritage has been key - has had a significant impact on the
regeneration of the town.

Strategic Linkages

The County Council owns part of The Crescent and is a key partner in regeneration
projects – all to the undoubted benefit of the town.

The local authority leads on the management of linkages with organisations such as the
Destination Management Partnership. Since the crisis of the FMD outbreak, partners in the
Peak District National Park have become more pro-active in marketing and there is
evidence that the 'Peak District' brand is strengthening with the local authorities much
more engaged.




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                                                  The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
5.3        Chatsworth

Chatsworth

Chatsworth represents one of the nation's most well know and popular heritage attractions. The
purpose of this case study is to illustrate how this market leading position is being maintained and to
review the structures 'behind the scenes' which supports its continued business development. The
key lessons which can be learnt include:

   Commercial focus and success (the form of the offer);
   The internal management, communications and HR approach;
   The promotion of lifelong learning opportunities;
   Community engagement and support; and,
   The development of approaches to promote sustainability.

           Chatsworth, the home of the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, is one of the country's
           leading historic houses. The house, which dates back to 1552 is located in the north Peak
           District approximately 25 miles from Derby, 4 miles from Bakewell and 9 miles from
           Sheffield. The figure below shows the overall ranking of the local authority area in terms of
           indices of deprivation and although there will be pockets of deprivation, the economy of the
           area is relatively strong. This is also reflected in Figure 5.4 which shows the area to have
           a strong skills base within its resident population.




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                                                            The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 5.3 IMD Ranking for LA Area




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                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 5.4                                     Skills profile for LA Area

                                                                  Skills Profile               NVQ4+
                                                                                               NVQ3
                                                                                               Trade Apprenticeships
                                        100%
                                                                                               NVQ2
   Percentage with NVQ Qualifications




                                        90%
                                                                                               NVQ1 or no
                                        80%
                                        70%
                                        60%
                                        50%
                                        40%
                                        30%
                                        20%
                                        10%
                                         0%
                                                  England        East Midlands      Derbyshire Dales




As the table below illustrates, the economy is dominated by 2 key sectors (public and
distribution, hotels and restaurants), the latter reflecting the dominance of the area as a
tourism destination. The rural nature of the area is also reflected with a higher than
average incidence of land based industry.


Table 5.2 Employment by industry, Derbyshire Dales
                                                                        England       East Midlands         Derbyshire     Derbyshire Dales
Agriculture and fishing                                                 0.8%          1.2%                  0.3%           2.4%
Energy and water                                                        0.5%          0.8%                  0.6%           1.6%
Manufacturing                                                           11.9%         17.4%                 23.0%          14.7%
Construction                                                            4.4%          4.8%                  4.3%           3.5%
Distribution, hotels and restaurants                                    24.9%         25.1%                 22.4%          25.6%
Transport and communications                                            6.0%          5.7%                  5.2%           4.6%
Banking, finance and insurance                                          20.6%         15.2%                 13.1%          11.1%
Public administration, education &                                      25.8%         25.5%                 27.0%
                                                                                                                           31.1%
health
Other services                                                          5.1%          4.3%                  4.1%           5.5%
Source: Annual business Inquiry, 2004




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                                                                                         The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Overview of Asset

In terms of the Chatsworth estate itself the central 2,000 acres, which contain the fee
paying attractions (the house, gardens and the farmyard and adventure playground), were
leased to an Independent Charitable Trust in 1981 – The Chatsworth House Trust – which
receives all income generated from the attractions (Gift Aid is also claimed). To date no
external funding has been accessed for this central area due to the independent nature of
the trust. The Trust is led by a Board of Directors (the family are minority members) which
oversees the management of the asset. The family still resides in part of the house and
pay a market rent to the Trust.

The estate is made up roughly of a series of concentric circles with the centre being in the
ownership of the Trust. The remainder of approximately 33,000 acres is under family
ownership and they directly manage all the woodlands across the estate and the farms
surrounding Chatsworth, all of which are within the National Park. The remaining land is
spread across Derbyshire and most of it is tenanted (farms, residential, industries etc).
The estate is under overall control of a Chief Executive with senior managers running the
tourism, trading and land based element of the business. Department management
meetings are held monthly to ensure that business activities do not operate in silo; this is
crucial due to the large number of major events held on the Estate and the diversity of
activity - for example, there are a wide range of direct and associated businesses linked to
Chatsworth, including 160 tenant farmers and an increasing number of holiday cottages.
In terms of businesses not owned by the Estate but located on the land or occupying
premises, these tend to evolve on an ad-hoc basis and no overarching strategy for land
and building use is in place. Such businesses (i.e. holiday accommodation, micro-brewery
and restaurant) have a number of additional benefits including building maintenance and
landscape management. This mechanism has worked well for the estate and growth has
been organic and manageable.

Visitors

Chatsworth is regarded by many as the premier attraction of the region and is currently the
region's most popular paying attraction. Visitor numbers are substantial with over 650,000
paying visitors across the 3 main attractions; a proportion of these are repeat visitors and
around 50,000 visits are made by season ticket or pass holders. In addition to the paying
elements, the estate allows free access to the wider grounds and provides free car parking
facilities around a mile from the main house. Visitors to the free areas tend to be younger
and of a different socio-economic profile to those visiting the house and the facility has a
positive impact on the local community who are the majority users.



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Chatsworth is open from mid-March through until Christmas, prior to the foot and mouth
outbreak in 2001 the house closed in October. However, in a bid to recoup the losses
from restricted access, the season was extended and due to the huge success of the
Christmas market this has remained the case since (in 2005 around 420 coaches visited
the estate to view the decorations). The shorter closed season has an impact on the
restoration / cleaning of the estate with all activity needing to be completed in 2-3 months
when previously 5 months was available.

In 2000 research was undertaken to profile visitors. Since this date limited information has
been gathered; however, the estate plans to increase its focus on visitor profiling. Overall
visitor numbers grew steadily over the 1990s from around 400,000 to 485,000. The
extension of the season in 2001, in response to FMD, resulted in visitor figures of 520,000.
Since this date the figures appear to have reached a plateau at around 650,000. This
relatively rapid increase in visitor numbers has set a series of challenges for the estate,
such as managing the flow within the house and queue management. It is estimated that
around 30% of visitors are staying visitors and that there are limited overseas visitors. The
only mechanism for monitoring the latter is sales of guides and fewer than 300 in any one
language are sold annually. It needs to be noted that the extensive events programme at
Chatsworth is not included in the visitor numbers, this includes the horse trials which
attract 15-20,000 visitors and the Country Fair which attracts around 100 – 120,000
visitors over a weekend.

In terms of employment, there are currently 275 FTE, around a 100 of whom are housed
on the estate with the remainder being predominantly local (Matlock, Chesterfield),
although a small number live outside the region in Sheffield. Employment levels grew
around 2001/02 but over recent years have stabilised.

In addition, there are around 260 seasonal staff, the urban / rural split of whom is different
to that of direct employees, with around 50% living in urban locations, with a large number
being from Sheffield.

In terms of staff development and training there has been a tradition of learning on the job
and apprenticeships. However, over the past decade with the growth in staff numbers and
new function areas, some skills are not necessarily available in-house. The estate is also
experiencing the global trend in changing work patterns. Where previously a job on the
estate was seen as a job for life there has been a shift to career patterns and increased
mobility has had an impact on retention levels. The estate is currently in consultation with
partners, including the University of Derby, to develop a learning centre on the estate



                                         49                                                         ECOTEC
                                                  The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
which would serve both Chatsworth and the wider business community. The estate also
links with a number of Universities with a particular focus on leisure and tourism. Customer
care is an increasingly important issue being incorporated in to the management system to
ensure a structured and consistent response is developed.

Education

Education is a growing area of focus for Chatsworth. The estate has long standing
relationships with a wide range of schools, local and further afield and on average around
20,000 school children visit the farm with around 2,500 visiting the House. There is an
increased focus on the development of materials to support curriculum learning, as well as
to fit with other growing areas such as genealogy and the development of back-packs
which can be hired by visiting families based on specific themes.

Adult education is also undertaken such as Backstage at Chatsworth which looks at the
restoration and conservation work carried out when the house is closed and historical talks
on key family members over the centuries. Recently a new Duke has taken over at
Chatsworth and has established the Devonshire Education Trust which will focus on
education, lifelong learning and audience development.

The estate does not tend to use sub-contracting for work areas in which the estate has
sufficient skills, as they see many benefits in keeping business areas in house. This
approach means that more members of staff are trained in generic skills such as fire
procedures and security and therefore, should an incident occur, staff have a greater
awareness of procedures, routes within the house (which are often complex), etc.

In terms of maintenance and restoration, the estate has relatively good capacity of sector
skills within its own staff. However, certain specialist skills are sourced from outside and
strong relationships exist with providers who have been working with the estate for a
number of years. Such activity is budgeted for annually; however, should a more
significant piece of work, for example capital investments, need to be undertaken
applications are submitted annually and Trustees allocate funding based on the situation
at the time.

In terms of any procurement which is undertaken, the estate has a local procurement
policy, where possible practical and of a desirable quality, is committed to supporting the
local economy. There are also the added benefits of managing relationships which is
easier with locally based businesses. The Chatsworth farm shop is an example of this and




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                                                 The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
          as well as stocking produce from the estate sells produce form over 60 Derbyshire based
          suppliers.

          Community engagement is undertaken at a number of scales, reflecting the size and
          status of the estate. The most local level is the residents of the 460 dwellings; this is
          followed by the commitment to Bassetlow as Chatsworth has a significant impact on the
          residents. In a general sense the estate links with Bakewell and Chesterfield
          predominantly in relation to traffic management. Many community and charitable groups
          in the area use the facilities of the estate.

          In terms of strategic linkages with structures such as the Destination Management
          Partnership and Sub-regional Strategic Partnerships the estate generally participates
          where appropriate. However, it prefers to keep its independence and also such
          commitments can have significant impacts on capacity. With regard to the potential
          benefits generated by the 2012 Olympics, the estate sees Sheffield as the major local city,
          particularly with the city potentially hosting events and a training camp.


5.4       Kelmarsh Hall

Kelmarsh Hall

Kelmarsh Hall offers a unique case study perspective in terms of its management and structure. The
Hall itself is only open for 34 day per annum and therefore, in order to ensure sufficient revenue is
generated to support the maintenance and refurbishment of the Hall, commercial activities have been
pursued. The Hall has successfully developed a strong revenue stream from corporate events,
weddings, etc. over recent years. The Hall has also benefited from the opening of the A14 which has
improved access considerably. Key lessons which can be learnt include:

 The development of commercial activities and risk management; and,
 Links to higher education.

          Local Context

          Kelmarsh Hall is located in north Northamptonshire around 10 miles south of Market
          Harborough. The Estate is located on the A14 which opened around 1994 to link
          Felixstowe to the midlands. The opening of the A14 has had a major impact on Kelmarsh,
          significantly increasing its accessibility. The surrounding area has a relatively diverse
          economic and social capital base – with a relatively strong representation of manufacturing
          - as the tables below illustrate:



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                                                          The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Table 5.3                                      Employment by industry, Daventry
                                                                      England          East Midlands       Northamptonshir         Daventry
                                                                                                           e
Agriculture and fishing                                               0.8%             1.2%                0.1%                    1.5%
Energy and water                                                      0.5%             0.8%                0.1%                    0.0%
Manufacturing                                                         11.9%            17.4%               18.4%                   20.4%
Construction                                                          4.4%             4.8%                4.7%                    3.7%
Distribution, hotels and restaurants                                  24.9%            25.1%               24.8%                   26.5%
Transport and communications                                          6.0%             5.7%                8.2%                    6.7%
Banking, finance and insurance                                        20.6%            15.2%               18.7%                   18.3%
Public administration, education & health                             25.8%            25.5%               20.6%                   18.5%
Other services                                                        5.1%             4.3%                4.4%                    4.4%
Source: Annual business Inquiry, 2004


Figure 5.5 Skills Profile for Surrounding LA Area

                                                                      Skills Profile                       NVQ4+
                                                                                                           NVQ3
                                                                                                           Trade Apprenticeships
                                        100%
                                                                                                           NVQ2
                                        90%                                                                NVQ1 or no
   Percentage with NVQ Qualifications




                                        80%

                                        70%

                                        60%

                                        50%

                                        40%

                                        30%

                                        20%

                                        10%

                                         0%
                                                     England        East Midlands              North West
                                                                                              Leicestershire




As the figure below illustrates, the Hall is located in an area of limited deprivation:




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                                                                                        The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 5.6 IMD Ranking across LA area




Overview of Asset

Kelmarsh Hall is owned and run by a charitable trust 'The Kelmarsh Trust' which was
established in 1982 by Miss Lancaster8, the aims of which are set out below:

 To preserve for the benefit of the nation buildings of national historic or architectural
  interest together with their contents and surroundings and to make them available for
  study and appreciation;
 To run the estate in accordance with the principles of good estate management;
 To maintain an agricultural community;
 To maintain the character and scenic beauty of the landscape;
 To improve the land and buildings on a long-term rolling programme; and,
 To encourage the study of natural history and nature conservation on appropriate parts
  of the estate.

8
    Executing the wishes of her brother Colonel Claude Lancaster who died in 1977.



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                                                                The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Trustees, of whom there are 7, are selected for their potential contribution to the estate,
with only 2 receiving remuneration. The Lancasters left an endowment fund to manage
the house and gardens and currently the Trust has only used this and commercial revenue
to maintain the estate.

A number of conditions are placed on the house by the Inland Revenue relating to issues
of capital transfer tax and inheritance tax, the key element being that the house must be
open to the public for a minimum of 30 days per annum between April and September
(including Easter and August Bank Holidays). In practice the Hall is open 34 days per year
(every Thursday, the first Sunday in the month and bank holidays) and the gardens are
open 110 days per year.

Within this framework the Trust operates a number of key business areas. Of the total
3,420 acres 2,800 acres are taken up by 7 let farms of around 400 acres each. The estate
also owns and lets 26 cottages in the village and 2 listed houses (1 of which is currently
vacant) There are also 250 acres of woodland – which, although not ancient, lies on the
footprints of ancient woodlands. The Hall itself and surrounding land is managed directly
by the Trust and hosts a home farm which keeps a cattle herd (British White) which has
been on the estate since 1903.

In recent years commercial activity has expanded and the estate offers the land adjacent
to the gardens for weddings. This is undertaken by an external company which pay the
Trust a flat fee for using the site, therefore minimising the risk to Kelmarsh. Although
weddings have only been available on site since 2004, they currently host around 30 per
year. The economic benefit of these predominantly accrues to the local area, with the sub-
contractors and caterers all located within a 7 mile radius. Based on an average of
£35/guest and an average of 70 guests, the catering alone generates £73,500 of income
for local businesses.

This growth in commercial activity is crucial to the estate, which has not broken even for a
number of years, and due to the nature of the asset, there are ongoing costs such as
maintenance which need to be supported. The endowment from the family provides
significant funds. However, these do need to be supplemented; to date the estate has not
chosen to rely on public funding, although it has had recent discussions with HLF
regarding specific projects. The Estate takes part in Defra's Environment Stewardship
scheme, although the area covered has been reduced due to the increased commercial
activity.




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The Estate has also developed a corporate events / private functions business function
over the last few years and clients such as Rolls Royce, Blacks and English Heritage host
events and days in the 53 acres surrounding the Hall.

Visitors

Visitors to the estate are monitored in a number of ways: those who visit the Hall (charge
£4.50 and includes access to the gardens)9; those just visiting the gardens (£3.50); events
and courses; and corporate and private functions. Although figures are available, only
those for the house can be regarded as accurate as they are counted by sales, whereas
the gardens and café both operate on an honesty box policy. From the information
available it can be seen that visitor numbers to the Hall and Gardens have fallen over the
last 4 years. However, the number of overall visits (including events) has risen significantly
from 3,256 in 2001 to 60,640 in 2005. No research is carried out on visitor characteristics.
However, the majority of Hall and Garden visitors tend to be older and day visitors; they
have a number of repeat visitors (no profiles are available for events and weddings).

Employment

The Estate employs 12 FTE, of whom the majority are women and all live locally. The
annual expenditure on wages and salaries is £247,000 – this excludes guides who are
employed as required10. The workforce levels are currently stable. However, over the
past 3-4 years they have changed with increased levels required to match the rises in
commercial activity. Staff training and development is undertaken and skill gaps identified
on an on-going review basis, such as First Aid and Access Audits with a key area of focus
being customer service skills. Volunteers support the running of the estate. Currently this
only represents around 10hrs input per week, although there is the potential for this to
increase.

In terms of maintenance the estate has not experienced problems in securing the craft
skills necessary for the Hall, although they can be expensive. For general maintenance on
the cottages etc. procurement tends to be local. The estate has a maintenance budget of
around £60,000 annually.



9
  The Hall is set to host a collection of Croome furniture next year and this will be subject to an additional charge. The
hosting of this collection has been secured through one of the Trustees who is also involved with the collection (which is
currently without a permanent space).
10
   There are a number of guides in the area which service a number of houses such as Blenhiem.



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                                                                 The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Education

The estate has a part-time Education and Access Officer - although new in post a
significant amount has been achieved to date across a spectrum of age ranges. Good
links have been established with local primary schools, although this is not currently
directly linked to curriculum activity. Links are also in place with both Leicester and
Northampton Universities, with the latter utilising the Hall for a PhD studentship. The Art
Department has also joined together with Kelmarsh to integrate a photography and
sculpture competition in to its courses, with the estate offering a prize and also the
opportunity to display the work of the winner.

In addition Kelmarsh has also developed a substantial programme of learning events with
a comprehensive programme covering the estate's open season. Subjects include:
Watercolour Workshop for Begineers, a Bat Walk, Children's Summer Art Workshop in the
Garden and Willow Weaving. The education element of the estate has been growing.
However, the process needs to be managed and therefore the Trustees and employees
are considering the most appropriate way to take this strand forward prior to any further
activities being developed.

Regeneration and Strategic Linkages

Links with the local community are pursued through groups such as the WI, Rotary Club.
However, these are proving hard to manage and numbers have been falling over the past
years. One mechanism used to raise awareness with such groups, and wider audiences,
is a quarterly newsletter which is distributed to a data base of around 700 contacts. The
format and content of this is currently under review with a focus on using it as more of a
marketing tool as opposed to an update on the estate.

Marketing and strategic linkages are limited but the estate does engage with Explore
Northampton, although the benefits could not be quantified.




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5.5        The Lincoln Cluster (Lincoln Castle, Cathedral, the Medieval Bishops Palace and the
           Collection)


This case study discusses the partnership working which is taking place in order to promote Lincoln's
heritage, which involves representatives from three of the city's key heritage sites: the Cathedral,
Castle and Medieval Bishop's Palace. The case study also provides information on The Collection:
Art and Archaeology in Lincolnshire which comprises a recently opened museum (replacing the
former City and County Museum) and the adjacent Usher Gallery.

Key lessons are:
     A coordinated approach (involving joint working between key attractions and other
      stakeholders) is beneficial in developing strategy and raising awareness.
     Recognition of the role that heritage can play in regeneration can help to support efforts to
      create a vibrant economy.
     Demonstrating a commitment to the management and protection of heritage can also helps to
      ensure that the value of the historic environment is more widely recognised by local people and
      decision makers.
     Although it is recognised that there is potential to attract more visitors to the city, this will require
      improvements to the wider tourism infrastructure (for example improvements to transport links
      and hotel availability).




           Local Context

           The City of Lincoln is located in the eastern part of the East Midlands region. Analysis of
           employment at district level reveals a relatively high proportion of employment (33.5%) in
           public administration, education and health-related work. Comparison with the regional
           level shows an under-representation of manufacturing, although the figure of 11.9% is
           identical to the proportion employed in manufacturing across England as a whole.


           Table 5.4 Employment by industry, Lincoln
                                                    England    East Midlands      Lincolnshire       Lincoln
           Agriculture and fishing                    0.8%          1.2%               1.3%            0.5%
           Energy and water                           0.5%          0.8%               0.4%            0.7%
           Manufacturing                             11.9%         17.4%               16.8%           11.9%
           Construction                               4.4%          4.8%               6.4%            4.0%



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                                                                The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
                                                            England         East Midlands       Lincolnshire      Lincoln
Distribution, hotels and restaurants                         24.9%             25.1%               28.9%            27.8%
Transport and communications                                  6.0%              5.7%                4.8%             3.8%
Banking, finance and insurance                               20.6%             15.2%                9.7%            14.1%
Public administration, education & health                    25.8%             25.5%               27.3%            33.5%
Other services                                                5.1%              4.3%                4.3%             3.9%
Source: Annual Business Inquiry, 2004.


Analysis of the skills profile of the resident workforce shows that the district is home to a
relatively well-educated population with the proportion of those educated to NVQ level 4 or
above that recorded at both the national and regional levels, although this undoubtedly
conceals significant localised variations.


Figure 5.7 Skills Profile for Local Authority Area

                                                           Skills Profile                         NVQ4+
                                                                                                  NVQ3
                                       100%                                                       Trade Apprenticeships
                                                                                                  NVQ2
                                       90%                                                        NVQ1 or no

                                       80%
  Percentage with NVQ Qualifications




                                       70%

                                       60%

                                       50%

                                       40%

                                       30%

                                       20%

                                       10%

                                        0%
                                              England   East Midlands                 Lincoln



Source: Annual Population Survey, 2004.


Lincoln is ranked as the 72nd most deprived local authority area in England as measured
by the Index of Multiple Deprivation. Figure 5.8 shows that the extent of deprivation varies



                                                               58                                                             ECOTEC
                                                                            The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
across the district with pockets of severe multiple deprivation existing alongside relatively
more prosperous areas. A number of the more deprived neighbourhoods are concentrated
in the north east of the district.


Figure 5.8 IMD ranking across LA area




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Overview of Assets

Lincoln castle, cathedral and the medieval bishops‘ palace are located in the Cathedral
Quarter. The castle is operated by Lincolnshire County Council where one of only four
surviving original copies of the Magna Carta (owned by the Cathedral) is displayed. The
cathedral provided a location for the recent film 'The Da Vinci Code.' Admission charges
apply to all three sites.

The Collection: Art and Archaeology in Lincolnshire comprises a new, state-of-the art
£12.5 million museum and the neighbouring Usher Gallery. It opened in October 2005 and
offers free entry to all. The museum contains an archaeological collection of artefacts and
interactive displays covering 250,000 years of Lincolnshire history. It replaces the former
City and County Museum which was housed in a smaller building elsewhere in the city.
The neighbouring Usher Gallery contains a wide ranging collection of fine and decorative
art, including paintings by Turner and Lowry, and work by contemporary artists such as
Grayson Perry.

Employment

The Collection currently employs 25 permanent staff. When it was opened it was intended
that the museum and gallery would employ the same number of staff as previously,
although staff would be reallocated with a higher number moving to work in the museum
(leaving fewer in the gallery). There have been no problems with recruitment and staff are
often over-qualified for the job they are employed to do (e.g. many have post—graduate
qualifications but are only employed in entry level/heritage assistant posts). The majority of
staff do not travel far on a daily basis as most live within the city or surrounding area.

Visitors

The Collection (museum only) has received around 70,000 visitors in its first six months of
operation. No detailed survey work has been done so far, although it is thought that the
visitor base is predominantly local (most coming from distances of 1-5 miles) , reflecting
the local coverage of the opening and other local advertising which has taken place prior
to the summer tourist season in 2006.

The castle and cathedral are key to Lincoln's visitor offer and so play a significant part in
terms of drawing visitors to the area. The cathedral has bucked the general trend of
declining visitor numbers at cathedrals – it has maintained, even increased, numbers in
recent years. Published statistics indicate that both are amongst the region's most popular



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paid entry attractions, with the cathedral estimated to attract almost 200,000 visitors per
year with just over 150,000 recorded as visiting the castle. In addition, the Medieval
Bishops' Palace is attracts around 12,000 visitor per annum.

Research for the County Council suggests that around 70% of the people who come to
Lincoln are day visitors. There is an aspiration to increase the number of overnight stays
as this group spends more. The parents of students is also thought to be a key market as
there are a significant number of students in the city. Lincoln is weak in terms of coach
tours, being off the main routes, although new coach drop-off and parking facilities are
planned to open in summer 2006.

Social Impacts

The Cathedral benefits from the support of a large number of volunteers who undertake
roles, including information desk assistants, guides, servers, embroiders, library
assistants, flower arrangers, and shop assistants. In addition, there are several fund
raising bodies who undertake fundraising on a voluntary basis. Most of the volunteers are
retired, although in recent years there have efforts to develop the recruitment strategy in
order to attract more younger people. Volunteering can provide individuals with an
opportunity to socialise and make new friends, increasing feelings of wellbeing. It can also
form part of the pathway to employment for those who are seeking employment.

Regeneration and Strategic Linkages

Local initiatives have helped to create a coordinated approach in terms of strategy and
development. A key aspiration is to achieve recognition for the historical/heritage
importance of Lincoln – both within and beyond the East Midlands.

These aspirations are coordinated through three informal partnerships: Historic Lincoln
Partnership; Lindum Hillside Partnership; and the Historic Lincoln Officer Group.

The Historic Lincoln Partnership was formed in response to an identified gap in
coordination and the recognition that a more strategic approach was required to push
forward heritage issues. Its strategic vision is for Lincoln 'to become the first choice
cathedral city for visitors by establishing Lincoln as a world class tourism destination; with
our heritage making its full contribution to the economic regeneration of Greater Lincoln,
Lincolnshire and the East Midlands.'




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The English Heritage Historic Environment Local Management (HELM) initiative
encourages the appointment of Historic Environment Champions. The City of Lincoln
Council has demonstrated a commitment to the management and protection of the historic
environment by appointing Councillor Neil Murray as Champion. This has helped to
change the way that the council approaches heritage issues, leading to more and closer
integration of regeneration, tourism and heritage functions. Conservation plans combined
with the Townscape Heritage Initiative, regeneration partnerships and links to the
Community Plan have been very successful and have meant that the value of the historic
environment in making the city an attractive visitor destination and also an increasingly
vibrant economic, educational and cultural centre, is now more widely recognised.

In recent years parts of the City has benefited from ERDF Objective 2 and SRB funding.
Adjacent to The Collection is a building project which will provide studios and workspace
for creative industries which is part of the planned cultural quarter. The university has had
a role in driving regeneration. It offers arts and heritage based courses and the objective is
to increase graduate retention. The museum has also worked with the university in
providing work experience and projects for students. Future plans include work on the
Usher Gallery to bring it up to standard. The gallery is located just outside of the Objective
2 area and so finding funding will be a challenge. The redevelopment would cost around
£1m and would involve building a new entrance to provide better integration with the
museum.

Security and the availability of external funding are critical issues. Applicants recognise
that proposals must respond to agreed priorities but the ‗blending‘ of different funding
streams presents a real challenge for project managers.

There is potential to increase the number of visitors to Lincoln. This could be achieved by
increased marketing, better signage (there is a lack of brown signs directing motorists to
the city) and finding a solution to local car parking issues (e.g. introducing a park and ride).
There is only basic tourism infrastructure – rail services are poor and the station needs
refurbishment; also, there is no park and ride - but investment could make a real difference
in these areas. Lincoln‗s potential has long been under-estimated – it is a good product but
marketing has been restrained. The recent filming of the Da Vinci code has brought a
higher profile but there is scope to build further on this.




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5.6       Peak District National Park Authority

Peak District National Park

The Peak District is the nation's oldest and most popular National Park. This case study provides an
overview of how the asset is being managed during a time of competing pressures (conservation and
development). The review provides an insight into activity around a number of key areas such as
community engagement, education and how relationships and partnerships are managed – in the
context that the Park spans 4 regions, 12 Metropolitan, District and County Councils, 125 Parishes
and 8 Highway Authorities. Key lessons which can be learnt relate to:

 Community consultation mechanisms;
 The development of educational provision; and,
 Partnership working and management.



          The area covered by the Peak District National Park Authority varies significantly
          physically and in terms of its social and economic base. The analysis below shows that
          across the Park skill levels vary, with the Derbyshire Dales having a higher than average
          resident population with Level 4+ and North East Derbyshire having a greater number of
          residents with no or Level 1 qualifications. The industry analysis shows that the economy
          is overly dependent upon manufacturing with key growth sectors such as banking and
          finance being significantly under-represented (12.3% for the authority against 20.6% at
          England level), suggesting high levels of commuter activity to surrounding urban centres
          (Manchester, Sheffield, Nottingham and Derby).


          Table 5.5      Employment by industry, Peak District National Park
                                                   England    East Midlands        Peak District
                                                                                   National Park
          Agriculture and fishing                  0.8%       1.2%                 0.4%
          Energy and water                         0.5%       0.8%                 2.8%
          Manufacturing                            11.9%      17.4%                22.9%
          Construction                             4.4%       4.8%                 4.1%
          Distribution, hotels and restaurants     24.9%      25.1%                24.9%
          Transport and communications             6.0%       5.7%                 5.2%
          Banking, finance and insurance           20.6%      15.2%                12.3%



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                                            England    East Midlands        Peak District
                                                                            National Park
Public administration, education & health   25.8%      25.5%                21.8%
Other services                              5.1%       4.3%                 5.7%
Source: Annual business Inquiry, 2004




Figure 5.9 IMD Status of the LA Area




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                                                      The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
Figure 5.10 Skill Levels across the LA Area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NVQ4+
                                                                                                                   Skills Profile
                                           100%                                                                                                                                                                        NVQ3
      Percentage with NVQ Qualifications




                                           90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Trade
                                           80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Apprenticeships
                                           70%                                                                                                                                                                         NVQ2
                                           60%
                                           50%                                                                                                                                                                         NVQ1 or no

                                           40%
                                           30%
                                           20%
                                           10%
                                            0%
                                                  England




                                                                            Oldham




                                                                                                                                                         High Peak
                                                                                                    Barnsley
                                                            East Midlands




                                                                                                                          Sheffield
                                                                                                               Kirklees




                                                                                                                                                                     North East Derbyshire
                                                                                     Macclesfield




                                                                                                                                      Derbyshire Dales




                                                                                                                                                                                             Staffordshire Moorlands
\

Overview of Asset

The Peak District National Park Authority (PDNPA) was established in 1951 and is unique
within the East Midlands in its function as a local authority as, since 1974, it holds the local
planning function for the area including minerals (normally a county council planning
responsibility held with by Derbyshire County Council). The Authority‘s boundary is also
unique, running through a range of administrative boundaries – 4 regions, 12 Metropolitan,
District and County Councils, 125 Parishes and 8 Highway Authorities and therefore
partnership working is vital. The Peak District National Park was the first to be established
and is the country's oldest and most popular national park. It is estimated to have over 23
million day visits per year11. The PDNPA's responsibilities were set out in the National
Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, which was updated in by the Environment
Act 1995, with the key requirements:




Section 61

11
     PDNPA Business Plan includes non paying attractions



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    a) of conserving and enhancing the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage of the
       areas specified…
    b) of promoting opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special
       qualities of these areas by the public,

Section 62
   A National Park Authority,…shall seek to foster the economic and social well-being of
   local communities within the National Park, but without incurring significant expenditure
   in doing so…

The Authority has a key responsibility for balancing the potentially competing purposes of
conservation and enjoyment. When managing these, and other relationships, it needs to
be noted that to an extent, points a and b can be seen as conflicting and the role of the
Authority is to manage these, and other relationships. Government Circular 12/956 notes
that should unresolvable conflict occur between conservation and promotion then the
emphasis of the Authority should be on conservation and enhancement.

The pressures of management of a National Park, economically, socially and
environmentally are reflected in the Best Value Performance Plan 05-06 which sets out
some of the key challenges for the authority. In terms of funding these include the new
Single Farm Payment for farmers and changes to the EU SF Programmes and their
distribution, whilst at the policy level they include the changes to the management of
tourism and, in terms of pressures, increases in traffic flows, the need for affordable
housing and the pressure of increased population flows (residents and visitors) on
services.

In terms of heritage assets the Peak National Park hosts 457 Scheduled Ancient
Monuments, 105 conservation areas and 2,899 listed buildings (of which 154 are Grade I
or II*), with 211 structures currently at risk.

The four main sources of funding for the authority are:

   National Park Grant from Defra;
   Other local authority special grants from ODPMDCLG;
   Income generated through services; and,
   Additional funds from grant bodies and partnerships.

In terms of economic development and regeneration activity, virtually all of the authority‘s
work has an impact on heritage, be it the historic, built or natural environment. The



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PDNPA has been successful in accessing a wide range of funding opportunities, although,
as with most public agencies, it is finding that funding is increasingly constrained and more
difficult to access. This is a particular concern in relation to EU funding, with LEADER set
to be distributed via the RDA, and the Peak National Park Authority is keen to ensure that
the RDA is engaged and awareness is raised within emda of the significant contribution
which the historic environment makes to economic development and regeneration funding.

Funding which has been accessed in the past includes: LEADER, Objective 2, SRB,
Aggregates Levy, Landfill, etc. The local authority also has strong links with HLF and
English Heritage, with the former currently providing £4.7m to the Moors for the Future
project. The area has benefited from a wide range of projects supported by English
Heritage - for example, the Heritage Economic Regeneration grant scheme (HERS)
through the 'Peak Villages' project. The project was particularly focused on addressing the
decline in hill farming by targeting the repair of traditional, non-residential buildings in 18
conservation areas (mostly small farming villages). Priority was given to farm buildings;
however, others were eligible, and the underlying objective was to support community
cohesion and raise awareness of the issues involved in managing a national park. Other
initiatives include the Lead Rakes Project, in partnership with English Nature and the
National Trust. This seeks to raise awareness amongst visitors and residents, land
managers and policy makers of the contribution that the lead mining industry has made in
social, economic and environmental terms, as well as to the creation of the distinctive
landscapes of the White Peak.

The authority has established a framework for community planning (planning for real),
supported by European Objective 2 OPDM Capacity Building Grant funding, which has
allowed significant consultation to be undertaken in selected villages. The focus has been
on the development of 'Village Plans' which enable allow residents communities to develop
a greater understanding of their local area, understand the conservation issues involved,
develop and realise their aspirations and be engaged in their evolution.

The process of developing the community into representative groups also provides a
framework for engaging the community in wider countryside issues, including the
consultation element of the authority's brokerage of the Defra Environmental Stewardship
Agri-Enviornment environment scheme and promotion of its own Environmental
Enhancement Scheme (EES) where appropriate.

Owing to the nature of the National Park, the authority benefits from a number of additional
funding sources from government and national agencies, such as the Countryside Agency
and HLF. The latter funds, or part funds, a number of projects, including a 5 year



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programme 'Moors for the Future' which focuses on raising awareness of moorlands, the
conservation of severely degraded moorlands and the creation of opportunities for their
enjoyment. In 2005/06 the External Funding Group was re-established with revised
membership and terms of reference.

The National Park's geography has an impact on relationships as, although the majority of
the Park is located in the East Midlands (82%), the boundary extends into Yorkshire and
the Humber (3%), West Midlands (12%) and the North West (3%)12. In terms of
consultation at a regional level, the East Midlands takes the lead and, for example, the
National Park is considered by the East Midlands Office of agencies such as English
Heritage. Relationships between the authority PDNPA and emda are predominantly
strategic and there is an acknowledgement that these need to be further developed in
order to raise awareness across both organisations of the issues and constraints of the
PDNPA in fulfilling its statutory functions. The PDNPA is engaged in the SSP for the area
and currently there is considered to be substantial scope to increase the focus on the
heritage sector and to embed 'heritage based' considerations into the investment and
planning process. It is hoped that the current community planning exercise will could
inform the process.

Partnership is an underlying principle for the authority and a significant amount of
regeneration activity reflects this approach. For example, owing to the nature of the area
the authority also has strong links with a number of utility companies. There are a number
of dimensions to these relationships, a key aspect being the joint funding of rangers for
landscape management and conservation work.

In terms of strategic engagement, owing to the unique position of the authority a
framework for partnership working and monitoring the impact of key partners‘ decisions
and actions on the National Park is currently being developed which will offer a unique and
valuable planning tool. This process will include engaging with the city-regions agenda
and ensuring that strategies such as the Northern Way fit with the aims and objectives of
the National Park Management Plan.

Employment

In terms of employment the PDNPA employs 257 FTE (137 male, 120 female) of whom
78% live within the region. In terms of annual spend by the authority on wages in and
salaries the figure is around £6,200,000 equating to an average salary of £24,143.


12
     % represents the proportion of the Peak District National Park's 38,000 population living in a specific region.



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In terms of volunteers, the National Park benefited from approximately 3,200 person days
in 2005/06., Data on in terms of their residential location this information is not currently
available but is set to be collected in the future.

The authority is currently working towards a policy on local procurement. Currently 56% of
the PDNPA procurement spend is located within the local authority‘s boundary (an overall
expenditure figure for procurement is not available, although given that the annual
expenditure in 05/06 was £13m, the impact is substantial).

In terms of structure, the authority has a number of functional areas including
'Conservation of the Cultural Heritage', which oversee many of the funding programmes
mentioned. A Cultural Heritage Strategy has recently been developed by the authority
(currently only available in draft and not available). The purpose of the strategy, which
was the product of extensive consultation, is to provide a clear set of priorities and targets
actions, outputs and outcomes which can be used to inform activity and provide a
framework for intervention. Key areas of focus for the authority‘s Cultural Heritage Team
include: historic buildings, parks and gardens, community planning schemes, conservation
areas, historic sites and monuments, the historic landscape and the sustainable
development fund.

Development control is a major element of the work of the authority, with the focus being
on managing the pressures between the requirement for business and residential
developments against the requirement to conserve and enhance the National Park. The
authority has minerals planning powers and currently, unless exceptional circumstances of
national need are proven, or the Park would benefit, no further developments of new
minerals sites will be permitted. Affordable housing, as with many areas of the country, is
an issue for the authority with the need to support sustainable communities and
community cohesion. The authority is working with other National Park authorities to
exchange information and experience on affordable housing and enforcement issues.
Design guidance, enhanced and earlier community engagement and the use of new
technologies are also areas which the authority is developing.

Recreation Management and Promoting Understanding are also functional responsibilities
which are particularly relevant to this study. Recreation management has a key role in the
balancing of pressures between increasing access in line with legislation and mitigating
the impact on the landscape and ensuring that sustainable practices are used in order to
conserve the Park for future generations. In line with PSA 3 there is a focus on promoting
access to target groups including - young, disadvantaged and ethnic minority groups. The
promoting understanding function actively targets the groups set out above (particularly



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youth engagement through using DCLG funds with a young peoples committee for the
Park being tested). In overall terms it aims at raising awareness / improving
understanding across a number of themes - for example, increasing recreational activity
and working to support local communities and businesses, with a sustainability
underpinning all activity. Environmental issues, renewable energies and education are
major areas of focus.

Education

The authority is also committed to education which is an important aspect of the PDNPA
activity and has links with all LEAs in or around the National Park. There are a number of
centres in the Park across the area, both residential and for day visits, with the NPA‘s
Losehill Hall being the main centre. The Hall provides facilities for environmental learning
and received a Gold Award in the England Excellence Awards, run by East Midlands
Tourism. Around 10,500 school pupils and teachers visited the centre in 2005/06, but this
figure does not include educational visits run by National Park Rangers. Although schools
make up the majority of educational visits, the PDNPA also has strong links with several
colleges and universities across a range of subject areas linked to environmental
management and geography / geology. Universities which the PDNPA currently links with
are generally based in surrounding cities - Sheffield, Derby and Manchester, although UCL
runs joint landscape management courses with a placement element within the National
Park.

Visitors

In terms of visitor numbers, a 1996 study undertaken by Deloitte, Touche, Tohmatsu
estimated visitor days to be over 19 million (excluding through traffic and evening visits).
Within this figure the All Parks Visitor Survey states that 78% of these are day visitors with
the remainder being staying visits. Therefore sustainable tourism is a major consideration
for the National Park and a sustainable tourism strategy has been developed and is being
taken forward with the Destination Management Partnership and the Peak District Tourism
Industry Forum. The authority is challenged in terms of its capacity to link in with the
tourism agendas in each of the 4 regions. However, the principles are consistent –
focusing on increased quality of visits not quantity. This is being taken forward in a
number of ways, including the Environmental Quality Mark (EQM) scheme and the Peak
District Interpretation Project.

The links between the economy and the environment have been always been a major
focus for the authority; however, over the last 5 years the management of this has



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      changed. Significant steps have been taken to raise awareness of how scenery landscape
      is created and maintained and to examine the relationships between society, the economy
      and the environment. There is a recognised need to raise awareness of the 'landscape' as
      an asset and converting this to an economic impact. This, it is hoped, will have many
      results such as community cohesion, investment through emphasising the benefits of
      maintenance and re-use of buildings over new build (the former is also more
      environmentally sustainable) and spin-off investment benefits in terms of the increased
      quality of the built environment and historic landscape and demographic growth and
      diversification – as a result a virtuous circle is developed.

      In terms of priorities for the future, the authority is keen to continue its promotion of
      understanding issues around sustainability. Local area agreements are seen as a key
      mechanism for driving forward partnership activity, with a focus on delivery. emda is also
      seen as a partner which needs to be more greatly significantly engaged in the area with a
      focus on mutual benefits and 'environment proofing' investments and policy decisions. It is
      also considered that there is potential for a stronger role for English Heritage in terms of
      strategic lead and resources (although capacity constraints are recognised).



5.7   Snibston Discovery Park

      Local Context

      Snibston Discovery Park is sited on an exhausted coalmine which closed in 1986. The
      site was acquired by Leicestershire County Council (LCC) shortly after with the overall aim
      of supporting the regeneration of an area in economic transition. As the data below
      illustrate, Snibston is located in an area of deprivation with a low wage low skill economy
      based on an over-representation of sectors such as manufacturing and transport and
      communications.




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Figure 5.11 IMD ranking across LA area




Table 5.6 Employment by industry, North West Leicestershire
                                                                                           North West
                                        England      East Midlands     Leicestershire
                                                                                           Leicestershire
Agriculture and fishing                 0.8%         1.2%              0.6%                1.0%
Energy and water                        0.5%         0.8%              1.0%                1.4%
Manufacturing                           11.9%        17.4%             19.0%               18.7%
Construction                            4.4%         4.8%              4.6%                6.6%
Distribution, hotels and restaurants    24.9%        25.1%             28.6%               24.9%
Transport and communications            6.0%         5.7%              8.1%                17.0%
Banking, finance and insurance          20.6%        15.2%             15.8%               15.5%
Public administration, education &      25.8%        25.5%
                                                                       18.2%               12.2%
health
Other services                          5.1%         4.3%              4.3%                2.7%
Source: Annual business Inquiry, 2004




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Figure 5.12 Skill Levels across LA Area
                                                           Skills Profile                         NVQ4+
                                                                                                  NVQ3
                                      100%                                                        Trade Apprenticeships
                                                                                                  NVQ2
                                      90%                                                         NVQ1 or no

                                      80%
 Percentage with NVQ Qualifications




                                      70%

                                      60%

                                      50%

                                      40%

                                      30%

                                      20%

                                      10%

                                       0%
                                             England   East Midlands        North West Leicestershire




Overview of Asset

Due to certain covenants on the usage of the former mine it was agreed, after a feasibility
process, that the site should be mixed use offering a visitor attraction with a museum and
heritage element and a local recreation site. The latter would be free to access. The free
access 'green area' is a key draw with local people and offers space for leisure activities
such as walking and fishing.

The site, which lies on the edge of Coalville, was opened in June 1992 and at the time
housed the largest new build science and industry museum since the war. The Exhibition
Hall very much reflects the culture and industrial heritage of the surrounding area and the
mine site has been preserved (it was scheduled as an Ancient Monument in 2001). Since
opening the site has been continually developed, initially through LCC sponsorship and
partnership activity. Since the mid 1990's there has been a greater focus on the use of
external funding through programmes such as RECHAR, SRB and Heritage Lottery Fund.
New attractions include: the restoration of the site railway as the passenger railway, a
sculpture trail and a series of temporary exhibitions such as 'Ship to Shore', technology of
Tudor Times demonstrated through Mary Rose museum loans. The newest additions to
the centre include the Fashion Gallery which opened in May 2005 and 'Extraordinary', an
interactive gallery based on technology which opened in November 2005. The centre has
developed a strong track record in securing and delivering externally funded projects.

The focus and management of the site has evolved, particularly since 2004 when the
overall management function within LCC was restructured. The impact on the centre has
been positive and has increased the focus on business management and 'knowing the
market' to make the centre more 'visitor outfacing'.



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Partnership working and marketing of the site is an increasing area of focus with the recent
recruitment of a dedicated marketing manager. Synergies and added value are being
pursued. Activity has included networking with these and other attractions in the area and
staff visiting each other so that venues can advise visitors on 'things to do' locally as the
majority of the assets are not full day visitor attractions. The National Forest is a key brand
with which Snibston is engaging and work to raise awareness and profile, such as
enhanced signage, has been supported by Leicestershire Promotions. These linkages are
key to the site and are an increasing focus in a more competitive market. Since Snibston
opened a number of major attractions have been developed and the location of the site
(near to a major motorway interchange) means that Snibston competes with attractions
such as Millennium Point and Sea World, as well as more local additions such as the
National Space Centre.

The site also has a number of linkages with the private and public sector; commercial
linkages have been secured with major local employers such as NEXT and Courtalds
which provide financial and in-kind support. In terms of regional agencies, Snibston has
worked on specific projects with MLA East Midlands, Arts Council and with emda and
GOEM, and has ongoing partnerships with English Heritage (regarding the SAM), and the
Renaissance East Midlands museum hub.

The site also has good links with museums across the country and has taken part in a
number of shared exhibitions, including the Science Museum, the Mary Rose Trust, the
Football Museum and Bath Museum of Costume. There is an increasing focus at the site
on harnessing good practice in order to ensure continuous improvement in the quality of
the product offered.

Education

Education is a major focus of the site and strong ties have been established with
surrounding primary and secondary schools, including teacher focus groups. Although the
site does not have a dedicated education officer, the Heritage Services team support
Snibston in its work. The principle focus to date has been Key Stage II materials,
developed to support links and 'bring the issues to life' for the pupils. There are currently
around 20,000 school visits per year with the majority from within the region, although a
proportion are from Staffordshire. The site also provides summer school activities and
Saturday morning science clubs. Special needs education is an area with which the site is
increasingly engaged, as the centre offers sensory experiences (which it plans to extend).




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Snibston also offers work placements for all ages, including school children through to
international students identified through the contacts with Loughborough College.

Snibston also has strong links with HE through the Fashion Gallery. The Gallery, which
opened in Spring 2005, works with De Monfort University, Loughborough School of Art and
Design and Nottingham Trent University and is included in the universities' offer to
students. This has had a positive impact on the visitor profile of the site as the number of
young adults has increased significantly over the past 12 months. Research has shown
that the 'hooks' provided by the HE links have allowed the site to develop a product which
is relevant to a broad range of age groups and it is anticipated that this will be extended
over the coming years to the FE sector. Snibston is also developing its offer to the under 5
age group, thanks to Renaissance support, as well as adult learners (for which they are in
early discussions with the LSC). Leicester University (Museum Studies) and the
Ironbridge Institute have also been regular users of Snibston as a museum training venue.

Widening access and raising awareness are being driven forward strategically and
practically and this aspect of the site's work is increasing. Snibston holds a number of high
profile large free events to engage with the local community; the facility is used for pubic
consultation events such as the Local Plan and the County Council also use the facility for
training and conferences. In addition local groups use the café facilities as a meeting
space.

Employment

Snibston has a mix of permanent and temporary staff, including high level niche skill
areas, which are shared across a number of heritage sites. These include arts, curatorial
staff and park rangers.

There are currently 39 FTE people who cover a range of sites including Snibston
(information on wages / salaries spend is not available). Staffing levels have reduced /
stabilised over the last decade, although there was a slight increase in 2005. Casual
staffing levels are directly linked to demand. In terms of the residency of the workforce,
around 90% are from the surrounding area, with the remainder living in Leicestershire.

Volunteers contribute to the work of the site, however on a project basis rather than
generally - e.g. the railway, exhibitions, collections work, inputting approximately 72 FTE
days per annum. In addition to this the Blue Box, a volunteer company, manages the
Century Theatre and puts on performances. Voluntary 'Friends' groups fundraise to
support site developments.



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      Snibston has a low staff turnover and strong retention rates amongst its staff; however a
      longer term skill issue is the colliery guides. Colliery tours are currently undertaken by ex-
      miners and a very popular feature for the visitor. As the numbers of ex-miners declines
      Snibston will need to consider how it will sustain the public's interest in the coal-mining
      history without first hand experience.

      Snibston uses the Eastern Shires purchasing organisation where possible to support
      procurement.

      Visitors

      Visitor numbers are relatively stable at 130,000 per annum (measured through the tills)
      including visitors to the café, shop, country park and any foyer activity. As at 2002
      Snibston was the most visited museum in Leicestershire and within the top 10% most
      visited in England. Approximately 67% of our visitors are new, while 33% are repeat.
      Repeat visitors return 3+ times on average. Snibston has a high level of satisfaction with
      more than 90% claiming Snibston met or exceeded expectations. The range of visitors is
      also increasing. Although initially targeted to children with families and education groups,
      the permanent and temporary exhibitions at Snibston have generated sufficient interest
      from adults without children and speciality groups to warrant consideration as a secondary
      target. This has widened the audience for upcoming developments. However, in terms of
      general information visitors tend to be pre-teen children, a lot of whom attend with their
      grandparents (this prompted a marketing campaign linked to half-term on SAGA radio).
      Initially 43% of visitors were from outside Leicestershire but by 2001 that number had
      increased to 64% with out-of county visitors travelling an average of one hour to visit
      Snibston. Visits are mainly by day visitors, or those staying with family, although the
      location on the motorway network does result in the site being a 'stop-off' location on a
      longer journey. A local lack of accommodation is a constraint on the site; however a
      Marriott hotel has opened at Junction 21 of the M1, a short drive from Snibston.



5.8   Evidence from Previous Work Undertaken in the East Midlands (for HLF)

      ECOTEC was commissioned by the Heritage Lottery Fund to undertake case studies to
      assess the economic impact of ten funded projects13.Two of these concerned sites in the
      East Midlands and - with the agreement of the HLF - the key findings of these case
      studies are summarised below.
      13
           'The Economic Impact of Funding Heritage' HLF 2006-2006



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5.8.1     The Adams Building and the Lace Market, Nottingham
          The Lace Market area was developed in the 19th Century and, with its tall Victorian
          warehouses and factories, is now home to the highest concentration of listed industrial
          buildings in England. The Adams Building is a Grade II* listed building within the Lace
          Market which was built to function as a textile factory, lace warehouse and salesroom


5.8.1.1   Local Context
          Nottingham has a diverse industrial base, with some manufacturing industries strongly
          represented alongside growing higher value added service sectors such as IT services.
          However, unemployment remains above average and economic activity rates are relatively
          low. The skills profile of the City's residents is mixed with the proportion of those qualified
          to NVQ level 3 above the national average while the proportion qualified to level 4 or
          above is below average. In addition, the City lags significantly behind the national average
          in terms of GCSE attainment.

          The IMD highlights the City of Nottingham as being within the 5 percent most deprived
          districts in England (ranked 7th out of 354), indicating that areas of the city suffer from
          severe multiple deprivation.


5.8.1.2   Overview of Asset
          The restoration of the Adams Building was driven by a partnership which began in the mid-
          1990s between the Lace Market Heritage Trust and New College Nottingham.

          The Adams Building opened its doors as a campus of Clarendon College (now New
          College Nottingham) in October 1998. In its role as a campus of the college it provides a
          range of courses, with a key focus on provision specifically developed to meet the needs
          of current and emerging industries in the area, including: art and design, ICT and multi-
          media, fashion, textiles, leisure and tourism, customer services and call centre training,
          hospitality, events and facilities management.

          The redevelopment kept the historical content of the building and its original features
          which has helped to create a unique learning environment.

          HLF also contributed funding to the restoration of another of the Lace Market's most
          significant buildings – the Grade II* listed Shire Hall - in order to create a major attraction
          for the area, the Galleries of Justice, and jointly funded work on a number of buildings in
          the Lace Market through the Conservation Area Partnership Scheme.


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5.8.1.3   Employment
          In FTE terms, the number of staff employed within the Adams Building has been estimated
          at 200. Around 25 percent of these live within the city and around 50 percent within the
          sub-region.


5.8.1.4   Education
          From 9,800 enrolments in the first full year (1999/2000), student numbers had grown to
          over 11,000 in 2004/05.

          Nottingham suffers from low achievement in schools; this has improved in recent years but
          performance has not yet reached the national average. The college has undertaken work
          with schools across the city and county to encourage post-16 participation.

          The increasing number of enrolments provides some evidence that the campus is
          achieving its aim of encouraging participation in post-16 education and lifelong learning.


5.8.1.5   Regeneration and Strategic Linkages
          The restoration of the Adams Building has been cited by many as the starting point for the
          urban renewal of the wider Lace Market.14 The area is now renowned as the city's
          creative and cultural quarter. Stakeholders report that the Lace Market area has changed
          substantially since 1998 when the Adams Building opened as a college and that the
          restoration of the Adams Building demonstrated what could be done, giving confidence
          which helped to stimulate other development in the area. HLF involvement made the
          restoration of the Adams Building possible. It has helped to pump prime other funds for
          subsequent projects and acted as a catalyst for private sector involvement. All nearby
          derelict buildings have since been turned into flats and there has been some new build on
          derelict sites, with a focus on mixed-use development – although other factors such as the
          buoyancy of the housing market and the trend towards city centre living have, no doubt,
          also played a part in this.

          Cafes/bars and shops located in the vicinity of the Adams Building acknowledge that the
          presence of students in the area has boosted trade. The opening of the building as a
          college has helped to increase footfall in the area, although the regeneration of the Lace
          Market more generally is also seen as being a factor. However, it has not been possible to
          estimate the increased spending which has resulted from increased footfall linked to the
          college.
          14
               Source: New Life: Heritage and Regeneration (2004).



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5.8.2     The Workhouse, Southwell
          The Workhouse is owned and operated by the National Trust and is located 2 miles from
          the centre of Southwell, Nottinghamshire. The National Trust purchased the building in
          1997 as a restoration/conservation project. The aim of the project was to guarantee the
          preservation of the best surviving and least altered workhouse in England, with the
          intention of opening it to the public.


5.8.2.1   Local Context
          The district of Newark and Sherwood within which Southwell is sited benefits from a
          reasonably buoyant local economy; unemployment has been low, employment growth
          high, and economic activity rates high. The IMD does not highlight the local authority as
          being among the most deprived in the country.

          However, GDP per capita and average weekly earnings are low; this is indicative of a low
          productivity economy. Newark and Sherwood does not offer a workforce more highly
          qualified than average, and this is likely to be linked to the low earnings and productivity
          shown by the figures.

          The tourism economy is relatively strong in both Nottinghamshire and Newark and
          Sherwood in regional terms, and has shown growth since 1999 in both visitor numbers and
          in employment. However, there is a lack of major visitor attractions in the sub-region which
          affects the overall attractiveness of the area compared to other regions of the UK.


5.8.2.2   Overview of Asset
          Building work began in autumn 1999 and The Workhouse opened to the public in March
          2002. The Workhouse now gives visitors the opportunity to enter the best surviving
          workhouse in the country and discover the thought-provoking story of its 19th century
          inhabitants.


5.8.2.3   Employment

          The Workhouse currently operates with three permanent full-time staff. In addition the site
          employs one part-time administration assistant and one conservation cleaner (who works
          for three hours per day). Some seasonal staff are also required and employed on fixed
          term contracts from March to October. Taking account of both seasonal and permanent
          staff, the site currently has a total of around six full-time equivalent (FTE) employees. The



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          majority of staff were found to live within the local area (Newark/Southwell), with two
          members of staff residing slightly further afield, although still within the region.


5.8.2.4   Visitor Impacts
          As The Workhouse is a paid attraction, a system is in place which records visitor numbers
          at the point of entry (including National Trust members who are admitted for free). As
          might be expected with a new attraction, the highest annual visitor numbers to date were
          achieved in the opening year (60,000), declining by almost 20,000 in year 2. However, in
          year 3 visitor numbers showed only a small year-on-year drop indicating that they are
          approaching a steady state of around 35,000. Visitor surveys have indicated that the
          majority of visitors to the site are on a day trip from their own home (71% in 2004) and
          therefore travelling relatively short distances. Analysis of home postcode information for
          the surveys completed in 2004 showed that 64% of visitors were resident within the East
          Midlands, the majority (35%) from Nottinghamshire and a further 11% from Lincolnshire
          and 9% from Derbyshire.


5.8.2.5   Education and Volunteering
          The Workhouse opened as the National Trust's first learning property so there is a strong
          focus on education. The project is intended to generate long-term benefits through an
          imaginative approach to education and interpretation, designed to create opportunities for
          people of all ages, abilities and interests, encouraging them to access and appreciate an
          important, yet often overlooked, part of our national heritage. In 2004, 4,000 school
          children, and 1,000 other learning visitors, visited the property on educational visits.

          In common with all National Trust properties, The Workhouse depends on volunteers to
          perform a wide range of duties, including room stewarding, developing exhibits and
          research. There are around 170 volunteers who contribute their time to the site. Most
          volunteers are from local villages, have an interest in local history and/or the welfare
          system, and are retired/semi-retired.

          The Workhouse also works with a number of local groups and projects – all of these
          groups share the aims of The Workhouse in terms of increasing access to education and
          learning.


5.8.2.6   Overview
          The results of the economic impact assessment showed that The Workhouse makes a
          small but significant contribution to the local area in terms of additional employment. In
          addition, economic impacts have been generated through increasing the number of visitors



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      who come to Southwell and spend money in the town. The tourism officer at Southwell
      Minster has estimated that in the first year of The Workhouse opening the Minster
      benefited from an additional 10,000 visitors (around 16% more than the previous year).
      Visitor numbers at the Minster are now reported to be holding steady where as before The
      Workhouse opened they had begun to experience year-on-year decline.

      The National Trust deliberately chose not to open a café and/or retail outlet at The
      Workhouse so that the town and its surrounding villages could benefit from additional
      visitor spend on refreshments and gifts.



5.9   Issues and Key Lessons

      As the Section illustrates there is not a blue-print for heritage led regeneration. Although
      very different; there were a number of cross-cutting issues and messages which can be
      identified from the case studies:

       The acknowledgement that currently very little is known about visitor profiles and a
        desire to change this, with a number of the assets currently developing approaches to
        address this issue. There is scope for support here from the Forum, led by EMT, in
        terms of developing a common methodology for assets to capture visitor information.

       The capacity of the sector to support and engage in bodies such as the Destination
        Management Partnerships varies, with less capacity reported in the private sector.
        There is a desire for a greater clarification of the role of such groups and also what is
        required from members, as increased focus would use limited time more efficiently.

       Scope for educational materials which have been developed to support curriculum to
        be shared for efficiency; the Forum has a potential role here in terms of acting as a
        catalyst, perhaps led by the MLA Partnership.

       Co-ordination and co-operation across assets in a geographical area is an increasing
        focus for a number of the assets. This reflects the general recognition that the majority
        of assets do not offer a 'full day' and partnering is seen as an effective and efficient
        marketing approach. There are also additional spin-off benefits from higher levels of
        inter-action and sharing experiences and good practice.

       Supporting Regeneration – a number of assets are using tools such as 'conservation
        plans' and heritage champions to engage with communities to illustrate the contribution


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  heritage makes to the economy and quality of life. Heritage also offers a mechanism for
  reclaiming areas which have experienced economic transition and providing a catalyst
  for investment and civic pride.

 Sustainable development is a key issue to the assets and, along with harnessing
  existing knowledge and practices, additional initiatives are being developed, such as
  partnering with the local bus company and giving an entry reduction on production of a
  ticket.

Overall the key message from the assets was that funding is a major issue for the future
and, linked to this, there is a genuine desire to see the Forum continue its focus on
engaging and raising the awareness of emda and the SSPs of the heritage sector.




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6.0   Survey Evidence and Overall Analysis

6.1   Introduction

      The purpose of this section is to present evidence and analysis on the current contribution
      of the heritage sector in terms of both economic and social impacts. The evidence relates
      principally to assets that are managed for the appreciation and enjoyment of visitors (both
      from within the region and beyond) The wider benefits of heritage-led regeneration are
      examined in Section 2 and are significant among the conclusions and recommendations in
      Section 7.

      The results below have been generated from the responses received to the postal survey
      which was distributed to a sample of the region's heritage assets during April 2006. It
      needs to be noted that the sample is only that, a sample of heritage assets across the
      region and that a number of the East Midland's premier sites are not included in this
      survey. The findings also need to be seen in the context that not all responses were fully
      complete and that, for example, information on areas such as expenditure on wages and
      salaries was not always available (sometimes due to other institutions undertaking the
      payroll aspects, limiting their capacity to provide detailed information). Despite these
      caveats, the results set out below provide a baseline and a conservative estimate of the
      economic and social impacts of the sector which has the potential to be further developed.

      The economic impact analysis model used is as set out as Figure 1.1 and is an adaptation
      of a generic model which is typically applied in economic impact studies. The survey
      instrument used to collect information was designed to capture both quantitative and
      qualitative data and the following economic impact analysis sets out the results of the
      analysis under the following sub-themes:

         Asset Type and Core Activities;
         Direct Impacts;
         Visitor Impacts; and,
         Indirect and Induced Impacts.

      This is followed by an indicative estimate of regional level impacts based on an
      aggregation of the information collected from the survey sample.

      The social impact assessment is based on information collected in relation to the following
      areas of activity:



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            Volunteering;
            Education Opportunities;
            Skills Issues; and,
            Community and Regeneration Links.


6.2      Asset Type and Core Activities

         Many heritage assets are multi-dimensional entities, comprising for example historic
         houses and registered parks and gardens or facilities such as museums located in listed
         buildings. Analysis based on the main function of the sites is therefore inevitably
         dominated by listed buildings and museums.

         Table 6.1 Main Type of Heritage Site
         Type of heritage site                          Number of responses                 % of responses
         Museums                                        24                                  42%
         Libraries and Archives                         2                                   4%
         Listed buildings                               28                                  49%
         Registered Parks and Gardens                   1                                   2%
         Scheduled Monuments                            2                                   4%
         Source: ECOTEC analysis based on a sample of 57 respondents.


         Given the significant opportunities which exist for both formal and informal education at
         heritage sites, this was recognised as a core activity by 71% of respondents. Almost half of
         respondents reported that commercial activity was also a key focus, including use of the
         sites as wedding venues and the hosting of sporting events.


6.3      Direct Impacts

         Survey responses indicate that the total number of full-time equivalent (FTE) employees
         working at the sample sites is almost 530, with average employment per asset being
         around 10 FTE.


      Table 6.1     Total and Average FTE Employment

                                                        Total employment                    Average
                                                                                            employment
         Total (52 responses)                           527.5                               10.1
         Source: ECOTEC Analysis


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The workforce is relatively evenly split in terms of gender with 54% of employees reported
to be male and 46% female. In terms of the place of residence, a substantial proportion of
employees live in close proximity to their place of employment. The findings suggest that
at a regional level there is little leakage, with only a small proportion of employees living
outside of the East Midlands. The urban / rural split from which employees are drawn is
relatively even, although many of the respondents have evidently used the term ‗urban‘
when referring to market towns and not the region's cities.

Table 6.2 Residence of staff
Type of heritage site     Same as    Within      Within        Other           Urban           Rural
                          asset      County      East
                                                 Midlands
Average                   45.8%      39.2%       10.6%         4.2%            50%             43%
Source: ECOTEC Analysis


Seasonal employment is relatively low, perhaps surprisingly given the nature of the sector.
National Trust properties accounted for 73% of the seasonal employment which was
reported in the survey. Other findings were that:

 3 museums employ a total of 2.5 FTE seasonal workers;
 The one registered park(s) and garden(s) in the survey employs 5 FTE seasonal
  workers;
 One scheduled monument employs one FTE seasonal worker;
 A total of 399 seasonal workers are employed at 16 properties (listed buildings), giving
  an average of 25 seasonal workers per listed building.

Only 75% of respondents were able to provide the necessary information on expenditure
on wages and salaries at the sample sites. However, the analysis reveals a total of £9.75
million being spent on wages and salaries. Average spending on wages and salaries was
highest among the properties (listed buildings), with the least being spent per asset among
the few scheduled monuments included in the survey.

Table 6.3 Annual Spending on Wages and Salaries
                                                         Total amount             Average amount
Total                                                    £9,745,500               £195,468
Source: ECOTEC Analysis




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                                                 The Contribution of Heritage to the East Midlands Economy
      Average earnings were reported to be £18,440, slightly higher than the overall regional
      average of £17,71315.

      Procurement of goods and services is an increasing focus of policy, particularly in relation
      to the public sector. As Table 6.6 illustrates, the annual spending of respondents amounts
      to almost £8 million. Although variations will occur with the nature of the spending
      undertaken, using the conservative assumption that every £70,000 of procurement
      expenditure supports one FTE job16 suggests that the identified procurement expenditure
      at the sample sites will support around113 FTE jobs within the region (based on the
      assumption that leakage of this spend outside of the region will be minimal given the
      typical focus of such spend on items such as repairs).

      Table 6.4 Procurement Spending and FTE jobs
      Type of heritage site                                                       Spending on                FTE jobs
                                                                                  goods and
                                                                                  services
      Totals                                                                      £7,911,072                 110
      Source: ECOTEC Analysis


6.4   Visitor Impacts

      In terms of absolute visitor numbers respondents are performing well and generally
      reported an increasing trend in numbers between 2003 and 2005. Overall, respondents
      accounted for a total of over 2.2 million visitors in 2005.

      Methods for collecting visitor numbers varied, However, ticket sales and counters were the
      most common (and reliable) mechanisms employed.

      In terms of the economic impact analysis, visitors drawn to the area by the presence of a
      heritage asset are of great importance. However, assessing the extent to which the assets
      help to draw in additional visitors to their local/regional economy has proved difficult as
      46% of respondents reported that they do not collect visitor information. Of those that do
      have survey evidence, the type of information collected varies but tends to focus on
      building up demographic profiles and assessing visitor satisfaction, leaving the question of
      visitor origins and motivations largely unaddressed. However, of those that have provided
      details the following points can be identified:

      15
         Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2005
      16
         This figure is a conservative estimate given that the majority of spending in the sector is likely to be on relatively labour
      intensive activity, such as maintenance and repairs, and is based on estimated provided by Tourism Associates for the
      National Trust (1999).



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 Visitors predominantly come in family groups varying in size from 2 – 4 members;
 Age profiles vary; specific groups identified as important include under 35s, students
  and over 55s;
 Visit lengths tend to be of around a half day in duration;
 Visitors are predominantly local / regional; however, a number of respondents did note
  that they benefited from wider catchments (Greater South East, Yorkshire etc). Several
  were linked to organised coach trips, local campsites;
 Visitors were also generated through commercial activities such as business meetings
  and weddings.

In order to provide an indicative estimate of visitor-related expenditure and associated
employment we have assumed that 70% of visitors are on day trips while the remaining
30% are on a short break/holiday involving an overnight stay.17 We have further assumed
that average spending will be £50 per night for overnight visitors18 and £2219 per day for
day visitors. The analysis is then taken a stage further using the assumption that every
£35,00020 of off-site visitor spend supports one FTE job within the region.

Table 6.5 Visitor numbers, estimated spend and FTE jobs
Type of heritage       2005 visitors           Overnight           Day Visitors       Total              FTE jobs
site                                           Visitors @          @ £22
                                               £50
Total                  2,244,496               £33m                £34m               £67m               1940
Source: ECOTEC Analysis


On this basis it can be seen that visitors to the assets within the sample generate an
estimated total spend of around £67 million which supports an estimated 1,940 FTE jobs
across the region as a whole.




17
   This is based on visitor survey from the National Trust operated Workhouse in Southwell and the case-studies for this
report, but it should be noted that the analysis is sensitive to the assumptions which may need to be revisited in the light
of further evidence.
18
   Source: UKTS. Also assumes that overnight visitors are staying within the region. Calculations assume an average
stay of one night.
19
   Source: GB Day Visits Survey. This figure is based on the average expenditure of £27.70 minus an allowance for
possible on-site spend such as admission tickets and gifts.
20
   This is a conservative value, in line with estimates used by ECOTEC in work for British Waterways, which has been
updated for inflation and was in turn derived from the findings of the Scottish Tourism Multiplier Study (The Scottish
Office 1992)



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6.5     Indirect and Induced Impacts

        Two types of downstream effect need to be brought into the analysis:

         ‗Indirect‘ effects down the supply chain associated with both the procurement and visitor
          spend;

         ‗Induced‘ effects associated with the local spend of those who derive incomes through
          the other mechanisms.


6.5.1   Indirect Effects
        These comprise :

         The first round impacts as estimated in Table 6.4 above;
         Downstream – second and subsequent round – impacts as this spend works through
          the regional economy. We are not aware of any specific relevant evidence on the
          extent of such effects but, based on our wider experience and available guidance, a
          'multiplier' of 0.1 is reasonable.

        On this basis the total indirect impacts will be as set out in Table 6.6 below.

        Regional level supply linkage effects will also arise from the local spending of businesses
        which benefit from the additional local spend of visitors to the responding sites. This
        aspect is included in the analysis within 6.5.2 below.

        Table 6.6 Supply Linkage Effects (FTE)
                                                      Employment Supported at Regional Level
        Procurement Related – first round             110
        Second and subsequent round                   10
        Total                                         120
        Source: ECOTEC Analysis


6.5.2   Induced Effects
        Analysis of induced effects attempts to quantify the employment supported by the spend of
        those who receive incomes (either directly or indirectly) as a result of the presence of the
        assets which responded to the survey. Again based on previous experience, an induced
        multiplier of 0.2 is reasonable. The resulting impacts are set out in Table 6.7.



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      Table 6.7 Induced Effects (FTE)
                                                    Employment Supported at Regional Level
      Direct and Visitor Spend Related              495
      Indirect Related                              25
      Total                                         520
      Source: ECOTEC Analysis


6.6   Overview of Economic Impacts

      The responses suggest that:

       The sites provide direct employment to just under 530 people, spending at least £9.75
        million on wages and salaries per annum;

       Almost £8 million is spent on procurement;

       Visitor spend across the sample equals £67 million and supports 1,940 FTEs; and,

       Analysis of indirect and induced impacts suggests that a further 520 FTE posts are
        supported within the region.



6.7   Regional-level Economic Impacts

      The impact estimates presented in the preceding sections are based solely on responses
      received to the postal survey.

      An indicative estimate of the direct and visitor-related impact of the region's total stock of
      heritage assets can be calculated on the basis of the following information:

       The total employment reported by survey respondents represents, at a minimum, 13.5%
        of the total number of employees based upon the numbers recorded in SIC codes 9251
        and 9252 (as set out in Section 3.3.2).




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 The total number of visitors reported by respondents appears to represent 56% of the
  total of around 4 million visits made to heritage sites within the region (as set out in
  Section 3.3.2).

These proportions can be used to aggregate the survey findings and provide an indicative
regional impact assessment21.

The divergence between the proportion of heritage employment represented by the
sample and the, much higher, proportion of visitors covered suggests that the survey has
attracted a disproportionately high number of responses from sites which benefit from
relatively high visitor numbers but employ comparatively few people – either because of
their nature or their dependence on volunteers, or both. In order to work around the
apparent biases involved, regional-level employment and wages and salaries have been
estimated based on the 13.5% proportion of employment which the sample accounts for22.
Procurement / indirect effects are estimated on the same basis whilst visitor related
impacts are based on the visitor estimates.

The key steps in the aggregation process are as follows:

 A lower bound estimate of total direct employment and wage and salary payment is
  calculated by multiplying up the survey estimates on the basis of the proportion of
  employment in SIC codes 9251 and 9252 covered by the responses (13.5%). An upper
  bound estimate is produced by adding 20% to allow for self-employment and other
  sources of likely under counting;


Table 6.8 Direct Employment / Wages and Salaries
                              Survey Figure                 Lower Estimate                 Upper Estimate
Direct Employment             530                           3,925                          4,710
Wages and Salaries*           £9.7m                         £80.8m                         £97.0m
ECOTEC Analysis - *adjusted further to account for the fact that this spend accounts for the employment of only 460
FTE.



 Procurement Spend for the sector is estimated from the survey figures on a similar
  basis;



21
   This approach has been taken because the sample is bias towards the region's relatively large attractions and
therefore grossing up on this basis would overestimate the impact.
22
   NB: wages and salaries expenditure has been further adjusted given that only 75% of the sample was able to respond
to this question (representing 12% of regional-level heritage-related employment).



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Table 6.9 Procurement Spend and Employment – First Round
                                Survey Figure                  Lower Estimate                     Upper Estimate
Procurement Spend               £7.9m                          £58.5m                             £70.2m
FTE                             115                            835                                1,005
ECOTEC Analysis



 Visitor related spend is estimated on the assumptions that: 4 million visits are made to
  the region's heritage assets; 70% are day visitors and 30% are staying visitors – based
  on current and HLF case-study analysis23; daily spend by day and staying visitor is £22
  and £50 respectively; and, 1 job is supported per £35,000 of spend (as set out in
  section 6.6)

Table 6.10 Visitor Numbers, Estimated Spend and FTE jobs
                                2004              Overnight          Day Visitors         Total            FTE jobs
                                Visitors          Visitors @         @ £22
                                                  £50 (30%)          (70%)
Total                           4m                £60m               £61.6m               £121.6m          3,475
Source: ECOTEC Analysis

As before, an indirect multiplier of 0.1 can be used to estimate second and subsequent
round supply linkage effects. Combined with the estimated impact of procurement
spending (noted in table 6.9), total indirect effects range from an estimate of 920 to 1,100.

Table 6.11 Indirect Effects (FTE)
                                            Lower Estimate                          Upper Estimate
Procurement Related                         835                                     1,005
Second and subsequent round                 85                                      100
Total                                       920                                     1,100
Source: ECOTEC Analysis

An induced multiplier of 0.2 is applied to the direct and indirect impacts. On this basis it
can be seen that induced FTE ranges from a lower estimate of 1,480 to the upper estimate
of 1,640.

Table 6.12 Induced Effects (FTE)
                                                          Lower Estimate                    Upper Estimate


23
     HLF case-study analysis of the Workhouse and current case-studies.



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                                                              Lower Estimate                 Upper Estimate
      Direct and Visitor Spend Related                        1,480                          1,640
      Indirect Related                                        185                            220
      Total                                                   1,665                          1,860
      Source: ECOTEC Analysis


      The preceding analysis therefore suggests that the estimated total employment impacts of
      the region's heritage sector are:

       9,985 Lower Estimate;
       11,145 Upper Estimate.


6.8   Social Impact Assessment

      This section of the report focuses on the social impacts of the sector and, as with the
      economic analysis, this will initially focus on the sample and conclude with an estimate of
      aggregate figures for the region as a whole. The key components of the analysis are
      volunteer impacts, associated links, educational links, skills shortages and community and
      regeneration linkages.


6.9   Volunteers

      As the table below illustrates, historic properties (listed buildings) utilise the largest number
      of volunteers, with the overall number of volunteers identified through the sample being
      4,796 and the average number per asset being 41.624.

      Table 6.11 Total and Average Number of Volunteers
      Type of heritage site                                         Total number of          Average number of
                                                                    volunteers               volunteers
      Museums (22 respondents)                                      897                      41
      Libraries and Archives (1 respondent)                         3                        3
      Listed buildings (25 respondents)                             3,887                    155
      Registered Parks and Gardens (0 respondents)                  -                        -
      Scheduled Monuments (1 respondents)                           9                        9
      Total                                                         4,796                    41.6
      Source: ECOTEC Analysis

      24
        However, it should be noted that this average is likely to be skewed upwards by the presence of a response from the
      region's National Trust properties, the operation of which is heavily reliant on volunteers.



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        In terms of the significance of volunteers to the assets, a significant proportion stated that
        they could not operate without such support, including 70% of museums surveyed and
        64% of the historic properties (listed buildings).

        Volunteer numbers can be roughly aggregated to a regional estimate on the basis of the
        proportion of visitors accounted for by the sample (as in section 6.7). Although this is a
        realistic approach, it may still result in substantial over-estimation of volunteers due to the
        sample characteristics and in particular the inclusion of the large number of volunteers
        supporting National Trust assets. However, on this basis the estimated number of
        volunteers at the regional level is 8,56025. Converting numbers of volunteers to FTE posts,
        the survey represents the equivalent (based on 37 hour weeks) of 665 FTEs; aggregating
        this up to a regional figure (on the same basis as above) gives a figure of 1,185 FTE.


6.9.1   Demographic profile
        In terms of the demographic profile of the volunteers engaged in the sector it can be seen
        that the largest proportion are from the 65+ age group; however, there are significant
        numbers within the age groups less than 25 (22%) and 25-65 (19.8%). In terms of gender
        the split is relatively even, with a slightly higher proportion of females.

        Table 6.12 Demographic profile of volunteers
        Type of heritage site                                                Age                                Gender
                                                                             < 25        25-65       65+         Male        Female
                                                                             years       years       years
        Museums (20 respondents)                                             5%          37%         58%         54%         45%
        Libraries and Archives (1 respondent)                                100%        0%          0%          33%         67%
        Listed buildings (20 respondents)                                    5%          44%         50%         57%         43%
        Registered Parks and Gardens (0 respondents)
        Scheduled Monuments (1 respondents)                                  0%          78%         22%         50%         50%
        Average                                                              22%         19.8%       26%         38.8%       41%
        Source: ECOTEC Analysis




        25
            It needs to be noted that this figure does not include the contribution of volunteers involved in activities such as canal
        restoration where visitors are not recorded; however, such work could not be delivered without volunteers. This is
        illustrated in the Heritage Link 'Volunteers and the Historic Environment' December 2003 paper which estimates 155,583
        volunteers are engaged in heritage activity (excludes community groups). Dis-aggregating this figure to the East
        Midlands (on the basis that the region accounts for approximately 7% of the UKs population) this equates to over 10,000
        volunteers active.



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The residential location of volunteers the profile is very similar to that of direct employees
in terms of the proportion living in the same area as the asset: 46% of volunteers, 45.8% of
direct employees. Volunteers, like direct employees, predominantly live within the region
with only 1.2% not East Midlands residents.

Table 6.13       Residence of volunteers
Type of heritage site                      Same as            Within            Within East       Other
                                           asset              County            Midlands
Museums (20 respondents)                   50%                28%               16%               6%
Libraries and Archives (1 respondent)      100%               0%                0%                0%
Listed buildings (20 respondents)          80%                20%               0%                0%
Registered Parks and Gardens (0
respondents)
Scheduled Monuments (1 respondents)        0%                 33%               67%               0%
Average                                    46%                16.2%             16.6%             1.2%
Source: ECOTEC Analysis

In terms of quantifying the contribution of volunteers to the economy, HLF uses an
estimate that volunteer time is equivalent to £50 per day for unskilled work and £150 per
day for skilled work. Table 6.18 uses these estimates with two potential scenarios
showing, high and low splits in skilled / unskilled contributions.

Table 6.14     Estimated contribution of volunteers to the economy

                                Regional Aggregation           Regional Aggregation
                                Skilled 20:80 Unskilled        Skilled 50:50 Unskilled
 Total                          £18.7m                         £26.7m



Source: ECOTEC Analysis

As the table illustrates the potential regional economic contribution of volunteers ranges
from an estimated £18.7m to £26.7m annually.

Associated Activity - in the context of this study ‗associated activity‘ refers to the existence
of associated trusts, friends groups and societies. The existence of such groups is a good
indication of support of the survey indicates that such groups also provide financial
donations. Within the sample just under 50% had a 'Friends of…' group, 7% had
associated trusts, and 5% were supported by local history groups. In total around 60% of




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respondents have associated activity, with the remainder stating that they did not having
such linkages.

Educational Linkages

Educational was identified by 71% of assets as a core activity. This is reflected in the
extent to which formal relationships have been established with educational institutions,
with 52% of assets having formal relationships with local schools, 12% having formal links
with colleges, and 14% having formal links with universities. 49% of assets had an
education officer post with 2 assets planning to introduce such a position.

Skills Shortages

Assets were asked to comment on any skills shortages which are impacting on their
operations; 57% of respondents stated that this is an issue. In terms of type of skills over
which there are concerns 37% of those highlighted referred to specialist skills for the
sector, including restoration, collection care, curatorial, engineering, millners, and
construction related skills. The majority of these were reported to be an issue by
museums (61%) with the construction skills being identified among the properties (listed
buildings). Generic skills were also an issue with customer service skills, marketing,
management and business planning and IT identified by 62% of respondents.

In terms of skills development the majority of support has been sourced internally or
through support structures such as Museums, Libraries and Archives (MLA) Partnership,
with only a small number accessing external training providers which tended to be for
specialist skills, such as construction and engineering. Training provision has been
accessible, in general, to both direct employees and volunteers.

Community and Regeneration Links

In terms of formalised links to employment training and health agendas, the sample
highlighted few direct linkages. Those which did report activity included operating New
Deal programmes, working with the probation service and mental health organisations and
taking part in NOW projects (funded through emda).

Activity among a large number of respondents also highlighted strong links to their local
area, including:

 Provision of community facility / meeting space;



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          Consultation with residents to inform development and provision;
          Focusing on promoting civic pride and community cohesion;
          Providing a / the major employment source in the area;
          Undertaking free events in order to widen access;
          Outreach activity;
          Specific targeting of key groups – 55+ and young people;
          Diversionary activities; and,
          Provision of lifelong learning opportunities.


6.10   Overview of Social Impacts


       The review of the social impact of the sector illustrates the broad range of ways in which
       the sector supports the social and economic fabric of the region.

        Regionally the number of volunteers is estimated as equivalent to 185 FTEs;

        Many of the assets surveyed stated that without volunteer support they would not be
         able to operate (63%) – illustrated in the fact that the time given is equal to a financial
         contribution at the regional level of between £18.7m to £26.7m.

        Associated activity is significant and predominantly takes the form of 'Friends of…'
         groups which illustrate the commitment of society to heritage. The sector has a strong
         education focus, with a significant proportion of assets having formal links with
         institutions, particularly local schools.

        In terms of skills shortages, these were particularly high in relation to specialist skills.
         However, the sector has fairly good internal provision in place to address generic skills
         issues (such as IT and marketing) and volunteers are generally able to access the same
         opportunities as direct employees.

        Community and regeneration links are seldom formalised but a large proportion of
         assets are evidently very committed to their local areas and engage actively with
         communities; efforts are being made to develop these linkages further.




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7.0   Conclusions and Recommendations

7.1   Introduction and Purpose


      The purpose of this section is to draw out the key conclusions and recommendations from
      the study and to provide the East Midlands Heritage Forum with a clear way forward and a
      greater understanding of the contribution that the sector is making to the East Midlands
      Economy.

      Key objectives set at the outset of the study were:

       To assess the contribution of heritage to the East Midlands economy in terms of output,
        employment and quality of life;

       To assess the contribution of heritage to regeneration activities in the East Midlands;

       To identify the key challenges and drivers for increasing the contribution of the heritage
        economy in the region; and,

       To provide initial recommendations on how this can be achieved and the role that
        heritage can play in the implementation of the RES.

      Each of these will be addressed in turn.


7.2   Contribution of the sector to the East Midlands Economy

      The various elements of the research process combine to illustrate that the sector plays a
      significant quantifiable role in the region's economy. Using regionally aggregated
      figures there is evidence that at the lower estimate 3,960 and the upper estimate of 4,750
      FTE are directly employed in the sector,. Associated employment - visitor spend related,
      indirect and induced - probably brings the total to around 10,000. Volunteers also make a
      significant contribution to the economy with something like 1,200 people estimated to be
      actively involved in running heritage assets across the East Midlands, equating to an
      economic contribution of between £18.7m and £26.7m pa. In reality the figures would be
      much higher if account were taken of assets which do not attract significant numbers of
      visitors.




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In addition to the factors above, which can relatively easily be given a financial value, the
sector has wide ranging additional benefits to the region including:

Educational – The educational potential of the historic environment is vast – it allows us
to understand our origins and how we have evolved. The sector supports lifelong learning
with a broad range of opportunities on offer via a range of media, including local colleges,
local amenity societies and the assets themselves. The sector also makes a significant
contribution to the 'more formal' education system with over half of assets reporting formal
relationships with local schools. These relationships (and others with universities and
colleges) span a range of curriculum areas and provide a valuable asset in terms of
'bringing to life' issues relating to economic and social history, geography and architecture
to name a few. Also, centres such as Snibston Discovery Centre provide unique access to
specialist areas. There are numerous benefits to such linkages, including helping students
to develop a greater understanding of how Britain has evolved - a key issue highlighted by
government - and the widening of access to the sector due to the broad socio-economic
profile of the students visiting the assets.

Quality of life - It is widely accepted that the sector has a beneficial impact at a number of
levels. The Citizens Jury survey highlighted the impact of the sector in terms of wellbeing
and its contribution to creating a sense of 'civic pride' and supporting community cohesion.
Also, as Heritage Works identifies, heritage assets matter to local communities and form
part of their identity, both in terms of iconic buildings and the wider historic environment, all
contributing to a strong sense of place. The presence of Civic Societies and 'Friends of…'
groups illustrate this and, although their impact is difficult to quantify, a key question which
needs to asked is, what would happen if they were not there?

The sector is also supporting the East Midlands to become a 'Flourishing Region' in a
number of ways, including its impact on private sector investment decisions and also FDI.
The ‗Myerscough Report‘ into the economic importance of the arts, for example, found that
74% of middle managers rated access to museums, theatres and other cultural activities
as important to their choice of where to live.

Rural regeneration – the findings illustrate the significant contribution that the sector is
making to rural areas and the major role it plays both in terms of direct employment and
associated impacts. Although the sector supports both urban and rural areas the impact
on the latter is more acute given the access issues and industrial base and economic
transition many areas have experienced over recent years.




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7.3   Heritage and Regeneration

      The contribution and role of heritage to regeneration is widely acknowledged 26. As stated
      in English Heritage's guidance on Regeneration and the Historic Environment:

           'The historic environment lies a the heart of our sense of place; and England's most
           attractive and distinctive environments have always been sensitive to their context.
           Regeneration needs to be done with equal sensitivity if it is to create better places and
           stronger communities. Understanding how places change, and recognising the
           significance of their history, is key to successful and sustainable regeneration.'

      Heritage led regeneration has a number of benefits, not least the fact that it embeds
      heritage in wider agendas and facilitates linkages across different sectors, raising
      awareness and promoting knowledge sharing and dissemination. One of the issues facing
      the sector, however, is a lack of a co-ordinated voice and varying levels of understanding
      among decision-makers. In terms of rationale, there is a strong case for justifying
      investment to support the heritage role in regeneration at a number of levels:

       The potential for heritage to provide a focus for physical regeneration, in some cases
        where no obvious alternative exists;
       Its cost effectiveness given the demonstrable potential to lever in other public and
        private investment to heritage focussed initiatives;
       Investment at the early stages of regeneration in order to develop a viable economic
        use for assets which need to be preserved for the future;
       The need to compensate for imposition of legal restrictions – for example, in relation to
        listed status – which increase costs and have a benefit to wider society;
       Recognition of wider economic and social benefits.

      Heritage led regeneration is important because schemes often address issues across the
      built environment, which left unchecked can lead to escalating restoration costs and the
      irreversible loss of significant heritage assets. In terms of outputs the benefits are wide-
      ranging, accepted and well documented. These include: employment, addressing
      population decline, countering market failures, sustainable investment and buildings taken
      off the Buildings at Risk register.




      26
        The Government recently highlighted the importance of the sector in its response to the report of the House of
      Common Select Committee on the ODPM on the role of historic buildings in regeneration, and the DCMS consultation
      document Culture at the Heart of Regeneration.



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      The task, however, should not be underestimated and for heritage led regeneration to be
      successful the right level of skills and expertise need to be secured. The lessons learnt
      from previous experience, highlighted in Heritage Works, need to be incorporated in future
      project development.



7.4   Key Challenges and Drivers

      A number of key challenges and drivers can be identified:

      Growth Agenda – this is particularly relevant to the south of the region, although there are
      aspirations for further ‗Growth Points‘ elsewhere within the region. However, cities such
      as Derby are also feeling the pressure for development in areas with limited spatial
      capacity. The Milton Keynes South Midlands Growth Area status places major pressures
      on the area in terms of its changing role, population projections etc. Heritage has a key
      role in supporting the development of sustainable communities both in terms of the quality
      of the urban form and green infrastructure. It is also fundamental to sustaining and
      creating a strong sense of place.

      Olympics – the 2012 Olympics offers wide-ranging benefits for all sectors of the economy.
      Tourism levels, based on previous experience, will increase significantly and the region
      needs to ensure that a combined effort is developed to ensure that the East Midlands
      benefits from this. Heritage, as the figures show, attracts around 50% of all tourists and
      illustrates the need for the sector to be pro-active.

      Development Process - heritage is sometimes regarded wrongly as a barrier to
      development, not necessarily in terms of cost but often in terms of uncertainty and the time
      required to address management and conservation issues. The White Paper, due later
      this year, and the legislation which will be developed provide potential to address these
      issues. The sustainable management of change is a key principle for the sector as a
      whole.

      Joined-up Activity - heritage needs greater integration into the decision making process
      and holistic approaches need to be developed as compatibility offers the potential for
      greater value for money across a number of policy areas. This joint approach also reflects
      the need for the heritage to link with other sectors of the economy

      Links to the Economy – heritage and economic indicators need to be mutually enforcing.
      There is the potential to learn from the experiences of the natural environment sector. A



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united response needs to be developed to reflect the extent to which the region's social
fabric and economic activity are embedded in, and supported by, its heritage.

Business Planning Alignment – building on the above, the sector needs to engage with
partners to ensure that the historic environment is embedded in the business planning
processes of partners.

Skills – as with many sectors of the economy, the industry is experiencing some skills
shortages. Training for the specialist nature of many of the required skills is a major
concern as provision and capacity is limited and, as the existing workforce continues to
age, time to react diminishes. Construction is a key area of concern for the sector and
mirrors the national picture for this sector as a whole. National and regional programmes
and projects need to be harnessed to support the heritage sector and ensure that capacity
is maintained and enhanced.

Evidence Base – the sector currently suffers from a relatively weak evidence base, in
terms of access compared to other key sectors of the economy. This is a major issue for
accessing public funding and could also barrier to joint project development with other
sectors if heritage cannot articulate its 'contribution'. However, it needs to be recognised
that economic modelling and issues such as deadweight, the do nothing scenario, are a
difficult area for heritage as there are a number of unique considerations such as inter-
generational implications which need to be reviewed. The historic lack of understanding
regarding the social, cultural and wider economic benefits of heritage also contributes to
the difficultly in providing a robust 'do nothing' scenario' and broader evidence base.

Partnership and Leadership - this issue ranges from the role of DCMS through to the
incidences of local authority champions. Leadership is a key factor in the success of the
sector in terms of securing a combined message. Lack of understanding of the sector can
inhibit the perception and ‗profile‘ of heritage which is often ‗taken for granted‘.

Population Retention – the quality of the environment (physical and natural) is a major
locational factor in individual and business investment decisions (illustrated through the
university feasibility work undertaken in Lincoln which showed the positive impact that the
built environment has on perceptions). With economic transition to a more knowledge
based economy, the retention of skilled workers is an increasingly important focus,
particularly in the south of the region.

Widening Access / Enhancing Social Capital – heritage offers a framework for activity
in 'problem areas', both urban and rural, and is a useful mechanism for reaching currently



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      under-represented groups. Such activity supports the delivery of the sector's overarching
      PSA3 Target.

      Funding environment – the sector depends heavily on grant funding and this has a
      number of implications. Indeed there is a risk that short-term grant funding may hinder the
      development of a business culture in the sector. The increasingly competitive funding
      climate and the uncertainty around key sources such as the EU Structural Funds have
      increased the emphasis on the sector to integrate with complementary activities.

      Sustainable Development – this is at the heart of the sector and supports Government
      agendas in relation to resource efficiency. The Government response to the ODPM select
      committee report on the role of historic buildings in urban regeneration (2004) states that
      "sympathetic conversion of historic buildings is often at the heart of regeneration and
      reduces the use of natural resources and energy at the same time as helping to add value
      and distinctiveness".

      The diversity of the heritage sector is not only part of its strength but also conspires
      against a clear message being developed. Greater focus needs to be placed on
      developing a simple message for decision-makers if the sector's aims and aspirations are
      to be realised and embedded in wider activity (this is also relevant to the delivery of PSA3
      as the sector is seen by many as middle class and elitist; breaking down this perception
      has to be a major focus for agencies and others alike). The natural environment sector
      has created a base of public support (from a similar base-line a couple of decades ago)
      and, although this has been aided by legislation, the ability of the sector to get across
      simple messages has been a major factor in its success.

      Climate Change – the effect on historic structures of changing weather conditions
      (flooding, drying, air conditions) has the potential to damage assets and put buildings at
      risk, increasing the need for maintenance and restoration investments. Equally, though,
      historical understanding of landscape evolution has a critical part to play in raising
      awareness of climate change.


7.5   Overview of Current Activity

      There is currently a substantial amount of good practice in the field of heritage led
      regeneration which can be harnessed and used to inform future actions and interventions.
      Set out below is an overview of some aspects of this:

      Sustainable Communities



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Heritage is seen as many as having a 'binding' impact on sustaining and enhancing
community cohesion. The historic grants scheme supports this aspect and has been used
to set up partnerships and establish initiatives. A number of participant market towns
(including Wainfleet, Louth and Caistor) have reported that this investment has created
community cohesion. The experiences of the Peak District and Snibston, as set out in the
case-studies, are also good examples of how heritage has been the catalyst for
community engagement.

Skills

In relation to sector specific skills and heritage trades, English Heritage and the
National Heritage Training Group have commissioned research into skills needs within the
heritage sector. The study was set at a national scale and was modelled on CITB-
Construction Skills Foresight Reports. The study concluded that demand is currently
outstripping supply and that an extra 6,950 people are required nationally in 2006-7 to
match demand. The study also highlighted the lack of skills provision within further
education in the UK, and a lack of representation from women and ethnic minorities. The
study aimed to initiate a series of seminars involving regional partners in education and
industry in order to develop action plans to address regional needs. HLF is also active in
this area and a Bursary programme to address skill needs has been established and a bid
is currently being developed by the Rural Team at emda, in consultation with the EMHF, to
address these issues.

Also in terms of education, the East Midlands Regional Assembly's "Viewpoints on the
Historic Environment of the East Midlands" draws upon the DCMS vision with one of its
key objectives being to "To widen public understanding and enjoyment of the historic
environment". The strategy emphasises the need to focus on the Life Long Learning
potential of the historic environment, with the creation of part-time/evening classes in
topics such as architectural history and archaeology. However, the strategy does suggest
that it is sometimes impossible fully to realise the educational potential of the historic
environment, due to the seasonality of many attractions - i.e. summer opening often
restricts the accessibility of the historic environment for visits. The strategy aims to tackle
this through stronger partnerships between museums, libraries, archives and historic
properties, with the MLA in prime position to take this role. The MLA also undertake a
number of other educational activities, including contributing to the "Every Child Matters"
initiative and delivers a comprehensive museum education service to schools through its
"Renaissnance in the Regions' and 'Strategic Commissioning" programmes and supports
out of school hours learning opportunities.



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The National Trust has also devoted considerable attention to this particular objective and
has produced its own "Vision for Learning". This vision has been split into three key
objectives;

 Meeting the needs of current core audiences;
 Reaching out to new audiences;
 Developing a culture of learning for all staff and volunteers.

It is intended that this will be achieved through a focus on formal and informal education
programmes, and by making properties more inclusive to different groups, most notably
the 13-25 age range. Learning and Education have been placed at the forefront of the
National Trust's objectives between 2004 and 2007, with the website stating that '"the work
of the National Trust will focus on putting education and lifelong learning at the heart of
everything we do". The case-study of the Workhouse at Southwell illustrates the work of
the NT and was awarded 'The Sandfrod Award for Heritage Education'. English Heritage
also focus on education with an annual (national) target of approximately 26,000
schoolchildren to visit its staffed properties in order to boost young people's knowledge of
the historic environment, and the events that shaped the region in which they now live.

Widening Participation

There are a number of mechanisms to address the issue of 'opening up' heritage to a
broader audience. These include heritage open days which are proving increasingly
popular and varying forms of outreach work with different target groups, dependant on the
nature and location of the asset (Bolsover Castle's youth diversionary project is a good
example of this). Another dimension to 'opening up' heritage is the diversification of assets
in terms of what they offer and the programmes of events which are being developed – for
example, pop and rock concerts at Kedleston Hall; Chatsworth has an extensive
programme of adult education; and, Snibston has developed a unique HE facility – all of
these activities are leading to the engagement of a wider socio-economic and
demographic profile of visitors than traditionally associated with the sector.

Development Understanding

A long term issue for the sector is quantifying the benefits heritage has for the economy,
society and the environment. The question 'how will we know if we've succeeded?' is key
and the sectors, evidence base needs to be strengthened to support effective advocacy.
A number of steps have been taken to date which provide a basis for further



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      developments; these include the Heritage Dividend, the publication annually of Heritage
      Counts and the development of methodologies such as the Heart model in Norwich.


7.6   The Role of Heritage in Supporting the RES

      Emda's overall vision of creating a region with '…a quality of life higher than the European
      average and comparable with the best of the world' will only be achieved if distinctiveness
      and a high quality built environment are secured. emda may sometimes be able to
      achieve strict output targets at less cost than those of schemes that bring wider benefits.
      Outcomes and results, however, need to be judged also in terms of quality. The heritage of
      the region is often integral to the achievement of quality solutions and long-term
      sustainability.

      The sector has made progress in engagement with emda and the Sub-Regional Strategic
      Partnerships to raise awareness of the potential for heritage to support regeneration, act
      as a catalyst for investment, support the creation of sustainable communities. Crucially,
      the sector can support the Agency to deliver its strategic priorities and targets. The
      delivery chain which underpins the strategic framework at the regional level is set out
      below:

      Emda's Strategic Priorities

         Employment, learning and skills
         Enterprise and business support
         Innovation
         Transport and logistics
         Energy and resources
         Environmental protection
         Land and development
         Economic renewal
         Social capital
         Economic inclusion




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Table 7.1 Overview of emda Targets
Tier 3 Outputs                                     Supplementary Outputs
  Jobs created and safeguarded                        Community facilities
  Businesses created and attracted to the             Science and technology spin-outs
   region                                              Cluster activity
  Brownfield land remediated or recycled              Businesses using ICT
  Learning opportunities created                      Access to finance – enterprises supported by RIF
  Investment benefiting deprived areas                Social enterprises
                                                       Graduates employed in SMEs
                                                       Over 45s returning to the labour market
                                                       Businesses influenced to expand
                                                       New or refurbished workspace/housing



The key to success for the sector is to demonstrate how heritage can contribute to
delivering these targets. Section 2 identified some opportunities. These are expanded
below and offer a framework for action, although a key role for the Forum is the
establishment of clear priorities as effort will need to be focused and managed over the
short medium and long term. The approach across the region will vary according to local
drivers and also the fact that, while ubiquitous, the character of the historic environment
varies across the region.

Economic Renewal – heritage has a key role to play in areas of economic transition - for
example, in the Alliance and Peak District areas where pockets of deprivation are difficult
to address due to a range of issues (demographics, industrial structure, accessibility and
skill profiles). The sector can offer a variety of support and access to employment – for
example, though volunteering, intermediate labour market projects and social enterprise.
This includes training volunteers in generic skills such as IT and re-skilling older males for
the construction sector. The sector has the major benefit of offering an accessible route to
longer term economic and social benefits. This can also help to address associated issues
such as poor health and confidence barriers.

Environmental Protection – the sector can support the Agency and SSPs in terms of
their aspirations for: improving damaged environments (especially the coalfields);
protecting and enhancing green infrastructure; supporting sustainable communities; and,
cleaner production processes.

Land and Development – the sector supports emda and partners to deliver regional
priorities relating to the use of previously developed land and buildings. The re-use of


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      existing resources is a key focus for the sector due to its efficiency and role in reducing the
      impact of development on climate change. The experience of the sector, particularly
      through the Redundant Buildings Programme, will inform and benefit future delivery (the
      sector complements the development principles set out in the RES).

      Housing provision is a major issue in the region, including demand for growth, the
      management of areas of low demand and the need for mixed communities. Heritage has
      a key role to play in this agenda as the built environment, the creation of a sense of place
      and sustainable communities underpin regional and national investment programmes. The
      existing mechanisms developed by the sector - such as the historic grants scheme and the
      community planning processes (such as in the Peak District) - are vital avenues for
      engaging with communities to develop an appropriate mix of provision.

      Employment and Enterprise – there are a number of areas where heritage can
      contribute to addressing employment issues (supporting the transition from a low wage /
      skill economy) and promoting enterprise. These include support for companies to achieve
      tourism standards (new for 2004-05); creating an environment to support FDI; and co-
      ordinating a response to 'Sharing the Benefits of the 2012 London Olympics'.

      In terms of employment the sector can offer above national average earning levels and
      therefore complement emda's commitment and focus on the creation of employment
      opportunities with an emphasis on quality.



7.7   Recommendations for the EMHF


       Develop a strategy for dissemination and advocacy to ensure a consistent and
        relevant message. It is important to ensure that information is presented in an
        accessible format which is meaningful both to decision-makers and to wider audiences.
        It is also important that the sector engages actively with the regional economic agenda.

       Cross-sector linkages – policy requires the sector to be engaged in a holistic
        approach to regeneration and therefore strategic and operational linkages need to be
        strengthened. The natural environment, culture and tourism are where the strongest
        links currently exist and these need to be further developed along with a broadening of
        the approach.




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 Clarifying the value of heritage - the sector needs to clarify to emda, partners and the
  SSPs the contribution that heritage makes to delivering their priorities, building on the
  areas of opportunity set out in this report. Processes for engagement need to be
  improved, such as providing advice to the SSPs and appraisal panels. A compendium
  of current activity needs to be developed and an action plan to support the a strategic
  approach to project development drawn up which maximises the added value of these,
  fills gaps and drives forward the key spatial and thematic opportunity areas (skills,
  sustainable communities, widening access, developing understanding, economic
  renewal, environmental protection etc.).

 Lobbying decision-makers – although there are currently a number of 'hooks' in the
  regional policy framework there is considerable scope for these to be strengthened,
  strategically and operationally, and the work of the Forum needs to continue to focus on
  informing these agendas. For example the inclusion of heritage / historic environment
  in the application and appraisal process, in a similar way to ‗environment‘ generally,
  would be a major step.

 Review Appraisal and Approval Process of Key Funders – there is significant
  potential for the Forum to pursue with funding agencies, notably emda, the potential for
  expanding the environment theme to incorporate both the natural and historic
  environment and look at means of reflecting heritage in emda's project appraisal
  process. This will ensure that as projects are developed the impact on, and inclusion of,
  the built environment will be embedded in the process. This is not to say that all
  projects must address issues of the historic environment as this will not be relevant for
  all projects.

 Visitor Information Gathering – there is currently a dearth of information on visitors to
  heritage assets in the region. This has a number of implications, including affecting the
  sector's ability to evidence funding applications. There is scope for the Forum, led by
  EMT, to develop a pro-forma for capturing visitor information which will support assets
  to develop their businesses, but also capture information which will support funding
  applications, such as 'did you come to the area specifically to visit this attraction?' and
  'expected spend outside the attraction'.

 Continued development of the evidence base – the sector needs to continue the
  progress made to date in terms of developing indicators and targets which inform
  positive management, link to funding requirements and can be used to develop a
  response to the key question of 'how will we know we've succeeded?'. Existing
  knowledge needs to be utilised more, and emda has confirmed that evaluation of


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  activity / interventions is an accepted form of supporting evidence and rationale. Better
  co-ordination and sharing of such information will enable the sector to evaluate in more
  detail activities which offer the potential for wider development.

  An approach needs to be developed which can capture the impact of heritage on local
  distinctiveness, community cohesion, sense of place etc, in terms of the impact this has
  on both residential and commercial decisions. A longitudinal methodology needs to be
  developed to support the sector and there is an opportunity for the Forum to develop a
  methodological approach which can be piloted in the East Midlands to inform national
  developments. DCMS could potentially pump-prime the development process as the
  need for such a tool has been recognised by the Department. There is also scope for
  the Forum to contribute to the national debate around SIC codes and adaptations to
  secure more detailed information.

 Review of Funding – in line with the national review the Forum needs to ensure a
  comprehensive analysis of funding support is undertaken, including timescales.
  Mainstream funding also needs to be reviewed and there is a role for the Forum in
  working with local authorities and LSP's to 'heritage proof' Local Area Agreements.

 Leadership and Partnership – the Forum is well regarded and this progress needs to
  be maintained and built upon. There is a general desire for a greater emphasis to be
  placed on outputs and delivery. The Forum has a key role in promoting and supporting
  partnership activity key if the sector is to be integrated in to the region's decision making
  processes.




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