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					                      De-Escalation Techniques

                     The CPI Crisis Development Model

      Crisis Development Behavior Levels                  Staff Attitudes/Approaches
 1.    Anxiety                                    1.    Supportive
 2.    Defensive                                  2.    Directive
 3.    Acting Out Person (AOP)                    3.    Non violent Physical Crisis Intervention
 4.    Tension Reduction                          4.    Therapeutic Rapport


1. Anxiety: A noticeable increase or change in behavior, e.g. pacing, finger drumming, wringing
   of hands, staring.
   Supportive: An empathetic non-judgmental approach attempting to alleviate anxiety.

2. Defensive: The beginning stage of loss of rationality, belligerent behavior, challenging
   Directive: Staff takes control by setting limits (offer possibility first)

3. Acting Out Person: Total loss of control often results in a physical acting out episode.
   Nonviolent Physical Crisis Intervention: SAFE, non-harmful control and restraint technique
   used to control individual until he can regain control of his behavior. This technique should
   only be sued as a last resort when an individual presents a danger to himself or others.

4. Tension Reduction: Loss of physical and emotional energy which occurs after a person has
   acted out, regaining rationality
   Therapeutic Rapport: An attempt to re-establish communication.
                                Verbal Intervention

                          THE CPI Verbal Escalation Continuum

                                                        3.   Release

           4.   Intimidation                Defensive
                                                                       2.   Refusal

                   5.   Tension Reduction               1.   Questioning

1. Questioning:
   A. Information seeking – rational questions seeing a rationale response
   B. Challenging questions – students trying to draw you into a power struggle
   A. Answer question – give information
   B. Redirect and stick to topic – ignore questions, but not the person

2. Refusal: Non-compliance – slight loss of rationality
   Intervention: Set limits, state positive first, frame situation for them

3. Release: Venting, screaming, yelling
   Intervention: Let individual vent, isolate situation if possible

4. Intimidation: Individual is verbally or non-verbally threatening in some manner
   Intervention: 1. take it seriously; 2. get help if possible; 3. document

5. Tension Reduction: Regaining rationality, drop in physicial and emotionally
   Intervention: Therapeutic rapport – establishment of trust
Keys to Setting Limits

       Keep it simple – always offer choices – stand with positive

       Keep it reasonable – fair and appropriate

       Enforceable – make sure you can do it
        - Timing – give them time
        - What motivates individual
        - Consistency

Verbal Intervention Tips and Techniques

                          DO                                          DON”T
    -    Remain calm                                 -   Threaten
    -    Isolate situation                           -   Don’t over react
    -    Enforce limits                              -   Don’t get into power struggle
    -    Be aware of non-verbal and para verbals     -   Don’t make false promises
    -    Be consistent                               -   Don’t use jargon
    -    LISTEN

Empathic Listening

Definition: An active process to discern what a person is saying.

1       Non-judgmental

2 Undivided attention

3 Focus on feelings and facts

4 Use restatement to clarify statements and messages

5 Allow silence for reflection
    Precipitating Factors, Rational Detachment, Integrated

Precipitating Factors – All the things that students bring to school that influence behavior
internal or external influences behavior (slow triggers)

Rational Detachment – Albility to stay in control of our own behaviors and not take acting out
behaviors personally (Q-TIP – Quit Taking It Personally)
   1 Control your own response
   2 Maintain a professional attitude
   3 Find a positive outlet for negative energy

Integrated Experience – Behaviors and attitudes of staff impact behaviors and attitudes of

                             Staff Fear and Anxiety
  Unproductive                                Productive
  1. Freezing                                  1. Increase in speeds and strength (adrenaline)
  2. Over-react                                2. Decrease in reaction time
  3. Act in appropriately                      3. Increase in sensory activity
                     CPI’S Personal Safety Techniques
                             Strikes                         Grabs
                             Needle                          Choke
                               Spit                        Hair pulling
                               Kick                           Bites
                              Punch                        Wrist pulls


Strike: Weapon coming in contact with a         Grab: attempt to control or destroy a part of
target                                          ones anatomy

Principals of Personal Safety

Strike:                                         Grab:
1. Block weapon                                 1. Gain psychological advantage
                                                      - Remain calm
                                                      - Have a plan
                                                      - Have an element of surprise
2. Move target                                  2. Gain psychological advantage
                                                      - Identify weak point in grab
                                                      - Gain leverage
                                                      - Get momentum

From Nonviolent Crisis Intervention Training Program (Workbook), Crisis Prevention Institute,
Inc., Pages 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12

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