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George Washington Day Today you will learn about George Washington. George Washington was born on February 22nd, 1732. He was born on the family's Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He was the first son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. George Washington was introduced to Martha Dandridge Custis by friends of Martha when George was on leave from the French and Indian War. George only visited her home twice before proposing marriage to her 3 weeks after they met. George and Martha were each 27 years old when they married on January 6th, 1759. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon. George Washington led the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783. The Continental Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, lost New York City, and crossed the Delaware River in New Jersey, defeating the surprised enemy units. As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies at Saratoga and Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation. Following the end of the war in 1783, Washington returned to private life and retired to his plantation at Mount Vernon. He presided over the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 because of general dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. George Washington became President of the United States in 1789. George Washington served as the President of the United States of America from 1789 to 1797. He sought to create a great nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war between Britain and France. His unilateral Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any involvement in foreign conflicts. He supported plans to build a strong central government by funding the national debt, implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank. Washington avoided the temptation of war and began a decade of peace with Britain via the Jay Treaty in 1795. Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. Washington is seen as a symbol of the United States and republicanism in practice. His devotion to civic virtue made him an exemplary figure among early American politicians. Present Simple czy Present Continuous Wiele trudności sprawia Polakom poprawne rozróżnienie czasów teraźniejszego prostego i teraźniejszego ciągłego. Poniżej przedstawione są podstawowe różnice między konstrukcją progresywną (ciągłą) a prostą. Czas teraźniejszy prosty Czas teraźniejszy ciągły Czynność ma charakter ogólny, mowa jest Czynność trwa w danym momencie. o długotrwałym procesie, niekoniecznie mającym miejsce w danym momencie. (1) What do you do? (3) What are you doing? Czym się zajmujesz (w życiu, tzn. jaki jest Co ty (teraz) robisz? twój zawód)? (4) I’m working on a project for the best (2) I work for the best management management school in Poland. school in Poland. Pracuję dla najlepszej szkoły zarządzania Właśnie pracuję nad projektem dla w Polsce. najlepszej szkoły zarządzania w Polsce. W zdaniu (1) osoba pytająca chce się dowiedzieć, co rozmówca robi w życiu, jaki jest jego zawód. By spytać o to, co rozmówca robi w konkretnym momencie, należałoby wypowiedzieć zdanie (3). Podobnie odpowiedź (2) oznacza, że jej autor jest zatrudniony na najlepszej szkole zarządzania, choć w danym momencie może wcale nie zajmować się pracą dla niej (tylko np. czytać gazetę lub jeść obiad). Wypowiedź (4) wskazuje natomiast, że jej autor właśnie w tym momencie pracuje nad projektem – jest to czynność, w trakcie wykonywania której skierowano do niego pytanie (3). Czynność jest powtarzalna, trwa długo, Czynność jest powtarzalna, ale ma charakter ma charakter prawidłowości. tymczasowy. (5) I work at weekends. (6) I’m working weekends this summer. Pracuję w weekendy Tego lata pracuję w weekendy. Zdanie (5) odnosi się do pewnej prawidłowości, jest konstatacją faktu. Zdanie (6) także odnosi się do czegoś powtarzalnego, ale jedynie w pewnych ramach czasowych. Warto zauważyć, że autor wypowiedzi (6) może mieć na myśli np. przytłaczającą większość weekendów, ale niekoniecznie wszystkie. Bez dodatkowej informacji (“this summer/”) można by przypuszczać, że autor zdania (6) przedstawia subiektywny opis sytuacji,która go irytuje. Czynność jest relacjonowana, ma Czynność jest relacjonowana, przedstawiona charakter bieżący, przedstawiona jest w w stylu neutralnym. Nacisk kładzie stylu formalnym. Podkreśla się, że jest się na proces, trwanie czynności. ona skończoną całością. (7b) I’m checking the temperature. (7a) I check the temperature. /Sprawdzam temperaturę. /Sprawdzam temperaturę. W zdaniu (7a) osoba mówiąca relacjonuje, przedstawia swoje bieżące czynności. Czyni to bezosobowo, podkreśla następowanie ich po sobie. Natomiast w zdaniu (7b) autor akcentuje trwanie danego procesu, jego niezakończony charakter. Plany dotyczą częściej dalekiej Plany dotyczą bliskiej przyszłości lub przyszłości lub podróży. dalszej, lecz ściśle zaplanowanej. (8) I arrive in Warsaw on Monday. (9) I’m meeting Joanna tomorrow. W poniedziałek przyjadę do Warszawy . Jutro spotkam się z Joanną. Konstrukcji takiej jak w zdaniu (8) szczególnie często używa się do opisu planów podróży. Natomiast konstrukcja (9) służy po prostu do przedstawiania planów na najbliższą przyszłość. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Words for today REVIEW rzeczownik 1.rewizja 2.recenzja ◦The play got good reviews. (Sztuka dostała dobre recenzje.) Definition : if critics review a film, they write their opinion of it Example : My brother has seen all the films that are reviewed. 3.recenzowanie 4.przegląd 5.inspekcja czasownik 1.przeglądać, przemyśliwać 2.recenzować 3.AmE powtarzać materiał (np. do egzaminu) 4.robić przegląd (np. wydarzeń) 5.przeprowadzać inspekcję BrE revise , AmE review * czasownik 1.powtarzać materiał (przygotowując się do egzaminu) ◦He is revising for his maths exam. (On powtarza materiał do egzaminu z matematyki.) ◦When studying for a test, it is important to review actively, not passively. (Podczas nauki do testu, ważne jest aby powtarzać materiał aktywnie, nie biernie.) COLD-BLOODED przymiotnik 1.zimnokrwisty, zmiennocieplny 2.bezlitosny, bezwzględny, dokonany z zimną krwią, beznamiętny (adjective) Without compunction or human feeling. Synonyms: inhuman, insensate, cold Usage: These callous, cold-blooded killers butchered six people. TURN rzeczownik 1.kolej, kolejka (np. podczas gry w karty) ◦Now it's your turn. (Teraz jest twoja kolej.) ◦Whose go is it? (Czyja jest kolej?) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phrasal Verb of the day check into Meaning: to register your details after arriving for treatment at a hospital, a rehabilitation centre or a health resort For example: I had to check into the hospital the night before the operation. Amy knew she had a drug problem, but she didn't want to check into a rehab centre. Nouns often used as objects with check into: hospital, rehab, rehabilitation centre, treatment centre, detox centre, clinic, hotel Note: "Check into" and "check in" can be used to mean the same things, but most people seem to use "check into" more for hospitals and medical centres, and "check in" more for hotels and airline desks. Quick Quiz: If someone is addicted to drugs, they should consider checking into a. a four-star hotel b. a state prison c. a treatment centre -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Idiom of the day a quick study Meaning: If you're a quick study, you can learn new things quickly. For example: Albert was always a quick study, except when it came to learning languages. I only need to show Sue how to do something once, and she gets it. She's a quick study, that girl. Variety: This idiom is typically used in American English but may be used in other varieties of English too. Quick Quiz: My teachers thought I would be a quick study like my brother and a. write my essays quickly b. understand things quickly c. forget things quickly -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Slang of the day dope (2) Meaning: a stupid person, a fool For example: How come those dopes who work in the U.S. Treasury didn't realise what was going on? Max says the problem with democracy is that there are too many dopes out there, and they'll only vote for someone they can relate to, meaning another dope. Quick Quiz: Another word that means the same as "dope" is a. idiot b. genius c. hero -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Saying of the day First things first Possible interpretation: 1) Be patient: do things in the logical order. 2) Do the most important things before the less important things. Note: first (ordinal number) = coming before all other things in order or time; 1st Quick Quiz: Jack and Jill wanted to start a business. "First things first," said John. "We need to a. rent an office" b. borrow money from a bank" c. make a business plan" -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Proverb for today "Art is long and life is short." “A still tongue makes a wise head.” “A stitch in time saves nine.” Stich rzeczownik 1 ścieg 2 szew He had to have 7 stitches. (Musiano mu założyć 7 szwów.) 3 kłujący ból 3 oczko (w robótkach na drutach) czasownik zszywać “A stream cannot rise above its source.” -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Quotes for today W.C. Fields "I am free of all prejudices. I hate every one equally. " William Stone “Be careful the environment you choose for it will shape you; be careful the friends you choose for you will become like them." Marlene Dietrich “It\'s the friends you can call up at 4 a.m. that matter.” Charlton Heston “Political correctness is just tyranny with manners. “ Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) “Happiness is a monstrosity! Punished are those who seek it.” Hannibal (248 BCE – c183/181 BCE) Carthaginian military commander and tactician “Let us now relieve the Romans of their fears by the death of a feeble old man.” Wordchecker relieve (verb): cause (someone) to stop worrying (about something) feeble (adjective): weak; frail Hannibal was a Carthaginian general and the scourge of Rome. Even as a child he had sworn eternal hatred to the Romans. He is probably best known for his spectacular feat of marching an army that included North African war elephants across the Pyrenees and Alps to descend on northern Italy and attack the Romans. He is often considered the greatest military tactician and strategist in history, and headed Rome's Most Wanted List for much of his professional life, striking fear and terror into Roman hearts and minds. Finally, however, Carthage (in modern Tunisia, north Africa) was no match for the Romans and Hannibal went into voluntary exile, moving around the Mediterranean and still hunted by the Roman army. Finally, circa 183-181 BCE he could escape no more and took poison (which he was said to have carried about with him in a ring) rather than be captured by the advancing Romans. The site was the village of Libyssa (today the town of Gebze in Turkey). According to Roman records, Hannibal left a suicide note variously translated as "Let us now relieve the Romans of their fears by the death of a feeble old man" or "Let us release the Romans from their long anxiety, since it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death." Wordchecker scourge (noun): someone or something that causes great trouble sworn (verb, past participle of swear): promised feat (noun): great achievement poison (noun): a substance that kills you if you eat or drink it Quick Quiz: Hannibal killed himself because a. he didn't want to give the Romans the pleasure b. he was relieved by the Romans c. he was old and feeble Unknown “Eagles may soar but weasels don`t get sucked into jet engines.” soar przysłówek 1.gwałtownie wzrastać (o temperaturze), natężać się (o hałasie) ◦Our hopes for victory soared. (Nasze nadzieje na wygraną gwałtownie wzrosły.) czasownik 1.zwyżkować (o akcjach), iść szybko do góry (o cenach, inflacji) ◦Renting prices soared a further thirty percent. (Koszty wynajmu wzrosły o kolejne trzydzieści procent.) 2.unosić się do góry (np. o balonie), poszybować do góry (np. o piłce) ◦All night long fireworks soared into the sky. (Przez cała noc fajerwerki unosiły się do nieba.) 3.szybować wysoko (np. o ptaku), latać wysoko (o szybowcu) ◦We watched a soaring eagle with awe. (Z podziwem oglądaliśmy szybującego orła.) 4.wznosić się (o wysokim budynku), wystawać ponad resztę (o drzewie, szczycie górskim) ◦This new building soars 80 meters into the sky. (Ten nowy budynek wznosi się na 80 metrów wysokości.) 5.osiągać wyżyny (szczęścia, sławy) weasel rzeczownik 1.łasica 2.informal gnida (o osobie -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jokes for today Q: What do Barbie and Britney Spears have in common? A: Both are blonde, brainless and made out of plastic. The owner of a drug store walks in to find a guy leaning heavily against a wall. The owner asks the clerk, `What`s with that guy over there by the wall?` The clerk says, `Well, he came in here this morning to get something for his cough. I couldn`t find the cough syrup, so I gave him an entire bottle of laxative.` The owner says, `You idiot! You can`t treat a cough with laxatives!` The clerk says, `Oh yeah? Look at him, he`s afraid to cough!` An Amish boy and his father were visiting a nearby mall. They were amazed by almost everything they saw, but especially by two shiny silver walls that moved apart and back together again by themselves. The lad asked, `What is this, father?` The father, having never seen an elevator, responded, `I have no idea what it is.` While the boy and his father were watching wide-eyed, an old lady in a wheelchair rolled up to the moving walls and pressed a button. The walls opened and the lady rolled between them into a small room. The walls closed and the boy and his father watched as small circles lit up above the walls. The walls opened up again and a beautiful twenty-four-year-old woman stepped out. The father looked at his son anxiously and said, `Go get your mother.` A young magician started to work on a cruise ship with his pet parrot. The parrot would always ruin his act by saying things like, "He has a card up his sleeve" or "He has a dove in his pocket." One day the ship sank and the magician and the parrot found themselves alone on a lifeboat. For a couple of days, they just sat there looking at each other. Finally, the parrot broke the silence and said, "Okay, I give up. What did you do with the ship?" A man was sprawled across three entire seats in a theater. When the usher came by and noticed this, he whispered to the man, `Sorry sir, but you`re only allowed one seat.` The man groaned but didn`t budge. The usher became impatient. `Sir,` the usher said, `if you don`t get up from there, I`m going to have to call the manager.` Again, the man just groaned, which infuriated the usher who turned and marched briskly back up the aisle in search of his manager. In a few moments, both the usher and the manager returned and stood over the man. Together the two of them tried repeatedly to move him, but with no success. Finally, they summoned the police. The cop surveyed the situation briefly. `All right, buddy. What`s your name?` `Sam,` the man moaned. `Where ya from, Sam?` the cop asked. `The balcony.` sprawl , sprawl out czasownik 1.rozsiadać się, wylegiwać się (na czymś) czasownik 1.rozciągać się (o mieście), być rozsianym (o zabudowaniach) 2.rozrastać się, rozprzestrzeniać się (o gałęziach) sprawl rzeczownik 1.skupisko (zabudowań), zabudowa miejska usher przymiotnik 1.biletowy (w teatrze), odźwierny (sądowy) czasownik 1.wprowadzić, zaprowadzić, odprowadzić rzeczownik 1.przewodnik 2.osoba usadzająca gości na weselu, widzów w teatrze itp groan * czasownik 1.jęczeć, wydawać jęki ◦I groaned with pain. (Jęczałem z bólu.) synonim: moan 2.jęczeć, narzekać 3.skrzypieć zobacz także: moan rzeczownik 1.jęk synonim: moan 2.skrzypnięcie, skrzypienie budge czasownik 1.poruszyć, poruszać, ruszyć, ruszać 2.nakłonić, nakłaniać (np. do zmiany zdania, zmiany stanowiska) 3.ruszyć się, drgnąć 4.ustąpić, ustępować, ugiąć się, zmienić zdanie infuriate czasownik 1.doprowadzić do szału, rozwścieczyć brisk * przymiotnik 1.rzutki, energiczny, pełen werwy (o osobie) 2.szybki, dziarski, żwawy, ożywiony (o chodzie, sposobie poruszania się) 3.ożywiony, szybki (o handlu, o biznesie) 4.rześki, rzeźwy (o chłodnej pogodzie) aisle * rzeczownik 1.przejście (w samolocie, pociągu) ◦Would you like an aisle or a window seat? (Czy chciałby Pan miejsce od strony przejścia czy od okna?) ◦Lights alongside the aisle lead to the emergency exit. (Światła wzdłuż przejścia prowadzą do wyjścia awaryjnego.) ◦Toilets are at the end of the aisle. (Toalety są na końcu przejścia.) 2.przejście (np. między rzędami krzeseł w kinie) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This day in history Feb. 22 Lead Story U.S. hockey team makes miracle on ice, 1980 American Revolution Archibald Bulloch dies under mysterious circumstances, 1777 Automotive Lee Petty wins first Daytona 500, 1959 Civil War Battle of West Point, Mississippi, 1864 Cold War George Kennan sends "long telegram" to State Department, 1946 Crime Gang commits largest robbery in British history, 2006 Disaster Deadly tornadoes rip through central Florida, 1998 General Interest The U.S. acquires Spanish Florida, 1819 Battle of Buena Vista begins, 1847 Suharto takes full power in Indonesia, 1967 Tet Offensive ends, 1968 Hollywood Actress Drew Barrymore born, 1975 Literary Edna St. Vincent Millay is born, 1892 Music Milli Vanilli win the Best New Artist Grammy, 1990 Old West Montana passes law against sedition, 1918 Presidential George Washington is born, 1732 Sports U.S. hockey pulls off Miracle on Ice, 1980 Vietnam War Westmoreland asks for Marines, 1965 Operation Junction City begins, 1967 World War I Mussolini wounded by mortar bomb, 1917 World War II President Roosevelt to MacArthur: Get out of the Philippines, 1942 Feb 22, 1980: U.S. hockey team makes miracle on ice In one of the most dramatic upsets in Olympic history, the underdog U.S. hockey team, made up of college players, defeats the four-time defending gold-medal winning Soviet team at the XIII Olympic Winter Games in Lake Placid, New York. The Soviet squad, previously regarded as the finest in the world, fell to the youthful American team 4-3 before a frenzied crowd of 10,000 spectators. Two days later, the Americans defeated Finland 4-2 to clinch the hockey gold. The Soviet team had captured the previous four Olympic hockey golds, going back to 1964, and had not lost an Olympic hockey game since 1968. Three days before the Lake Placid Games began, the Soviets routed the U.S. team 10-3 in an exhibition game at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The Americans looked scrappy, but few blamed them for it--their average age, after all, was only 22, and their team captain, Mike Eruzione, was recruited from the obscurity of the Toledo Blades of the International League. Few had high hopes for the seventh-seeded U.S. team entering the Olympic tournament, but the team soon silenced its detractors, making it through the opening round of play undefeated, with four victories and one tie, thus advancing to the four-team medal round. The Soviets, however, were seeded No. 1 and as expected went undefeated, with five victories in the first round. On Friday afternoon, February 22, the American amateurs and the Soviet dream team met before a sold-out crowd at Lake Placid. The Soviets broke through first, with their new young star, Valery Krotov, deflecting a slap shot beyond American goalie Jim Craig's reach in the first period. Midway through the period, Buzz Schneider, the only American who had previously been an Olympian, answered the Soviet goal with a high shot over the shoulder of Vladislav Tretiak, the Soviet goalie. The relentless Soviet attack continued as the period progressed, with Sergei Makarov giving his team a 2-1 lead. With just a few seconds left in the first period, American Ken Morrow shot the puck down the ice in desperation. Mark Johnson picked it up and sent it into the Soviet goal with one second remaining. After a brief Soviet protest, the goal was deemed good, and the game was tied. In the second period, the irritated Soviets came out with a new goalie, Vladimir Myshkin, and turned up the attack. The Soviets dominated play in the second period, outshooting the United States 12-2, and taking a 3-2 lead with a goal by Alesandr Maltsev just over two minutes into the period. If not for several remarkable saves by Jim Craig, the Soviet lead would surely have been higher than 3-2 as the third and final 20-minute period began. Nearly nine minutes into the period, Johnson took advantage of a Soviet penalty and knocked home a wild shot by David Silk to tie the contest again at 3-3. About a minute and a half later, Mike Eruzione, whose last name means "eruption" in Italian, picked up a loose puck in the Soviet zone and slammed it past Myshkin with a 25-foot wrist shot. For the first time in the game, the Americans had the lead, and the crowd erupted in celebration. There were still 10 minutes of play to go, but the Americans held on, with Craig making a few more fabulous saves. With five seconds remaining, the Americans finally managed to get the puck out of their zone, and the crowd began counting down the final seconds. When the final horn sounded, the players, coaches, and team officials poured onto the ice in raucous celebration. The Soviet players, as awestruck as everyone else, waited patiently to shake their opponents' hands. The so-called Miracle on Ice was more than just an Olympic upset; to many Americans, it was an ideological victory in the Cold War as meaningful as the Berlin Airlift or the Apollo moon landing. The upset came at an auspicious time: President Jimmy Carter had just announced that the United States was going to boycott the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Americans, faced with a major recession and the Iran hostage crisis, were in dire need of something to celebrate. After the game, President Carter called the players to congratulate them, and millions of Americans spent that Friday night in revelry over the triumph of "our boys" over the Russian pros. As the U.S. team demonstrated in their victory over Finland two days later, it was disparaging to call the U.S. team amateurs. Three-quarters of the squad were top college players who were on their way to the National Hockey League (NHL), and coach Herb Brooks had trained the team long and hard in a manner that would have made the most authoritative Soviet coach proud. The 1980 U.S. hockey team was probably the best- conditioned American Olympic hockey team of all time--the result of countless hours running skating exercises in preparation for Lake Placid. In their play, the U.S. players adopted passing techniques developed by the Soviets for the larger international hockey rinks, while preserving the rough checking style that was known to throw the Soviets off-guard. It was these factors, combined with an exceptional afternoon of play by Craig, Johnson, Eruzione, and others, that resulted in the miracle at Lake Placid. This improbable victory was later memorialized in a 2004 film, Miracle, starring Kurt Russell. Feb. 22 1980 The "Miracle on Ice" Voted the greatest sports moment of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated magazine, the unlikely victory of the US men's hockey team over its Soviet counterpart during the 1980 Olympic Winter Games has been called the "Miracle on Ice." The Soviet team was considered the world's best international hockey team, while the US team was made up of amateur and collegiate players. Who scored the decisive goal in the game, allowing the US to go on to the gold-medal game against Finland? More... The Miracle on Ice The "Miracle on Ice" is the name in American popular culture for a medal-round men's ice hockey game during the 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, New York, on February 22. The United States team, made up of amateur and collegiate players and led by coach Herb Brooks, defeated the Soviet team, who were considered to be the best ice hockey team in the world at the time. Team USA went on to win the gold medal by winning its final match over Finland, who finished 4th. The Soviet Union took the silver medal by beating bronze medal winner Sweden in its final game. As part of its 100th anniversary celebrations in 2008, the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) chose the "Miracle on Ice" as the number-one international ice hockey story of the century. History The Soviet and American teams The Soviet Union entered the Olympic tournament as heavy favorites, having won the ice hockey gold medal in 1956 and every year since 1964. In the four Olympics after the Soviet squad was upset by Team USA at Squaw Valley in 1960, Soviet teams had gone 27–1–1 (W- D-L) and outscored the opposition 175–44. In head-to-head match-ups against the United States, the cumulative score over that period was 28-7.The Soviet players were classed as amateurs, but soft jobs provided by the Brezhnev government (some were active-duty military) allowed them to essentially play professionally in a well-developed league with world class training facilities. They were led by legendary players in world ice hockey, such as Boris Mikhailov (a top line right winger and team captain), Vladislav Tretiak (considered by many to be the best ice hockey goaltender in the world at the time), the speedy and skilled Valeri Kharlamov, as well as talented, young, and dynamic players such as defenseman Viacheslav Fetisov and forwards Vladimir Krutov and Sergei Makarov. From that team, Tretiak, Kharlamov, and Fetisov would eventually be enshrined in the Hockey Hall of Fame. Herb Brooks conducted tryouts in Colorado Springs in the summer of 1979. Of the 20 players who eventually made the final Olympic roster, Buzz Schneider was the only one from the 1976 Olympic team. Nine players had played under Herb Brooks at the University of Minnesota. Four more were from Boston University.Assistant coach Craig Patrick had played with Brooks on the 1967 U.S. national team. The Soviet and American teams were natural rivals due to the decades-old Cold War. In addition, President Jimmy Carter was at the time considering a U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, to be held in Moscow, in protest of the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. On February 9, the same day that the American and Soviet teams met in an exhibition in New York City, U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance denounced the impending Moscow games at a meeting of the IOC. President Carter eventually decided in favor of the boycott. Exhibitions In exhibitions that year, Soviet club teams went 5–3–1 against National Hockey League (NHL) teams, and a year earlier the Soviet national team had routed the NHL All-Stars 6–0 to win the Challenge Cup. In 1979–80, virtually all the top North American players were Canadians, although the number of U.S.-born professional players had been on the rise throughout the 1970s. The 1980 U.S. Olympic team featured several young players who were regarded as highly promising, and some had signed contracts to play in the NHL immediately after the tournament. In September the American team started exhibition play, playing 61 games in five months against teams from Europe and America. The last exhibition game was against the Soviets in Madison Square Garden on February 9, 1980. The Soviets crushed the Americans 10–3. Viktor Tikhonov later said that this victory "turned out to be a very big problem" by causing the Soviets to underestimate the American team. Olympic group play In Olympic group play, the United States surprised many observers with its physical, cohesive play. In its first game against favored Sweden, Team USA earned a dramatic 2–2 draw by scoring with 27 seconds left after pulling goalie Jim Craig for an extra attacker. Then came a stunning 7–3 victory over Czechoslovakia, considered by many to be the second-best team after the Soviet Union and a favorite for the silver medal. With its two toughest games in the group phase out of the way, the U.S. team reeled off three more wins, beating Norway 5–1, Romania 7–2, and West Germany 4–2 to go 4–0–1 and advance to the medal round from its group, along with the Swedes. In the other group, the Soviets stormed through their opposition undefeated, often by grossly lopsided scores – knocking off Japan 16–0, the Netherlands 17–4, Poland 8–1, Finland 4–2, and Canada 6–4; easily qualifying for the next round, although both the Finns and the Canadians gave the Soviets tough games for two periods. In the end, the Soviet Union and Finland (who overcame a disastrous start after sensationally losing to Poland in their opening game of the tournament, but then rallied to upset Canada) advanced from their group. Preparing for the medal round The U.S. and Soviet teams prepared for the medal round in different ways. Soviet coach Viktor Tikhonov rested most of his best players, preferring to let them study plays rather than actually skate. U.S. coach Herb Brooks, however, continued with his tough, confrontational style, skating "hard" practices and berating his players for perceived weaknesses. The day before the match, columnist Dave Anderson wrote in the New York Times, "Unless the ice melts, or unless the United States team or another team performs a miracle, as did the American squad in 1960, the Russians are expected to easily win the Olympic gold medal for the sixth time in the last seven tournaments." "Do you believe in miracles?" The Field House (capacity 8,500) was packed. The home crowd waved American flags and sang patriotic songs such as "God Bless America.” The rest of the United States (except those who watched the game live on Canadian television) had to wait to see the game. After the Soviets refused to consent to moving the game from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. for American television (this would have meant a 4 a.m. start in Moscow for Soviet viewers), ABC decided to broadcast the late-afternoon game on tape delay in prime time. Before the game, Brooks read his players a statement he'd written out on a piece of paper, telling them that "You were born to be a player. You were meant to be here. This moment is yours." First period As in several previous games, the U.S. team fell behind early. Vladimir Krutov deflected a slap shot by Aleksei Kasatonov past U.S. netminder Jim Craig to give the Soviets a 1–0 lead, and after Buzz Schneider scored for the United States to tie the game, the Soviets struck again with a Sergei Makarov goal. Down 2–1, Craig improved his play, turning away many Soviet shots before the U.S. team had another shot on goal (the Soviet team had 39 shots on goal in the game, the Americans 16). In the waning seconds of the first period, Dave Christian fired a slap shot on Tretiak from 100 feet away. The Soviet goalie saved the shot but misplayed the rebound, which bounced out some 20 feet in front of him. Mark Johnson sliced between the two defenders, found the loose puck and fired it past a diving Tretiak to tie the score with one second left in the period. The first period ended with the game tied 2–2. Second period Tikhonov replaced Tretiak with backup goaltender Vladimir Myshkin immediately after Johnson's tying goal, a move which shocked players on both teams. Tikhonov later identified this as the "turning point of the game." and "the biggest mistake of my career". Myshkin allowed no goals in the second period. The Soviets dominated play in the second period, outshooting the Americans 12–2, but scored only once, on a power play goal by Aleksandr Maltsev. After two periods the Soviet Union led 3–2. Third period Vladimir Krutov was sent to the penalty box at the 6:47 mark of the third period for high- sticking. The Americans, who had managed only two shots on Myshkin in 27 minutes, had a power play and a rare offensive opportunity. Myshkin stopped a Ramsey shot, then Eruzione fired a shot wide. Late in the power play, Dave Silk was advancing into the Soviet zone when Vasilev knocked him to the ice. The puck slid to Mark Johnson. Johnson fired off a shot that went under Myshkin and into the net at the 8:39 mark, as the power play was ending, tying the game 3–3. Only a couple shifts later, Mark Pavelich passed to U.S. captain Mike Eruzione, who was left undefended in the high slot. Eruzione, who had just come into the game, fired a shot past Myshkin, who was screened by Pervukhin. This goal gave Team USA a 4–3 lead, its first of the game, with exactly 10 minutes left. The Soviets attacked furiously. Moments after Eruzione's goal, Maltzev fired off a shot which ricocheted off the right goal post. As the minutes wound down, Brooks kept repeating "Play your game. Play your game." Instead of going into a defensive crouch, the United States continued to play offense, even getting off a few more shots on goal. The Soviets began to shoot wildly, and Starikov admitted that "we were panicking." As the clock ticked down below a minute the Soviets got the puck back into the American zone, and Mikhailov passed to Petrov, who shot wide. The Soviets never pulled Myshkin for an extra attacker, much to the disbelief of the Americans. Starikov later explained that "We never did six-on-five", not even in practice, because "Tikhonov just didn't believe in it." Craig kicked away a Petrov slap shot with 33 seconds left. Kharlamov fired the puck back in as the clock ticked below 20 seconds. A wild scramble for the puck ensued, ending when Johnson found it and passed to Morrow. As the U.S. team tried to clear the zone (move the puck over the blue line, which they did with seven seconds remaining), the crowd began to count down the seconds left. Sportscaster Al Michaels, who was calling the game on ABC along with former Montreal Canadiens goalie Ken Dryden, picked up on the countdown in his broadcast, and delivered his famous call: “ Eleven seconds, you've got ten seconds, the countdown going on right now! Morrow, up to Silk. Five seconds left in the game. Do you believe in miracles?...YES! ” The March 3, 1980 cover of Sports Illustrated that ran without accompanying caption or headline.In the locker room afterwards, players spontaneously broke into a chorus of "God Bless America". As his team ran all over the ice in celebration, Herb Brooks sprinted back to the locker room and cried. For its March 3, 1980 issue, Sports Illustrated ran a cover with just a photograph by Heinz Kluetmeier, without any accompanying caption or headline. Kluetmeir said, "It didn't need (any cover language). Everyone in America knew what happened." American aftermath Jim Craig's gear from 1980, at the Hockey Hall of Fame The United States did not win the gold medal upon defeating the USSR. In 1980 the medal round was a round-robin, not a single elimination format as it is today. Under Olympic rules at the time, the group game with Sweden was counted along with the medal round games versus the Soviet Union and Finland so it was mathematically possible for the United States to finish anywhere from first to fourth. Needing to win to secure the gold medal, Team USA came back from a 2–1 third period deficit to defeat Finland 4–2. According to Mike Eruzione, coming into the dressing room in the second intermission, Brooks turned to his players, looked at them and said, "If you lose this game, you'll take it to your graves." He then paused, took a few steps, turned again, said, "Your fucking graves," and walked out.] At the time, the players ascended a podium to receive their medals and then lined up on the ice for the playing of the national anthem, as the podium was only meant to accommodate one person. Only the team captains remained on the podium for the duration. After the completion of the anthem, Eruzione motioned for his teammates to join him on the podium. Today, the podiums are large enough to accommodate all of the players. The victory bolstered many American citizens' feelings of national pride, which had been severely strained during the turbulent 1970s. The match against the Soviets popularized the "U-S-A! U-S-A!" chant, which has been used by American supporters at many international sports competitions since 1980.