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					George Washington Day
Today you will learn about George Washington.
George Washington was born on February 22nd, 1732.
He was born on the family's Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in
Westmoreland County, Virginia.
He was the first son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington.
George Washington was introduced to Martha Dandridge Custis by friends of Martha when
George was on leave from the French and Indian War.
George only visited her home twice before proposing marriage to her 3 weeks after they met.
George and Martha were each 27 years old when they married on January 6th, 1759.
The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon.
George Washington led the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in
the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783.
The Continental Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the American
revolutionary forces in 1775.
The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, lost New York City, and crossed the
Delaware River in New Jersey, defeating the surprised enemy units.
As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies
at Saratoga and Yorktown.
Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous
army and a fragile nation.
Following the end of the war in 1783, Washington returned to private life and retired to his
plantation at Mount Vernon.
He presided over the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in
1787 because of general dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation.
George Washington became President of the United States in 1789.
George Washington served as the President of the United States of America from 1789 to
1797.
He sought to create a great nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war
between Britain and France.
His unilateral Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any
involvement in foreign conflicts.
He supported plans to build a strong central government by funding the national debt,
implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank.
Washington avoided the temptation of war and began a decade of peace with Britain via the
Jay Treaty in 1795.
Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against
partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.
Washington is seen as a symbol of the United States and republicanism in practice.
His devotion to civic virtue made him an exemplary figure among early American politicians.

Present Simple czy Present Continuous

Wiele trudności sprawia Polakom poprawne rozróżnienie czasów teraźniejszego
prostego i teraźniejszego ciągłego. Poniżej przedstawione są podstawowe różnice
między konstrukcją progresywną (ciągłą) a prostą.
Czas teraźniejszy prosty                  Czas teraźniejszy ciągły



Czynność ma charakter ogólny, mowa jest Czynność trwa w danym momencie.
o długotrwałym procesie, niekoniecznie
mającym miejsce w danym momencie.

(1) What do you do?                       (3) What are you doing?

Czym się zajmujesz (w życiu, tzn. jaki jest Co ty (teraz) robisz?
twój zawód)?
                                            (4) I’m working on a project for the best
(2) I work for the best management          management school in Poland.
school
in Poland.

Pracuję dla najlepszej szkoły zarządzania Właśnie pracuję nad projektem dla
w Polsce.                                 najlepszej szkoły zarządzania w Polsce.




W zdaniu (1) osoba pytająca chce się dowiedzieć, co rozmówca
robi w życiu, jaki jest jego zawód. By spytać o to, co rozmówca robi w konkretnym
momencie, należałoby wypowiedzieć zdanie (3). Podobnie odpowiedź (2) oznacza,
że jej autor jest zatrudniony na najlepszej szkole zarządzania, choć w
 danym momencie może wcale nie zajmować się pracą dla niej (tylko np. czytać gazetę
lub jeść obiad). Wypowiedź (4) wskazuje natomiast, że jej autor właśnie
w tym momencie pracuje nad projektem – jest to czynność, w trakcie wykonywania
której skierowano do niego pytanie (3).



Czynność jest powtarzalna, trwa długo,    Czynność jest powtarzalna, ale ma charakter
ma charakter prawidłowości.               tymczasowy.

(5) I work at weekends.                   (6) I’m working weekends this summer.

Pracuję w weekendy                        Tego lata pracuję w weekendy.




Zdanie (5) odnosi się do pewnej prawidłowości, jest konstatacją faktu.
Zdanie (6) także odnosi się do czegoś powtarzalnego, ale jedynie w pewnych
ramach czasowych. Warto zauważyć, że autor wypowiedzi (6) może mieć na myśli
np. przytłaczającą większość weekendów, ale niekoniecznie wszystkie. Bez
dodatkowej informacji (“this summer/”) można by przypuszczać, że autor zdania (6)
przedstawia subiektywny opis sytuacji,która go irytuje.


Czynność jest relacjonowana, ma           Czynność jest relacjonowana, przedstawiona
charakter bieżący, przedstawiona jest w   w stylu neutralnym. Nacisk kładzie
stylu formalnym. Podkreśla się, że jest   się na proces, trwanie czynności.
ona skończoną całością.
                                          (7b) I’m checking the temperature.
(7a) I check the temperature.
                                          /Sprawdzam temperaturę.
/Sprawdzam temperaturę.



W zdaniu (7a) osoba mówiąca relacjonuje, przedstawia swoje bieżące czynności.
Czyni to bezosobowo, podkreśla następowanie ich po sobie. Natomiast w zdaniu
(7b) autor akcentuje trwanie danego procesu, jego niezakończony charakter.




Plany     dotyczą     częściej    dalekiej Plany dotyczą bliskiej przyszłości    lub
przyszłości lub podróży.                   dalszej, lecz ściśle zaplanowanej.

(8) I arrive in Warsaw on Monday.         (9) I’m meeting Joanna tomorrow.

W poniedziałek przyjadę do Warszawy .     Jutro spotkam się z Joanną.



Konstrukcji takiej jak w zdaniu (8) szczególnie często używa się do opisu planów
podróży. Natomiast konstrukcja (9) służy po prostu do przedstawiania planów na
najbliższą przyszłość.




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Words for today
REVIEW

rzeczownik
1.rewizja
2.recenzja
◦The play got good reviews. (Sztuka dostała dobre recenzje.)
Definition : if critics review a film, they write their opinion of it
Example : My brother has seen all the films that are reviewed.
3.recenzowanie
4.przegląd
5.inspekcja
czasownik
1.przeglądać, przemyśliwać
2.recenzować
3.AmE powtarzać materiał (np. do egzaminu)
4.robić przegląd (np. wydarzeń)
5.przeprowadzać inspekcję
BrE revise , AmE review *
czasownik
1.powtarzać materiał (przygotowując się do egzaminu)
◦He is revising for his maths exam. (On powtarza materiał do egzaminu z matematyki.)
◦When studying for a test, it is important to review actively, not passively. (Podczas nauki do
testu, ważne jest aby powtarzać materiał aktywnie, nie biernie.)

COLD-BLOODED
przymiotnik
1.zimnokrwisty, zmiennocieplny
2.bezlitosny, bezwzględny, dokonany z zimną krwią, beznamiętny
(adjective)
Without compunction or human feeling.
Synonyms: inhuman, insensate, cold
Usage: These callous, cold-blooded killers butchered six people.

TURN
rzeczownik
1.kolej, kolejka (np. podczas gry w karty)
◦Now it's your turn. (Teraz jest twoja kolej.)
◦Whose go is it? (Czyja jest kolej?)

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Phrasal Verb of the day
check into
Meaning: to register your details after arriving for treatment at a hospital, a rehabilitation
centre or a health resort

For example:

      I had to check into the hospital the night before the operation.

      Amy knew she had a drug problem, but she didn't want to check into a rehab centre.
Nouns often used as objects with check into: hospital, rehab, rehabilitation centre, treatment
centre, detox centre, clinic, hotel

Note: "Check into" and "check in" can be used to mean the same things, but most people seem
to use "check into" more for hospitals and medical centres, and "check in" more for hotels and
airline desks.

Quick Quiz:

If someone is addicted to drugs, they should consider checking into
    a. a four-star hotel
    b. a state prison
    c. a treatment centre




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Idiom of the day
a quick study

Meaning: If you're a quick study, you can learn new things quickly.

For example:

      Albert was always a quick study, except when it came to learning languages.

      I only need to show Sue how to do something once, and she gets it. She's a quick
       study, that girl.

Variety: This idiom is typically used in American English but may be used in other varieties
of English too.

Quick Quiz:

My teachers thought I would be a quick study like my brother and
  a. write my essays quickly
  b. understand things quickly
  c. forget things quickly



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Slang of the day
dope (2)
Meaning: a stupid person, a fool

For example:

      How come those dopes who work in the U.S. Treasury didn't realise what was going
       on?

      Max says the problem with democracy is that there are too many dopes out there, and
       they'll only vote for someone they can relate to, meaning another dope.

Quick Quiz:

Another word that means the same as "dope" is
   a. idiot
   b. genius
   c. hero




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Saying of the day
First things first
Possible interpretation: 1) Be patient: do things in the logical order. 2) Do the most
important things before the less important things.

Note: first (ordinal number) = coming before all other things in order or time; 1st

Quick Quiz:

Jack and Jill wanted to start a business. "First things first," said John. "We need to
   a. rent an office"
   b. borrow money from a bank"
   c. make a business plan"



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Proverb for today
"Art is long and life is short."

“A still tongue makes a wise head.”

“A stitch in time saves nine.”
Stich
rzeczownik
1 ścieg
2 szew
He had to have 7 stitches. (Musiano mu założyć 7 szwów.)
3 kłujący ból
3 oczko (w robótkach na drutach)
czasownik
zszywać

“A stream cannot rise above its source.”

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Quotes for today
W.C. Fields
"I am free of all prejudices. I hate every one equally. "

William Stone
 “Be careful the environment you choose for it will shape you; be careful the friends you
choose for you will become like them."

Marlene Dietrich
“It\'s the friends you can call up at 4 a.m. that matter.”

Charlton Heston
“Political correctness is just tyranny with manners. “

Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)
“Happiness is a monstrosity! Punished are those who seek it.”

Hannibal (248 BCE – c183/181 BCE) Carthaginian military commander and tactician
“Let us now relieve the Romans of their fears by the death of a feeble old man.”
Wordchecker
relieve (verb): cause (someone) to stop worrying (about something)
feeble (adjective): weak; frail

Hannibal was a Carthaginian general and the scourge of Rome. Even as a child he had sworn
eternal hatred to the Romans. He is probably best known for his spectacular feat of marching
an army that included North African war elephants across the Pyrenees and Alps to descend
on northern Italy and attack the Romans. He is often considered the greatest military tactician
and strategist in history, and headed Rome's Most Wanted List for much of his professional
life, striking fear and terror into Roman hearts and minds. Finally, however, Carthage (in
modern Tunisia, north Africa) was no match for the Romans and Hannibal went into
voluntary exile, moving around the Mediterranean and still hunted by the Roman army.
Finally, circa 183-181 BCE he could escape no more and took poison (which he was said to
have carried about with him in a ring) rather than be captured by the advancing Romans. The
site was the village of Libyssa (today the town of Gebze in Turkey). According to Roman
records, Hannibal left a suicide note variously translated as "Let us now relieve the Romans of
their fears by the death of a feeble old man" or "Let us release the Romans from their long
anxiety, since it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death."
Wordchecker
scourge (noun): someone or something that causes great trouble
sworn (verb, past participle of swear): promised
feat (noun): great achievement
poison (noun): a substance that kills you if you eat or drink it

Quick Quiz:

Hannibal killed himself because
   a. he didn't want to give the Romans the pleasure
   b. he was relieved by the Romans
   c. he was old and feeble


Unknown
“Eagles may soar but weasels don`t get sucked into jet engines.”
soar
przysłówek
1.gwałtownie wzrastać (o temperaturze), natężać się (o hałasie)
◦Our hopes for victory soared. (Nasze nadzieje na wygraną gwałtownie wzrosły.)
czasownik
1.zwyżkować (o akcjach), iść szybko do góry (o cenach, inflacji)
◦Renting prices soared a further thirty percent. (Koszty wynajmu wzrosły o kolejne
trzydzieści procent.)
2.unosić się do góry (np. o balonie), poszybować do góry (np. o piłce)
◦All night long fireworks soared into the sky. (Przez cała noc fajerwerki unosiły się do
nieba.)
3.szybować wysoko (np. o ptaku), latać wysoko (o szybowcu)
◦We watched a soaring eagle with awe. (Z podziwem oglądaliśmy szybującego orła.)
4.wznosić się (o wysokim budynku), wystawać ponad resztę (o drzewie, szczycie górskim)
◦This new building soars 80 meters into the sky. (Ten nowy budynek wznosi się na 80
metrów wysokości.)
5.osiągać wyżyny (szczęścia, sławy)
weasel
rzeczownik
1.łasica
2.informal gnida (o osobie

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Jokes for today

Q: What do Barbie and Britney Spears have in common?
A: Both are blonde, brainless and made out of plastic.

The owner of a drug store walks in to find a guy leaning heavily against a wall.
The owner asks the clerk, `What`s with that guy over there by the wall?`
The clerk says, `Well, he came in here this morning to get something for his cough. I couldn`t
find the cough syrup, so I gave him an entire bottle of laxative.`
The owner says, `You idiot! You can`t treat a cough with laxatives!`
The clerk says, `Oh yeah? Look at him, he`s afraid to cough!`


An Amish boy and his father were visiting a nearby mall. They were amazed by almost
everything they saw, but especially by two shiny silver walls that moved apart and back
together again by themselves.
The lad asked, `What is this, father?`
The father, having never seen an elevator, responded, `I have no idea what it is.`
While the boy and his father were watching wide-eyed, an old lady in a wheelchair rolled up
to the moving walls and pressed a button. The walls opened and the lady rolled between them
into a small room. The walls closed and the boy and his father watched as small circles lit up
above the walls.
The walls opened up again and a beautiful twenty-four-year-old woman stepped out.
The father looked at his son anxiously and said, `Go get your mother.`


A young magician started to work on a cruise ship with his pet parrot. The parrot would
always ruin his act by saying things like, "He has a card up his sleeve" or "He has a dove in
his pocket."
One day the ship sank and the magician and the parrot found themselves alone on a lifeboat.
For a couple of days, they just sat there looking at each other. Finally, the parrot broke the
silence and said, "Okay, I give up. What did you do with the ship?"

A man was sprawled across three entire seats in a theater.
When the usher came by and noticed this, he whispered to the man, `Sorry sir, but you`re
only allowed one seat.`
The man groaned but didn`t budge. The usher became impatient.
`Sir,` the usher said, `if you don`t get up from there, I`m going to have to call the manager.`
Again, the man just groaned, which infuriated the usher who turned and marched briskly
back up the aisle in search of his manager.
In a few moments, both the usher and the manager returned and stood over the man. Together
the two of them tried repeatedly to move him, but with no success. Finally, they summoned
the police. The cop surveyed the situation briefly.
`All right, buddy. What`s your name?`
`Sam,` the man moaned.
`Where ya from, Sam?` the cop asked.
`The balcony.`
sprawl , sprawl out
czasownik
1.rozsiadać się, wylegiwać się (na czymś)
czasownik
1.rozciągać się (o mieście), być rozsianym (o zabudowaniach)
2.rozrastać się, rozprzestrzeniać się (o gałęziach)
sprawl
rzeczownik
1.skupisko (zabudowań), zabudowa miejska
usher
przymiotnik
1.biletowy (w teatrze), odźwierny (sądowy)
czasownik
1.wprowadzić, zaprowadzić, odprowadzić
rzeczownik
1.przewodnik
2.osoba usadzająca gości na weselu, widzów w teatrze itp
groan *
czasownik
1.jęczeć, wydawać jęki
◦I groaned with pain. (Jęczałem z bólu.)
 synonim: moan
2.jęczeć, narzekać
3.skrzypieć
zobacz także: moan
rzeczownik
1.jęk
 synonim: moan
2.skrzypnięcie, skrzypienie
budge
czasownik
1.poruszyć, poruszać, ruszyć, ruszać
2.nakłonić, nakłaniać (np. do zmiany zdania, zmiany stanowiska)
3.ruszyć się, drgnąć
4.ustąpić, ustępować, ugiąć się, zmienić zdanie
infuriate
czasownik
1.doprowadzić do szału, rozwścieczyć
brisk *
przymiotnik
1.rzutki, energiczny, pełen werwy (o osobie)
2.szybki, dziarski, żwawy, ożywiony (o chodzie, sposobie poruszania się)
3.ożywiony, szybki (o handlu, o biznesie)
4.rześki, rzeźwy (o chłodnej pogodzie)
aisle *
rzeczownik
1.przejście (w samolocie, pociągu)
◦Would you like an aisle or a window seat? (Czy chciałby Pan miejsce od strony przejścia
czy od okna?)
◦Lights alongside the aisle lead to the emergency exit. (Światła wzdłuż przejścia prowadzą
do wyjścia awaryjnego.)
◦Toilets are at the end of the aisle. (Toalety są na końcu przejścia.)
2.przejście (np. między rzędami krzeseł w kinie)

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This day in history Feb. 22
Lead Story
        U.S. hockey team makes miracle on ice, 1980
American Revolution
        Archibald Bulloch dies under mysterious circumstances, 1777
Automotive
        Lee Petty wins first Daytona 500, 1959
Civil War
        Battle of West Point, Mississippi, 1864
Cold War
        George Kennan sends "long telegram" to State Department, 1946
Crime
        Gang commits largest robbery in British history, 2006
Disaster
        Deadly tornadoes rip through central Florida, 1998
General Interest
        The U.S. acquires Spanish Florida, 1819
        Battle of Buena Vista begins, 1847
        Suharto takes full power in Indonesia, 1967
        Tet Offensive ends, 1968
Hollywood
        Actress Drew Barrymore born, 1975
Literary
        Edna St. Vincent Millay is born, 1892
Music
        Milli Vanilli win the Best New Artist Grammy, 1990
Old West
        Montana passes law against sedition, 1918
Presidential
        George Washington is born, 1732
Sports
        U.S. hockey pulls off Miracle on Ice, 1980
Vietnam War
        Westmoreland asks for Marines, 1965
        Operation Junction City begins, 1967
World War I
        Mussolini wounded by mortar bomb, 1917
World War II
        President Roosevelt to MacArthur: Get out of the Philippines, 1942


Feb 22, 1980:
U.S. hockey team makes miracle on ice

In one of the most dramatic upsets in Olympic history, the underdog U.S. hockey team, made
up of college players, defeats the four-time defending gold-medal winning Soviet team at the
XIII Olympic Winter Games in Lake Placid, New York. The Soviet squad, previously
regarded as the finest in the world, fell to the youthful American team 4-3 before a frenzied
crowd of 10,000 spectators. Two days later, the Americans defeated Finland 4-2 to clinch the
hockey gold.
     The Soviet team had captured the previous four Olympic hockey golds, going back to
1964, and had not lost an Olympic hockey game since 1968. Three days before the Lake
Placid Games began, the Soviets routed the U.S. team 10-3 in an exhibition game at Madison
Square Garden in New York City. The Americans looked scrappy, but few blamed them for
it--their average age, after all, was only 22, and their team captain, Mike Eruzione, was
recruited from the obscurity of the Toledo Blades of the International League.
Few had high hopes for the seventh-seeded U.S. team entering the Olympic tournament, but
the team soon silenced its detractors, making it through the opening round of play undefeated,
with four victories and one tie, thus advancing to the four-team medal round. The Soviets,
however, were seeded No. 1 and as expected went undefeated, with five victories in the first
round.
     On Friday afternoon, February 22, the American amateurs and the Soviet dream team met
before a sold-out crowd at Lake Placid. The Soviets broke through first, with their new young
star, Valery Krotov, deflecting a slap shot beyond American goalie Jim Craig's reach in the
first period. Midway through the period, Buzz Schneider, the only American who had
previously been an Olympian, answered the Soviet goal with a high shot over the shoulder of
Vladislav Tretiak, the Soviet goalie.
     The relentless Soviet attack continued as the period progressed, with Sergei Makarov
giving his team a 2-1 lead. With just a few seconds left in the first period, American Ken
Morrow shot the puck down the ice in desperation. Mark Johnson picked it up and sent it into
the Soviet goal with one second remaining. After a brief Soviet protest, the goal was deemed
good, and the game was tied.
     In the second period, the irritated Soviets came out with a new goalie, Vladimir Myshkin,
and turned up the attack. The Soviets dominated play in the second period, outshooting the
United States 12-2, and taking a 3-2 lead with a goal by Alesandr Maltsev just over two
minutes into the period. If not for several remarkable saves by Jim Craig, the Soviet lead
would surely have been higher than 3-2 as the third and final 20-minute period began.
Nearly nine minutes into the period, Johnson took advantage of a Soviet penalty and knocked
home a wild shot by David Silk to tie the contest again at 3-3. About a minute and a half later,
Mike Eruzione, whose last name means "eruption" in Italian, picked up a loose puck in the
Soviet zone and slammed it past Myshkin with a 25-foot wrist shot. For the first time in the
game, the Americans had the lead, and the crowd erupted in celebration.
There were still 10 minutes of play to go, but the Americans held on, with Craig making a few
more fabulous saves. With five seconds remaining, the Americans finally managed to get the
puck out of their zone, and the crowd began counting down the final seconds. When the final
horn sounded, the players, coaches, and team officials poured onto the ice in raucous
celebration. The Soviet players, as awestruck as everyone else, waited patiently to shake their
opponents' hands.
     The so-called Miracle on Ice was more than just an Olympic upset; to many Americans, it
was an ideological victory in the Cold War as meaningful as the Berlin Airlift or the Apollo
moon landing. The upset came at an auspicious time: President Jimmy Carter had just
announced that the United States was going to boycott the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow
because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Americans, faced with a major recession
and the Iran hostage crisis, were in dire need of something to celebrate. After the game,
President Carter called the players to congratulate them, and millions of Americans spent that
Friday night in revelry over the triumph of "our boys" over the Russian pros.
     As the U.S. team demonstrated in their victory over Finland two days later, it was
disparaging to call the U.S. team amateurs. Three-quarters of the squad were top college
players who were on their way to the National Hockey League (NHL), and coach Herb
Brooks had trained the team long and hard in a manner that would have made the most
authoritative Soviet coach proud. The 1980 U.S. hockey team was probably the best-
conditioned American Olympic hockey team of all time--the result of countless hours running
skating exercises in preparation for Lake Placid. In their play, the U.S. players adopted
passing techniques developed by the Soviets for the larger international hockey rinks, while
preserving the rough checking style that was known to throw the Soviets off-guard. It was
these factors, combined with an exceptional afternoon of play by Craig, Johnson, Eruzione,
and others, that resulted in the miracle at Lake Placid.
    This improbable victory was later memorialized in a 2004 film, Miracle, starring Kurt
Russell.


Feb. 22 1980
The "Miracle on Ice"

Voted the greatest sports moment of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated magazine, the
unlikely victory of the US men's hockey team over its Soviet counterpart during the 1980
Olympic Winter Games has been called the "Miracle on Ice." The Soviet team was considered
the world's best international hockey team, while the US team was made up of amateur and
collegiate players. Who scored the decisive goal in the game, allowing the US to go on to the
gold-medal game against Finland? More...

The Miracle on Ice

The "Miracle on Ice" is the name in American popular culture for a medal-round men's ice
hockey game during the 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, New York, on February 22.
The United States team, made up of amateur and collegiate players and led by coach Herb
Brooks, defeated the Soviet team, who were considered to be the best ice hockey team in the
world at the time.
    Team USA went on to win the gold medal by winning its final match over Finland, who
finished 4th. The Soviet Union took the silver medal by beating bronze medal winner Sweden
in its final game. As part of its 100th anniversary celebrations in 2008, the International Ice
Hockey Federation (IIHF) chose the "Miracle on Ice" as the number-one international ice
hockey story of the century.

History

The Soviet and American teams

The Soviet Union entered the Olympic tournament as heavy favorites, having won the ice
hockey gold medal in 1956 and every year since 1964. In the four Olympics after the Soviet
squad was upset by Team USA at Squaw Valley in 1960, Soviet teams had gone 27–1–1 (W-
D-L) and outscored the opposition 175–44. In head-to-head match-ups against the United
States, the cumulative score over that period was 28-7.The Soviet players were classed as
amateurs, but soft jobs provided by the Brezhnev government (some were active-duty
military)[4] allowed them to essentially play professionally in a well-developed league with
world class training facilities. They were led by legendary players in world ice hockey, such
as Boris Mikhailov (a top line right winger and team captain), Vladislav Tretiak (considered
by many to be the best ice hockey goaltender in the world at the time), the speedy and skilled
Valeri Kharlamov, as well as talented, young, and dynamic players such as defenseman
Viacheslav Fetisov and forwards Vladimir Krutov and Sergei Makarov. From that team,
Tretiak, Kharlamov, and Fetisov would eventually be enshrined in the Hockey Hall of Fame.
    Herb Brooks conducted tryouts in Colorado Springs in the summer of 1979. Of the 20
players who eventually made the final Olympic roster, Buzz Schneider was the only one from
the 1976 Olympic team. Nine players had played under Herb Brooks at the University of
Minnesota. Four more were from Boston University.Assistant coach Craig Patrick had played
with Brooks on the 1967 U.S. national team.
    The Soviet and American teams were natural rivals due to the decades-old Cold War. In
addition, President Jimmy Carter was at the time considering a U.S. boycott of the 1980
Summer Olympics, to be held in Moscow, in protest of the December 1979 Soviet invasion of
Afghanistan. On February 9, the same day that the American and Soviet teams met in an
exhibition in New York City, U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance denounced the impending
Moscow games at a meeting of the IOC.[8] President Carter eventually decided in favor of the
boycott.

Exhibitions

In exhibitions that year, Soviet club teams went 5–3–1 against National Hockey League
(NHL) teams, and a year earlier the Soviet national team had routed the NHL All-Stars 6–0 to
win the Challenge Cup.[9] In 1979–80, virtually all the top North American players were
Canadians, although the number of U.S.-born professional players had been on the rise
throughout the 1970s. The 1980 U.S. Olympic team featured several young players who were
regarded as highly promising, and some had signed contracts to play in the NHL immediately
after the tournament.
    In September the American team started exhibition play, playing 61 games in five months
against teams from Europe and America. The last exhibition game was against the Soviets in
Madison Square Garden on February 9, 1980. The Soviets crushed the Americans 10–3.
Viktor Tikhonov later said that this victory "turned out to be a very big problem" by causing
the Soviets to underestimate the American team.

Olympic group play

In Olympic group play, the United States surprised many observers with its physical, cohesive
play. In its first game against favored Sweden, Team USA earned a dramatic 2–2 draw by
scoring with 27 seconds left after pulling goalie Jim Craig for an extra attacker. Then came a
stunning 7–3 victory over Czechoslovakia, considered by many to be the second-best team
after the Soviet Union and a favorite for the silver medal. With its two toughest games in the
group phase out of the way, the U.S. team reeled off three more wins, beating Norway 5–1,
Romania 7–2, and West Germany 4–2 to go 4–0–1 and advance to the medal round from its
group, along with the Swedes.
    In the other group, the Soviets stormed through their opposition undefeated, often by
grossly lopsided scores – knocking off Japan 16–0, the Netherlands 17–4, Poland 8–1,
Finland 4–2, and Canada 6–4; easily qualifying for the next round, although both the Finns
and the Canadians gave the Soviets tough games for two periods. In the end, the Soviet Union
and Finland (who overcame a disastrous start after sensationally losing to Poland in their
opening game of the tournament, but then rallied to upset Canada) advanced from their group.

Preparing for the medal round
The U.S. and Soviet teams prepared for the medal round in different ways. Soviet coach
Viktor Tikhonov rested most of his best players, preferring to let them study plays rather than
actually skate. U.S. coach Herb Brooks, however, continued with his tough, confrontational
style, skating "hard" practices and berating his players for perceived weaknesses.
     The day before the match, columnist Dave Anderson wrote in the New York Times,
"Unless the ice melts, or unless the United States team or another team performs a miracle, as
did the American squad in 1960, the Russians are expected to easily win the Olympic gold
medal for the sixth time in the last seven tournaments."
"Do you believe in miracles?" The Field House (capacity 8,500) was packed. The home
crowd waved American flags and sang patriotic songs such as "God Bless America.” The rest
of the United States (except those who watched the game live on Canadian television) had to
wait to see the game. After the Soviets refused to consent to moving the game from 5 p.m. to
8 p.m. for American television (this would have meant a 4 a.m. start in Moscow for Soviet
viewers), ABC decided to broadcast the late-afternoon game on tape delay in prime time.
Before the game, Brooks read his players a statement he'd written out on a piece of paper,
telling them that "You were born to be a player. You were meant to be here. This moment is
yours."

First period

As in several previous games, the U.S. team fell behind early. Vladimir Krutov deflected a
slap shot by Aleksei Kasatonov past U.S. netminder Jim Craig to give the Soviets a 1–0 lead,
and after Buzz Schneider scored for the United States to tie the game, the Soviets struck again
with a Sergei Makarov goal. Down 2–1, Craig improved his play, turning away many Soviet
shots before the U.S. team had another shot on goal (the Soviet team had 39 shots on goal in
the game, the Americans 16).
    In the waning seconds of the first period, Dave Christian fired a slap shot on Tretiak from
100 feet away. The Soviet goalie saved the shot but misplayed the rebound, which bounced
out some 20 feet in front of him. Mark Johnson sliced between the two defenders, found the
loose puck and fired it past a diving Tretiak to tie the score with one second left in the period.
The first period ended with the game tied 2–2.

Second period

Tikhonov replaced Tretiak with backup goaltender Vladimir Myshkin immediately after
Johnson's tying goal,[19] a move which shocked players on both teams.[9] Tikhonov later
identified this as the "turning point of the game."[20] and "the biggest mistake of my
career".[21] Myshkin allowed no goals in the second period. The Soviets dominated play in
the second period, outshooting the Americans 12–2, but scored only once, on a power play
goal by Aleksandr Maltsev. After two periods the Soviet Union led 3–2.

Third period

Vladimir Krutov was sent to the penalty box at the 6:47 mark of the third period for high-
sticking. The Americans, who had managed only two shots on Myshkin in 27 minutes, had a
power play and a rare offensive opportunity. Myshkin stopped a Ramsey shot, then Eruzione
fired a shot wide. Late in the power play, Dave Silk was advancing into the Soviet zone when
Vasilev knocked him to the ice. The puck slid to Mark Johnson. Johnson fired off a shot that
went under Myshkin and into the net at the 8:39 mark, as the power play was ending, tying
the game 3–3. Only a couple shifts later, Mark Pavelich passed to U.S. captain Mike
Eruzione, who was left undefended in the high slot. Eruzione, who had just come into the
game, fired a shot past Myshkin, who was screened by Pervukhin. This goal gave Team USA
a 4–3 lead, its first of the game, with exactly 10 minutes left.
    The Soviets attacked furiously. Moments after Eruzione's goal, Maltzev fired off a shot
which ricocheted off the right goal post. As the minutes wound down, Brooks kept repeating
"Play your game. Play your game." Instead of going into a defensive crouch, the United States
continued to play offense, even getting off a few more shots on goal. The Soviets began to
shoot wildly, and Starikov admitted that "we were panicking." As the clock ticked down
below a minute the Soviets got the puck back into the American zone, and Mikhailov passed
to Petrov, who shot wide. The Soviets never pulled Myshkin for an extra attacker, much to the
disbelief of the Americans. Starikov later explained that "We never did six-on-five", not even
in practice, because "Tikhonov just didn't believe in it."[29] Craig kicked away a Petrov slap
shot with 33 seconds left. Kharlamov fired the puck back in as the clock ticked below 20
seconds. A wild scramble for the puck ensued, ending when Johnson found it and passed to
Morrow. As the U.S. team tried to clear the zone (move the puck over the blue line, which
they did with seven seconds remaining), the crowd began to count down the seconds left.
Sportscaster Al Michaels, who was calling the game on ABC along with former Montreal
Canadiens goalie Ken Dryden, picked up on the countdown in his broadcast, and delivered his
famous call:
“ Eleven seconds, you've got ten seconds, the countdown going on right now! Morrow, up to
Silk. Five seconds left in the game. Do you believe in miracles?...YES! ”
     The March 3, 1980 cover of Sports Illustrated that ran without accompanying caption or
headline.In the locker room afterwards, players spontaneously broke into a chorus of "God
Bless America".[31] As his team ran all over the ice in celebration, Herb Brooks sprinted
back to the locker room and cried.[32]
    For its March 3, 1980 issue, Sports Illustrated ran a cover with just a photograph by Heinz
Kluetmeier, without any accompanying caption or headline. Kluetmeir said, "It didn't need
(any cover language). Everyone in America knew what happened."

American aftermath

Jim Craig's gear from 1980, at the Hockey Hall of Fame
The United States did not win the gold medal upon defeating the USSR. In 1980 the medal
round was a round-robin, not a single elimination format as it is today. Under Olympic rules
at the time, the group game with Sweden was counted along with the medal round games
versus the Soviet Union and Finland so it was mathematically possible for the United States to
finish anywhere from first to fourth.
    Needing to win to secure the gold medal, Team USA came back from a 2–1 third period
deficit to defeat Finland 4–2. According to Mike Eruzione, coming into the dressing room in
the second intermission, Brooks turned to his players, looked at them and said, "If you lose
this game, you'll take it to your graves." He then paused, took a few steps, turned again, said,
"Your fucking graves," and walked out.]
    At the time, the players ascended a podium to receive their medals and then lined up on
the ice for the playing of the national anthem, as the podium was only meant to accommodate
one person. Only the team captains remained on the podium for the duration. After the
completion of the anthem, Eruzione motioned for his teammates to join him on the
podium.[36] Today, the podiums are large enough to accommodate all of the players.
    The victory bolstered many American citizens' feelings of national pride, which had been
severely strained during the turbulent 1970s. The match against the Soviets popularized the
"U-S-A! U-S-A!" chant, which has been used by American supporters at many international
sports competitions since 1980.

				
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