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Chapter 3- Infancy and Childhood

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					Chapter 3- Infancy and
     Childhood
  Developmental Psychology:
 The study of changes that occur as an
 individual matures

 Includes   Nature vs. Nurture
     How much of development is the result of
      inheritance and how much is the result of
      what we have learned?
        Fetal Development
 Expectant mothers feel kicking and
  movement, fetuses even suck their
  thumbs
 17-56 days: most susceptible




                             Fetus at 8 weeks
                     Fetal Development
   7-14 days- Cells multiply and become specialized for muscular, neural, reproductive,
    skeletal, digestive, and circulatory functions.
   20 days- Eyes start to form
   22 days- Heart begins to beat
   23 days- Central nervous system begins to develop
   4 weeks- Skeleton forms and muscles develop, arms and legs begin to form
   5 weeks- Nose and mouth form
   6 weeks- Brain waves can be recorded
   8 weeks- All organs are present, complete, and functioning (except lungs- they follow
    a little later)
   8-10 weeks- Body is completely formed. Responds to touch, fingers and toes
    defined, has permanent fingerprints, baby can suck thumb
   8-13 weeks- The child's sex can be distinguished
   11-12weeks- Finger and toenails form, the child can make all facial expressions. All organ
    systems are working,
   15 weeks- "Fluff" appears on the baby's head, also has visible eyebrows, eyelashes
   16 weeks- Mother can feel the baby move, heart pumps six gallons of blood per day, very
    rapid growth. Can have REM (dream) sleep
   18 weeks- the child is now "complete," needing only more time to grow.
   22 weeks- Mother can feel the baby hiccup
   20-24 weeks- If born this young, the child could survive outside the womb
          Fetal Development
   7 weeks           16 weeks




   14 weeks          20 weeks
      Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome which affects 1 out of every
  750 children born in the U.S.
• 1991 study: found that mothers who consumed just 1
  alcoholic beverage a day during pregnancy (and
  assuming these are drinks that contain moderate
  alcohol levels per drink), had children who scored
  lower on IQ tests at age 4 than children whose
  mothers did not drink. Even when
  environmental factors were accounted
  for, IQ scores were still lower.
              Smoking
Maternal Smoking has immediate effects
 such as hindering oxygenation of blood
 to the baby, as well as long-term
 effects like deficits in growth and
 learning abilities.
        Newborn Capabilities
 Can see, hear, smell, and respond at
  birth
 Grasping Reflex- an infant clinging
  response to a touch on the palm of the
  hand
     Disappears after 6 months
         Newborn Capabilities
 Rooting    Reflex- an infant’s response in
  turning toward the source of touching
  that occurs anywhere around his mouth
 Sucking reflex follows
     Both gradually decline in strength
         Newborn Capabilities
 Startle    Reflex (Moro Reflex)- an infant
 lying on his back when startled by a loud
 noise will spread out his or her arms at
 right angles, grasp upwards, and spread
 his or her legs outward
     Believed to be the only
      unlearned fear
         Newborn Capabilities
 Babinski    Reflex- toes flare outward
 and foot presses against stimulus when
 sole of foot is stroked
     Present up until around first birthday
            Physical Development
 Average weight at
  birth- 7.5 pounds
 Can weigh as much as
  20 or 25 pounds by
  the end of the first
  year
 In just two years,
  child can walk, talk,
  and feed himself or
  herself
       Result of maturation
        and learning
       Maturation vs. Learning
 Maturation- the internally programmed
 growth of a child
     Parents must wait until an infant reaches
      emotional readiness before pushing them to
      learn new skills
 Learning-a relatively permanent change
 in behavior resulting from experience
        Timetable for Maturation
   Each infant is unique, but usually progress in
    the same sequential steps
       2 months- raises head
       2.8 months- rolls
       4 months- sits with support
       5.5 months- sits w/o support
       10 months- crawl
       11.5 months- stand alone
       12.1 months- walk
    Perceptual Development
 VisualCliff- older infants refused to
  cross the cliff, but even young infants
  heart rates changed, implying some
  perceptual capabilities
 Infants prefer looking at human faces
  and patterned
  material the most
      Language Development
A   child can think before he can speak.
       Animal Use of Language
        Gardner- raised a baby chimp
 Beatrice
 named Washoe and taught ASL
     Knew 87 signs by 3 ½
     Knew 160 signs by 5
     Can also use keyboards
 Cannotapply grammatical rules or
 arrange symbols to create new meanings
 (grammar)
       Child Language Learning
 Many   claim that there is a critical
  period for learning language earlier in
  life.
 1st) Crying lessens and cooing sounds and
  babbling starts. (first year)
     Babbling includes any sound a human can
      make! (clicks, rolled r’s etc.)
 2nd)Babbles begin to sound more like
 the language the child hears (late in
 first year)
         Child Language Learning

   3) First attempts as using sounds as symbols
       Usually in second year
       Incomplete sounds
       Often refer to commands or something that can be
        seen or touched
   4) By age 2, a vocabulary of at least 50 words
    and use of two word phrases begins
       From 18 months-5 years, children add 5-10 words
        A DAY to their vocabulary
    Child Language Development
   At age two, using telegraphic speech:
       Words are left out, but the meaning is clear
         • “Where my apple?”
   Already understand rules- sometimes apply
    too consistently
       Adding “-ed”- “goed” instead of “went”-
        overgeneralization
   By age 5, vocabulary of several thousand
    words
     Cognitive Development
 Involvesboth quantitative changes
 (growth in the amount of information)
 and qualitative changes (growth in the
 manner of thinking)
        How Knowing Changes
 Understanding the world involves
  schemas- mental representations of the
  world
 How we use and adjust our schemas:
     Assimilation- interpreting new experience
      using one’s existing schema (constructing).

     Accommodation- adjustment or
      modification of our schema to include a new
      object or experience (modifying)
Assimilation and Accommodation-
             Example
 Stacking
     Encounters a block- has stacked blocks
      before- assimilation
     Encounters a box- doesn’t fit in his
      stacking schema- accommodation
         Object Permanence
 The   realization that an object exists
    even when it cannot be seen or
    touched

 Before 6 months: acts as though a toy ceases to
  exist when hidden
 7-12 months: will look for a toy under a blanket if
  she is watching, but she will continue to search for
  it under the blanket even if she saw you put it
  elsewhere
 12-18 months: searches for the toy in the last place
  it was put
 18-24 months: will guess the toy is behind your
  back if you pretend to put it under a blanket-
  knows it must be somewhere
      Representational Thought
 Theability of a child to picture
 something in his or her mind
 (achievement of object permanence)

     Piaget: daughter threw a tantrum after
      watching another child do so
     Means that symbols are being used
The Principle of Conservation
 The principle that a given quantity does
 not change when it’s appearance is
 changed
     Appears between ages 5 and 7
     Children who cannot apply this principle are
      egocentric- cannot understand another person’s
      perspective
        Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
                Development
Stage            Approx. Age    Characteristics
Sensorimotor     Birth- 1 ½     Simple motor responses to
                 years          sensory stimuli, lacks sense of
                                object permanence
Preoperational   1 ½- 7 years   Lacks operations, egocentric
                                thinking, lacks concept of
                                conservation, uses symbols
Concrete         7-11 years     Begins to understand
Operations                      conservation, still has trouble
                                with abstract ideas
Formal           11 years       Understands abstract ideas,
Operations       onward         capable of logical reasoning
    Emotional Development- Animals
   Lorenz and the Goslings
   Imprinting – inherited tendencies displayed by
    newborn animals when encountering new stimuli.
   Baby geese become attached to their mothers in a
    sudden, virtually permanent learning process called
    imprinting- they are ready to start waddling after
    the first thing that moves
      Can be a human




   Critical period- specific time in when
    certain skills are most easily learned
Emotional Development- Animals

   Surrogate Mothers- Henry
    Harlow
   Took baby monkeys away
    from their mothers
   Two surrogate mothers- one
    wood and wire which provided
    food and one soft cloth
   Monkeys went to soft cloth
    monkey for comfort (seeking
    contact comfort)
Emotional Development- Humans
 Infantsbegin to form an attachment to
 their mothers at about 6 months when
 they are able to distinguish one person
 from another and begin to develop
 object permanence
     Strongest from about 6 months-3 years
     Separation anxiety may occur
        The Strange Situation
   Mothers and
    children underwent a
    series of episodes
    that involved a
    mother leaving and
    coming back when a
    stranger was
    present and when a
    stranger was not
    present
       Attachment Theory

Secure Attachment (66%)- balance the need
to explore and be close; welcome the mother
back and are free of anger

Avoidant Attachment (21%)- ignore the
mother when she leaves and returns

Resistant Attachment(12%)- not upset when
mom leaves, but reject her
when she returns.
           Parenting Styles
 Stylesvary by
 culture. The style of
 parenting that is
 most successful may
 depend on what
 parents in each
 culture are taught
 regarding
 appropriate
 childrearing
                Authoritarian Family

   Authoritarian Families-
    parents are the bosses; they
    do not have to explain their
    demands. Children have no
    right to question parents

   Parent values obedience
   Misbehavior results in strict punishment
   Parent tells child what is right and what to do
   Often results in rebellious, moody, unhappy,
    irritable and rebellious adults
    Democratic/Authoritative Family

   Democratic/Authoritative
    Families- relatively strict and
    emotionally supportive parents,
    children participate in
    decisions. A great deal of
    discussion
   Parents are firm, setting clear and
    consistent limits
   Try to reason with their children and explain
    why choices are made
   Considered the most effective way of
    parenting
    Permissive/Laissez-faire Family

   Permissive/ Laissez Faire-
    Children have the final say,
    parents may attempt to
    guide or simply give up on
    responsibilities
   Parents take a hands off approach
   Parents require very little from their
    children and don’t hold a lot of
    responsibility for how their children turn
    out
   Very few limits on their children
   Often results in immature, impulsive, or
    aggressive adults
             Uninvolved Parents
   Uninvolved-
    egocentric,
    uncommitted to roles,
    distant
   Parents are detached
    emotionally from their children
   Parent’s role is to provide food
    and shelter
   In an extreme form, this type of
    style can be thought of as
    neglect
       Effects of Parenting Styles
 Thosewho grow up in
 authoritative/democratic are more
 confident in their values and goals
     Establishment of limits
     Responding with warmth and support
 Effects of Parenting Styles
 Those from democratic families are
 more likely to want to make their own
 decisions, with or without advice
     Child assumes responsibility gradually, not
      denied the right or given too soon
     Child is more likely to identify with the
      parents
     Parents present a model of responsible
      independence
  Effects of Parenting Styles
 Parentsare not solely responsible for
 the way that children turn out!
     Children may contribute
     Example- difficult teenagers
                Child Abuse
 Physical or mental injury, sexual abuse,
  or mistreatment
 Many cases go unreported
 1999- 3 million cases reported
 Social problem resulting from a variety
  of causes
     Mistreated themselves, little patience,
      unrealistic expectations
                Child Abuse
 Parents   who are:
     Overburdened and stressed
     Children who are hyperactive, physically
      and mentally challenged
     Lack of contact with family and friends
          Social Development

   Socialization- learning the rules and
    behavior of the culture in which an
    individual is born and will live

    3 Dimensions of Socialization:
    A. Learning the rules & when to apply them
    B. Acquiring an identity as a member of
       society,
    C. Learning to live with other people and
       with yourself
Freud- Psychosexual Development
 All children are born with powerful sexual and
  aggressive urges
 By learning to control these impulses one
  develops a sense of what is right and wrong
 Different for boys and girls
 Ways in which a child negotiates these stages
  has a profound impact on adult personality
Freud- Psychosexual Development
 Stage    1- Oral
     Pleasure seeking is focused on the mouth-
      eating , sucking, biting
     Weaning a child from nursing is frustrating
      and a source of conflict- first experience
      with not getting what he or she wants
     Up until about 18 months old
Freud- Psychosexual Development
 Stage    2- Anal Stage
     Pleasure seeking centered on functions of
      elimination
     Toilet training teaches a child to curb their
      freedom and social control, first
      experience with discipline and authority
     1 ½- 3 years
Freud- Psychosexual Development
   Stage 3- Phallic Stage:
       Pleasure seeking focused on the genitals. Children
        become aware of the differences between
        themselves and members of the opposite sex.
       The child become a rival for the affections of the
        parent of the opposite sex
         • The boy wants to win his mother and is in conflict with his
           father (Oedipus Complex)
         • The girl wants her father and tries to shut out her
           mother (Electra Complex)
         • Unconscious level
       Identification- the child will adopt the values and
        the principles of the same sex parent
       3-6 years
Freud- Psychosexual Development
 Stage    4- Latency stage
     Sexual thoughts are repressed and the
      child focuses on developing social and
      intellectual skills, the beginnings of concern
      for others
     Sublimation- redirecting sexual impulses
      into learning tasks
     Ages 6-puberty
Freud- Psychosexual Development
 Stage    5- Genital Stage
     Sexual desires are renewed and the
      individual seeks relationships with others,
      deriving satisfaction from giving and
      receiving pleasure, adoption of adult
      responsibilities
     According to Freud, personality
      development is complete
     Puberty through adulthood
    Erikson- Psychosocial Development
   Stage 1- Trust vs. Mistrust (Early infancy)
       Is my world predictable and supportive? Can I
        trust?
   Stage 2- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3
    years)
       Can I do things myself or do I have to rely on
        others?
   Stage 3- Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)
       Am I good or bad? Can I master my environment or
        am I too daring?
   Stage 4- Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years)
       Am I successful or worthless? Have I failed?
    Erikson- Psychosocial Development

   Stage 5- Identity vs. Role Confusion (early
    teens)
       Who am I?
   Stage 6- Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult)
       Shall I share my life with someone?
   Stage 7- Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle
    Adult)
       Will I succeed in life?
   Stage 8- Integrity vs. Despair (Older Adult)
       Have I lived a full life?
   Erik Erikson- Psychosocial Devel.
                       Autonomy                              Industry
      Trust v.                            Initiative
                       vs. Shame                                vs.
      Mistrust                            vs. Guilt
                       and Doubt                            Inferiority
• Babies must      • Toddlers        • Children feel   • Beginning of
  learn that         learn to          a natural         formal
  they can trust     control their     curiosity         education,
  their              own bodies        about their       we must feel
  caregivers         through potty     surroundings      competent. If
  and that their     training and      and must feel     we feel as
  requests are       learn to          comfortable       though we
  effective          control their     about this        are falling
                     environment       curiosity. If     behind, we
                     in reasonable     scolded, will     develop an
                     ways in order     feel guilty       inferiority
                     to develop a      about asking      complex in
                     healthy will.     questions in      that area
                                       the future.
Erik Erikson- Psychosocial Devel.
         Learning Theories of
             Development
 Many  psychologists disagree with the
  emphasis on emotional dynamics
 They believe development is a matter of
  learning and imitation
          Cognitive-Developmental
                  Approach
 Social development is a result of a child
  acting on the environment and making sense
  of experiences
 Games and Play
       Children learn the importance of structure for
        group activities
       Teaches aspects of adult life
       role taking - children’s play that involves assuming
        adult roles which enable the child to experience a
        different point of view
     Kohlberg- Moral Development
   Deciding what is right and what is wrong
     In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer.

      One drug might save her, a form of radium
      recently discovered by a druggist in the same
      town. The druggist was charging $2000, ten times
      what the drug cost him to make. The woman’s
      husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to
      borrow the money, but he could get together only
      about half of what it cost. He told the druggist
      that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it
      cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said
      “no”. The husband got desperate and broke into
      the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.
      Should the husband have done that? Why?
      Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder

                      Morality of abstract
Postconventional      principles: to affirm         As moral
      level         agreed-upon rights and
                   personal ethical principles       development
                                                     progresses, the
 Conventional         Morality of law and
                                                     focus of concern
    level             social rules: to gain
                       approval or avoid
                                                     moves from the
                          disapproval
                                                     self to the wider
Preconventional    Morality of self-interest:
                                                     social world.
     level           to avoid punishment
                   or gain concrete rewards
Kohlberg- Moral Development
 Pre-Conventional, Stage 1: Children
 are totally egocentric and cannot
 consider points of view. The main
 concern is avoiding punishment
     The man should steal because he could be
      blamed for his wife’s death
     The man should not steal because he will go
      to jail when caught
Kohlberg- Moral Development
 Pre-Conventional, Stage 2 - Have a
 better idea of receiving rewards and
 punishments, “Help someone if he helps
 you, hurt someone if he hurts you”.
 Acts in terms of consequences instead
 of right and wrong.
     Stealing the drug is a good thing because it
      helps his wife.
Kohlberg- Moral Development
 Conventional, Stage 3 - becomes
 acutely sensitive to what other people
 want and think; desire social approval
     Heinz should steal because people will think
      he is cruel if he lets his wife die.
     He should not steal because people will
      think that he is a criminal.
Kohlberg- Moral Development
 Conventional,  Stage 4 - less concerned
 with the approval of others, more
 concerned with law and order - a law
 is a moral rule and established authority
 should be followed
     It is illegal to steal.
Kohlberg- Moral Development
   Post-Conventional, Stage 5 - concerned with
    whether a law is fair and just; laws are never
    absolute
       It’s okay because the druggist is charging too
        much.


   Post-Conventional, Stage 6 - universal
    ethics, certain ethical principles apply to
    everyone
       In a reversed situation, would the druggist steal
        from Heinz?
Kohlberg- Moral Development
A  child must be able to see from the
 points of view of others to reach the
 highest levels of moral development, so
 it depends on cognitive development
 1)
   According to Piaget, what develops
 gradually as a child grows? (71)

     Intelligence, or the ability to
      understand
 2)
   Intellectual development includes
 both _____ and ______ changes.
 (71)

     Involves both quantitative changes
      and qualitative changes
3) Define qualitative changes as defined
          in the textbook. (71)
    Growth in the manner of thinking
         4) Define a schema. (71)

 Schemas-   mental representations of the
 world
5) What process includes trying to fit a
   new object into a schema? (71)
    Assimilation- fit a different object or
     concept into one of our preexisting
     schema
6) What happens when events do not fit
     into existing schemas? (71)
 Accommodation-       change our schema to
 fit the characteristics of a new object
7) When a two-month old infant’s toy is
 hidden from her, how would she most
            likely act? (71)

       6 months: acts as though a toy
 Before
 ceases to exist when hidden
 8) When a 15 month old child’s toy is
 hidden from her, how would she most
            likely act? (71)

 12-18 months: searches for the toy in the
 last place it was put, will act surprised if
 they toy is not there
9) What is the concept called that states that a
  child can realize that an object exists even
 when he or she cannot see or touch it? (72)

  10) The achievement of #9 suggests that a
child has begun to engage in what Piaget calls
                _______. (72)

      11) Define your answer to #10. (72)

          Object permanence
          Representational Thought
          The intellectual ability of a child to
           picture something in his or her mind
  12) Between what ages do most
children begin to understand Piaget’s
    concept of conservation? (73)

   5 and 7
13) Children who cannot think about
two dimensions at the same time are
      said to be _______. (73)

    egocentric- cannot understand another person’s
     perspective
   14) List Piaget’s four stages of child
    development in correct order. (74)
Stage               Approx. Age        Characteristics
Sensorimotor        Birth- 1 ½ years   Simple motor responses to sensory
                                       stimuli, lacks sense of object
                                       permanence

Preoperational      1 ½- 7 years       Lacks operations, egocentric thinking,
                                       lacks concept of conservation, uses
                                       symbols

Concrete            7-11 years         Begins to understand conservation,
Operations                             still has trouble with abstract ideas


Formal Operations   11 years onward    Understands abstract ideas, capable
                                       of logical reasoning
15) What have experiments with baby
  birds and monkeys shown about
          attachment? (75)


   There is a
    maturational
    determined time of
    readiness for
    attachment
   16) What is a critical period? (75)

 Criticalperiod-
 specific time in
 when certain skills
 are most easily
 learned
17) What did Harry Harlow conclude
was the reason why baby monkeys
    cling to their mothers? (76)
   The need for contact comfort
  18) At what age do infants begin to
 form an attachment to their mothers?
                 (76)

6   months old
19) What was the technique called that
    John Bowlby used to measure
          attachment? (77)

    Strange Situation
    20) What type of attachment seems to
       be the least secure according to
                 Bowlby? (77)

 Secure attachment- balances, welcome mother
  back when she leaves
 Avoidant attachment- avoid the mother when
  she leaves and returns
 Resistant attachment- not upset when she
  leaves, reject her when she returns
 Disorganized attachment- inconsistent, the
  least secure

				
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