Docstoc

Siem_Reap

Document Sample
Siem_Reap Powered By Docstoc
					                                                Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces



Brief Description of Siem Reap District and Land-Use Planning in the
Pilot District Siem Reap1
                                                                                                                             SIEM REAP
1. GENERAL INFORMATION ON SIEM REAP DISTRICT

1.1. Location of Siem Reap District
Siem Reap Province is situated in the northwestern part of Cambodia about 314 km from Phnom Penh by
National Road No. 6 and 254 km by boat on Tonle Sap Lake. The Province borders on Kompong Thom
Province, Oudor Meanchey Province, Banteay Meanchey Province. The southern boundary is formed by
Tonle Sap Lake. Siem Reap Province takes up an area of about 10,549 km² comprising of 12 districts, 100
communes, and 921 villages. In 2006, 820961 inhabitants were recorded in the Province[1]. Siem Reap
District is the centre and the provincial town of Siem Reap Province.

The District borders on Banteay Srey District and Angkor Thom District in the north, on Prasat Bakong
District in the east, on Puok District in the west, and on Tonle Sap Lake in the south.

The total population of Siem Reap District is 146,379[2] inhabitants in 2006. The average annual population
growth since 1998 is about 5%.

Siem Reap District covers a total area of about 446 km² of which about 340 km² is land area (ca. 76% of
the district territory) and about 106 km² Tonle Sap Lake (ca. 24% of the district territory).[3] However, it
should be taken into account that the commune and district boundaries have not yet been determined and
surveyed accurately.

A distinguished mark of Siem Reap District is Siem Reap River. It rises from Phnom Kulen, meanders through
the northern part of Siem Reap Province, flows from north to south through Siem Reap District and
eventually into Tonle Sap Lake.

National Road No 6 crosses through Siem Reap District from east to west. Beside the overland route, the
district can be reached by boat on the Tonle Sap Lake as well as by air via Siem Reap International Airport.

    [1] Source: Department of Planning Siem Reap Province
    [2] Source: GIS-data of JICA, prepared in the frame of Study on Integrated Master Plan for Sustainable Development
        of Siem Reap/Angkor Town (JICA, 2004-2006)
    [3] Calculation based on JICA GIS-data 2005 and Topographic Map 1:100,000 by Department of Geography 1998


1.2. Historic Overview and Present Importance on Siem Reap District
Siem Reap District of today includes a large part of Angkor area, the well-known UNESCO-protected world
heritage site, which is a symbol of glorious Khmer history and culture. In the Angkor era between 9th and
15th century, the Khmers developed amongst other things the town of Angkor Thom characterised by an
orthogonal system covering an area of 9 km² and playing an important role as magnificent capital and
metropolis.

Beyond the temples of Angkor area, old agglomeration of villages centred around wats and strung along the
river for many centuries. Under the French protectorate, a small urban area was established between Grand
Hotel and Old Market[4] in the early 1930s.


1
  Prepared by: Mrs. Birgit Schindhelm (DED), Urban Planning Advisor to Siem Reap District Administration
in the frame of Asia Urbs Project 3 “Reform of Provincial Towns in Cambodia”, October 12, 2007. Kindly
supported by: Ministry of Interior (MoI), Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction
(MLMUPC), German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3
(AUP3).

                                                                                                                                                      47
                                             Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


After independence, the town developed moderately, and the Royal Residence was built. At that time, the
urbanised areas extended to the north of the town, while an increased number of homes was built
southwards. Public facilities were established, although the infrastructure remained comparatively weak.
Tourism development started in 1950s and 1960s but in a small scale only. Little more than 10,000
inhabitants were recorded in the town of Siem Reap by 1970[5]. Siem Reap District, at that time, comprised
of four communes.

The town was emptied and abandoned under Pol Pot regime. After 1979, the centre of town was controlled
and inhabited by military troops, while resettlement programme were launched to create housing areas for
the surviving and returning citizen. Those new areas emerged on the east bank of the river, in new quarters
north and east of the town as well as on the periphery of the town. The population increased drastically to
about 30,000 inhabitants in 1979. In the 1980s, development of market places proceeded, and the town
expanded. Villagers were removed from certain areas near the archaeological sites and resettled north of the
town in the same period, and refugees from the neighbouring regions migrated into Siem Reap seeking for
jobs and new homes. As a result, the population increased rapidly in a short time to about 68,800
inhabitants in 1991[6].

The development of Siem Reap District has speed up since the late 1990s primarily caused by the growing
tourism industry. At present, the tourism sector is of great importance for Siem Reap District as impetus for
the local economy. This has not only an effect on the district itself but also on the surrounding region and,
to some extend, on the whole country as it attracts local and foreign investments and creates various kinds
of jobs for local people (e.g. supply with agricultural products, handicrafts, service personnel, and others).
560,947[7] international tourists visited Siem Reap in 2004. In 2005, the number increased of about 20% to
676,809[8] international visitors. Projections show a potential growth up to 2.0 to 3.3 million international
tourists and about 0.8 to 1.0 million domestic tourists in 2020[9].

  [4][5][6] Source: Modern Khmer Cities, Vann Molyvann, Reyum Publishing 2003
  [7][8] Source: Ministry of Tourism, Department of Statistics and Tourism Information
  [9] Source: Study on Integrated Master Plan for Sustainable Development of Siem Reap / Angkor Town (JICA, 2004-
      2006)


1.3. Population Data of Siem Reap District
The tables below show the present population in Siem Reap District as well as the significant population
growth between 1998 and 2006. In addition, the population in Angkor zones 1 and 2 in Siem Reap District is
depicted below (about 22% of the total population).

Table 1: Population in Siem Reap District in 2006 by Communes[10]

    Name of                Number of                  Total number of inhabitants                                        Number of
    commune                families                                                                                      children
                                                     Total                      Male                    Female
    Slakram                        5 967            33 824                     16 556                    17 268                    13 096
    Svay Dangkum                   5 002            27 630                     13 358                    14 272                    10 446
    Kouk Chak                      4 119            18 578                      9 048                     9 530                     8 515
    Sala Kumraeuk                  3 171            18 293                      8 959                     9 334                     6 563
    Nokor Thom                     1 990             6 072                      2 993                     3 079                     2 873
    Chreav                         1 594             9 407                      4 517                     4 890                     3 917
    Chong Khneas                    1084             5 857                      2 931                     2 926                     2 474
    Sambour                          658             3 295                      1 614                     1 681                     1 503
    Siem Reap                      2 711            17 018                      8 178                     8 840                     6 556
    Srangae                        1 086             6 405                      3 259                     3 146                     2 681
    Total                        27 382           146 379                     71 413                    74 966                    58 624



                                                                                                                                                   48
                                              Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Table 2: Total number of inhabitants in Siem Reap District 1998-2006 by Communes[11]

  Name of                                     Number of inhabitants by year
  Commune        1998      1999        2000         2001            2002            2003             2004              2005            2006
  Slakram        20 787    24 607      25 445       24 748          26 079          26 550           27 910             31130          33 824
  Svay           20 533    20 754      25 192       24 695          24 503          27 333           26 225             26985          27 630
  Dangkum
  Kouk Chak      14 401    14 576      16 201       16 447          16 228          16 523           18 068             18230          18 578
  Sala           12 566    12 510      15 118       15 506          14 960          15 655           17 319             17781          18 959
  Kumraeuk
  Nokor           3 554        3 695    3 722         3 883            4 257           4 612           5 332               5752           6 072
  Thom
  Chreav          3 567        6 235    6 365         6 410            7 402           7 607           7 790               7907           9 407
  Chong           4 630        4 153    4 406         4 793            4 678           5 812           6 057               6210           5 857
  Khneas
  Sambour         2 532    2 639        2 729       2 643           2 796            2 965           3 160             3316            3 295
  Siem Reap      12 158   12 884       13 657      13 653          14 374           14 654          14 820            16756           17 018
  Srangae         4 531    4 539        4 758       4 743           4 822            5 109           5 165             5391            6 405
  Total            99     106          117         117             120              126             131             139458            146
                  259     592          593         521             099              820             846                               379


Table 3: Population in Siem Reap District in Angkor preservation zones 1 and 2 in 2005 by Communes[12]

  Name of          Number         Number              Total               Number of               Number of                Total Number
  Commune                 of             of      Number of               inhabitants              inhabitant               of inhabitants
                   families       families       families in               in zone 1              s in zone 2                in zone 1+2
                  in zone 1      in zone 2        zone 1+2
  Slakram                  0          1 244           1 244                            0                     6 043                        6 043
  Kouk Chak            3 421            132           3 553                       17 688                       734                       18 422
  Nokor Thom             744            384           1 128                        3 669                     1 916                        5 585
  Srangae                  0            250             250                            0                     1 281                        1 281
  Total               4 165          2 010           6 175                       21 357                     9 974                       31 331

  [10][11] Source: Department of Planning Siem Reap Province
  [12] Source: APSRA-Authority, Department of Demography and Development


1.4. Estimation of Future Population Growth
There are only limited data available on population growth in the past years. Basic population data are
available from 1998 to 2006.

The lack of detailed data, in particular reliable data on migration into Siem Reap District, makes population
prognoses difficult. The JICA SRAT-Team prepared a population projection of 210,643 inhabitants in Siem
Reap District in year 2020[13]. This result, however, was based on the population data of 2004. From 2004 to
2006, there was a significant growth of the population in Siem Reap District (about 5% per year), which has
be taken into account for updating the population scenarios.

The table below shows three scenarios based on the population data of 2006. The scenarios are to be
understood as rough estimations. It is difficult to predict the actual population growth, in particular the
number of people seeking employment and therefore migrating from other districts or provinces into Siem
Reap District. It is anticipated that the average growth rate of about 5% in the past eight years will not
continue in the same way in future. The speed of growth will slow down to possibly 3 to 4% but will be
higher than the average population growth in Cambodia.




                                                                                                                                                    49
                                             Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Table 4: Current population and estimated population growth in Siem Reap District[14]

     Population of Siem Reap District in                              Estimated population in Siem Reap
     1998-2006                                                        District until 2020
     Population in     Population in   Average annual                 Scenario 1               Scenario 2                 Scenario 3
     1998              2006            population growth
      99 259[15]        146 379[16]            5%                       221 400                  230 100                    241 600

The population living in urbanised areas in 2006 is estimated about 80,000 to 90,000 inhabitants, which is
about half of the total population in Siem Reap District. This number will increase as the total population
increases in future, but the portion of population in urbanised areas will be even larger than in 2006. At a
rough estimate, the population in urbanised areas of Siem Reap District in 2020 may be 130,000 to 140,000
inhabitants.

  [13] Source: Study on Integrated Master Plan for Sustainable Development of Siem Reap / Angkor Town (JICA, 2004-
      2006)
  [14] Source of data 1998 and 2005: Department of Planning Siem Reap Province / Estimations: District Master Plan
      Team Siem Reap
  [15][16] Source: Department of Planning of Siem Reap Province


2. ANGKOR PRESERVATION AREAS IN SIEM REAP DISTRICT

A large part of Siem Reap District is located in Angkor preservation zones 1 and 2 (ca. 20% of the district
territory).

APSARA-Authority is responsible for preservation and sustainable development of Angkor area. The Royal
Decree No. 001/NS dated 28 May 1994 concerning Protected Cultural Zones in the Siem Reap/Angkor
Region and Guidelines for their Management determines the following zones:

    Zone   1:   Monument sites
    Zone   2:   Protected archaeological reserves
    Zone   3:   Protected cultural landscapes
    Zone   4:   Sites of archaeological, anthropological, or historic interest
    Zone   5:   Socio-economic and cultural development zone of Siem Reap/Angkor Region.

The Sub-Decree No. 79 dated 13 October 1995 concerning the Hotel Zone defines a general corridor of 500
m to both sides of Siem Reap River as protected zone (zone 3). The exact boundaries lines of zone 3 and 4
in Siem Reap District are determined by APSARA-Authority but have not yet reached the status of an
approved by-law, and are not yet published. For both of the zones, approved detailed regulations are not yet
available.


3. LAND-USE PLANNING IN THE PILOT DISTRICT SIEM REAP

3.1. Background and Legal Basis
In the frame of the Asia Urbs Project conducted from 2001 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2007, two pilot
districts were chosen by the Royal Government of Cambodia in order to promote decentralisation and
strengthen district authorities. These two pilot districts are Siem Reap District, Siem Reap Province and
Battambang District, Battambang Province.

The Royal Government Decision No. 47 defines the structure and administration of Siem Reap District and
Battambang District in the pilot frame in order to promote well-balanced socio-economic development and to
contribute to poverty reduction. In Article 3 of the Decision, the roles of the districts in the pilot frame are
determined as follows:



                                                                                                                                                   50
                                              Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


    •   “…promote and secure good governance, by managing and using resources available in the districts
        in a sustainable way to meet the basic demand in the districts in order to serve the common interest
        of the locals and of the nation and also to be in conformity with the policies of the royal
        government.

    •   ...act as an experimental centre of the provinces to meet the local demand and deliver public
        services to the locals.”[17]

By Article 4, the pilot districts are authorized “….to direct, and/or to coordinate, and/or to promote, and/or
to supervise the formulation of master plan, land use planning, and all constructions as approved …”[18].
However, there is an overlapping of competences with other authorities[19].

Siem Reap District Administration has started to implement the Royal Government Decision No. 47 by
various means. One of the activities in the pilot frame is the Land-Use Plan for Siem Reap District.

  [17][18] Government Decision No. 47 on the Structure and the Administration of District Battambang, Battambang
      Province and District Siem Reap, Siem Reap Province by 11 June 2003
  [19] Siem Reap District Administration is determined as planning authority for master planning by the Government
      Decision No. 47 (2003). MLMUPC / DLMUPCC are determined as planning authority by the Law on Land
      Management (1994). APSARA-Authority is determined as planning authority by the Sub-Decree No. 15 (2004).


3.2. Focus Area for Land-Use Planning (Planning Area)
Generally, the District Land-Use Plan shall cover the whole district. In Siem Reap, however, there is a special
situation due to overlapping competences. APSARA-Authority is responsible for preservation and
development in Angkor area. Consequently, the preservation zones 1 and 2 covering about 20% of the
district territory are excluded from the planning area of the District Land-Use Plan.

Furthermore, Tonle Sap Lake covers the entire commune of Chong Khneas in Siem Reap District, where only
floating villages exist. Since these villages have no land, it is difficult to develop a land-use plan for them.
For this reason, the areas of Siem Reap District covered by Tonle Sap Lake (about 24% of the district
territory) were excluded from the planning area as well.


3.3. District Master Plan Team
Based on the Decision No. 47, the District Master Plan Team was established in March 2004. The District
Master Plan Team consists of 11 members, who are delegated by different authorities of district and
province level as well as by APSARA-Authority (Preservation authority for the Angkor area). The Team works
on part-time basis (2-4 days per week).

To support the urban planning process, DED has sent a long-term Urban Planning Advisor in 2003 to work
with Siem Reap District Administration and the District Master Plan Team.

The master plan activities are supported by DED, KAF, AUP, and other German organisations by financial
means as well as by multiple backup.

Within the master planning process, priority has been given to the land-use plan and local building
regulations. Beyond the technical planning process, public participation is understood as an extremely
important issue and integrated part of the master planning process.


3.4. Results of Work 2003 - 2007
Procedures for urban district master planning and participation as well as definitions of technical
terms were discussed with national and local authorities and are available since beginning of 2004.

Capacity building for the District Master Plan Team was carried out from 2004 to 2007.

The field survey and the digital Base Map of Siem Reap District were completed in 2006/2007.

                                                                                                                                                    51
                                            Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Public participation and coordination with other authorities started very successfully. Altogether more
than 13 meetings and workshops were carried out from 2004 to 2007 involving more than 500 participants
of commune councils, provincial line-departments, ministries, authorities, and local stakeholders (Public
Master Plan Forum).

Development Goals for long-term district development were prepared and discussed intensively early in
2005.

The preliminary First Draft Land-Use Plan for Siem Reap District was prepared in cooperation with
JICA, local authorities and MLMUPC in June 2005. A revised and detailed First Draft Land-Use Plan was
available beginning of 2006. Draft Building Regulations as important extension of the land-use plan were
prepared in addition.

The revised First Draft Land-Use Plan was discussed intensively at local level. A professional workshop
to discuss the First Draft Land-Use Plan and Draft Building Regulations at national level was held in May
2006. Recommendations and suggestions of the participation meetings and workshops were documented
and considered in the following revision phase.

The Draft Land-Use Plan together with the Draft Building Regulations and the detailed explanatory
report were completed in digital form by end of 2006.

Based on the Draft Land-Use Plan / Building Regulations, various participation meetings at district and
province level were carried out between February and June 2007 (Government officials of district and
province administration, line-departments and other authorities). Furthermore, written statements of
relevant authorities were collected. Recommendations, suggestions, and data provided in the meetings have
been considered carefully in the final revision phase.

The District Master Plan Team prepared the Final Draft Land-Use Plan / Building Regulations (English
and Khmer), which was adopted by the District Council of Siem Reap in July 2007.

For the first time in Cambodia, a local team at district and province level prepared a land-use plan and
building regulations for an urban district. Under the difficult circumstances at district level, the work of the
District Master Plan Team is to be considered as very successful.




                                                                                                                                                  52
                                                Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces




APSARA - Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor
and the Region of Siem Reap1
                                             on Urbanization and Tourism Development

To this end, the government has created APSARA, the Authority for the Protection and Management of
Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap, in charge of research, protection and conservation of cultural heritage,
as well as urban and tourist development.

Department of Urbanization and Development in Siemreap Angkor Region
The main task of the Department of Urbanization and Development in Siemreap Angkor is to keep Siemreap
a green city, attractive for tourists and residents alike. In addition, the department works on road
construction and construction regulation as well.

Strategy

General strategies include:

•     The creation of a physical limit between the protected archaeological reserve (Angkor Park) and urban
      development zones.

•     The preservation of irrigated agricultural land at the city perimeter, most concentrated in the western
      sectors.

•     The preservation of the city's unique character by maintaining its dense vegetation, spacious habitats
      and low skyline. The riverbanks, protected under zoning laws, will be strengthened and enhanced by
      natural landscaping.

•     Urban development is concentrated to the east of the Siemreap river. Residential areas and new public
      services will be extended to the south along National Route 6. A Hotel Zone will be developed to the
      north of the highway. This area is unfavorable to local agricultural exploitation and development remains
      sparse. Land will be replanted with native species. A vast reforestation campaign to the south of the
      Angkor Park is to be undertaken. Preliminary studies are to determine species composition most useful
      to the local population.

To achieve these aims, a number of priority projects are to be implemented over the next five years.
Through creation of an urban database, existing studies will be continually updated in view of increasing
understanding of the region and the effects of development trends. In conjunction with the provision of
primary services to the Hotel Zone, which will itself serve as a principal financial resource for continuing
development, basic infrastructural improvements are to be made in and around the city. Preliminary studies
have recommended further research into the reinforcement of existing water resource networks through two
principal projects: the stabilization of the Siemreap riverbed and the rehabilitation of the Northern Baray.
Existing road systems are to be improved and extended. Drinking water, sanitation and electrical systems
are to be further developed. In the urban extension zone of the city's south-eastern sector these
improvements will be accompanied by traditional housing and landscaping projects.

Building in the City of Siemreap - Regulation

In order to make it easy to control the building construction, the city has been divided into thirteen specific
zones. Each area has its own regulation.



    APSARA Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap
1

http://www.autoriteapsara.org/en/apsara.html


                                                                                                                                                      53
                                             Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces




Management of the river of Siemreap

Siemreap River is considered a national heritage. It runs from its source is in the Kulan mountains to the
north of Siemreap through the Angkor site and the city of Siemreap to the Tonle Sap lake.

In the past people used its water for drinking and their daily utilities, but the water has become more and
more polluted and is no longer safe to drink. It has become shallower and shallower, too.

There are many causes for the pollution of and reduction in water. Illegal settlement is one of the reasons
that the water quality has worsened and the view of the Siemreap river is obstructed. It is one of our goals
to make both banks of the river as impressive as they once used to be, with several projects related to the
decoration of the river banks.

City infrastructure

Recently, the infrastructure of Siemreap City has dramatically been damaged. If we look back, we find that
the infrastructure of the Siemreap river was quite good. Along the National Road 6, for example, the ancient
canal played an important role in supplying water to the rice fields and relieving the surrounding area of run-
off water when there is heavy rain. The city was never flooded as it is nowadays after heavy rain. Therefore,
the city infrastructure is one of the department's priority issues. If it cannot be restored to good condition,
the city will hardly have the potential to develop a strong tourism industry.

City of Culture & Tourism (Hotel Zone)

The City of Culture and Tourism of Angkor is the territory next to the Angkor Park reserved for hotels and
other leisure facilities. The aim for the creation of this zone is to provide a high-quality development area for
investors, while reducing the growth of hotels in Siemreap City. The Department of Urbanization and
Development in Siemreap Angkor Region plans to attract investors to the Hotel Zone by providing
appropriate infrastructure, facilities and landscaping.

In the near future, the Hotel Zone will develop next to the Archaeological Park and be located close to the
main roads to keep traffic away from the town while also lightening the traffic in the circuits. This ambitious
project plans the building, on a 1,000 hectares zone, of an accommodation area comprising leisure facilities
and luxury and economy-class hotels with capacities of over 60 rooms. Respecting Khmer architectural
traditions, mixing of structures and vegetation, will be a primary concern. Small and medium dimension
accommodation will remain in the town.




                                                                                                                                                   54
                                             Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces




This Hotel Zone will enable the national authorities to realise, in partnership with the private sector and
international hotel investors, a high-quality development in a vast reforestation area, where buildings will
integrate harmoniously into the natural environment. This zone to the northeast of Siemreap is placed under
the supervision of APSARA Authority, which will be responsible for the management and conservation of the
site, including the prevention of all further occupation, development and commercialisation of said lands
except for the purposes described above.

Department of Angkor Tourism Development
APSARA Authority seeks to promote quality tourism, designed to attract the visitor truly interested in the
diverse aspects of the Angkorian heritage, which will consequently increase understanding of the site. This
strategy aims to protect the heritage from the onslaught of mass tourism while increasing tourism revenue
by attracting a clientele investing substantial time and money in exchange for a well-informed and well-
serviced site presentation.

In the year 2000 the Department of Tourism was given responsibility to implement projects in support of the
following tasks:

    Management of commercial concessions in the Angkor Park

    Preparation and introduction of rules for the visitor management

    Control of visitor flows

    Control and management of the rights for film shooting and the use of the Angkor Park for special
    events

    Development of the required facilities for the visitor intake

The department, in cooperation with the public and private sector, is also expected to make the Angkor Park
the tourism growth driver for other parts of the country. At the present, Cambodia is only an add-on trip
from neighbouring countries, and the short-and mid-term policy is to make it into a destination of its own
right. The presence of neighbouring countries, notably Thailand, with their great experience and appeal for a
customer base in Europe, Asia and America, helps get travellers to make side trips to Cambodia. But it must
be remembered that Cambodia's tourism development policy excludes tourism that casts the country in a
bad light. The cultural tourism advocated by the Department of Tourism means creating quality products
adapted to the expectations of the customer and, more importantly, offering services that are worthy of a
world heritage site.



                                                                                                                                                   55
                                              Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Tourism strategy

The number of tourists, international as well as national, visiting Angkor each year is dramatically increasing
and could soon reach 1 million. This phenomenon is quite recent, but it raises questions which require
urgent answers. What are the effects of tourism on the country? How can Cambodia truly benefit from
tourism?

Tourist development has become an important priority for national authorities. To truly benefit the country,
tourism must be of high quality, covering a large range of services and leisure activities while respecting the
environment. The focus on tourist development should not disguise the necessity to continue and increase
the protection and safeguarding efforts, at the risk of destroying the very source of tourism.

Environmental Management System Unit
The region of Angkor has recently seen a significant increase in the number of tourists visiting Siemreap, as
well as the number of people throwing waste into the rivers and forests, a boom in hotel construction and a
higher volume of car traffic.

These factors can have adverse impacts on Angkor's heritage and local people's lives, and create an
unfavourable image of the region, which may alienate visitors.

The Environmental Management System is needed for the protection and improvement of the environment
of the Angkor area (for example, to reduce the waste volume and keep the water and air clean).

Project Objectives

The Environmental Management System Project has three main
objectives:

1. Environmental protection of Angkor and its periphery (including environmental
improvements despite increasing numbers of visitors)

2. Better standard of living for local residents

3. Model case of environmental education in Cambodia

Project Site

APSARA Authority in cooperation with the provincial government, restoration teams, local residents, and all
parties concerned has identified the following priority areas for the implementation of the EMS project:

Zone 1: Monumental sites (area around Angkor's monuments)

Zone 2: Protected archaeological reserves (Angkor's periphery)

Zone 3: Protected cultural landscapes (rivers and ancient roads)

Newly-developed Hotel Zone

Zone 4, 5: (covering almost the entire Siemreap province)




                                                                                                                                                    56
                                      Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Northern Cambodia and Siem Reap – Satellite View

                                                                                            Satellite image of Tonle Sap
                                                                                            Lake and Siem Reap region.
                                                                                            Source: Google Maps 2007




                         Angkor Wat




                                                                   Siem Reap Town




                                                                                            Satellite image of Angkor
                                                                                            Wat Heritage Sites and Siem
                                                                                            Reap Town at Tonle Sap
                                                                                            Lake.
                                                                                            Source: Google Maps 2007



                                                                                                                                            57
                                                         Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


     Siem Reap District and Surroundings – Topographic map




      Map* provided by General Department of Geography and Cadastre, Phnom Penh
      Map prepared by JICA in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Works and Transportations in 1997 (original
      scale 1:100 000)

*Thanks to: Siem Reap District Administration, German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3 (AUP3)


                                                                                                                                                               58
                                          Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Siem Reap Town Map




  Sources: Technical College Berlin (TFH Berlin), Ministry of Transportation and Public Works, Cambodia;
  Personal Information of Jan-Peter Mund and Thong Mallay.
  Cartographer: Patrick Meis.
  Advisor: Jan-Peter Mund.
  Created: March 2007.




                                                                                                                                                59
                                                         Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


     Siem Reap – Province, District and Urban Area




                                                                                             Maps* prepared by District Master Plan
                                                                                             Team Siem Reap in 2007, based on GIS-
                                                                                             data provided by JICA SRAT-Team 2005




*Thanks to: Siem Reap District Administration, German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3 (AUP3)


                                                                                                                                                               60
                                                         Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


     Siem Reap – Current Land Use
            Built-up Areas in Siem Reap District in 2005                        Roads in Urban & Sub-Urban Areas of Siem Reap in 2005




                                                                                      Maps and Plan* prepared by District Master
                                                                                      Plan Team Siem Reap in 2007 in the Frame
                                                                                      of Asia Urbs Project 3.
                                                                                      Maps based on GIS-data provided by JICA
                                                                                      SRAT-Team 2005


*Thanks to: Siem Reap District Administration, German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3 (AUP3)
                                                                                                                                                               61
                                                         Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


     Siem Reap – Future Urban Growth and Proposed Land Use 2020




                                                                                                      Plans* prepared by District Master
                                                                                                      Plan Team Siem Reap in 2007


*Thanks to: Siem Reap District Administration, German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3 (AUP3)
                                                                                                                                                               62
                                                         Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces



      Siem Reap District – Flood Prone Areas and Angkor Conservation Zones




                                                                                                                                Maps* prepared by District Master Plan Team
                                                                                                                                Siem Reap in 2007, based on GIS-data
                                                                                                                                                                          provided by JICA SRAT-Team 2005




*Thanks to: Siem Reap District Administration, German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3 (AUP3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                            63
                                                         Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


     Siem Reap – Angkor Conservation Zones




       Protected Cultural Zones around Siem Reap:
       Zone 1: Monumental sites (area around Angkor's monuments), Zone 2: Protected archaeological reserves
       (Angkor's periphery), Zone 3: Protected cultural landscapes (rivers and ancient roads), Newly-developed
       Hotel Zone, Zone 4, 5: (covering almost the entire Siem Reap province)
       Source: APSARA Authority
               http://www.autoriteapsara.org/images/apsara/about_apsara/zoning/zoning_map.jpg




          Map* prepared by District
          Master Plan Team Siem
          Reap in 2007,
          based on GIS-data
          provided by JICA SRAT-
          Team 2005




*Thanks to: Siem Reap District Administration, German Development Service (DED), Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), Asia Urbs Project 3 (AUP3)

                                                                                                                                                               64
                                                                 Angkor Heritage Site - Satellite View and Correspondent Map


                                                                                                                               Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces
     Satellite image by NASA with a map showing temples and
     important structures of the area: the city Siem Reap, the
     airport, the river, a corner of Tonle Sap lake.
     Image source: NASA, 13.11.1996, PIA00505 (Spaceborne
     Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar, SIR-C/X-
     SAR)
     Copyright Status: Public Domain
     http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Angkor_satellite_
     with_map.jpg
65
                                          Southeast Asian - German Summer School in Cambodia 2007: Challenges of Urbanisation - Urban Driving Forces


Plan of Angkor Wat Area




Sources: Technical College Berlin (TFH Berlin), Ministry of Transportation and Public Works, Cambodia;
Personal Information of Jan-Peter Mund and Thong Mallay
Cartographer: Patrick Meis
Advisor: Jan-Peter Mund
Created: March 2007




                           Photography of Angkor
                               Wat by courtesy of
                                   Dr. J.-P. Mund


                                                                                                                                                66

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:16
posted:11/14/2011
language:English
pages:20