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					                       Nikkei Images
  National Nikkei Museum and Heritage Centre Newsletter                      ISSN#1203-9017                 Autumn 2006, Vol. 11, No. 3

                    Portland Japanese Garden                                        by Christine Kondo
     Professor      Takuma       Tono,
designer of the Portland Japanese
Garden, once said, “A Japanese
garden is not only a place for the
cultivation of trees and flowering
shrubs, but one that provides secluded
leisure, rest, repose, meditation and
sentimental pleasure…The Garden
speaks to all the senses, not just the
mind alone.”
     Indeed, I found a stroll through
the Portland Japanese Garden is a
journey that calms and soothes the
visitor, a journey that is experienced
by more than 130,000 visitors
annually. The 5.5-acre garden was
designed by Professor Tono, head of
the Tokyo University of Agriculture’s
Landscape Architecture Department,
beginning in 1963 and was open to         The Antique Gate at the entrance to the Portland Japanese Garden. (C.
the public in 1967. Located within        Kondo photo, 2006)
Washington Park in the west hills         the Portland Japanese Garden               Only a fifteen-minute drive from
of Portland, Oregon, the garden is a      was ranked first out of 300 public downtown Portland, this garden is a
non-profit organization and is funded      Japanese gardens outside of Japan calm oasis with sweeping views of
entirely by admissions, memberships       and considered one of the most the city and beyond to the Cascade
and donations.                            authentic.                                           Continued on page 2
     Professor Tono used three
primary elements in his design:
                                                                                   Contents
stone, the “bones” of the landscape       Portland Japanese Garden .....................................................................................1
for strength and support; water,          The Japanese Garden at Dinner Bay, Mayne Island, B.C......................................3
the life-giving force; and plants,        Seattle Japanese Garden ........................................................................................4
which provide a tapestry of ever-         Maestro Derrick Inouye ........................................................................................5
                                          Yoshio Johnny Madokoro .....................................................................................6
changing colour, growth and
                                          Post-War Japanese Immigrants and their Involvement in the Community .........12
texture throughout the four seasons.      Remembrances of New Denver 1942-46 ............................................................20
Wandering throughout the garden,          My Dual Affiliations with Japan and Canada ......................................................25
the visitor enjoys Tono’s subtle “hide    Oikawa Collection and SUIAN MARU Descendents Return to the Fraser ........27
and reveal” theme as movement             Masao (Mas) Kawanami, 1923-2005 ..................................................................29
through      the    garden      reveals   Report of the AGM of the NNMHC ...................................................................30
continuously changing views.              Japanese Families on Annacis, Don and Lion Islands and Queensborough .......30
     In a study conducted by Roth’s        神が私を日本につかわされた ...................................32
Journal of Japanese Gardening,

                                                                                                                                                          1
         Annoucements                       Mountains. Visitors begin their ferns and mosses grow in their natural
                                            peaceful journey by passing through state in this shady area. Along the
             All Events at NNMHC
                                            the Antique Gate under a canopy of path, visitors come upon a small jizo
         Japanese Farmer’s Market
      Sep. 30, 2006: 11:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.   trees and walking along a forested statue--the only human form in the
                                            pathway up to the admission gate.       garden—which represents a kindly
                 Japan Expo
      Oct. 7, 2006: 10:30 a.m.-3:00 p.m.          There      are     five    major and protective deity. A tile-roofed
       Suian Maru Panel Discussion          subgardens:                             gazebo (azumaya) provides a place
           Oct. 12, 2006: 7:00 p.m.               The Tea Garden (roji) has two for rest and reflection.
        Jinzaburo Oikawa Exhibition
         Oct. 13, 2006: 6:00-9:00 p.m.      areas, each devoted to enhancing             The      Sand     and      Stone
     Suian Maru Centennial Celebration      the tea ceremony. The outer garden Garden (karensansui/zen niwa)
                    Dinner
           Oct. 14, 2006: 530 p.m.          (soto-roji) contains the waiting is representative of an abstract
         Children’s Halloween Party         station for the tea ceremony. The garden style that is typically found
      Oct. 28, 2006: 10:30 a.m.-1:00 p.m.   inner garden (uchi-roji) surrounds in Zen monasteries. It features stark
    6th Annual Christmas Craft/Bake Sale    the ceremonial tea house. The weathered stones rising out of a bed
      Nov. 18, 2006:10:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
                                            Kashin-tei or Flower Heart House of sand raked with ripples, to suggest
            Nikkei Winter Dance
        Nov. 25, 2006: 7:30 -1130 p.m.
                                            was built in Japan using traditional the sea. A bench invites the visitor to
                                            construction pegs and almost no sit and reflect on the structure.
    Nikkei Images is published by           nails. The plants around the Tea             The Flat Garden (hira-niwa)
                                            Garden are sparse and not showy is an expansive sea of raked sand
    the National Nikkei Museum
                                            because nothing should detract from representing water. Two islands of
     and Heritage Centre Society
                                            the ritual of the tea ceremony.         low-growing plants are in the shape of
                                                  The Strolling Pond Garden a gourd and a sake cup, representing
     Editorial Committee:                   (chisen-kaiyu-shiki) is the largest of happiness and enlightenment. The
Stanley Fukawa, Jim Hasegawa,               the subgardens. A wisteria arbour sea-sandscape is surrounded by
Frank Kamiya, Christine Kondo               was designed as a frame for the plantings of evergreens and azaleas.
  Mitsuo Yesaki, Carl Yokota                five-tiered pagoda lantern given A large pavilion overlooks the Flat
                                            to Portland from its sister city, Garden to the west and visitors often
    Subscription to Nikkei Images           Sapporo, Japan, in 1963. The stones meditate under the eaves of the roof.
       is free with your yearly             at the base of the pagoda are in the The pavilion is used for society
      membership to NNMHCS:                 shape of the island of Hokkaido, events and special displays, such as
                                            with Sapporo designated by a red ikebana festivals. The architectural
                                            stone. Several ornate bridges cross style of the pavilion is from the
              Family $25
                                            the creek between the upper pond Kamakura period in Japan and
            Individual $20                  and lower ponds. The upper pond includes a shoji (translucent paper
         Senior/Student $15                 features crane sculptures and the panels), fusuma (paper-covered
         Senior Couple $20                  lower pond is home to tortoise and movable wall panels), tatami (reed
     Non-profit Association $50              crane stones, symbols of longevity. mats) and verandas. Just south of the
           Corporate $100                   A wooden zig-zag bridge leads pavilion is a poetry stone with the
    $1 per copy for non-members             through iris beds which bloom in inscription: “Here, miles from Japan
         plus mailing costs                 late June. Here, the Heavenly Falls I stand as if warmed by the spring
                                            provide a majestic backdrop to the sunshine of home.” ❁
           NIKKEI PLACE                     lower pond which holds dozens of
                                            colourful koi. Seven large rocks are         The Portland Japanese Garden
      6688 Southoaks Crescent,
                                            arranged as the constellation ‘The is open all year except Thanksgiving,
      Burnaby, B.C., V5E 4M7
                                            Big Dipper’.                            Christmas and New Year’s Day.
                Canada                            The Natural Garden (shukei- Special events and festivals are held
         tel: (604) 777-7000                en) features smaller ponds, waterfalls throughout the year. Tel: 503-223-
         fax: (604) 777-7001                and shallow streams meandering 1321. E-mail: www.japanesegarden.
       jcnm@nikkeiplace.org                 under tiny bridges. Trees, shrubs, com
             www.jcnm.ca                    The NNMHC does not necessarily agree with the opinions expressed
       www.nikkeiimages.com                 by the authers of the articles included in this issue: nor does it accept
                                            responsibility for errors or omissions

2
                     The Japanese Garden at Dinner Bay Park,
                         Mayne Island, B.C. by Alan Cheek
      This beautiful garden was first
conceived back in 1987 shortly
after the Mayne Island Parks and
Recreation Commission (under
the administration of the Capital
Regional District) was established.
The first volunteers made a great
start by creating the pond that can
still be seen in its basic form today.
They were fully supported by the
resident Otsuki and Nagata families
who donated the cherry trees and
other plants we still enjoy seeing
today. Major drainage problems were
encountered and various high-cost
solutions were considered. Other
park priorities and commitments
intervened and the garden was
virtually abandoned, becoming a
swamp dominated by alder trees.          View of Mayne Island Japanese garden showing pond, bridge and
      These trees had multiplied         vegetation. (F. Kamiya photo, 2006)
and grown tall by the fall of 1999       determined an irrigation system and the drilling of a well and building
when the project was reactivated.        underground electric conduits were a pump-house. Another small, zig-
One of the Commissioners, Don            trenched and put in place. At this zag, meditation (yatsuhashi) bridge
Herbert, undertook to recreate and       time the whole concept still appeared overlooking the pond was also added,
fully develop the garden with the        very rudimentary, yet it was taking plus many plants, trees, benches and
help of volunteers. I was fortunate      shape.                                 various style lanterns.
to be Commission chairman at the               To assist our planning we             The garden was sufficiently
time. It wasn’t very long before         retained Joseph Fry, a landscape developed by May 2002 that the
the project took on a life of its own    architect from Vancouver, to produce Commission took the opportunity
with an energetic community spirit.      conceptual drawings and a coloured to invite the Lieutenant-Governor
This spirit was, and still is, very      plan of the site. His basic concept of B.C., the Honourable Iona
evident with the many volunteers,        was followed and used as a general Campagnolla to unveil a plaque in
generous donations of plants,            guide. To avoid the high development the garden in recognition of the early
money, and services donated by local     cost we continued to depend on the Japanese settlers. It was wonderful
contractors. It should be noted that     overwhelming generosity of the to see some of these Japanese family
the Commissioners and volunteers         community and its visitors. Joseph members attend with their children
are unpaid and work many hours           had a personal interest in seeing the and grandchildren from across
to create this magnificent garden.        garden develop as his mother when Canada. Our thanks to the Nikkei
Funding from the Capital Regional        a child was moved from the coast to Centre and Mitzi Saito for helping
District has been relatively small.      Ontario in 1942; he has been actively to locate so many of them. Takeo
      Once the alders had been           involved with the National Nikkei Yamashiro, a sakuhachi master,
removed the pond was cleaned out         Heritage and Museum Centre in enhanced this special day by drifting
and the island created, the general      Burnaby.                               his beautiful music over the water
garden area was graded and shaped              With ongoing community and wafting through the woodland
into its present form. The drainage      support a bridge to the island was trees. It was a time to cherish and
problem was solved by digging            built, then another one, together with remember!
streams and installing pipes. Once       a waterfall funded by the Mayne             Following that wonderful
the general path layout had been         Island Lions Club. This necessitated occasion, the volunteers developed
                                                                                               Continued on page 4
                                                                                                                 3
the fuchsia and camellia areas, a           of the settlers who followed him          conduits, and a lot more besides. And
quiet secluded rhododendron garden          were relatives who arrived from the       he does it all with an unassuming
with its own small pond and stream.         village of Agarimichi in the Tottori      modesty as he prepares at age 77 to
All of this complements the iris            prefecture of western Honshu. The         assist with another long fence.
beds, flowering plants and masses            settlers comprised only a third of the          So the garden grows. A second
of shrubs. A replica of a Japanese          island’s population yet provided over     torii has been made by another
charcoal kiln was built near the            50% of its economy. When they had         volunteer, and the same guy has
garden entrance, there were many in         to leave in early 1942 the local school   created a wonderful roofed structure
the Gulf Islands supplying the fish          had to close for lack of students. The    with angled boards on which
canneries on the Fraser River. This         departure was strongly regretted by       additional plaques will be placed,
was followed by a major oriental-           those remaining.                          together with the names of volunteers
style fence edging the adjacent sports            It takes many volunteers to         and major donors who have
field creating a sense of seclusion for      conceive and bring to fruition a          contributed during the gardens early
the garden.                                 garden of this calibre and many must      years of development. The garden is
      Then in 2003 a larger plaque          remain un-named. Don Herbert is no        now attracting international attention
was installed by the torii gate leading     longer as active yet still participates   in the United States and Europe.
into the garden’s woodland approach.        and takes an interest in its continued    You can get a preview of its beauty
As a hakujin I felt there was a need        development. The one indefatigable        by logging on to www.mayneisland.
to explain the reason for a Japanese        individual who had done far more          com. Even better, find time to visit
garden on this small island, so the         than the rest of us is Tosh Saito, a      the garden, it is especially beautiful
plaque provided the background              thoroughly dedicated hard worker          during April and May. Discover the
story to the settlers. The first to arrive   who never seems to stop working.          peace and serenity that pervades this
in 1900 was Gontaro Kadonga,                He built the pump-house/tool shed,        magic place.
he farmed, fished and logged with            the oriental fence, four of our five             I am just an enthusiastic
his family - his descendants still          bridges, installed the pipes and          hakujin. ❁
visit the island occasionally. Most
                       Seattle Japanese Garden                          by Christine Kondo
      The Seattle Japanese Garden is
a peaceful sanctuary tucked in the
University of Washington’s Park
Arboretum. The 3.5-acre garden
is designed featuring the many
characteristics of a stroll-through
formal garden from the Momoyama
Period (late 16th century) and early
Edo Period (early 17th century). The
stroll-through garden aims to create
the illusion of many landscapes that
reveal and disappear along the path.
      As early as 1937 the Washington
Park      Arboretum        Foundation
supported the creation of a Japanese
garden as part of the park. But the
plans were set aside until many
years after World War II when racial
and political tensions eased. In 1959
the Foundation received a sizable           A view of the lake at the Seattle Japanese Garden. (C. Kondo photo, (2006)
gift from an anonymous donor                Working with six other designers granite boulders from the Cascade
which allowed them to hire the              including Kiyoshi Inoshita, Mr. Mountains near Snoqualmie Pass.
world-famous gardener Juki Iida—            Iida came from Japan to supervise Construction began in March 1960
builder of more than 1,000 Japanese         the construction of the garden and and was completed in four months. It
gardens—to oversee the design.              personally selected more than 500 is one of the earliest post-war public
4
constructions of a Japanese Garden             Two bridges span the lake: the      a six-tatami mat tearoom, a one-
on the Pacific Coast.                      earthen bridge (dobashi) and the         mat preparation room, a two-mat
      Strolling through the garden,                       (
                                          plank bridge (yatsuhashi). Turtle        anteroom and a stone floor entry.
the visitor is taken on a journey that    Island rises out from the centre of      Chado—The Way of Tea—is
follows the flow and movement of           the lake. In addition to the dozens      demonstrated several times from
water. Streams and waterfalls that        of koi, the lake also supports irises,   April to October.
emerge from a hillside area feed          juncus aquatic grass and lilypads. A          Another gift from Japan sits
down into a lake. The lake is lined       viewing arbor and moon-viewing           atop a pine-covered knoll: a 200-
with lakeshore pines, willow trees,       stand on the shoreline of the lake is    year-old, 3.5-ton hand-carved granite
birches and deciduous shrubs.             used in late summer for ceremonies       lantern was a gift to the people of
      Kiyoshi Inoshita, one of the        that celebrate the rising moon.          Seattle from the citizens of Kobe.
original designers, described the         Shinto-style Japanese lanterns are            In 2001-02, renovations took
design intent, “The flow of water,         located throughout the garden, and       place under the direction of Koichi
which originated in the high              often mark divergences in the path.      Kobayashi. The renovations included
mountain ranges, transforms itself             The garden’s original teahouse,     an installation of shoreline protection
as it continues its way through the       donated by the city of Tokyo, was        rockery and landscape rocks as well
landscape…At the end of the lake          hand-constructed in Japan by the         as a water re-circulation system for
is a stone paved boat launch, which       Shimizu Company and reassembled          water conservation. ❁
symbolically represents a fishing          on site. Fire destroyed the teahouse          The Seattle Japanese Garden
village. There, the water disappears      in 1973 and it was reconstructed         is open from March to the end of
from one’s sight, leaving the             in 1981 with the help from the           November. Tel: 206-684-4725.
expectation that it will be joining the   Urasenke Foundation of Kyoto. The        http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/parks/
greater ocean.”                           copper-shingled teahouse contains        parkspaces/japanesegarden.htm

                        Artist/Craftsman Series No. 10
                        Maestro Derrick Inouye by Stan Fukawa
                                          (1990) as Assistant Conductor, and       her visit with Prince and Princess
                                          with the Regina Symphony (1984-          Takamado at their palace in Tokyo.
                                          89) as Music Director.           Since   She and Derrick were invited to
                                          Inouye is a common Japanese name,        visit when the Takamado’s were in
                                          it was only a few years ago that I       Vancouver at a function where they
                                          learned that some Inouyes I know         sat next to her. She remembers the
                                          in the Greater Vancouver area were       kindness of both the Prince and the
                                          related to him. Their comments help      Princess.
                                          to round out the picture of the man            Derrick had by then come to
                                          inside the artist.                       know Japan well. He was born to
                                                   Maestro Inouye debuted          Kaye and Bob in 1956, the youngest
                                          at Carnegie Hall in 1998, leading a      of four children. He attended school
                                          roster of world-class performers in a    in West Vancouver. After his early
                                          program that featured Her Imperial       musical education in flute, piano
                                          Highness Princess Takamado’s             and violin, he majored in violin at
                                          “Lulie the Iceberg.” The performance     the University of British Columbia
Derrick Inouye. (K. Inouye photo,         was hosted by Her Highness who           (1973-75), where he showed a strong
ca. 2000)                                 wrote the story, with music written      aptitude for conducting. He went on
                                          by Jeffrey Stock. Yo-yo Ma on            to the Toho Gakuen Music School in
      Readers who are regular             cello, Paul Winter on saxophone,         Japan and studied conducting under
listeners to the CBC may recall the       and Pamela Frank on violin played        Hideo Saito, Seiji Ozawa, Kazuyoshi
occasions when Derrick Inouye             the starring characters of the iceberg   Akiyama and Tadaaki Otaka.
was a guest on CBC Radio. This            and animals. The maestro led the               Both his mother and his aunt Bev
happened often during his years           Orchestra of St. Mark’s.                 Inouye, remember being shocked at
with the symphony orchestras of                The following year, his mother,     how much Derrick had been changed
Vancouver (1981-85) and Toronto           Kaye Inouye, remembers fondly
                                                                                                   Continued on page 6
                                                                                                                     5
by his few years in Japan. When he left home, he knew          inspired the orchestra.” [The MDR Symphony is the
little Japanese and was very outgoing in his demeanor.         oldest radio symphony orchestra in Europe, dating back
When he returned, they remember noticing how much              to 1924. It is 82 years old this year. The quotation comes
quieter he had become and how “Japanese” he looked.            from Kaye Inouye’s scrap book.]
This was probably due to the strong influence of world-              During the 2004-2005 opera season, Derrick
class teachers in a strict performing arts tradition, and to   Inouye debuted at the New York Metropolitan Opera,
his Japanese haircut.                                          conducting that company’s premiere production of
      The Toho school prides itself in its ability to teach    Berlioz’ Benvenuto Cellini. He also conducted at the
conductors how to communicate with the orchestra.              very popular “Met in the Park” outdoor series throughout
To accomplish this, students of conducting begin by            the Big Apple, gaining excellent reviews that can be
working with one pianist playing a simple piece. Later,        viewed on the internet by Googling his name.
they move up to working with two pianos. Podium work                His list of guest conductor appearances is massive.
comes after that.                                              He has carried his baton to over 40 cities in countries
      It was during the early 1980s that he studied at the     that have symphony orchestras – travelling to Europe,
Tanglewood Institute at Boston University under Seiji          the U.S.A., Canada, Japan and New Zealand, and
Ozawa and Erich Leinsdorf and then in Italy during             has conducted most of the major orchestras. He has
three summers with the celebrated maestro, Franco              undoubtedly amassed a lot of Frequent Flyer points in
Ferrara at the Academia Musicale Chigiana in Siena,            his work.
Italy. This culminated in his being awarded First Prize in          For opera lovers, the most exciting bit of news is that
Conducting at the prestigious Vittorio Gui Competition         Derrick Inouye will be coming to Vancouver to conduct
in 1985.                                                       the Vancouver Opera’s production of “The Magic Flute”
      His abilities were praised in the Leipziger              opening in January 2007, an adaptation with Mozart’s
Morgenport newspaper arts section for Jan. 8, 1993 by          music in a First Nations setting.
critic Peter Meyer as follows…“Finally a great conductor            This is another fine homecoming for a
who knows how to manage the distinguished tradition of         talented musician who first brought attention to
the art of conducting stood once more on the podium            his musical aptitude by winning a scholarship
of the MDR Symphony at the Gewandhaus. Derrick                 awarded to “Ricky Inouye” by the Saint Anthony’s
Inouye understands how to communicate the spirit of the        Convent School of Music in West Vancouver
music to the orchestra. His elastic, flexible conducting        for the highest standing in Grade VII exams. ❁
technique, combined with musical brio, gratifyingly
                                                 Corrections!
    Several major formatting errors were made in two articles printed in the 2006 Spring issue
of NIKKEI IMAGES. The columns in the Johnny Madokoro article are not in sequence. Many of
the Chinese characters in the article by Ikuye Uchida in Japanese appear as squares and the sole
accompanying photograph has nothing to do with this narrative. Consequently, to correct these
errors, the Madokoro article is reprinted on page 6 and the Uchida article on page 32 of this issue.
Apologies to the authors and to our readers for any inconvenience these errors may have caused.
                     Family History Series No. 5
             Yoshio Johnny Madokoro (Part 1) by Dennis Madokoro
     My name is Yoshio and I was born in 1913. I am            I used to spend many hours fishing. That was a grand
the oldest child of Kamezo and Ine Madokoro. My                time!
earliest memory is of me at four years old on a wharf on            Our family was on Gambier Island living at the
Gambier Island, I was fishing for perch and they were           summer home of Mr. Forrest. He was a man of means
biting like crazy. I used some string and a bent nail, bait    and my father was hired to look after his summer place.
was the green horned wharf worms that grew just under          My father was unusual for a Japanese because he spoke
the water on the sides of the wharf. You had to knock          English. Not well, but he could get by and that is why he
them off the sides with an oar. Perch, or pochi as we          became Mr. Forrest’s caretaker. It was a good life for a
called them, were plentiful. There also were shiners, or       four-year-old!
shaina-pochie, those were my favourites. My father and              We moved to Steveston later that year. My father

6
                                                           feet long, which made it pretty big for a fishing boat.
                                                           The engine was a seven- horsepower Vulcan. It made
                                                           a distinctive sound, sort of a “chut chut” when it was
                                                           running.
                                                                 Our family continued to grow. Kuniko, my kid sister,
                                                           was born and then there were six of us for my father
                                                           to feed. He would go up the West Coast of Vancouver
                                                           Island with Uncle Denjiro and fish for salmon the whole
                                                           summer. My mother stayed in Steveston and took care
                                                           of her four children. It was a nice community, friends,
                                                           relatives, and always something for a yancha bozu
                                                           like me to get into some kind of mischief. Mother was
                                                           always after me to act like the oldest son should, but
                                                           I was having lots of fun. Perhaps, that was why when
                                                           I was six, our whole family went to visit my father’s
                                                           family in Shimosato, in Wakayama-ken, Japan.
                                                                 Jichan and Bachan were tiny little people. They
                                                           wore these kimono and straw sandals. My father sure
                                                           paid attention to his father. He was unusually quiet in
                                                           Japan. In Canada, he was always very jolly and talkative.
                                                           I guess he had a lot of respect for his father and mother.
                                                           I don’t know, perhaps that was the Japanese way. My
                                                           grandparents looked at me a lot while our whole family
                                                           was in Japan. I think my grandfather was a little upset at
                                                           how yancha I was acting.
                                                                 When it came time for our family to leave, was I
                                                           ever surprised! They were leaving me behind. I cried and
Madokoro family on Gambier Island. From left; Yaeko,       I cried but it was done. I really did not like my parents
Ine, Michiharu and Yoshio. (Madokoro Family photo,         for doing that.
ca. 16)                                                          What I remember most were the holes in my straw
knew that he could make more money fishing. By that         sandals, I wore them like that the whole year that I stayed
time, there were five of us, my parents, me, Yaeko,         with Jichan and Bachan. We ate poorly compared to the
Michi, and Hiroshi. There were lots and lots of Japanese   food I was used to in Steveston. I think that money was
families in Steveston. Most were from the same             a problem in Shimosato. I think that is why my father
prefecture in Japan, Wakayama. Quite a few were from       left Japan to go to Canada. There was no way for him
Shimosato, my father’s village. We spent a lot of time     to make a living in his home village of Shimosato. My
in Steveston visiting aunts and uncles. I had a lot of     Japanese improved. I learned to bow a lot to the adults.
cousins! My father’s family was particularly close to my   It was a lot different than my home.
Uncle Denjiro.1 He became like a second father to me             I returned to Steveston one year later. My Japanese
and his sons and daughters were like my brothers and       and my manners had improved. I was home! I was so
sisters. My father and Uncle would fish together, father    happy to be with my family and friends. I was happy
                 KM
in his boat, the KM, and Uncle in his boat, the DE. In     eating lots of good food; ochazuke, baked salmon,
those days, boats had only the initials of the owners to   tsukemono, and no more going to bed hungry. I was
identify them.                                             never going to complain again.
                                                KM
     There is an interesting story about the KM. My              That lasted about three months and there I was back
father was struggling and could not afford to build        to normal but I must admit, my manners were much better
a boat. He had a younger brother in Idaho who was          and I was even nice to my younger brothers, Michi and
known as the “ potato king”. This brother whose name       Hiroshi. In Steveston I went to Japanese school. I learnt
was Tomezo Hashimoto, or Hashimoto Tomezo in the           to read and write and of course speak Japanese. I noticed
Japanese method of naming people, apparently made a        there was a difference in the way we spoke in Canada
small fortune raising potatoes. My father asked for and    than in Japan. It was more colorful here because the
                                 KM
got enough money to build the KM. It was thirty-two        fishermen were often combining Japanese and English to
                                                                                               Continued on page 8
                                                                                                                 7
make new words. Boat became boto         the voyage. It was the first time our     hull and sink her. The other boat
instead of fune, and names of fishing     whole family was aboard the KM           just had to follow in the wake of the
boat engines like Palmer became          and the DE.                              lead boat at a safe distance. I had the
Pa-ma. Stuff like that. I, of course,         At noon we were half way to         job of steering Uncle’s boat when
noticed that for a while after Japan,    the Island. It grew bigger and bigger    we were following. Uncle took the
and then I didn’t notice it at all. It   until the entire horizon was this dark   wheel when we were the lead boat.
was just the way we spoke here.          wooded shape that beckoned to us.        We chugged through the dangerous
                                         “Hello” was echoed back to us. It        Active Pass. On our right was the
Move to Tofino                            was us calling to us. My Father and      city of Victoria. We then entered
      When I was nine, we moved to       Uncle took turns at leading the way.     Swiftsure and the Strait of Juan de
Tofino. My Father used to fish there       That way, one or the other could         Fuca.
all summer. Then he would come           rest their eyes and take a break. If          That night we anchored near
home to Steveston. The Government        you were the lead boat, you had to       Sooke. This was a bay just past
changed the rules that year. In order    look for kelp patches that could foul    the city of Victoria. The bay was
to fish at Tofino, a fisherman had to       your propeller. These patches had        surrounded by what were now
reside there. My Uncle Denjiro was       kelps that were sometimes thirty or      becoming a common sight, lots and
the first to move that year. He bought    forty feet long. They could wrap         lots of evergreen trees. Father said
some property near a place called        around your propeller and stop your      that there were many wild animals
Chesterman’s Beach in Tofino. He          boat dead. The other danger was          in the forests. He mentioned a big
came back for my Father’s family.        “deadheads”, watersoaked logs that       cat called a cougar. It could eat little
We left in 1922. I remember that         lurked at or just below the surface of   children, we kids were convinced
year because that was the year of a      the water. A “deadhead” could put        that we did not want to go ashore.
huge earthquake that destroyed half      a hole right through a fishing boat’s     My mother made our supper by
of Tokyo. It was in September.
      Our family packed all our
belongings into one trunk, a couple
of duffel bags and some blankets.
The rest of the family was on the
KM
KM. I went with Uncle Denjiro to
give him a hand. I think I helped
steer the boat a few times, that kind
of stuff. It was exciting and sad for
me. I had heard from my Father and
my Uncle about this place, but I was
sad to leave my good friends and my
cousins in Steveston. The weather
that day was sunny and clear. The
sea was calm and we had a wind that
helped us along our way. All things
seemed to indicate a good start to
our voyage.
      Georgia Strait runs between
Vancouver Island and the mainland.
You can see Vancouver Island way
in the distance from Steveston. Our
little convoy of two fishing boats
moved slowly away from the familiar
sights of the Lower Mainland. At
seven-horsepower, the KM and the
DE pushed steadily through the
open waters. The sadness of leaving
soon gave way to the excitement of       Madokoro house on Storm Bay. (Madokoro Family photo, ca. 1930)

8
cooking over a sembe can that was          as he knew we were anxious to get             Our home was built on a
filled with wood. She had a little          ashore. Breakfast was miso-shiru,        property that was purchased from a
grill made from some metal rods            hot soup from soya beans, and some       hakujin named Mr. Grice.
that sat over the mouth of the can.        gohan, rice.                                  He was the uncle of Joe
We ate rice, some tsukemono, some                We went up the inlet to some       MacLeod, a man that would be
dried fish and tea. It tasted good after    houses that were just behind a           my friend. Our house was built on
the long day.                              place that we came to know as            large timber logs, the main floor
      On the morning of the third day,     Chesterman’s beach. Uncle Denjiro        had a storage space underneath. On
we had Vancouver Island to our right       had built his home there along with      the main floor, we had four rooms,
side or starboard. On our left side or     six other families. There was a lot      a combination kitchen and eating
port, there was the Pacific Ocean. As       of hugging and kissing as we came        area, and three bedrooms. There
far as the eye could see, there was        ashore. I was happy to see my cousin     was an attic where I used to study.
nothing but wide-open ocean. The           Bill and I promptly slugged him on       Everything was made from local
swell from the ocean made all of           the shoulder. That day was a mass        wood. Even our sink was made of
us quite sick except for my Father         of people and eating, as we were         wood.
and Uncle. They were used to the           welcomed into the community.                  For drinking water, we had a
rolling motion. For me, it was agony             My Uncle Denjiro had bought        well just behind the house. It was
as I took to hanging over the side         his property from a hakujin, a white     about eight feet deep, and in the
to “feed” the fish. It was hell. That       man named Mr. Stuckman. This             winter the water would turn brown
lasted most of the third day. Around       gentleman was none too popular for       from the cedar trees on the property.
Bamfield, we entered Barclay Sound          selling the property to Uncle, as the    I caught a trout and put it into the
and the quieter waters of the inside       local hakujin population did not want    well to eat the insects and keep the
passage. That was the fourth day.          Japanese living in their community.      water clean. The brown water was
      On the afternoon of the fifth         This was to be an issue that would       a source of concern to the adults.
day, we rounded Grice Point through        continue right up to 1941, when we       Some of the older adults blamed the
Duffin’s Passage. The tide was              were evacuated from Tofino.               brown water for the illnesses such
running in at the time and we were               My Uncle Denjiro was a             as strokes that claimed some of our
swept along at a fast pace. My first        man of many talents. He was an           community. I often think back and
impression of the village was, “how        accomplished carpenter. The houses       wonder if that was what took my
rinky-dinky!” I was not impressed.         were all built under his supervision.    father Kamezo. We didn’t have any
This was going to be where we              The lumber came from up the inlet,       choice, of course, because we had
were to live. Yikes! You have to           a place called Calm Creek. It was        to have water. Now these days they
remember that I was nine years old         about one hour’s boat ride up the        bring the water by pipeline from
and I was coming to a little fishing        inlet. An Englishman had built a         Meares.
village on the West Coast. My life         sawmill, which cut the local timber           I remember the crabs! They
in busy Steveston was heaven in            to size. The lumber, two by fours,       were so plentiful. At low tide, we
comparison. What can I do, I said to       one by sixes, was all just planed to     would walk out with a bucket and
myself, this is it, Tofino!                 size with the bark left on them. The     just pick them. We would look for
      The first night in Tofino, we          whole batch of cut lumber was then       bumps under the seaweed. Once
slept on board as we had the whole         made into one big raft and when we       you lifted the seaweed, there would
trip. Our shelter was a tent that Father   built the houses in Storm Bay, we        be all kinds of crabs. Nope, that one
and Uncle had rigged on deck. Father       towed those rafts to the home sites in   was too small, yes, that one was OK.
had the KM anchored just behind the        Tofino. Everyone in the community         It was so easy as there were so many
point, out of the wind. We were out        would then help carry the lumber         crabs. My mother used to make crab
of the elements but that was all. It       up from the beach to the individual      cooked in soya sauce, mmmmmm,
was hard to sleep that night. We kids      sites. Each house would involve the      that was so good. There was enough
were anxious to get on shore and           whole community. The imminent            crab there for a lifetime, or so we
look around.                               homeowner and his family were            thought.
      The next morning, bright and         responsible for keeping the workers           For me, now at age ten in the
early, all the kids were up. We made       fed and their thirsts quenched.          summer of 1923, it was an ideal
enough noise that our parents had                                                   place for exploring the seashore and
to get up. Father was smiling at us,       Life in Tofino                                          Continued on page 10

                                                                                                                       9
the nearby bush. My Father was busy
fishing, and I had to do my chores, but
then, there was a world to discover.
The pools of water at low tide on
Storm Bay held so much marine
life! There were “chinko” clams that
had small breathing holes. We called
them chinko because, well, that is
what they looked like with their long
funnel snouts. To catch them you had
to be quick. If you were slow they
would burrow deeper into the soft
sand. If you were quick, you had a
feast for your family. On a summer’s
day, I could catch enough for a good
feed for the whole family
                                          Children on Tofino boardwalk. Yoshio on extreme left. (Yesaki Family
      Of course, there were lots and
                                          photo, ca. 1925)
lots of fish to catch. We would go
off the point and jig for rock cod.       well clear.                              a hose all over us. I figured it was
You had to lay your bait right on the          School was in Tofino, which was      safer for us to go that way to avoid
bottom and once you felt a tug, you       about one mile away. My father had       the falling trees. What was a little
had to pull hard. They were ugly and      made a wooden walkway through            water compared to getting struck
dangerous if you grabbed the dorsal       the bush to the main trail. I started    by falling trees? Anyway, after
spines. Cleaning them was a chore         in grade one even though I was nine      that storm, which may have been a
but my father could do it in about a      years old because my English was         small tornado, my father called our
minute and a half. I think I learned      not good. I attended a Japanese only     property “Storm Bay”.
to clean a cod like that when I was       school in Steveston and as I had spent         There were several families
about thirteen. My mother would           a year in Japan, Japanese was all I      in our Storm Bay community. Our
often put in a request for a type of      spoke. My arithmetic was good as         house was on the waterfront, and to
fish, so often we just threw the ones      that was emphasized in the Steveston     the south of us also on the waterfront
back that weren’t on the menu that        school, but I was a real “Japan” boy     were the Moris. Mr. Mori was to
day.                                      until we moved to Tofino. Anyway,         be the byshaku-nin, or go-between
      Coming from Gambier Island          I started with the little hakujin kids   when I married Mary Miki Kimoto
and the pochie this was like living       in grade one to work on my English.      later in my life.
in fishing paradise. In the bush, we       By the time I was eleven or twelve,            To our north on the water was
were careful not to go too far by         I jumped some grades and move up         the Nakagawa house. The original
ourselves. I often went with my           to grade six.                            family went back to Japan and his
cousin Bill Ezaki to explore. One              Speaking of school and the          brother came with his wife to take
time, we found this cave about three      mile walk there, one time, there was     over the house and the fishing boat.
feet in height. There was no sign of      a huge storm that reached its peak       Above them on the hill, was the
any animals around, so we thought         just as we were walking home from        Morishitas. They would have one son
we might look inside. It was cool         school. My sister Yaeko, my brother      named Hiroshi just like Thomas who
and damp but we couldn’t see very         Michi, and I were coming back            was Hiroshi in our family. Later they
far. Bill was ahead of me and then he     along the trail. All of a sudden, the    would be called ue no Hiroshi, above
was by me in a flash, running as fast      winds gusted and trees started to fall   Hiroshi, and shita no Hiroshi, below
as he could. I didn’t wait to see what    around us. Yaeko was so frightened       Hiroshi, to distinguish between
he had seen, I just ran as fast as I      that she stood frozen to the spot. In    them. Further north on the beach,
could too. Bill had thought he heard      Japanese, I think it was called koshi    the next house was the Isozakis.
a growl from the back of the cave.        wo nukashita. I had to shove her to      They went back to Japan. I often
Needless to say, we didn’t go back        get her moving. We circled around        wondered why some families stayed
there again. After that, we called that   to the beach even though the winds       in Canada and why some went back.
cave the “growling cave” and stayed       were blowing plumes of water like        I think it had to do with the fact that

10
some of the families never could get      honestly, but he sure gave it to the     SILVERADO, built with Swan
Japan out of their system. The ones       three of us. Walter Arnet wrote about    power girdies that used stainless
that stayed here I think they made a      this licking in his diary, and years     steel wire instead of rope. When the
commitment to make a life here in         later, his oldest son reminded me.       other fishermen saw this, they all
Canada.                                   Funny huh?                               said that the fish would never bite
      I am not sure if there were two           As mentioned, the men were up      on such a contraption. Well, they
or three more houses north of the         each morning at 3 a.m. to go fishing.     did bite and soon all the boats were
Nakagawas. I remember the Izumis          I would get up with my father and        rigged in exactly the same way.
and then the last house to be built       help him by stoking the fire for the            I think I mentioned school
was for Nakagawa Shigeharu. I             gangara stove. This was a big cast       and my getting a licking with the
recall that the whole community           iron stove that we used for cooking      Erickson boys. I used to hang around
helped the Nakagawa family build          and heating the house. He would          with them. They had a sister too. I
their house. That was how it was          cook bacon once in awhile, and           used to go to their place to play and
in those days; we had to help each        each time he would leave a part of       have a good time. I guess we kept
other to get things done.                 a bacon strip for me. That was a real    on having a good time right into
      It was a hard life for the women.   treat! I would crawl back into bed       school too, and that was why we got
They were up at 3 a.m. every fishing       after he left and woke with the rest     the whacking from Mr. Albrecht.
day to send their men out. After that,    of the kids.                             The Ericksons were Norwegian. In
they had all the household chores of            The fishing boats in those          Tofino, there were a fair number of
washing clothes, sewing, mending          days were quite different than the       families from Norway, England,
and of course cooking for the             ones that you may have seen. They        Scotland, Japan and the native
children. All the water had to hauled     had a two-cylinder, 20-horsepower        Indians. We all got along fairly well,
by hand from the well. The water was      Palmer engine. Nowadays, the             we kids at least.
boiled and they used “blue”, a cube       boats are one hundred and fifty,                About six months after we
to whiten laundry. The clothes were       maybe more horsepower. It took           arrived, a tall English minister from
washed in a galvanized washtub,           my father an hour or more to get the     the Anglican Church called at Storm
and all the clothes were scrubbed on      KM out to where he could put down        Bay. He wanted all the Japanese kids
a furrowed glass scrubbing board.         his poles and troll for salmon. They     to come to his Church. We did, and
I had to chop wood for the stove,         used a Japanese style of fishing lures    I remember we sang a lot of Jesus
which my Mother used to boil the          in the early years. That all changed     songs. I believe that Mr. Robertson,
wash water. I also had to keep the oil    when Morishita Ometaro developed         the minister, went on to become
lamps filled for the evening. There        the shiny wobbler. According to the      a “higher-up” in Victoria. We got
was always a lot of work for the          story, he saw a native Indian throwing   baptized and later I was married in
whole family.                             something shiny from the shore one       the Anglican Church. You might ask
      I remember getting up with          day. This fellow was catching salmon     what my parents thought about this
my Father before he went fishing.          right from the shore. As Morishita-      Anglican stuff. I think they wanted
He loved to talk about this and           san watched with his binoculars,         us to become part of the larger Tofino
that. Even now, after all these years     he saw that it was a shiny piece of      community. They were Buddhist,
I can still hear his voice. He was        tin with a hook attached. That day       and I think that if we stayed in
jolly and good company and in             he went home and made his own            Steveston, we would be too. When
my eyes, he was the smartest man          version of a “wobbler”. It took a few    my father Kamezo passed away, the
alive. He made me promise that I          trial-and-error “wobblers”, but he       funeral was in Steveston because my
would do my very best in school. I        finally came up with one that moved       mother wanted a proper funeral.
liked school anyway even though I         like a fish. Did he ever catch a lot of         My father fished all the days
remember Mr. Albrecht, a Finnish          fish! Well, you know something like       that he could. In those days that
teacher, gave us a good licking.          that would get all the fishermen’s        was from April until late fall,
The two Erickson boys and I were          attention especially when he was         sometimes October. In the winter, he
asked to stay after school one day.       consistently “high boat”. Morishita-     would charge things at Towler and
Mr. Albrecht came out smiling and         san let only my father and a few         Mitchell’s store. That was the way of
he went to the rear of the school and     others in on his new lure, and the       life for fishermen. I heard that many
got a medium sized branch from the        rest is fishing history. He was also      of the men had a hard time getting
bush. I can’t remember the reason,        the first to have a fishing boat, the      out of debt. It all depended on how
                                                                                                 Continued on page 12
                                                                                                                   11
the fishing went that year. We had the    remember was ofuro night. It was          a lot of other dried stuff, like shiitake,
MAQUINNA, a cargo ship that came         a custom among our Storm Bay              or dried mushrooms were the bulk of
in about every ten days. That was a      community that we had ofuro every         our food. Of course, we ate lots and
big day! The newspapers would be         second or third night. It would be at     lots of gohan, or rice. I remember
up to ten days old of course, but        a different house each time. The men      that baloney was a luxury. We might
it was a great and exciting time. I      would go in first. You know that in        get a taste of it as a special treat but
heard from the Karatsus who lived        an ofuro, you have to wash yourself       not too often. Once at New Year’s,
on Stubb’s Island that their father      outside of the tub. Then, after you       we had chicken and that was great.
would read the serialized chapters of    were washed clean, you could soak         The chicken came from our chicken
Musashi, a true-life Japanese sword-     in the ofuro. They were made of           house. I had the chore of killing the
master, from the Japanese newspaper      wood and heated by a fire in an old        chicken. After its head was cut off,
ASAHI. He would even act out one         recycled oil drum that was under the      it ran and ran until it just dropped.
chapter each day, so that the stories    wooden tub. Man, that was kimochi ii      In the spring, the men would look
would last the ten days until the next   yo, a real good feeling. The boy kids     at the calendar for a lucky day to
visit by the MAQUINNA. That must         went in after the men. I remember         start the new fishing season. They
have been something special.             sitting by the ofuro and listening to     would put up a kado-matsu, or pine
      The MAQUINNA was our               the men trade stories. Man, some of       tree and make offerings of mochi,
source for everything. From the          them sure could tell some wild ones.      or special pounded rice cakes to the
cast iron gangara stoves to the iron     The ladies went last. Apparently it       kami, or god of fishing for a good
spring beds, it all came by that boat.   was taboo for them to go ahead of         fishing season. It was a simple life
We would order up to three bags of       the men. At the end of the ofuro,         and we were tied to the fortunes
rice for each winter. Mr. Maruno and     the water would just stink to high        of the fishing grounds. I think our
Mr. Furuya from Vancouver were           heaven. You know, no one got sick.        community stuck together. I guess
the suppliers for all the Japanese       I think we all were healthier because     we had to stick together to survive.
foodstuffs. He was really happy          of the ofuro nights.                      For me, it was wonderful place to
coming out to Tofino and writing                In the winter, we kids went         grow up and live. We were very
up all the orders from the Japanese      to school. The men cut wood. The          lucky, I think. In the depression after
families. Of course, in the winter       women maintained the families             the stock market crash of 1929, we
there was no money coming, so we         clothing and of course the meals. We      had good food to eat and we hardly
would have to owe until the start of     ate a lot of salted dog salmon. I can’t   noticed any effects. ❁
the fishing season.                       remember how it was kept. That and        1
                                                                                    Matsusuke Ezaki
      One of the things that I
         Post-War Japanese Immigrants and Their Involvement
                   in the Community by Tatsuo Kage
      Post-war Japanese immigrants       aiming to assist and promote support      recollections are also incorporated
with skills required in Canada started   and friendship among immigrants.          in this writing.
to arrive in 1966. In 1969 the first      The background of the founding of
association of new immigrants was        the Association is described in the       Establishment of the Immigrants’
set up with Yukihide Ogasawara as        first issue of its monthly newsletter      Association
the chairman and operated for about a    called KAIHO (会報) on May 19th,                 Since the previous Association
year. Around that time bilingual Nisei   1977. This association has also           had been inactive for several years,
of the Greater Vancouver Japanese        published an anthology on its 25-         Raishu Hirano, a leader of the earlier
Canadians Citizens’ Association          year Anniversary in 2002 (グレー             organization, made a proposal
(JCCA), such as Gordon Kadota            ターバンクーバー移住者の会 『                           to Tonari Gumi to set up a new
and Victor Ujimoto, and people           創立25周年記念誌』、200                            association. With the help of Takeo
from churches became involved in         2年10月). This and past issues              Yamashiro, Maya Koizumi, Michiko
services such as orientation for new     of the KAIHO newsletters are the          Sakata and others, the first step
immigrants.                              main sources for the present article.     toward forming a new organization
      The      Greater     Vancouver     Having served as the president            was made. In addition, Yuko
Immigrants’ Association (GVIA)           of the Association in 1977-1978,          Shibata, Shinji Peter Kubotani and
was established in March 1977,           1983-1986 and 1990-1991, my               myself joined as founding members.

12
Hirano, of the former association,
transferred $300 to this new Greater
Vancouver Japanese Immigrants’
Association (GVJIA).
      At that time the naming of the
association was discussed - whether
to use the term “new immigrants”
or not. We decided to drop “new”
because there were some immigrants
who had been in Canada for a decade
including Hirano, one of the earliest
post-war immigrants, who had been
a chef with CP Airlines.
      There was another incentive for
establishing the new Association:
The Japan International Cooperation
Agency, (JICA) a semi-government
agency for promotion of emigration
                                         Urashima Taro, played by Fujio Tamura, at the Powell Street Festival, (T.
with an office in Toronto, encouraged     Kage photo, ca. 1982)
immigrant groups in Canada to
produce a directory - an immigrant       and designers were listed as the          was produced by Kuniko Yamamoto
list with information pertinent for      dominant      female      occupations.    who borrowed a typewriter from the
the settlement of newcomers: The         (JCCA BULLETIN, Oct.1971.)                Sophia Bookstore. Sumio Koike, a
Agency would assist by purchasing              Frequently             recorded     professional graphic artist, produced
bulk orders of the publication called    occupations in three issues of            the word-processing version. Since
BENRICHO (便利帖).                          the BENRICHO Directory were                                 K
                                                                                   June 1989, the KAIHO has been
      The directory was published in     car mechanics, electronic repair          published in the monthly BULLETIN
March 1978. It became an essential       technicians, welders and sheet            of the JCCA.
tool for immigrants and for those        metal workers, dental technicians,              Looking back on the history
who wanted to immigrate and to           sushi chefs, barbers, carpenters and      of the newsletter, advances in
settle in BC. Through this publication   cabinetmakers. Other occupations          technology to print in Japanese over
the existence of the GVJIA became        listed were gardeners, real estate        the past three decades has been quite
known in both Canada and Japan.          agents and tour conductors.               amazing. During the early phase,
Subsequently, revised and enlarged       However, these jobs may have been         we received a compliment from an
editions were published in 1980          unrelated to training or experiences      official of the JICA, who said that our
and 1985. These publications can         prior to immigration. We know there       newsletter was the best among those
be regarded as the origin and proto-     were some who had been qualified in        published by immigrants. Further,
type of Nikkei Directories available     Japan as either nurses or pharmacists,    another article in the newsletter has
more recently. (The JICA office           but most were unable to get qualified      been translated and printed in a public
in Toronto was closed in the mid         jobs due to the restrictive licensing     relation magazine of Citizenship and
1990s, and its assistance ended.)        policy of occupational associations.      Immigration Canada in both English
                                                                                   and French. The editor’s efforts were
Skills Brought into Canada by            Advance in Printing Technology            quite noteworthy as he had been
Japanese Immigrants                           The publication of the               monitoring immigrant publications
     What kind of skills did             K
                                         KAIHO newsletter has been a               such as ours written in Japanese.
independent immigrants bring with        major, continuous activity of the
them? According to a 1970 survey         Association. It started right after the   Why were there Relatively Few
on immigrants to Canada conducted        founding of the Association with          Immigrants from Japan?
by a group in Tokyo, the largest male    a manuscript written by Motohisa               This was an issue, which we
occupational group was technicians,      Niiro. Later, the print style of the      addressed soon after the founding of
followed by car mechanics, farmers       newsletter changed from a mixture         our Association in 1977. In October
and machinists. Typists, hairdressers    of manuscript and typescript, which       of that year, a national convention
                                                                                                  Continued on page 14
                                                                                                                    13
for Japanese Canadians was held in           The crux of my report was as       family members.) Among Japanese
Winnipeg. According to the report      follows: The number of Japanese          immigrants       the     male/female
made by Hirano, who attended the       immigrants peaked in 1973 (1,105)        ratio was higher than most other
convention, a representative of new    and reached a nadir in 1976 (498).       countries. In contrast, many more
immigrants in Toronto made the         Japan was compared to 7 other            females than males had emigrated
following statement: “We received a    countries (Hong Kong, India, Korea,      from the Philippines to Canada. A
report regarding the decrease in the   Lebanon, Pakistan, Philippine and        federal government report of that
number of Japanese immigrants, and     South Vietnam) all of which had          time, pointed out that in general
because there appeared to be some      sent large numbers of immigrants to      “men immigrate to achieve better
discrimination behind this trend, we   Canada. Japanese immigrants were         financial standing whereas women
should protest to the government”      also compared with those from other      do it for adventure”. By then, Japan
(KAIHO, No. 5, November 1977).         countries who were looking for           had become an economic super-
     It is true that there have been   employment. The statistics showed        power. It was, therefore, not easy for
fewer immigrants from Japan            that Japan had the highest ratio of      a person with skills and experiences
compared to those from other           immigrants who would join the labor      in Japan to achieve a better financial
Asian countries even to this day.      force, the lowest ratio in the numbers   status in Canada. So it seemed that
In the 1970s, Hong Kong and India      of children and a relatively low ratio   there were few reasons for Japanese
sent around ten times as many          of seniors. In other words, most of      to emigrate. This explains why so
immigrants as Japan. Apparently,       Japanese immigrants were either          few Japanese have immigrated to
there were some people who             singles or young couples who were        Canada.
suspected that there might have been   planning to get a job in Canada. They
discrimination against Japanese by     tended to be nuclear families rather     Why do Japanese Come to
the Canadian government, or the        than extended families. Therefore,       Canada?
Japanese government might have had     when an economic recession hit                 For ten years from 1978 to 1988,
a policy of discouraging Japanese      and Canada limited immigration           I had been a counselor for immigrants
from emigrating. Some suspected        by considering demand in the labor       at “MOSAIC”, an organization
that the Japanese government had       market, it had a larger direct impact    providing services to immigrants
offered “some sort of advice” to the   on immigrants from Japan than on         and refugees in different languages.
Canadian government. However,          those from other nations, such as        Because of this job, I was often
it was difficult to find evidence for    Korea that sponsored more family         asked: “Why do Japanese emigrate
such an argument.                      members. (Economic conditions do         from their affluent country?” As
     Therefore, before taking any      not affect the entry of sponsored        mentioned before, it was natural to
position on this issue, the board
of directors of the Association
thought that they had to look into
the problem more closely. I thought
that Canadian immigration law did
not allow officials to discriminate
against any prospective immigrant
on the basis of nationality or race,
and that the Japanese government
encouraged their people to emigrate
with assistance provided by the
JICA. There had to be other reasons
why there were so few Japanese
immigrating to Canada. I agreed
to study immigration statistics to
determine “Why are there fewer
Japanese Immigrants?” and reported
my results at a discussion session
held in November 1977. (KAIHO,
                                       “Kobutori Jiisan”, at Powell Street Festival. (T. Kage photo, 1978)
No.6/7, December 1977)

14
be asked this question, given that the     drawn to retirement immigration, or        gentle person that it was hard to
general purpose of immigration is          “silver immigration”, under which          believe that he had been a director of
“to enhance financial status”.              seniors wanted to spend their old age      a large, well-known company.
      I have long thought that Japan       in Canada to gain more value from                The keen interest in retirement
has social customs and practices           their pension income and savings           immigration was the possibility of
that are so stifling and punishing of       than in Japan. In total more than a few    living more affluently here in Canada
its citizens that some people may          hundred retirees may have arrived.         with their income due to the high cost
be encouraged to escape through            Ohfu-kai (桜楓会), a social group             of living in Japan. For retired people
emigration to less demanding               for retired immigrants, was started        who like outdoor activities such as
societies.       These       restrictive   in December 1984 in Vancouver              golfing, fishing and skiing, Canada
customs include overemphasis on            with support from the GVJIA. There         is heaven. However, those who
success in entrance examinations,          are over 70 names entered in their         expect intimate social interactions or
the importance of obtaining                contact list of retirement immigrants      refined goods and services may often
employment with large companies,           for March 1985.                            feel they are missing what they were
the expectation of these companies               I have some responsibility           accustomed to. Other people say that
that their employees should sacrifice       for drawing attention in Japan to          the dark winter sky makes them feel
their family life for the sake of the      Canada’s “silver immigration”              depressed.
company (for example, by constantly        program. In the early 1980s, I was               Some people went back to
working overtime), the assumption          wondering how to promote more              Japan a few years after they came
that the government will look after        Japanese to emigrate and found a           to Canada as retirement immigrants.
everyone and the purposeless life of       hardly noticed provision in Canada’s       Hiroko Umebayashi went back to
workers after mandatory retirement.        immigration law allowing retirees of       Japan after her husband passed.
These social conventions may have          55 years or older to enter this country.   This couple contributed greatly
prevented capable and ambitious            I contributed an article on “Promoting     to the establishment of Ohfu-kai,
people from advancing themselves           Retirement Immigration” to the             and Tsuguo once served as director
to realize their full talents and skills   magazine KAIGAI IJU (Oversea               of the GVJIA. However, the
in Japan. Taking these circumstances       Migration) published by the                Canadian government terminated
into account, I think these restrictive    JICA (February 1983 issue). The            the retirement immigration system
conventions in Japanese society            article was quoted in a front-page         in the early 1990s, probably due
as the cause for some Japanese             column of the February 25 issue            to criticism that senior immigrants
immigrating to Canada.                     of the TOKYO SHINBUN, a daily              were a burden on social services
      Japanese immigrants come             newspaper with a circulation of 1.5        and the public health care system in
to Canada to have their children           million. It triggered other publishers     Canada.
educated without prep schools or           to put related articles in the NIHON
excessive homework. Also, other            KEIZAI SHINBUN (March 16), the             Japanese are Lucky to have a
immigrants include those with              SUNDAY MAINICHI (April 3), and             Country to Return to
capability and talent that fail to         the SHUKAN SHINCHO (April 3).                   Japanese immigrants are lucky
establish themselves in Japanese           Soon after, Shizuo Nakatani, of JICA       because they have a country they
society, that is, do not graduate from     headquarters, told me his office had        can return to if they want. Refugees
one of the top-ranked universities         received a few hundred calls on this       from other countries usually don’t
and find employment in a leading            subject.                                   have the luxury of returning to their
company. There are also others that              Shortly after these articles         former homes because their lives
do not care to carouse with their          appeared, I got a call at my office         could be at stake if they do. Most
colleagues after office hours, and          from a Japanese woman. She said,           Japanese immigrants, regardless of
prefer to spend their spare time           “I’m calling from the Vancouver            their age, have given up living in
enjoying themselves either in the          Airport. I came here by myself to          Japan and are prepared to stay here
company of their families or the           look at this place before applying         permanently. They may feel that
natural beauties of Canada.                for retirement immigration. Could          “by leaving their home country, the
                                           you pick me up?” After a while, this       bridge to return was already half-
Arrival of Retirees (Silver                outgoing wife, Hiroko Umebayashi,          burned away”.
Immigration)                               immigrated here with her husband,               Although the number of
    In the 1980s, attention had been       Tsuguo, who was such a quiet and           immigrants to Canada has been
                                                                                                    Continued on page 16
                                                                                                                      15
thoroughly monitored and recorded,       to assist in conversation drills. We    Language School, said she told
one should also be aware that there      realized that the success of classes    students “You will be able to achieve
are a number of Canadians who            or workshops depended largely on        better marks in the public school if
emigrate out to foreign countries.       whether we could secure a competent     you study Japanese seriously”. But,
There are no official statistics but      instructor like Ms. Watanabe. She       Dr. Masako Noda, a pediatrician,
it is estimated that Canada loses        later left our association to attend    expressed a different opinion and
50,000 to 60,000 people annually to      a graduate school on the east coast     warned, “when one learns two
other countries, particularly to the     of the U.S. She was a outstanding       languages at the same time, one
US and UK. The total number of           member in the early development         could fall between two stools”, that
postwar immigrants from Japan is         of the Association and I enjoyed        is, one can become dysfunctional in
estimated to be around 25,000, but       working with her. I remember the        either language.” (KAIHO, No. 103,
5,000 (20%) probably left Canada.        time we were scolded by Kuniko          Nov. 1988.)
                                         Yamamoto, who was working with
Japanese Immigrants Desire to            us on the production of BENRICHO        Twenty Years of Law Workshops
Learn                                    Directory. She told us, “You should           Law workshops in Japanese co-
      The      GVJIA         initiated   quit joking since the two of you are    hosted by the People’s Law School
various workshops soon after             not making much progress!”              started at an early stage of GVJIA’s
its establishment. In 1978, the                Thanks to my involvement          history, and continued until several
Association started a 10-session         in planning for such educational        years ago when People’s Law School
course to prepare immigrants for         activities, I had a chance to talk to   terminated ethnic programs such
citizenship application as part of the   a college curriculum manager, an        as ours. The workshops had been
program at Vancouver Community           expert in the field, to learn some       conducted irregularly until 1981, but
College. The workshop consisted          tips. For example, I was relieved to    started being offered twice a month
of two components; a lecture given       find low tuition doesn’t necessarily     in 1982. It later became a monthly
during the first half of the class and    attract people for courses in           workshop with the exception during
practised for an interview with a        continuing studies. In addition, even   the summer and winter months. The
citizenship judge during the second      when professionals plan a course, it    classes covered a wide range of
half conducted by small student          occasionally gets cancelled due to      Canadian laws and services. Being a
groups. We soon discovered 10            lack of registrants. After talking to   facilitator during that time, I recall
lessons were too long and there          him, I became more confident and         interpreting and teaching a few
were no benefits to having classes        stopped worrying about making           topics. The negotiating partner was
as part of a college program. Later      mistakes and began planning projects    People’s Law School’s coordinator,
we held citizenship classes in a more    that we thought were meaningful.        Surjeet Sidhu. She was a quick witted
condensed format under the GVJIA.        Thanks to relying on intuitive          woman who had came to Canada
                                         planning, we never experienced          at an early age and graduated from
Japanese Language Classes                having too few attendants.              the University of British Columbia.
     We asked Ms. Watanabe, a UBC                                                While I was mumbling in English
student who had experience as a          Should Children Maintain their          that may not have made much sense,
teaching assistant to be an instructor   Home Language?                          she understood my point and went
and we ran a Japanese language                The GVJIA has been involved        on with planning very efficiently. At
class for beginners at Strathcona        in on-going Japanese language           first, I disliked having to work with
Community Centre. Most students          education. The Burnaby Japanese         such a pushy salesperson, but I got
were either Japanese Canadians           School started under the direct         to like working with her because
or Chinese Canadians. Since our          management of the Association.          she was a pleasant and fascinating
overhead cost was insignificant           Later it became an independent          person. We worried not having
compared to the continuing studies       school with Emiko Hiruta, a             enough people for the biweekly
courses provided at colleges, we         Director of the Association, who        workshop, but we had no problems
were able to set tuition at half of      had been teaching at the school.        with an exception for a snowy
the market price. Perhaps for this       Once in 1988 we held an interesting     stormy night when we had less than
reason, the classes became popular       panel discussion relating to Japanese   10 participants at a workshop held
and successful, so we asked Mayumi       language education. Yoko Murakami,      at the Hudson Manor on West 7th
Takasaki, a sansei fluent in Japanese,    Principal of Gladstone Japanese         Avenue. Even today, it’s a place that

16
                                                                                 stages of the GVJIA. In 1977, the
                                                                                 year of Association was organized,
                                                                                 we held a Christmas party at Tonari
                                                                                 Gumi, located on East Hastings
                                                                                 Street at that time. Kokuho-Rose,
                                                                                 a rock band consisting mostly of
                                                                                 Sansei, was playing music and
                                                                                 many members and their families
                                                                                 were dancing go-go. It was quite a
                                                                                 blast. We asked Akio Aoki, then the
                                                                                 manager of Sakura-so, to perform a
                                                                                 skit titled, “Tracing My Roots” at the
                                                                                 party. It was about a young Sansei
                                                                                 who visits Japan to find his roots. He
                                                                                 eventually finds a Japanese white
                                                                                 radish and declares, “I found my
                                                                                 roots!” holding the radish up high,
Intermarriage workshop with Dr. Fumitaka Noda, psychiatrist and advisor
                                                                                 mimicking a Kabuki pose.
 (left), Dr. Michael Myers, specialist of marriage issues and Mariko Kage,
                                                                                       After the party one of the
moderator. (T.Kage photo, 1998)
                                                                                 participants Hideki Rick Akitaya
should be avoided on a snowy day         for Japanese immigrants’ strong         said, “It was the first time I really
because of its steep hills.              desire to learn.” (KAIHO, No.74,        enjoyed and relaxed so much since I
      The law workshops were             June, 1984).                            came to Canada.” It was this remark
later moved to Tonari Gumi, and                                                  that made the party unforgettable for
Roy Uyeda was asked to do the            Mental Health                           me! Preparations were enormous as
interpreting. He accepted the work             New programs related to mental    it was our very first time for such an
gladly and has been a great help with    health issues were launched in          event, but we were happy knowing
his qualification of a professional       1985, with more than thirty relevant    that all the hard work had paid off.
interpreter. In May 1984, the People’s   lectures held. I was involved as an
Law School awarded a number of           interviewer in creating a TV program    Acting is fun
persons for their contribution to the    in 1986. I interviewed Dr. Koichi             As mentioned earlier, the bridge
legal education of the community.        Naka, psychologist from Ryukyu          linking us to Japan has been half
As for Japanese Canadians, a             University, who gave a talk about       burnt. It makes us feel somewhat
lawyer, Frank Hanano, who had            mental health in general. The second    similar to Urashima Taro who
been a workshop instructor at an         session was with Dr. Fumitaka Noda      visited the Kingdom Beneath the
early stage, and myself, received        who discussed depression, which         Sea. Can Canada be a beautiful place
awards from a provincial Chief           was broadcast on the ICAS Japanese      like the Palace of the Dragon King?
Justice at the Provincial Supreme        Television. It was an interesting       Where is Princess Otohime? The
Court Hall next to Robson Square.        experience: Dr. Naka was a person       drama performance, based mostly
By that time, the law workshops          of prudence. The author was with        on Japanese folk tales, became a
had become a regular event of the        him a whole afternoon to rehearse at    regular program of the Powell Street
GVJIA and an established ethnic          his home. However, Dr. Noda talked      Festival for several years. These
program of People’s Law School.          smoothly during the shooting even       included Urashima Taro starring
I mentioned the following when I         without any rehearsal. The shooting     Fujio Tamura, who currently
was asked to give a comment on the       was an exuberant affair with            produces a Japanese Radio Program
award, “We can take this award as        participants from our Association       and a puppet play Kobu-tori jiisan
something that has been rewarded         talking about their own experiences     in 1978. Kuniko Yamamoto created
to all members who have actively         of depression.                          all the puppets and the script was
participated in the Japanese program,                                            written overnight.
rather than to Frank Hanano and          The First Christmas party                     The best play of all was Yuuzuru,
myself personally. You can say that      Playing skits was one of the most       a story of the crane wife, starring
this award is proof and recognition      memorable activities during the early   Akitaya and Mami Fujimura in 1980.
                                                                                                Continued on page 18
                                                                                                                  17
It was staged at the auditorium of the   which caused tension between Japan         Tonari Gumi Centre for our meetings
Japanese Language School. During         and China.                                 and workshops.
this sad play, we noticed an elderly           Are Japanese immigrants in                 In 1991, we implemented
woman in the audience wiping away        the same situation? Many do not            a comprehensive program to
her tears. The original script of this   seem to pay much attention to              address mental health problems in
play was found in a Japanese school      matters beyond their own immediate         cooperation with Tonari Gumi. This
textbook written by Junji Kinoshita.     interest. However, it may not be           was a five-year project of mental
However, we found that script was        fair to criticize this attitude as self-   health consultations and a series of
not suitable so we ended up creating     centered, considering their limited        public lectures, which was financed
our own.                                 experiences in Canada. They may            by $20,000 of community funds from
      The following year we staged       not receive enough information, and        the Redress Foundation. This project
a Kwaidan-ghost story Bancho             therefore not too interested in events     can be regarded as a milestone in the
Sarayashiki. Kyoko Koike played          occurring in BC or Canada.                 history of our Association.
the mistress who was cruel to Okiku,           If we make arrangements for                In 1999, as a follow-up
a maid turned into a ghost, played       immigrants to comfortably join             activity, we held a well-attended
by Etsuko Yamanouchi. It wowed           into community activities, it would        event, “Nikkei Mental Health
the audience when Koike appeared         be the first step for them to get           Service Symposium: Need for and
on stage wearing a purple ombre-         involved with larger issues. The           Improvement of Mental Health Care
dyed formal kimono and her hair          GVJIA has made efforts to working          in Vancouver”. It was a joint event
coiffed by a professional Japanese       with community organizations from          of the GVJIA, Tonari Gumi and
hairdresser. She looked mysterious       the beginning. The Association has         JCCA with invited guest speakers
and stunningly beautiful. How much       cooperated with other groups and           from Japan and France. In the
fun we had as we became addicted         assisted in the establishment and          background there was on-going
to producing plays.                      development of several voluntary           community activities supported by
      Koike was a newcomer and           groups.                                    two psychiatrists, Drs. Fumitaka
had lived in Canada for less than a                                                 Noda and Michiaki Horie. Dr.
year. She later complained saying, “I    Working with Other Groups                  Noda once mentioned that the level
was made to do it. I thought it was           In 1977, the Association asked        of interest in mental health issues
an obligation for new immigrants to      Tonari Gumi to support our activities      among Nikkei immigrants in the
act in a play.” But she didn’t really    and requested Takeo Yamashiro to           Vancouver area could be the highest
seem to mind as she complained.          act as interim first president of the       in the world.
The stage play has been a wonderful      Association. The GVJIA used the                  The activities of Japanese
communication tool since ancient
times. We can say that we try to
speak of our own world and even
of ourselves through recounting old
stories.

Don’t Shrug Your Shoulders Like
a Turtle.
      There is a Chinese expression
called kishuku (亀縮), which means,
“A turtle shrugs its shoulders”, that
is, “One who is only interested in his
own financial well-being remains
silent about other issues, as if a
turtle shrugs its shoulders”. These
comments were made in an article
in a Chinese newspaper, the MIN
PAO (明報), on the lack of interest
among local Chinese people toward        Picnic of Ohfu-Kai with the Immigrants’ Association, Tsugio and Hiroko
such issues as the Senkaku Islands,      Umebayashi at the front. (T. Kage photo, 1985)

18
women groups began almost at the          the course of time increasing the        then the president of the GVJIA, as
same time as the GVJIA. Naoko             participation of husbands. Even          one of the panel speakers. It was a
Ohkohchi initiated the development        though the Association initiated         rare and worthwhile opportunity for
of the Yayoi-Kai in Surrey and the        this group activity, the members         immigrants all over Canada to get
Sumire-Kai in Vancouver. In the late      of the group later decided to make       together.
1980s Ohkohchi served as a director       it an independent organization.                In 1994 NAJC held a
of the Association. We have learned       Again, this is another success story     symposium in Montreal called
many things from her intuitive            demonstrating the way in which the       “Changing Tradition of Japanese
sense, ability and energy for group       GVJIA worked to create a community       Canadians” which mainly dealt with
activities.                               group by encouraging individual          immigrant issues. A few presentations
      In      the     mid-1980s     the   members to take the initiative.          at     this   conference      received
Association looked after the                                                       extremely good reviews, such as
launching of Ohfu-Kai, a retired          What           is       “Community       “Parenting Story” by Yuko Shibata,
immigrants group. However, close          Development”?                            one of the first board members, and
relations between the Association               Looking       back     at    the   “Experiences in the Early Period
and this group was lost over time.        Association’s past activities of         of Immigration” by Kubotani, a
      The same could be said about        building relationship with various       former president. He humorously
the establishment of the Kiyu-Kai         groups and individuals, we note          spoke about his own mistakes and
(企友会) in 1987, a network of               that it has actually been engaging       misunderstandings made in the early
immigrants interested in Canadian         in      community        development.    days as a newcomer in Canada.
business. It was launched under the       “Community development” simply           Both speeches are recorded in the
leadership of Shinji Peter Kubotani,      means activities to help fulfill and      symposium’s report.
who served as president of the GVJIA      improve people’s lives by building             Several years ago, the late
in the 1980s. One of the first events      ties with the wider society. Our         Mikihiko Kato, who had served
sponsored by this group was a lecture     activities in education and group        as the president of the Association
by Charlie Kadota, a Nisei elder, who     development have been successful         between 1994 and 2000, proposed a
had established his import business       as these initiatives met a need among    joint Nikkei New Year’s party and it
as the sole agent for Japanese electric   members of the Japanese Canadian         has become a regular annual event
rice-cookers. In 1991-1992 Yoichi         community, while fully respecting        of the community to this day.
Andy Tsukumo, then the president          individual rights and spontaneity.       .
of Kiyu-Kai, served as the Director       The GVJIA has always sought to           Passage of Time
of the Association. Later Katsumi         operate out of genuine concern                 For almost three decades, the
Kubo served as the president of both      for the wellbeing of community           GVJIA has served the community,
organizations.                            members, particularly immigrants.        but we should accept the passage of
      A new trend appeared from                                                    time, including the form and style of
the early 1990s, when retired             Involvement in Japanese Canadian         community activities. The Board of
immigration was terminated and the        Events                                   the Association, therefore, decided
arrival of more Japanese women in               Even though the immigrants         to close its doors as of the end of
their 20s and 30s, who had married        as a whole were hardly involved          2005 and to continue its work as the
a Canadian or landed immigrant.           with the Redress movement of the         Japanese speaking committee of the
As a result more women than men           1980s, they actively participated        Greater Vancouver JCCA. After 28
arrived as immigrants in recent           in the post-redress community            years of existence the circle has been
years. Jointly with the JCCA              events organized by the National         closed. As stated at the beginning of
Human Rights Committee, GVJIA             Association of Japanese Canadians        this article, the JCCA extended a
conducted a series of inter-marriage      (NAJC), such as “Home-coming             welcoming hand and gave support to
workshops targeting these women.          Japanese Canadian Conference”            newcomers in the 1960s. Under this
Workshops were held with Mariko           held at Hotel Vancouver in 1992.         new arrangement with the JCCA, the
Kage,       facilitator/interpreter  of   At this largest post-war gathering       former members of the Association
the Committee, and Dr. Fumitaka           for Japanese Canadians, a panel was      will continue to provide services to
Noda, an advisor and commentator.         organized to share experiences as        immigrants and the community at
Each time the workshop was held           immigrants with Yasuo Yamauchi,          large. ❁
we noticed new members and in

                                                                                                                      19
          Remembrances of New Denver 1942-1946                                        by Roy Yasui
                                        The village of New Denver was          which obviously became a windfall
                                        named after Denver, Colorado since     for the merchants.
                                        New Denver had experienced a                 As a nine-year old boy I spent
                                        booming silver mining period in the    most of my day swimming at
                                        1890s. Now it housed the forestry      the cove, where the Tuberculosis
                                        department, road maintenance           Sanitarium was being constructed
                                        crew, hospital for local villages,     by former boat carpenters. It was
                                        high school, and a few stores.         a beautiful location with a fine
                                             The main detention camp was       sandy beach and the water inclined
                                        located about one mile south of the    gradually rather than suddenly
                                        village. Sub-camps, Nelson and         dropping into deepwater.
                                        Harris Ranch, were located two               One day I was on a one-person
                                        miles north and south respectively.    raft and paddling towards deeper
                                        The most visible part of the camp      water when Mucha Kitagawa from
                                        along the main road was on an apple    Harris Ranch jumped on the raft
                                        orchard which belonged to a farmer     and it began to sink rapidly. I began
                                        who had a boy my age named Luigi.      to swim but Mucha couldn’t so he
                                        The tents that we lived in were        jumped on my back and grabbed me
Roy Yasui. (R. Yasui Photo, date
                                        American Civil War issues. The         by the neck. I couldn’t break his grip
unknown)
                                        houses were 28’ x 14’ which was        and we sank quickly. I was on the
     We arrived in New Denver in        shared by two families. They were      verge of losing my consciousness
early summer of 1942. Like most         being built by men who had been        when I felt ourselves being pulled
detainees we boarded the train in       separated from their families on the   upwards. Alice Aihoshi and Cheesa
Vancouver and arrived in South          West Coast and sent to road camps      Nishikazi saw our plight and they
Slocan the next day. It was hot on      in the interior of the province. Now   rescued us. They were probably in
the train but we could not open the     they were being sent to different      their late teens or early twenties.
windows because of the soot. My         detention camps to build houses        Someone applied Boy Scout
other train remembrance is that we      and maintain the camps.                artificial respiration to Mucha and
were on the same train as the Hayashi        We were also warned that we       I was astounded at the amount of
family and Mr Hayashi had been a        were not to go to Silverton which      water that he coughed up. Mucha
Canadian Army veteran of the First      was three miles south of New           got up, shook his head to get the
World War. A bus transported us the     Denver. It was the town that we had    water out of his ears, and then we
last fifty miles to New Denver.          just passed. They did not allow any    both took off. We didn’t thank
     The first thing I noticed on        Japanese Canadians in their town       anyone. We didn’t tell our parents
arrival was the white glistening        and they were trying to build a gate   because they would not let us return
glacier across Slocan Lake. It was      across the road but the provincial     to the beach.
directly across the camp where there    government prohibited it.                       I tried to thank Alice Aihoshi
were rows of tents and houses. The           Those of us assigned to tents     at the Toronto Reunion in 1995 but
glacier not only looked magnificent,     ate at the ice rink which was about    someone was always talking to her
it looked indestructible. We were       one mile from the camp. My sister      or her husband. Regrettably I did not
assigned a tent but surprisingly        Mary and I would always carry a        get back to her. Dr. Henry Shimizu
some families were given a house.       pail of water back to our tent after   informed me that Cheesa Nishikazi
The assignment of houses was            each meal. Those assigned to houses    had become a Catholic Sister and
a bitter source of discourse that       had to shop in town where the prices   retired in northern California. I
dominated that first year. Whatever      were unconscionably inflated. The       contacted the retirement convent but
the assignment policy the end result    B.C. Security Commission (this         I was informed that she was unable
was arbitrary and unfair.               sounds remarkably similar to the       to talk to me.
     New Denver was located on          term used in the Third Reich for
pristine Slocan Lake which was          Nazi concentration camps) had          Arigato!
twenty-two miles long and three         made arrangements with the village         At night we returned to the
miles wide. It was located about        of New Denver that camp residents      cove where a huge bonfire was lit.
400 miles northeast of Vancouver.       would do all their shopping in town    There was nothing else to do since
20
we were given only a few candles        bonfire after that account.              American Civil War army issues.
a week and it was used only for              This grisly account depicts        We would pile snow around the tent
emergencies. The grownups would         the incompetence and insensitivity      to insulate it. We were coast people
take turns telling scary stories but    of the camp administrators. There       and we were not used to so much
some of them were humorous,             were highly experienced Issei in all    snow.
historical or about famous Japanese     aspects of camp management but                Finding wood was the most
persons. Some people would roast        they were totally ignored because       important task of the day for those of
potatoes in the fire but no matter       they did not speak English. They        us who lived in tents. Wood was cut
how they peeled them they could         had the courage to come to a foreign    and delivered by the maintenance
not get rid of the black soot.          country where they did not speak        crew to houses but unexplainably not
      I remember that Ken Saito was     English yet carved out successful       to tents. My older sister Mary and I
an exceptionally gifted storyteller.    businesses and built a thriving         would collect twigs and branches in
After his scary stories we would        community. Their businesses were        potato sacks and make five or six
go home in groups. It was so dark       confiscated without compensation.        trips. It would burn so quickly. One
that invariably we would get lost.      Now they were discounted by the         day out of sheer desperation I picked
We would stumble around until           camp administrator and they had to      up a piece of firewood that the truck
we bumped into a tent and got           watch relatively inexperienced Nisei    had dumped between two rows of
directions. There is nothing darker     make mistakes which could have          houses. I was going to borrow an
than a New Denver night. Believe        been avoided.                           axe and chop it into smaller pieces.
me.                                          This atmosphere of distrust        A woman came out of her house and
      One night someone asked a         and hostility was compounded by         started screaming, “Robber, robber
young guy in his early twenties         the “pro-Japan” group who accused       (dolobo), he’s stealing our wood.” I
how the cremation detail was going.     anyone cooperating with the camp        yelled at her that it wasn’t her wood
When the first camp resident died,       authorities of being “Inu.” Inu
                                                                  “             because she hadn’t paid for it and
Mr. Draper the town handyman who        means a dog but it was an expression    kept walking.
owned a truck and made deliveries       for being an informer since a dog             When the snows came it took
refused to bury or cremate camp         barks. This pro-Japan group would       much longer to collect wood and
residents. He soon changed his          inform these young Nisei that their     I would not go to school. Every
mind when he discovered that the        cooperation would be reported to the    day I would climb the steep slope
Sanitarium provided a lucrative         victorious Japanese army at the end     of the mountain behind the RCMP
business.                               of hostilities.                         guardhouse across the main road and
      However, in the early days             Notwithstanding,       it   was    clear the snow to look for branches
the camp director picked a Nisei        these     relatively   inexperienced    and twigs. After six or seven trips I
in his mid-twenties to look after       Nisei that bought a semblance of        would see four or five aged people
the cremation. The leader picked        organization and stability with their   living in tents next to us climbing
four younger Nisei to help him.         leadership in the face of widespread    the mountain with their empty
“So, how’s it going?” someone           discontent, insults, threats and        potato sacks. They would always
asked again. The silent Nisei finally    physical violence. To this day their    thank me for clearing the snow for
said, “When we asked our leader         courageous contributions have not       them. I kept my head down and I
if he knew anything about burning       been collectively recognized by         didn’t reply. I was nine years old
bodies, he said that you build a huge   former camp residents who owe           and I knew that I should be helping
bonfire and place the body on top        them so much.                           these elderly people living in tents
of it. There is no problem. So that’s                                           but I never did. Subsequently, I
what we did but the body wouldn’t       And the Snows Came                      always omitted this part about the
burn. So our leader started pouring          In the midst of this turmoil       elderly people when I described the
gasoline on top of the body and it      the snows came in early October,        difficulty of finding wood in the
began to swell. That’s when the four    1942. It would be the severest          snow.
of us just walked away. I don’t know    winter recorded in New Denver                 Everyone could see us as we
what happened and I don’t care.”        history. Some of us were still living   climbed that steep mountain behind
There was a stunned silence and         in tents with tiny tin stoves with      the RCMP guardhouse each day.
then everyone began to leave even       stove pipes that went through the       Where were the camp director, the
though it was early in the evening.     top of the tent. It would become red    RCMP, and the Japanese adults?
Some people never returned to the       hot. Amazingly, these tents were                      Continued on page 22
                                                                                                                21
Most of the writings on that harsh      would go into town for Saturday        be teachers. She used the B.C.
winter of 1942 focus on the green       night movies.                          correspondence school curriculum
lumber shrinking as it dried and the         The whole camp attended.          as a model for her neophyte
freezing wind blowing through the       Most people sat on the floor, some      teachers that first year. In the
newly built shacks. Those houses        stood along the walls and some         summertime she recruited her
looked pretty warm to those living      sat on the rafters. It was warm.       former Normal School instructors
in tents. Everything is relative I      There was light. The program           to provide teacher training for
guess.                                  consisted of songs, odori, and         all the Nisei teachers in different
     Our mother was a widow with        skits. There were many repetitions     camps who came to New Denver
five children who refused to return      because performers did not know        for the summer. Miss Hide Hyodo
to Japan after our father died in       the specialties of each other yet. I   was an extraordinary educator and
1940 even though our grandparents       know that “Shina No Yoru (China        we owe so much to her.
insisted that she return. She had       Night) was particularly popular. It         I had a remarkable teacher in
never worked in Canada but she and      didn’t matter. The audience kept       Grade 5 who taught me how to read.
our eldest sister, Kay, supported the   clapping and hollering for encores     Her name was Gloria Sato who
family by working as domestics.         because they didn’t want the night     came to New Denver via Slocan,
She was stalwart and resolute.          to end. It was the first time in many   Sandon and Cumberland. When
     Her youngest three-year old        months that we felt normal. It was     she discovered that I couldn’t read
daughter had pneumonia so our           wonderful.                             she kept me in school after hours
mother would start the stove very            I vaguely remember that Jane      and drilled me relentlessly until after
early in the morning. One morning I     Uchida, Dr. Uchida’s seven year old    many months I could read and write.
heard her say very softly to herself,   daughter, sang and tapped danced       We were in a combined Grade 4/5
“If they want to kill us they have      to a song entitled, “Would You         class. I remember that Eva Shimizu
picked the right place because it       Mind?” Another young performer         and Margaret Tanaka were in Grade
doesn’t cost them anything to freeze    was Dorothy Matsushita, maybe 12       4. Margaret Tanaka’s mother was
us to death.” I will never forget the   years old, who sang a poignant song    a Japanese school teacher, Tanaka
desperation and forlornness in her      that started with something like,      Sensei. They were deported to Japan
voice. I will never forget Dr. Uchida   “Believe me not if all land...” She    immediately at the end of the war.
who pleaded with the camp director      was in the same grade as my older      Margaret is probably one of the few
to assign us a home to no avail.        sister Mary. Dorothy Matsushita        Nisei who accompanied their parents
     Living in that freezing tent is    later contacted tuberculosis and       back to war-ravaged Japan in 1945 to
the most unforgettable memory that      died. Perhaps she was the youngest     graduate from a Japanese university
I have of New Denver. Nothing           patient to die in the Sanitarium.      and become a professor. Lawrence
comes close. Nothing in my                                                     Iwasaki was another student of
considerable lifetime has matched       The Lamp of Learning                   Miss Gloria Sato who became
that feeling of hopelessness and             The building and start of         internationally known as, “Mr.
wretchedness that we will be cold       school was a very significant           Lawrence,” the renowned hairdresser.
and hungry tomorrow and tomorrow        event. It finally brought a sense            The Protestant and Catholic
and tomorrow, always in that order      of order and stability to the camp.    Churches started their own high
- cold and hungry!                      The B.C. government refused            schools, Lakeview and Notre Dame,
                                        to educate children who were in        respectively since the provincial
Shigata-ga-nai to Ganbari               camps. The camp carpenters built       government refused to provide
Concert                                 ordinary shacks without partitions     secondary education for camp students.
     I remember one magical night       for classrooms. Miss Hide Hyodo        Both groups competed intensely for
in that tumultuous first year when       was the only credentialed teacher      students. They tried to achieve higher
the exterior of the Sanitarium was      in camp. When she graduated from       scores, produce better concerts and
completed. A concert was held.          Vancouver Normal School and got        bazaars, and beat the other school in
It was the first entertainment for       a teaching job in Steveston, the       baseball and hockey. As a result the
everyone in camp. For those of us       B.C. government passed a statute       entire camp community benefited.
in tents we would remain in the dark    forbidding Japanese Canadians to            My sister, Mary, attended Notre
each night because we would save        become teachers.                       Dame High School even though
the few candles that they gave us            Miss Hyodo hired any Nisei        we attended the Anglican Church. I
for emergencies. Later, a few adults    that had attended high school to       remember our mother telling Miss
22
Clench and Miss Hamilton, two              and for leaves that could be dried       pick apples. When they returned,
Anglican missionaries, that she            and used for green tea. Their            they invariably raved about the thick
identified with the Catholic Sisters        ingenuity was limitless. They dyed       milkshake at National Cafe where the
because she saw them carrying logs         napa leaves black, dried it, and         straw would remain upright. In 1946,
from the woods in front of the school      moisten it with water to imitate nori    a group of us including my sister,
and sawing them for firewood. The           to make makisushi. They baked            Mary, went to Kaslo to pick cherries
Protestant high school had wood            Japanese pastry of every variety         for three weeks. After that, Mary went
delivered to them by the maintenance       using homegrown Japanese beans           to pick apples in Vernon.
crew. I guess our mother was referring     to make anko (bean paste).                      We lived close to Slocan Lake.
to the time in the tent when no one             The social life of the camp         The Iwasakis (house 100) were the
delivered wood to us.                      began to germinate. Club formed          closest, then the Nakaharas (102),
      The dedication and success of        for    odori     lessons,     singing,   the Yasuis (104), and the Kunitomos
these Nisei and religious teachers can     woodcarving, gaji (cards), haiku,        (106). Swimming in Slocan Lake was
be ascertained by the academic success     sewing, knitting, etc. There was an      the most popular summer activity. It
of their students when they left camp      active intra-camp baseball league,       was a pristine glacial lake with clear
and competed with students who             which provided entertainment for         ice cold water. New Denver summers
had attended regular school during         the summer nights. The All-Star          were hot and humid. Therefore, we
the war years. The magnitude of our        team would compete against other         would spend a lot of time in the lake.
appreciation to our camp teachers is       camps like Lemon Creek with Asahi        Mr. Iwasaki went swimming after
immeasurable except to say arigato!        great, Kaz Suga, Bay Farm, Slocan,       work and he used to swim with his
                                           and Kaslo on weekends. George            baby daughter on his shoulders. Soon
Gaman (Self reliance)                      (Chingi) Yoshinaka was a pitcher         she was dog paddling on her own. It
     If 1942 was the worst of times        and first baseman for the Asahi           was no surprise to us lake kids when
due to families struggling for the bare    who lived in camp. I was a great         Margaret (Peggy) Iwasaki became a
necessities of survival then the ensuing   fan of the Vancouver Asahi and I         member of the Olympic Swim Team.
years would exhibit a remarkable           knew every single player. However,              Those of us who lived closest to
(Gaman)         and       perseverance     I began to realize that there were       the lake would go fishing at the mouth
(Ganbari). The first sign of self           other outstanding baseball players       of Carpenter Creek. The creek water
reliance was the insulating of the         like Shig Kiyono, Tom Oikawa,            was dirty gray since the mines were
house with tar paper. Later, camp          and Shig Okumura who were                operating due to the war. Fishing was
residents would split cedar logs to        every bit as good or better than the     prohibited by the RCMP. We would
make cedar shakes since cedar trees        Asahi players on other teams. They       make fishing lines out of store string
were so plentiful. The cultivation of      probably lived outside of Vancouver      by knotting them together and waxing
vegetable gardens for food was the         or on Vancouver Island or in the         it so it wouldn’t tangle. Spinner spoons
most vital activity in camp. Every         Fraser Valley or up north in one of      would be made from jam cans which
available plot of land was cultivated      the mill towns. Playing hockey on        were perfect because it was silver on
to grow vegetables of every variety        the frozen ponds or lake was a new       one side and brass coloured on the
from potatoes to exotic Japanese           experience for us coast people.          other side.
melons. The roots of the Japanese               Our sister Kay married Tom                 The fish that we caught at the
farmer are inextinguishable as             Oikawa on March 1943. It was the         mouth of the creek were bottom
evidenced by the transportation of         first marriage in camp and it spawned     dwellers. They were called “squaw”
the seeds of exotic Japanese plants        much controversy. Some believed          or “chub” fish. Its firm white meat
to a totally different environment.        that times were too uncertain to         was tasty due to the glacial water but it
They would learn to dig deep root          make serious commitments like            was filled with tiny bones. Normally,
cellars under their houses to protect      marriage. The husbands might be          it would not be eaten but these were
vegetables from freezing.                  separated from their wives again         not normal times. Our mothers would
     Camp residents began to               and be sent to road camps as at the      would patiently spend hours picking
share recipes. They learned to             beginning of the war. However, love      out the tiny bones but not always
make everything from shoyu with            conquered all.                           successfully. Later they would learn
homegrown soybeans to tofu,                     Another memorable summer            to pound the flesh with a rock and
fukushinzuki, umeboshi, etc. They          occurrence was when the trucks came      crush the bones. They would mix
scoured the mountain side for              from Vernon to transport high students   it with vegetables and make tasty
warabi (baby ferns), mushrooms,            to Coldstream or Howes Ranch to                         Continued on page 24
                                                                                                                     23
“kamaboko” (fish cakes).                 large Kamloop Rainbow trout but         to fulfill a familial obligation. This
      When the Mounties caught          its flesh was never as bright red as     was ironic since our father was a
us fishing they would row out to         the trout in New Denver.                great admirer of Canada and he had
deep water and throw our fishing              There was also a dark side to      told his parents that he did not want
lines overboard. When the adults        this lake. One year in early spring     to inherit the property in Japan.
were caught they would be sent to       as the ice began to melt a patient           Therefore, a few days after the
the jail in Nelson which was sixty      from the Tuberculosis Sanitarium        war ended in August, 1945 we were
miles away. Consequently, only the      committed suicide by walking out        moved to Rosebery. It was a smaller
bachelors went fishing. They wanted      onto the lake where the ice had         detention camp located four miles
to be caught because jail food was      broken. This was done in front of       north of New Denver but now it
much tastier. “What is your favorite    other patients who watched her step     was used as an Assembly Centre
meal in jail?” we would ask one of      unhesitatingly into the icy water.      for families departing to Japan.
the bachelors. “The Sunday supper            Also in the early spring of        Once again we lived closest to the
is the best,” he would reply, “They     1950 when the ice was breaking          lake. We shared a house with Mr.
serve roast beef, mashed potatoes,      up, four boys from Silverton were       and Mrs. Fujiwara who had been
vegetables, and something that looks    playing hockey on the lake when         a railroad porter. I remember him
like a bun but its airy (Yorkshire      the ice collapsed. One of the boys,     because he used to go swimming
pudding). They would pour a lot         I played sixteen years of age and       in Slocan Lake very early in the
of gravy on it. Dessert would be        under hockey with, rescued the other    morning even in the wintertime.
cake or pie. No one eats anything       boys but he didn’t have the strength    He would walk out to the water
as good in this camp.” “What            to pull himself up. As captain of the   passage made by the tugboat which
else?” “On Friday they serve fish        team, his mother asked me to be a       had cleared the ice on the frozen
but it doesn’t taste the same with      pallbearer. It was the first time that   lake.
potatoes. You need rice and shoyu       a Japanese Canadian was invited              Once again, it was a time of
to go with the fish.” The Mounties       to step foot in Silverton which had     uncertainty, chaos, rumors, and total
stopped arresting bachelors after       tried to build a gate across the main   discontent. It was soon heightened
the first year.                          highway to bar Japanese. I still        when the first group departed for
      We would go trolling in our       think of my young friend with an        Japan. Almost the entire camp had
homemade rafts. We would fish            infectious laugh who could really       turned out to bid these families
the spots that the town fishermen        play hockey.                            farewell as they departed on the
trolled. They would catch a salmon                                              bus for Vancouver.
trout that was 20 inches and throw      A Camp Without Joy                           We attended English school
it back into the lake. They would            It was apparent in 1944 that       followed by Japanese school like
only keep a trout that was over three   the end of the war was drawing near     we did in New Denver. However,
pounds. The lake was full of trout in   with an Allied victory. The federal     now the emphasis was on learning
deeper water because no one fished       government at the instigation of the    Japanese with earnest desperation.
the lake. When we got a bite on our     B.C. politicians passed an Order-in     Families were having second
store string fishing line it would       Council in March, 1945 to remove        thoughts. They were finally hearing
inevitably snap. So we would start      all residents of Japanese ancestry      from Japanese relatives for the first
paddling backward every time that       out of British Columbia. Camp           time in five years warning them
we got a bite to lesson the tension.    residents over sixteen years of age     to stay away from Japan. Japan
Sometimes it worked and we would        were given the option of departing      was totally devastated by the war
catch a large fat salmon trout.         for Japan or moving to an eastward      and there was a shortage of food,
That’s what we called it, a salmon      province. They were required to         housing, medical care, etc.
trout. (My buddy, Bobby Terakita,       sign a document.                             Our eldest sister Kay and her
who lived in Slocan and who is               Our mother had received a          husband, Tom Oikawa, tramped
an avid fisherman, claims that it is     telegram from our grandfather           four miles through the winter snow
a Rainbow trout He also wants to        during the war through the Spanish      each weekend and they would
know why we didn’t order a fishing       Red Cross that our grandmother          plead, cajole, and beg our mother
line from the Eaton’s catalog like      had died. He wanted the family to       and our Aunt Irene Kohara to
he did. We didn’t have the money,       return as soon as possible since our    change their minds for the sake of
Bobby!) We moved to Kamloops            father had been the oldest in the       the children. Conditions would be
in 1950 and I caught my share of        family. Therefore, she felt obligated   too difficult and harsh for Canadian
24
children to adapt to war-torn Japan       why he didn’t remain in Canada         New Denver. While my friends
they argued.                              since he was over sixteen, Mr. Asano   and I swam, fished, and frolicked
     Finally, when they changed           replied that his parents needed him    in Slocan Lake, the Issei and older
their minds the authorities               to accompany them to Japan.            Nisei were improving our houses
informed them that they could not              I always wanted to thank          growing vegetables and preserving
rescind their original decision.          Nobby Asano for influencing my          them by canning and drying. While
Later we were informed that we            science career so much but I never     we skated on the frozen ponds and
could change our minds as long as         found a person who knew what           lakes these adults were insulating
we left the province immediately.         happened to him. Lately, Dr. James     our houses with cedar shakes which
Our mother refused to leave the           (Shiro) Hasegawa from Montreal         they made from raw cedar trees,
province since her children were          who was also in New Denver and         and to keep us warm they re-knitted
born in this province and many of         Rosebery like us informed me           mitts and socks by unraveling old
the Mounties that visited us could        that his older sister who had been     woolen sweaters. While we sat in
not say that. This resulted in more       Nobby’s classmate told him that        the schoolhouse it was dedicated
visitations from the Mounties.            he had died of an appendicitis         Nisei like Miss Hide Hyodo and
     I remember Mr. Noboru                attack shortly after he arrived in     Miss Gloria Sato who insured that
Asano. He had just graduated from         Japan. A tragedy. Nobby Asano          the lamp of learning would not be
Notre Dame High School. He was            would probably be living today if      extinguished for camp children.
reputed to be its brightest graduate.     our government had not practiced            It is their indomitable spirit
He was also an outstanding                “ethnic cleansing” as instigated by    that must be recorded for history.
teacher. I never forgot his science       racist B.C. politicians.               They never gave into apathy
experiments that he did with cans,             I also remember my sister         and despair. They demonstrated
strings, sticks, mirrors, etc. He         Mary, James (Shiro) Hasegawa,          this extraordinary spirit and
taught us to observe, gather data,        George (hits) Tsuruda, and few         determination when they were first
analyze, and draw conclusions.            others being picked up by Father       placed in camps and then again
Many years later at university I          Clement each morning to attend         when they were deported out of the
would learn that this was called          Notre Dame High School in New          British Columbia to start again back
the scientific method and I thought,       Denver. I used to wonder why they      in eastern Canada or in Japan.
“Hey, Mr. Asano taught me this in         were going to high school when              The musings and ruminations
Rosebery and he made it a lot more        they were going to Japan.              of swimming, playing sports, and
interesting.”                                  There is very little that I can   going to school by children like me
     The last lesson that Mr. Asano       recall of that year in Roseberry.      must not mislead future historians to
taught before he left for Japan, he       There were no concerts, no sports      conclude that detention camp wasn’t
told us never to forget that we were      day, no baseball or hockey, and        so bad if the children were having
Canadians since we were born in           sadly, no one sang.                    so much fun. Remember there are
Canada. It was something to be                                                   documentary films depicting Jewish
proud of because there will be many       Monition (Warning)                     sibling playing and laughing beside
in Japan who will try to convince             I was nine years old in 1942       their mothers as they were lead to
us otherwise. When someone asked          and seventeen in 1950 when I left      the gas chamber. ❁

  My Dual Affiliations with Japan and Canada                                           by Miho T. Steinberg
     My parents, Bunjiro and Yaeno        just two weeks before we were          ken and had taught at the Japanese
Tanaka, came fi-om Japan to Canada         repatriated to Japan. It was August    Language School on Alexander
in the 1920s and 1930s and my three       1946 and I was 12 years old. There     Street in Vancouver before the
younger brothers and I were born in       had been some talk of leaving me       war. When we returned to post-
BC. During the war my father was          behind in Canada with relatives, but   war Japan, she taught Japanese in
in an Internment Camp in Angler,          my father decided that we were not     a junior high school. As the only
Ontario for four and a half years while   to be separated as a family again.     teacher of Japanese language in the
my mother, my brothers and I lived             In Japan we lived in Shiga-       school I had to take Japanese from
in the “ghost towns” of New Denver        ken with our grandparents who had      her. Needless to say, I worked very
and Tashme in the BC interior. We         survived the war. My mother had        hard so as not to embarrass her and
were finally reunited with my father       gone to normal school in Shiga-        had to endure the snickers from the
                                                                                               Continued on page 26
                                                                                                                 25
                                                 I also kept up with my English     realized that this was the Japan that
                                           through my correspondence with an        my parents must have been talking
                                           elderly American philanthropist, Mr.     about. As my experience with
                                           Lex Cox, who was the host family to      Japanese culture grew, with the tea
                                           the first Japanese exchange student to    ceremony and flower arrangement,
                                           America after the war. This Japanese     I became grateful to my parents for
                                           exchange student, Miss Imamura,          the chance they had given me by
                                           wrote a letter to a popular Japanese     returning to Japan.
                                           girl’s magazine telling of her                When I graduated from
                                           experiences in the US. She received      university in Kyoto, in the early
                                           thousands of letters from Japan, but     1950s, there were Nisei teachers
                                           among them was one solitary letter       from the States who were teaching
                                           in English - mine. Mr. Cox decided       English at our university. They
                                           to take over the correspondence          said that when I spoke English, I
                                           with me and answered every letter I      sounded like a precocious child, for
Miho Margaret Steinberg. (M.
                                           wrote, almost bi-weekly. I received      the thoughts of a 22-year old were
Steinberg photo, date unknown)
                                           pictures of their Christmas parties,     being expressed in the English of a
class for the first few weeks. But I        and postcards from their trips across    12-year old, for I hadn’t been in an
did learn Japanese well.                   the US. In this way, I kept in touch     English-speaking environment since
      For the first three years of junior   with American culture as well as         I was 12 in Canada. I realized that if
high school, I lived at home. But for      practicing my English. Two years         I was to teach English, I must live
senior high school, I had to bicycle       ago, I finally was able to locate this    in an English-speaking environment
12 kilometers (approximately 7             Japanese student who is now a retired    to enhance my linguistic ability.
miles) one way to school. I can            English teacher and administrator        Fortunately I was able to return to
remember taking an entire change           of a school in Yokohama. We had          Canada and live with my mother’s
of clothes with me on rainy days,          a wonderful telephone reunion,           brother and his wife, Mr. and Mrs.
because I got drenched to the skin.        recalling those days.                    Toyozo Miyanishi, in Toronto in
In winter, commuting by bicycle                  When I first came to Japan, I       1957.
was impossible due to the snow,            was thoroughly disgusted with the             I was teaching Japanese
so I had rented a room in the city         Japanese and the Japanese system.        conversation to a group of Toronto
near the school. I was alarmed to          Mother had told me that the Japanese     professors, high school teachers
see that I hadn’t grown a bit since        were kind, polite and forgiving but      and lawyers and became involved
coming to Japan (I was just under 5        post-war poverty had taken away a        in the first English as a Second
feet tall) and so I took up basketball,    lot of the basic decency, niceties and   Language (ESL) teacher training
and stretched and jumped for 3             politeness from their everyday life. I   course. Through this course, I had
years in the hope of growing taller.       felt that the picture of Japan that my   the good fortune to meet Dr. Robert
Alas, I found I had stopped growing        Mother had given me was not true.        Lado, Director of the English
altogether, and am still to this day,      Mother, herself, must have been          Language Institute at the University
just under 5 feet tall.                    going through a strange, painful         of Michigan. Dr Lado helped me get
      When I first came to Japan I          time during her first experience of       into the University of Michigan to
missed Canada and all things English.      a war-torn country. It was not until     major in Linguistics and ESL. My
My uncle in Canada used to send            I went to university in Kyoto and        experience at Michigan has served
me the newspaper comics now and            started to take tea ceremony, flower      me very well for my later teaching
then, but what really saved me was         arrangement and koto lessons, that       career at the University of Hawaii
my frequent correspondence with a          I became aware of the elegance           and University of Illinois. In coming
classmate of mine from New Denver          in language and movement, the            to Canada, I had only intended
and Tashme, who was then working           thoughtfulness in the understated        to better my English, but ended
for the Americans in Hokkaido,             language and kindness in unspoken        up teaching English not only to
Japan. Not only was his friendship         words. What I had expected 6             Japanese, but to new Canadians from
important but he also helped me            years earlier, when I first came to       all over the world. This was hard but
to keep up my English, and often           Japan, was finally coming back into       extremely rewarding and I learned
corrected my Japanese-English to           everybody’s life. As I became more       so much about different cultures and
the more colloquial English.               acquainted with things Japanese, I       languages from my students.
26
                                                                                  Japan at Nagoya Gakuin University
                                                                                  (NGU).
                                                                                       My primary interest in life
                                                                                  has always been to teach English
                                                                                  as a Second Language, and I have
                                                                                  been fortunate enough to follow
                                                                                  this career. In 1993 I came to BC
                                                                                  and negotiated with NGU and
                                                                                  Okanagan University College (now
                                                                                  the University of British Columbia
                                                                                  Okanagan) to set up a summer
                                                                                  English program for NGU students
                                                                                  in Vernon. That was 13 years ago,
                                                                                  and the program continues to be
                                                                                  very successful. The students study
                                                                                  English, live with English-speaking
                                                                                  host families and socialize with
                                                                                  Canadian college students. After 5
                                                                                  weeks, they are able to converse in
                                                                                  English. I accompany these students
                                                                                  to Vernon every summer, and even
                                                                                  though I have formally retired from
                                                                                  NGU three years ago, I have been
                                                                                  asked to continue to bring the NGU
                                                                                  students to Vernon.
                                                                                       As I reflect on my life, I
                                                                                  consider myself very fortunate
                                                                                  having benefited from living in
                                                                                  both Canada and Japan. Although
                                                                                  I have decided to remain in Japan,
Miho (top right) with fellow students of Kyoto Women’s University. (M.            my frequent visits to Canada to visit
Steinberg photo, 1957)                                                            my relatives and friends keeps me in
                                                                                  touch with my Canadian heritage.
     I began teaching ESL at the         universities: Hiroshima University,      Yes, I have indeed been very lucky,
University of Hawaii in 1982 and         Notre Dame University, and               teaching English and doing what
remained there for 20 years. During      Kanazawa Technical College. It was       I like best, and enjoying my life in
that time, I visited Japan twice on      after my last sabbatical in 1983-85      Japan and Canada. ❁
sabbatical and taught at a number of     that I decided to stay on and teach in
Oikawa Collection and SUIAN MARU Descendants Return to the
             Fraser by Reiko Tagami, Assistant Archivist
      This year marks the centennial     perseverance, and the building of        was a potential logistical challenge.
                             MARU
of the voyage of the SUIAN MARU,         community.                               The Museum is extremely grateful
the deepsea fishing vessel chartered               In 2005, an extensive           to the descendants of Oikawa for
by Jinzaburo Oikawa to bring 83          collection of artifacts, photographs     preserving the collection intact; to
immigrants, largely from Miyagi          and textual records was donated          the great-granddaughters for their
prefecture, to work and eventually       to the Japanese Canadian National        willingness to enrich Canadian
settle in Canada, on Don and Lion        Museum by the great-granddaughters       Nikkei heritage by sharing their own
islands (formerly Oikawa-jima and        of Jinzaburo Oikawa. Oikawa’s            family history; and to the group of
Sato-jima) in the Fraser River. Theirs   descendants still live in Miyagi         community members who researched
is a story of risk and adventure,        prefecture in Japan, so the trans-       the Oikawa collection and arranged
but also a story about creativity,       Pacific transport of these materials      for safe transport.
                                                                                                Continued on page 28
                                                                                                                  27
                                                                             83      immigrants,      interviewing
                                                                             descendants and collecting family
                                                                             stories and memories.
                                                                                   The forced removal of the
                                                                             Nikkei pioneers and their families
                                                                             from the islands in 1942 broke the
                                                                             physical ties of the SUIAN MARU
                                                                             community, never again to be re-
                                                                             united. However, like so many other
                                                                             Nikkei communities forced apart by
                                                                             the internment, the SUIAN MARU
                                                                             community persisted through a
                                                                             network of friendships and family
                                                                             ties that remain strong to this day.
                                                                             These community connections
                                                                             make it possible for the Museum
                                                                             to follow the story from its origins
                                                                             – challenging life in a Miyagi village
                                                                             – to the current chapter, which
                                                                             encompasses the rich and varied
                                                                             experiences of the SUIAN MARU
                                                                             descendants in Canada and Japan.
                                                                             ❁




Jinshiro Oikawa, Asakusa Park, Tokyo, Japan. Eisedo. Jinshiro Oikawa
Collection. Japanese Canadian National Museum.
     The collection is comprised of         The      Oikawa     collection
clothing, household objects, small     will be featured in an exhibition
tools, and photographs brought to      commemorating the SUIAN MARU
Japan by Oikawa and his second         centennial, slated to open in mid-
wife, Yae, on their final return        October at the Museum. This will
journey in 1917. Large-format          coincide with a reunion of SUIAN      Women’s belt by Yae Oikawa during
charts created by Oikawa track         MARU descendants from across          her time on Lion Island. Jinzaburo
the price of various staples, such     Canada and Japan. Museum staff        Oikawa Collection. Japanese
as rice, on the Japanese market.       are hard at work researching the      Canadian National Museum.
The family photographs provide a       experiences of some of the other
beautiful and detailed visual record
of the Oikawa family and their
community, while a cornerstone of
the collection is Oikawa’s hand-
written autobiography. The depth
and breadth of the collection is
astounding, the range of items
painting a vivid picture of the
Canadian life of Jinzaburo and his     Yatate (portable ink well) used by Jinzaburo Oikawa. Jinzaburo Oikawa
wife.                                  Collection. Japanese Canadian National Museum.

28
            Masao (Mas) Kawanami 1923-2005                                       by Roy Kawamoto
                                       passed from Mountbatten to Prime          zone. For his outstanding action, he
                                       Minister Winston Churchill and            was mentioned in dispatches and
                                       during a private meeting at the           awarded an Oak Leaf to be worn
                                       Quebec Conference on October 20,          with the Canadian Korean War
                                       1944. Churchill emphasized the            Medal. Further to the award, he was
                                       importance of recruiting Japanese         sent to Japan for rest and recreation
                                       Canadians for employment as               to recover from his ordeal. Shortly
                                       linguists. Prime Minister Mackenzie       after his arrival at Camp Hiro, some
                                       King stated that on his return to         officers heard him speaking Japanese
                                       Ottawa, the War Cabinet would             and determined that he would be an
                                       consider the request. A meeting was       asset if transferred to this unit.
                                       convened in November to discuss                One day his brother, Kiyoshi,
                                       the request, keeping in mind that he      showed up at the office and this
                                       had issued an Executive Order on          was quite a surprise as they had not
                                       January 7, 1941: “That for the present    seen each other since 1943. Kiyoshi
                                       Canadians of Japanese origin should       and 3,963 Japanese Canadians were
                                       not be called up for military service.”   deported to Japan under the authority
                                       This was based on a recommendation        of an Order in Council issued on
Masao Kawanami. (Japanese              of the Special Committee On               December 15, 1945. The office staff
Canadian War Memorial                  Orientals in British Columbia dated       heard of the two brothers’ reunion
Committee Collection photo, 1992)      December 1940. Mackenzie King             and an impromptu celebration was
      On August 18, 1923, the          after vacillating over Britain’s          held. During the celebration, a
first son of Asakichi and Soto          request finally issued an Executive        discussion was held as to whether
(Nishiyama) Kawanami was born          Order in February of 1945 to start        Kiyoshi could be employed as a
in Vancouver, B.C. He received his     recruiting Japanese Canadians,            camp worker. A suggestion was
formal education in Vancouver, and     but under no circumstances would          made that maybe he could be
while he was attending high school     the recruitment be made public.           enrolled in the Canadian Army.
the war with Japan started. His        It is interesting to note that the        Further inquiries with the Canadian
family was moved to Slocan, B.C.       announcement was finally made in           Liaison Mission in Tokyo lead to
during the mass evacuation of 1942.    the House of Commons on August            getting the required authorization
After a short period in the Interior   18, 1945, three days after Japan had      from External Affairs. Kiyoshi was
of B.C., he was sent to Hamilton,      surrendered. A total of 119 men were      the first Canadian to be enrolled in
Ontario to work at Mount Hamilton      enrolled in the Canadian Intelligence     Tokyo issued with a regimental #
Sanatorium.                            Corps for service in SEAC.                SX 500. This information spread
      During the summer of 1944, the        On June 25, 1950 North Korea         quickly to other nisei living in
Federal Government was interested in   attacked South Korea and the United       Japan and within a very short time
determining the number of Japanese     Nations immediately requested             a total of 30 men were enrolled for
Canadians who would enlist in the      assistance from member nations.           deployment in Japan and Korea.
Canadian Army if recruiting was        Canada agreed to send a brigade           One interesting highlight was when
opened up. Kawanami, like a number     as soon as they were mustered and         Kawanami looked out the window
of other nisei, was contacted by       trained. The Canadian Army Special        one morning and noticed an elderly
Government and Military personnel.     Force was activated and the media         man dressed in a Canadian Army
About the same time, Captain           blitz did the rest. It did not take       uniform from the First World War.
Donald Mollison from South East        Kawanami long to enlist, and he           It was Mr. Ryoichi Kobayashi who
Asia Command (SEAC) was sent           joined the Princess Patricia Canadian     had served with the 10th Battalion
over from India to recruit Japanese    Light Infantry on August 12, 1950.        of the Canadian Expeditionary
Canadians. Mollison’s trip was not          While serving with his unit          Force (1914-1918). After a quick
fruitful, but his report to Admiral    in Korea, Kawanami walked into            introduction, Mr. Kobayashi stated
Mountbatten, Commander SEAC,           a minefield at his own peril to            that he was volunteering his four
was to have a far-reaching affect.     rescue women and children who             sons for service with the Canadian
      Contents of the report were      had wandered into this restricted                       Continued on page 30
                                                                                                                 29
Army. They were duly sworn in,            documents found in Ottawa, and        part from the research carried out for
and after their tour of duty in the Far   through discussions with Mas          him. ❁
East returned to Canada, the place of     Kawanami and Donald Mollison.               Roy Kawamoto is retired and
their birth.                              Mollison, who lived in Victoria,      resides in Kelowna, B.C. He served
      Mas, you served your country        B.C. was mentioned in Roy Ito’s       under Mollison’s brother-in-law,
well in two wars and for this we will     book, ‘We Went to War’ and was in     Jack Clancy when he commanded
be eternally grateful. As a staunch       the process of writing his memoirs,   the 2nd Battalion, The Royal
supporter and a member of the             including a chapter on his attempt    Canadian Regiment. Roy is also a
Japanese Canadian War Memorial            to recruit Japanese Canadians, when   member of the Japanese Canadian
Committee, you will be missed.            he unexpectedly passed away. The      War Memorial Committee.
      This story is based on archival     material used for this story was in
     Report on the Annual General Meeting of the National Nikkei
            Museum and Heritage Centre by Cathy Makihara
     On Saturday, June 19, 2006, with Santa” and ‘Mochitsuki. The               was achievable through the success
the organization held its annual president also made remarks about              of the ‘Tree of Prosperity’ Campaign
general meeting of its members. The the opening of the Asahi Exhibition         raising $250,000 and the generous
meeting was informative including a on October 28, and how proud he was         contribution of our membership and
report from the President, providing to see the successful completion of        others in the community.
financial highlights, and the the exhibition. Milestones included                      Many thanks to the membership,
acclamation of 22 directors to the the 10th anniversary of NIKKEI               volunteers, employees, patrons and
Board.                                IMAGES publication and the                the generosity and support of other
     Fred Yada, president, reported opening of the Community Kitchen            members in the Nikkei community
on the many programs and events with the tremendous assistance of               and project funders for contributing
we had at the Centre and Museum. the Volunteer Auxiliary.                       to a successful year. The organization
Events at the Centre included:            The treasurer, Albert Kokuryo         found itself in much better financial
dancing, music programs, karate, provided an overview of the finances            condition today than in previous
yoga, ikebana, karaoke cooking, of the organization. Overall, the               years. There are still challenges
badminton and many others. Special Society raised a total of almost             to face in 2006 in meeting our
events    included:     International $820,000 during 2005 (2004:               fundraising targets, we ask for your
Children’s Day, Jankenpon, Things $504,000) of which almost $590,000            continuing support in keeping the
Japanese Sales, Children’s Halloween (2004: $308,000) was in the form of        Centre and Museum open for all to
Party, Craft and Bake Sale, and donations and bequests. This success            enjoy. ❁
the annual and popular ‘Breakfast
2006 National Nikkei Museum and Heritage Centre Board of Directors
Sam Araki                                 Gordon Kadota                         Henry Shimizu
Yoko Banks                                David Masuhara                        Eric Sokugawa
Robert Banno                              Yuki Matsuno                          Avalon Tagami
Ruth Coles                                Craig Natsuhara                       Sian Tasaka
Reverend Orai Fujikawa                    Robert Nimi                           Henry Wakabayashi
Stan Fukawa                               Alisa Noda                            Fred Yada
Mitsuo Hayashi                            Dennis Shikaze                        Sam Yamamoto
Masayasu (Mike) Inoue
        Japanese Families on Annacis, Don and Lion Islands and
                    Queensborough by Stan Fukawa
     The map which accompanies            Ocean to Canada). It shows many            According to Mrs. Miyeko
this article was adapted by Moe           of the families that lived on Don     Mickey       Nakagawa,      whose
Yesaki from the original illustration     Island (called Oikawa Jima by         grandfather Unkichi Sugawara came
in Kan’ichi Onodera’s book (in            the Japanese), Lion Island (Sato                        MARU
                                                                                on the SUIAN MARU, Unkichi
Japanese) titled “Kanada e watatta        Jima), Annacis Island and the         moved to Annacis after having lived
Tohoku no Mura” (The Tohoku               Queensborough shoreline (Naka no
                                                                    (           on one of the two smaller islands.
Region Village that Crossed the           Shuku).                               He was next to and down-river from
30
Map of the Fraser River showing Japanese settlements on Annacis, Oikawa and Don Islands and Queensborough
before World War II.
Seiichiro Oikawa (whose son, George Minako), 12) Sunshine Sato, 13) tell briefly the story of the SUIAN
Oikawa, is a well-known and long- Seiji Chiba.                            MARU voyage, the colony led by
serving board member with both           The map does not include the Jinzaburo Oikawa and Soemon
the National Nikkei Heritage Centre Sunbury shoreline which was home Sato, and list the 83 voyagers. It will
and the Seniors Housing and Health to many descendents of the SUIAN be a tribute to a colourful Japanese
Care Society). She remembers that MARU voyagers and others from chapter in Canada’s multicultural
Gennosuke Suzuki (father of the Miyagi prefecture who followed history.
late union organizer, Buck Suzuki, them.                                       At 2 p.m. the same day, there
who led the struggle to get Japanese     Onodera’s book lists 437 will be boat tours of the Fraser River
Canadian fishermen accepted back individuals from Miyagi who around the islands starting from
into the West Coast fishery) and his journeyed to Canada to make their the Quay at New Westminster at a
family lived between the Sugawaras fortunes. About 300, including a charge of $20. A second boat has to
and the Chibas at the end.           few of their children, returned to be hired due to the demand. Send
      Mrs. Ruth Usami (nee Sasaki) Miyagi. About one hundred fifty cheques made out to “NNMHC
remembers her neighbours in the did not return. As well, many of the SUIAN MARU 100” to SUIAN
Naka no Shuku area – from east to returnees, left children in the New MARU 100, 2962 Coventry Place,
west – as follows: 1) Shig Kamachi, World.                                Burnaby, BC V5A 3P8.
2) George Sasaki, 3) Tsuriji Suda        On Friday, October 13, 2006, at       At 6 p.m. the same day, the
(Trixie, Muts, Sussie), 4) Oikawa, 1 p.m., there will be the unveiling of exhibit on the SUIAN MARU
5) Kanegawa, 6) Heese Oikawa a plaque which the City of Richmond and the settlers will be opened at
(Tom, Kay, Kim, Naoko), 7. Yokichi is creating to mark the centenary the Japanese Canadian National
Sato (Miyo, Sets, Yoshiko, Tets), of the SUIAN MARU voyage. It Museum located at the National
8) Shinji Sato (Nobu, Akio, Ami), will be placed in East Richmond Nikkei Heritage Centre at the corner
9) Community Hall, 10) Kumagai in a park at the end Dyke Road of Kingsway and Sperling Ave. in
(Yoshiro, Mary, Helen, Ray, Taeko, which can be reached by taking Burnaby. Admission is free.
Kay, Rentaro, Shintaro, George, Graybar Road from the Westminster              At 5 p.m. on Saturday,
Seiko, Raeko), 11) Haru Sasaki Highway. It will be opposite Don October 14, 2006, there will be
(Hozumi, Ritsuko, Minoru, Hiroshi, and Lion Islands and the plaque will a Celebration Dinner which has
                                                                                      Continued on page 32
                                                                                                        31
attracted a large visiting group from   to represent the family. Canadian     organizers are scrambling to find
Miyage Prefecture, including a great    Heritage Minister Bev Oda has         a way to accommodate the record
granddaughter of Jinzaburo Oikawa       been sent an invitation. This event   numbers of ticket-buyers from
who will be bringing her daughter       has been extremely popular and        Ontario, the U.S. and Japan. ❁
                      神が私を日本につかわされた -                                          内田郁英
                                        時からこれは真理だと信じ、う                        させられた。1ヶ月も経たぬうち
                                        たがわなかった。そして、10歳                       に大木に左足がひかれ、複雑骨
                                        の時にイエスを救主として受                         折にあいました。父の弟、内田
                                        け入れ、12歳の時に他6名の日                       一作が同じキャンプにおり、父
                                        系2世たちと一緒にRuth Morton                  の危ない状態を知らせに来たの
                                        Memorial Baptist教会で洗礼を受               で、母は赤ん坊を背負って叔母
                                        けました。                                 と一緒にプリンストンに駆けつ
                                              当時の日系移民の決まり                     けました。私は長女(14歳)とし
                                        は、子供は日本学校に行って日                        て8人の弟妹達の世話を余儀なく
                                        本語を身につける事でした。私                        させられました。父はもしその
                                        はイースト・バンクーバーにあ                        ままプリストンの病院にいたら
                                        った明和学園に1年生から6年生                       死んでいたでしょうが、叔父の
                                        ま で 通 い ま し た 。 1940年 に 父             熱心な交渉でバンクーバー・ジェ
                                        は不況のため職を探しにOcean                      ネラル病院に移され、適切な治
                                        Fallsに行き、家族はその秋にそ                     療を受けることが出来ました。
                                        こに移りました。しかし、そこ                             母がプリストンに行って
                                        にいる間に日本軍の真珠湾攻撃                        いる間、私の元の日曜学校の先
内田郁英 (1970年)                            が起こり私達日本人は海岸から                        生、Miss Margaret Ridgewayが
                                        強制移住させられ、内田家は臨                        訪ねて来られ、父の事を話した
    私が宣教師になる要因は                         時に明和学園に泊めて頂きまし                        ら、「祈りましょう」と言わ
家族のバックグランドに何も関                          た。                                    れ、二人で父の為に祈り神に委
係 あ り ま せ ん で し た 。 18歳 の                     父は何日も経たないうち                     ねました。私の心は不思議に平
時、日本からバンクーバーに移                          にプリンストンのロード・キャ                        安を取り戻しました。
って来た父は社会主義に引か                           ンプに入れられ、山仕事を強制                             そ れ か ら 家 族 は Hastings
れ、その本棚には赤いマルクス                                                                Parkに移され、牛舎で3ヶ月過ご
系やレーニン系の本がたくさん                                                                してから、西クウテネのローズ
並び、髭すりの鏡にの上にはレ                                                                ベリというNew Denverから6マイ
ーニンの絵まで飾ってありまし                                                                ル北の比較的小さなキャンプに
た。私は長女として生まれ、も                                                                移されました。そこでの生活は
し男の子であれば、当時有名な                                                                とても原始的でした。水は天秤
共産主義者であった大山郁雄に                                                                にバケツを2つかけて、小川まで
ちなんで郁雄となずけられたの                                                                歩いて汲みに行き、毎日の洗濯
でしょうが、女の子だったので                                                                は洗濯板でごしごし擦り、湖に
郁英と名づけられました。                                                                  持っていってすすぐ。長い木を
    初めてキリスト教に出会                                                               ノコギリで切って、ストーブの
ったのは6歳のとき日本人の子                                                                側で干して、薪にするのも毎日
供達の為の日曜学校に誘われた                                                                の仕事でした。電気もなかった
時でした。これはフランクリン                                                                のでろうそくを使ってました。
・ストリート・ミッションと呼ば                                                                    私はグレード9 (高校1年生)
れ、中国人、日本人と白人の為                                                                に入るはずでしたが、政府はグ
の3つの日曜学校を営んでいたバ                                                               レード8までしか備えなかったの
プテスト派が行なっていたミッ                                                                で、洋裁を学びました。けれど
ションです。親は反対しなかっ                                                                も次の年に各教会がハイスクー
たので毎週通いゴスペル・ソング                                                               ルを備えてくださり、私はレイ
と聖書を学びました。若い6歳の                                                               クビュー・ハイスクールという
                                        内田武とそよと郁恵.(1928年)

32
名のニュー・デンバーの合同教会にローズベリか
ら山道を5マイル歩いて通いました。
      私のクリスチャンとのかかわりはMiss. Olive
Woodworth (元日本伝道隊の宣教師)との交友に
よって維持されました。Miss Woodworthはニュー
・デンバーから月に一回ローズベリに来て日曜学
校をもうけ、私はそれを手伝いました。内田家族
の10人の子供がこの日曜学校の3分の1をしめまし
た。
      ある日私はMiss Woodworthにクリスチャン
の友達が欲しいともらしたら、彼女の答えは「ク
リスチャンの高校に行きませんか?」。私はそん
な高校があると知りませんでしたが、「行きた
い」という願いが燃え始めました。丁度その頃私             ローズベリ女性ソフト・ボール・チーム。郁恵は後
はロス・アンジェルスからの聖書通信講座を学び             ろの左から2番目. (1952年)
始めていました。朝の仕事を終えて聖書を学ぶの             Security Commissionから交通費、1ヶ月の生活費
です。ある日詩篇37:4が飛び出しました。「主            と道中の弁当代を頂きましたが、それ以外のお金
をおのれの喜びとせよ。主はあなたの願いをかな             の余裕はまったくなかったので、もらった生活費
えてくださる。」私の願いはMiss Woodworthが教      を1ヶ月の学費にあてた後は何も残りませんでし
えてくださったクリスチャンの高校に行くことで             た。
した。                                      私はどんな学院に行くのかまったくわかっ
      一方その年の8月の夏(1945年)、原子爆弾       ておらず、ここに来ようとした事は全く浅はかな
投下によって日本との戦争が終わった。乗馬警官             考えだとさえその時は思っていました。すべての
(R.C.M.P.) は一軒一軒訪れ、16歳以上の一人一       聖書学院生と高校生は宿舎に住み、私たちの生活
人に日本に帰りたいか、カナダに留まるか質問し             は朝6時から夜10時まで統制され、聖書が生活の
ました。父はあらかじめ私たちに「日本に行って             ルールでした。
もしょうがないから、カナダに留まると言いなさ                   11月に学院は特別講師を外部から呼び、3日
い」と忠告した。16歳以上は私一人でしたが、私            間の特別な講座を設けました。その講師は完全な
は一度も行った事のない日本に行きたいと思った             献身を強調された。丁度同じ頃、日本を占領して
ことはなかった。                           いたマッカーサー元帥が日本に1000人の宣教師が
      ローズベリが閉鎖されてからすぐに家族は          来るように募集しました。講師が完全献身のメッ
ニュー・デンバーに引越ししましたが、私の目的             セージをした後、校長のMr. Maxwell師が次のよう
地はもっと東のアルバータ州スリーヒルズにある             に学生達に訴えました。「空白の小切手に著名を
Prairie高校でした。ニュー・デンバーには3日間         して、神様にその空白にどんな命令を書いてもよ
ぐらいしか私は居らず、家族にさよならを告げ              ろしい。すでに著名をしてますので。と言えるで
て、バスに乗りました。私は東に移動するのでBC            しょうか?もし署名したならば、会場の前方に出
                                   なさい。」
                                         神様が私に「宣教師として日本に喜んで行き
                                   ますか?」と声を掛けておられたのですが、私は
                                   「カナダで仕えます」と返事し、日本行きはかたく
                                   なに拒んでおりました。ところが、イエス様が私
                                   の罪のために犠牲を惜しまずに十字架に架かり、
                                   苦しまれたイメージが急に浮かび上がり、涙を流
                                   しながら「神様、日本にでも行きます。」と自ら言
                                   い、会場の前方に出ました。この決心は私の人生
                                   の方向を変えた大きな出来事でした。
                                         これ以後私の人生にはっきりとした目標が
                                   あり、残る2年間の高校生活と4年間の聖書学院
                                   の学びは有意義であり、楽しいものでした。聖書
                                   学院の卒業式の2ヶ月前に日本伝道ミッションと
Prairieハイスクール卒業式のスピーカーズ 郁恵
                                   いう新しい団体に登録を申し込みました。このミ
は一番右に。1952年の写し
                                                      Continued on page 34

                                                                       33
                                  発見しました。
                                      日本語の勉強は教室に限られず、市内の店
                                  通りを歩くたびに店の窓ガラスに張ってあるチラ
                                  シなどを読むようにしました。もうひとつは日本
                                  のラジオ放送を聞くことです。最初は政治的用語
                                  はわからないので、いちいち辞書で調べました
                                  が、徐々にラジオ・ニュースがわかるようにな
                                  っていきました。初めの頃はニュースを知る為
                                  に英字新聞Japan Timesを取り、そしてアメリカの
                                  GIラジオの英語ニュースを聞いていましたが、後
                                  程、私は日本語の地元新聞、新潟日報とラジオは
                                  NHKのニュースにすっかり頼りました。
1967年の大雪の時の長岡市写真―郁恵. (1967年)          5月にミッションは私に小千谷(おじや)と
                                  いう信濃川沿いの町に、開拓伝道をして新しい信
ッションはいわゆるFaith Missionであって、特別     者が住む町に私を遣わしました。私は日本に来て
な教派とか組織に属しておりませんでした。各ミ            わずか3ヶ月で新しい教会を牧会するのでした。
ッショナリーは自分で経済援助を探さなければな            他の宣教師は少なくても1年間は日本語勉強につ
りませんでした。幸いに私は学生時代や夏のバイ            いやしますのに!
ブル・キャンプで奉仕してるカナダ・アメリカの                小千谷町にて私は古い日本家屋の2階に住
各地にいる友人達から10ドル、20ドル、さらに           み、その窓から信濃川が見下ろせると共に、冷た
教会では1ヶ月に50ドルを献金してくださいまし           い風が窓の隙間から入ってきました。天井板はゆ
た。                                るく、大きなねずみが走り回っていました。料理
      ここで申し遅れましたが、私より1歳半年下        は炭を燃やす焜炉を使い始めましたが、数ヶ月の
の妹である幸江はPrairie高校に来て、共にPrairie聖   うちに石油ストーブが売られるようになったの
書学院で学び、一緒に卒業しました。彼女も宣教            で、石油ストーブに変えました。日本語の勉強は
師として召され、1953年に私より1年遅れで日本          この家の1階に住んでおられた古屋婦人から続け
に来ました。                            て学びました。けれどもここでの日本語の学びは
      私は1952年の2月にシアトルから貨物船の       日曜日に私が語らなければならない聖書に基づく
JAVA MAILに乗り、冬の荒い太平洋を横断して横        説教のための日本語に集中しました。大体毎週
浜に到着いたしました。同僚の宣教師たちが迎え            20人くらいの人々が古屋宅に集まりました。私の
てくださいました。横浜は目的地ではないので、            説教準備は大変で何時間も掛けて英和辞書で用語
上野駅から列車に乗って裏日本に向かい、長く暗            を見つけ、それを和英辞書で正しい用語か確かめ
い清水トンネルを通過し、雪国の新潟県柏崎市に            るという作業でした。小千谷教会には幸いにも戦
到着しました。最初の数ヶ月はハリスという宣教            前からのクリスチャンで新聞社に勤めておられた
師と共に柏崎市の普通の日本家屋で生活しまし             長老の逢坂さんがおられ、私が間違った日本語を
た。暖房も断熱材もなかったので、私は絶えず寒            使ったら必ず指摘してくれ大変感謝しました。
かったのを覚えています。床に布団を敷いて、そ                1952年というのはまだ戦後7年目だったの
こに寝ました。そのうちあるご婦人から私は暖か            で、日本はまだ貧困と病いと戦っておりました。
い下着を買う必要があると教えていただき、彼女            栄養と暖房が欠けていたため結核患者が多く、病
は私を洋品店に連れて行って暖かい下着を買いま            院や療養所に多くの結核患者が収容されていまし
した。                               た。小千谷の郊外には国立療養所があり、300人
      最初は日本語の勉強が私の一番の必須の仕         以上の患者が入院されていた。他の市内にある普
事でした。そこで、標準日本語を教えてくれる若            通の病院も患者の3分の2は結核患者でした。実際
い一人の女性を雇いました。私はバンクーバー             には、入院費が払えないため入院できない患者が
とオーシャン・フォールズにて8年間日本学校に            自宅で家族に看護を受けている状態の人々もかな
通い、300以上の漢字を習いました。ところが、           りいました。
Three   Hills(高校と聖書学園)で過ごした6年間の       宣教師として私は日本の皆様にイエスの十
間、日本語は全く使わず、日本人と接しませんで            字架での死によるすべての人々への愛を伝えるた
したため、日本語をずいぶん忘れてしまってまし            めに来ていました。イエスは罪を赦して私たちに
た。にも拘らず、日本語の聖書を読みはじめると            永遠の生命を与えて下さる喜びと希望を伝えるた
漢字が読めるのでびっくりしました。そして、漢            めだと。療養所に毎週訪れているうちに服部さん
字を書き始めた時、筆順を忘れていなった自分を            に会いました。服部さんは当時35歳くらいで、す

34
                                   ベルを高校レベルにしました。聖書を教える事は
                                   多面的で言語的には旧約聖書のヘブライ語、新約
                                   聖書のギリシャ語を学び、歴史的背景を学ぶため
                                   に、旧約聖書の為には古代史を身につけ、新約聖
                                   書の為にギリシャとローマの歴史を知る必要があ
                                   ります。聖書学園で教えた30年間のうちに旧約
                                   通論、モーゼの5書、預言書、教会史、共観福音
                                   書、ローマ書、黙示録などを教えました。
                                       柏崎聖書学院は小さな学院ですが、そこの
                                   卒業生が新潟県、富山県や日本各地の牧師にな
                                   り、海外の牧師(ブラジル)や宣教師になっている
                                   のを見るととても満足です。私も学院で教える
1995年に新築された巻教会. (1995年)            他、創世記や黙示録のコースを各教会グループに
でに数年間結核をわずらっておられ、生きる望み             日曜日の午後や金曜の夜に教えに出かけました。
を失っておられました。その上に、3歳の長男も             高田教会のある女性は創世記の学びをとても喜ん
結核性脳膜炎をわずらっていました。ところが、             で、すぐに自分の友人を集めて学んだものを彼ら
服部さんはイエス・キリストを救い主として受け             に教えてもいました。
入れられ、神から平和と希望が与えられたので                  1966年から1970年まで私は聖書学院から柏
す。彼の息子は別の病院に入院していて、母親が             崎市に引越し、突然柏崎教会の婦人牧師が結婚す
そこで息子の面倒を見ていたのですが、服部さん             るために石川県に去っていったので、その代わり
がクリスチャンになってから息子と妻と一緒に小             に牧会を頼まれました。彼女は土曜日の午後、高
さな病院の部屋に住むようになりました。彼の願             校生会を始めていたので、そのクラスを引き継ぎ
いは妻もイエスを信じる事でした。1月に彼の病             ました。私はこの年齢層が大好きで1年のうちに
気は悪化し、奥さんもストレスから病気になりま             5,6人が25~30人の出席まで増えた。先ず、英語
した。教会に来ておられた松坂としさんが助けに             を教え、その後に聖書を共に学ぶスケジュールで
来られ、子供たちの世話を病気の親に代わってす             したが、そのうちにある高校生は英語に興味はな
ることになりました。そのすぐ後に、奥さんもイ             く、英語の学びが終わるのを待って、聖書の学び
エスを救主として受け入れ、彼女の病気が癒され             だけを勉強しました。その後ついに、英語クラス
ました。けれども3月になって服部氏は急に亡く             をやめて、聖書だけの学びになりました。出席者
なられ、小千谷教会の始めてのお葬式を執り行い             は増え続け、これらの高校生はクリスチャンにな
ました。奥さんは神に支えられ絶え間ない笑顔が             って日本のいたる所に散らばっています。
印象に残っております。長男は6歳で亡くなり、                 もうひとつの特筆すべきことは、教会養設
母親も数年後小さな次男を残して亡くなられまし             (Church Planting)の仕事に1976年から1985年に携
た。                                 わったことです。キリスト教会のない巻町(新潟市
     小千谷に1年弱住んでいた所、新しく建っ           の約20マイル南で人口27,000人)に導かれ、柏崎聖
た柏崎聖書学院に移るように命令されました。そ                                  Continued on page 36
の学院の女子寮の一室に住んで聖書と歴史を教え
ました。この聖書学院は日本海沿いの丘の上に建
てられ、日本海が展望でき、すぐ裏は森でした。
とても素敵な景色に囲まれていた。柏崎聖書学院
は小さな学院で学生数が平均6人から12人で、私
は教えているうちに自分の神からの贈物は教える
事であると発見したのです。もう一つ自覚したの
は、充分に教えるためにはもっと勉強する必要が
あるという事でした。
     その勉強のために4年間費やしました。ア
メリカのイリノイ州のWheaton    Collegeで2年間
(1965~67年)学んで歴史学科のBAの学位を取り、
そして1970~72年にイギリスのロンドン・バイブ          内田家の宣教師
ル・カレッジで神学の学位を会得しました。更に             前列:左から内田晃と久子、池ノ上幸江と岩雄
新潟高校の国語の通信教育で現国1,2,3、古文と漢          後列:左から郁恵、真理子(田住)と愛子
文の5つのコースを修了して、自分の日本語のレ             (1961年の写真 )

                                                                         35
書学院の卒業生であり巻町の高校を卒業した古沢                                                     終わりに申し上げますが、新潟県で働いて
雪江師と共に巻町の伝道をゼロから始めました。                                                いたThe Evangelical Alliance Missionチームの外人
古沢先生と二人で各家にトラクトを配りました                                                 宣教師は皆退職して、新潟県の教会は日本人の牧
が、人々の態度は丁重でしたが、キリスト教を外                                                師に任されています。そして柏崎聖書学院も完全
国の宗教とみなし、集会になかなか人が来ません                                                に日本人の教職によって運営され、その卒業生は
でした。                                                                  日本全国に、そしてブラジル、カリフォルニアに
    古い家を掃除して集会を始め、高校生が                                                て奉仕しています。日本人の教職者達と教会は学
4.5人、そして巻町に住んでいたクリスチャンで、                                              院ばかりでなく、バイブル・キャンプ、テレビ、
それまで新潟市の教会に行っていた方々が私たち                                                ラジオ伝道等を意欲的に継続しております。
の集会に来ました。特別な伝道集会を持ち、一人                                                      行きたくなかった日本に神が後押しして遣
の男子高校生が救われ、集会に忠実に来るように                                                わされたことを感謝いたしております。
なりました。数年のうち15人位の会衆になり、私                                                    なお追伸として申し上げたいのは、私の
が巻町に来て9年後の1984年に巻教会は土地と建                                              3人の妹たち、池之上幸江、田住真理子とAnne
物を買入し、その家を集会場に改造しました。                                                 McVetyと一人の弟、晃も皆、同じアルバータ州の
    1984年バイブル・キャンプで救われて、カ                                             聖書学院で学び、それぞれ宣教師になりました。
ナダの聖書学院で学んでいた佐藤浩昭氏が夏の訓                                                4人は日本へ、妹Anneはブラジルの日系人伝道
練を巻でしたいと祈願したので来て頂き、その翌                                                に。
年彼は学院を卒業して巻教会の牧師に就任いたし                                                     尚、父はいつまでも共産主義にとどまら
ました。私は喜んで彼に教会を譲りました。彼は                                                ず、私が日本に行った頃、1952年に自分で聖書を
柏崎聖書学院の卒業生であり、巻の近くの町出身                                                読んでイエスを救主として受け入れました。母は
の女性と結婚し、今は4人の男の子の父親です。                                                その後15年もたってクリスチャンになりました。
10年後の1995年には彼らはもっと広い土地を購入                                             ❁
して、大きな教会堂を建てました。
The list of new and renewing members of the National Nikkei Museum & Heritage Centre from May 1,
2006 to July 31, 2006.
Mr. Yoshi Arima & Ms. Debora       Mrs. Kanaye K. Kagetsu             Mrs. Kassie Nakamura               Dr. & Mrs. George & Kuni
Burke                              Mr. & Mrs. Roger & Joyce           Ms. Seiko Nakazawa                 Sugiyama
Mrs. Yoko Banks                    Kamikura                           Mr. & Mrs. Takashi & Keiko         Mr. Ed Suguro
Mrs. Martha Banno                  Mr. & Mrs. Yosh & Gail             Negoro                             Mrs. Kay Tagami
Mr. & Mrs. Katsuji & Kunikok       Kariatsumari                       Ms. Sakuya Nishimura               Mr. & Mrs. Tom & Avalon Tagami
Chiba                              Miss. Dottie Karr                  Mr. George Obara                   Mr. Seigo Takagawa
LA Dinsmore                        Ms. Tomoko kato                    Ms. Michiko Obara                  Mr. & Mrs. Mikio & Aiko Takeda
Mr. & Mrs. John & Karol Dubitz     Mr. Masaaki Kawabata               Mr. & Mrs. Yoshio & Kazuko         Mr. Tatsuya Takeda
Kyoko Endo                         Mr. Masanobu Kawahira              Ogura                              Mrs. Tamie Takeshita
Mr. Randy Enomoto & Ms. Lynn       Mr. & Mrs. Richard & Keiko         Mrs. Mary Ohara                    Ms. Harumi Tamoto
Westwood                           Kazuta                             Ms. Naoko Ohkohchi                 Mr. & Mrs. Kinzie & Terry Tanaka
Mr. & Mrs. Ken Ezaki               Mr. Kaye Kishibe                   Mr. & Mrs. Takafumi & Naomi        Mr. & Mrs. Shoji & Fusako Tanami
Rev errand & Mrs. Ohrai & Minako   Mr. & Mrs. John & Jean Kitagawa    Ohno                               Ms. Sian Tasaka
Fujikawa                           Mr. Koichi Kitagawa                Mr. & Mrs. George & Gene Oikawa    Mr. & Mrs. Tom & Margaret Taylor
Mrs. Kyomi Fujisawa                Mr. & Mrs. Jim & Michiko Kojima    Mrs. Joyce Oikawa                  Mrs. Marie Teraguchi
Mrs. Kay Fujishima                 Mr. & Mrs. Albert Kokuryo          Mrs. Marge Oike                    Mr. & Mrs. Nobuya & Kazue
Aurthur Gorai                      Ms. Christine Kondo                Mr. Kenji Okuda                    Tsurusaki
Mr. & Mrs. Bill & Lynn Green       Mr. Tom Kuwahara                   Mr. Herbert Ono & Ms. Tara         Mrs. Irene Tsuyuki
Mr. & Mrs. Shoji & Fumi            Mr. Thomas Madokoro                O’Connor                           Ms. Ikuye Uchida
Hamagami                           Ms. Wilhelmina Martin              Mr. & Mrs. Akira & Mikiko Oye      Vancouver Japanese Gardeners
Mr. Yoshiharu Hashimoto            Mr. David Masuhara & Ms. Beverly   Mrs. Linda Reid                    Association
Mr. & Mrs. Mickey & Betty          West                               Ms. Marilyn Robb                   Mrs. Yoshiko Wakabayashi
Hayashi                            Mr. & Mrs. Seishi & Kisako         Mr. & Mrs. Yoshiyuki & Masako      Mrs. Pearl Williams
Mrs. Susan Hidaka                  Matsuno                            Sakaue                             Tamiko Williams
Mr. & Mrs. T. Hirai                Ms. Yuki Matsuno                   Mr. & Mrs. Tats & Kim Sakauye      Miss Sheena Wilson
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Hirose           Mr. & Mrs. Mitsuyoshi & Lily       Mrs. Virginia Sato                 Mrs. Hisako Yamamoto
Mr. & Mrs. Ted & Nancy Hirota      Matsushita                         Mary Seko                          Ms. Norine K.Yamamoto
Mr. & Mrs. Mikio & Midori Hori     Ms. Judy Maxwell                   Mr. & Mrs. Tommy & Mitsuye         Mr. & Mrs. Steve & Dorothy
Mr. & Mrs. Mitsuru & Jean Hori     Mr. & Mrs. Hiroshi & Kay           Shimizu                            Yamamoto
Mr. Yoshio Hyodo                   Minemoto                           Mr. Sam Shinde                     Kimi Yano
Mr. Seikichi Inaba                 Mr. Akira Mori                     Mr. & Mrs. Wataru & Barbara        Mr. & Mrs. Mas. & Kaori Yano
Mr. & Mrs. Yusuke & Atsushi        Mr. & Mrs. Masanao & Shoko         Shishido                           Mr. Mitsuo Yesaki
Inagaki                            Morimura                           Miss Miriam Smith                  Terry Yoshikawa & Kazu Nishi
Mr. & Mrs. Charles & Lillian       Lillian Morishita                  Mr. & Mrs. Roy & Tsuyako           Mr. & Mrs. Kenji & Joan Yurugi
Kadota                             NAJC Kamloops Chapter              Sokugawa
Ms. Naoko Kadota                   Ms. Fumie Nakagawa                 Mr. & Mrs. Harold & Kathy Steves



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