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Emergency Operations

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 45

  • pg 1
									                      Standard
                     Operating
                     Procedures




Created by Jerome King            -0-
Preface
This document is informational in nature and is not designed to be used as an official
Standard Operation Guide or Procedures (SOG/SOP) document. This is designed to assist
fire and emergency response organizations build a comprehensive SOG/SOP with the
minimum standards as guidance. These standards are derived from the latest standard of
care organizations such as National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The Model SOP/SOG is designed to assist
organizations measure their current capabilities with the standard of care. No
organization will meet all standards addressed in this document. The purpose of the
document is to understand and address response limitations, administration shortfalls,
health and safety requirements, and training standards. Practical solutions to any
deficiencies in accordance with (IAW) hazards, life safety, and training of a local
jurisdiction should be the overall goal of any emergency response organizations.
Emergency medical protocol is not included in this document.
All emergency services organizations written SOG/SOP should be part of their initial and
annual reoccurring training program.




Created by Jerome King                                                                   -1-
                                   Table of Contents

Emergency Operations                                   pg. 4
1. Operating Emergency Vehicles                        pg. 4
2. Safety at Emergency Incidents                       pg. 6
       Incident Safety Officer                         pg. 7
       Rehabilitation                                  pg. 8
       Traffic and Roadway Incidents                   pg. 9
       Wildland Fire Suppression                       pg. 10
       Two –in-Two-out                                 pg. 11
3. Communication                                       pg. 12
4. Command and Control                                 pg. 14
5. Special Operations                                  pg. 15
6. Post Incident Operations                            pg. 17
       Critical Incident Stress Debriefing             pg. 17
Fire Suppression
1. Fire Suppression Risk Management                    pg. 20
2. Company Operations                                  pg. 20
       Company Units / Teams                           pg. 21
       Initial Attack Teams                            pg. 22
       Rapid Intervention Crew                         pg. 22
3. Tactical Strategic Guidelines                       pg. 23
4. Special Facilities                                  pg. 23
Hazardous Materials Response
1. Hazard Materials Risk Management                    pg. 25
2. First Responder Operations                          pg. 25
       Weapons of Mass Destruction                     pg. 26


Administration
1. Mission Statement                                   pg. 26
2. Risk Management Plan                                pg. 27
3. Health and Safety Policy                            pg. 29


Created by Jerome King                                          -2-
      Respiratory Protection                             pg. 29
      Protective Ensembles for Structural Firefighting   pg. 30
      Infection Control                                  pg. 32
      Health Maintenance                                 pg. 33
      Exposure Incidents                                 pg. 34
      Fire Department Facilities                         pg. 35
      Medical Program                                    pg. 36
      Occupational Safety Committee                      pg. 38
4. Pre-Incident Planning                                 pg. 39
5. Training                                              pg. 39
6. Communication                                         pg. 41
7. Information Management                                pg. 41
Appendix A                                               pg. 44




Created by Jerome King                                            -3-
                                 Emergency Operations

General Emergency Operations

PURPOSE
 This policy established procedure for operating emergency response on all incidents.

SCOPE
 This policy is a minimum standard operating procedure and does not exclude local
  protocol or other standards of care.

POLICY
1. Operating Emergency Vehicles
   1.1. All Driver/Operators (D/O) shall meet minimum level of certification and
        possess the required license for that class of vehicle established in writing by the
        Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) and applicable NFPA 1002 Standard for
        Fire Apparatus Driver⁄Operator Professional Qualifications before operating any
        apparatus unless under the direct supervision of a certified operator.
   1.2. The D/O shall operate the vehicle in compliance with local, state, and federal
        law. The D/O shall comply with all speed and traffic signs and indicators.
   1.3. D/Os are directly responsible for the safe operation of their vehicles while under
        their control.
   1.4. Company Officers directly supervising D/Os also take responsibility for the
        actions of the D/O
   1.5. D/O will use emergency lights and sirens on all responses.
   1.6. Wheel chocks shall be in place and the brake shall be set unless the driver is
        seated in the cab of the vehicle.
   1.7. Drivers shall not move fire apparatus until all persons on the vehicle are seated
        and secured with seat belts in approved riding positions including ride-along
        functions.
   1.8. D/O should position apparatus to protect operating crews from moving
        traffic. D/O shall obey all local, state, and federal traffic laws and speed limits.
   1.9. When a vehicle must be reversed, at least one back up/spotter should be used to
        alert the D/O of potential collision mishap.
       1.9.1. The D/O shall keep the spotter in sight at all times.


Created by Jerome King                                                                    -4-
      1.9.2. The D/O will come to a complete stop if the spotter cannot be seen.
   1.10.   The driver/operator of a emergency response vehicle encountering any of the
       following situations shall bring the vehicle to a complete stop and shall not
       proceed until it is confirmed that it is safe to do so:
      1.10.1. When directed by a law enforcement officer
      1.10.2. At red traffic lights
      1.10.3. At stop signs
      1.10.4. At negative right-of-way intersections
      1.10.5. At blind intersections
      1.10.6. When the driver cannot account for all lanes of traffic in an intersection
      1.10.7. When other intersection hazards are present
      1.10.8. When encountering a stopped school bus with flashing warning lights
      1.10.9. Responding emergency vehicles shall stop at all unguarded railroad
            crossings to ensure that a safe crossing can be made.
   1.11.   Riding Emergency Vehicles
      1.11.1. Standing or riding on tail steps, sidesteps, running boards, or in any other
            exposed position shall be specifically prohibited
      1.11.2. Members riding in a fire service vehicle shall remain seated and secured
            with seat belt until the vehicle comes to a complete stop.
      1.11.3. While the vehicle is in motion, the donning or doffing of equipment and
            personal protective clothing that requires removal of any restraining belt or
            other device shall be prohibited.
      1.11.4. Helmets shall be provided for and used by persons riding in open cab
            apparatus or open tiller seats.


   1.12.   Hose Loading Operations
      1.12.1. Hose loading operations performed with a moving apparatus shall only be
            accomplished following strict written safety guidelines by the AHJ.
      1.12.2. A member, other than those members loading hose, shall be assigned as a
            safety observer.




Created by Jerome King                                                                 -5-
      1.12.3. The safety observer shall have an unobstructed view of the hose-loading
            operation and shall be in visual and voice contact with the apparatus
            driver/operator.
      1.12.4. Vehicular traffic other than fire department vehicles shall be excluded
            from the area or shall be under the control of authorized traffic control
            persons.
      1.12.5. The fire apparatus shall be driven only in a forward direction at a speed of
            8 kph (5 mph) or less.
      1.12.6. Members shall be permitted to be in the hose bed but shall not be
            permitted to stand while the apparatus is in motion.
      1.12.7. Hearing protection shall be utilized wherever noise levels exceed those
            specified in NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety
            and Health Program
   1.13.   Operating in Hazardous Environments
      1.13.1. Operators shall observe all standard practices when operating in hostile
            and or hazardous environments. Local laws, regulations, and SOPs shall
            apply.
   1.14.   Operating a Privately Owned Vehicle
      1.14.1. Members responding to emergencies shall obey all traffic laws, speed
            limits, signs, and signals.
      1.14.2. Lights and sirens shall be used when equipped.
   1.15.   Vehicle Accident Reporting
      1.15.1. D/O operating emergency response vehicles involved in accidents shall
            render proper care, report the incident immediately; remain on scene until
            the incident is mitigated.
2. Safety at Emergency Incidents
      2.1.1. All emergency responders shall perform their duties in a safe manner IAW
            training and SOP. All responders shall immediately alert the Incident/Sector
            Commander and or stop any unsafe acts whenever possible.
      2.1.2. The IC maintains responsibility for overall safety during the entire
            incident



Created by Jerome King                                                                  -6-
      2.1.3. The IC shall perform risk management (risk vs. benefit analysis) before
           implementing any strategic plan IAW NFPA 1500 Ch.8.
      2.1.4. No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when there is no
           possibility to save lives or property.
      2.1.5. In situations where the risk to fire department members is excessive,
           activities shall be limited to defensive operations
      2.1.6. The IC should designate a safety officer as soon as possible or when the
           span of control has exceeded the optimum number (seven members on
           scene).
   2.2. The Incident Safety Officer (ISO)

      2.2.1.   The ISO shall be designated before or during the incident.
      2.2.2.   The ISO shall be a fire officer or should have National Incident
           Management System (NIMS), Incident Command System (ICS), or ISO
           training before being assigned as ISO. The ISO shall work directly for the IC
           during all incidents.
      2.2.3. The ISO shall have no other operational function that detracts from his/her
           respective duties. The ISO shall maintain safety vigilance during the
           response operation and termination.
      2.2.4. The ISO has the authority to stop any operation that violates safety
           guidelines and procedures.
      2.2.5. The ISO shall prepare and present safety briefings before, during, and
           after the incident or as deemed necessary by the Incident Commander (IC) or
           SOP. The ISO shall perform a post incident analysis IAW NFPA 1500 Ch.8,
           NFPA1561Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System.
   2.3. The ISO Assistant
      2.3.1. The ISO Assistant is assigned to assist the ISO in the safety duties or may
           be assigned to a group or sector under operations to enforce safety
           procedures. The ISO Assistant shall prepare briefings and maintain vigilance
           against any safety violations.




Created by Jerome King                                                                -7-
      2.3.2. The Accountability Officer
            2.3.2.1.The IC shall maintain overall responsibility for accountability during
                  the incident. Accountability Officer shall be designated before or
                  during the incident.
            2.3.2.2.The Accountability Officer shall employ the established
                  accountability system as soon as possible and conduct a Personal
                  Accountability Report (PAR) as soon as possible.
            2.3.2.3. The Accountability officer will maintain accountability of all
                  responders throughout the response.
            2.3.2.4. Periodic PAR count will conducted during the incident at specific
                  time intervals.
             2.3.2.4.1. A PAR will be conducted immediately after an emergency
                      evacuation of the hot zone or distress signal “May Day”
                      activation.
   2.4. Rehabilitation
            2.4.1.1. The IC shall establish an area IAW NFPA 1584 Standard on the
                  Rehabilitation Process for Members During Emergency Operations
                  and Training Exercises for rehabilitation purposes.

            2.4.1.2. Rehabilitation efforts shall include providing the following:

             2.4.1.2.1. Relief from climatic conditions
             2.4.1.2.2. Rest and recovery
             2.4.1.2.3. Active and/or passive cooling or warming as needed for
                      incident type and climate conditions
             2.4.1.2.4. Rehydration (fluid replacement)
             2.4.1.2.5. Calorie and electrolyte replacement, as appropriate, for longer
                      duration incidents
             2.4.1.2.6. Medical monitoring
             2.4.1.2.7. Member accountability
             2.4.1.2.8. Release




Created by Jerome King                                                                 -8-
           2.4.1.3. Members shall undergo rehabilitation following the use of a second
                 30-minute self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) cylinder, a
                 single 45-minute or 60-minute SCBA cylinder, or 40 minutes of
                 intense work without SCBA. A supervisor shall be permitted to adjust
                 the time frames depending upon work or environmental conditions.
           2.4.1.4. Work rest cycles shall be established of at least 10-20 minutes per
                 45 minutes of work.
           2.4.1.5. An Emergency Medical System (EMS) provider shall document
                 and maintain record of vital information for responders in
                 rehabilitation IAW NFPA 1584
   2.5. Traffic and Roadway Incidents
           2.5.1.1.Scene safety and traffic control shall be secured before operations
                 begin.
           2.5.1.2. Warning, transition, and buffer areas shall be established IAW
                 Federal, state, and local regulations.
                2.5.1.2.1.1. Warning devices a minimum of 100’ from the incident
                2.5.1.2.1.2. Taper/transition with traffic cones a maximum of 20’
                          intervals for at least 100'

                2.5.1.2.1.3. Buffer area – 30 MPH – 625’, 40 MPH – 825’, 50 MPH –
                          1000’, 60 MPH – 1300’, 70 MPH – 1450’

                2.5.1.2.1.4. Safety devices such as traffic cones, road flares should be
                          deployed to safely merge traffic away from the incident
                          scene.
                2.5.1.2.1.5. Stopping traffic completely and or closing lanes of traffic
                          should be considered.
             2.5.1.2.2. Only essential operations personnel and apparatus shall be in
                     the operations/hot zone area.
                2.5.1.2.2.1. Non essential personnel and resources shall be staged in
                          the cold zone/support area.




Created by Jerome King                                                               -9-
               2.5.1.2.3. PPE shall be worn with reflective vests IAW The American
                       National Standards Institute 207-2004 (ANSI /ISEA) and 23 Code
                       of Federal Regulations (CFR) 634
               2.5.1.2.4. Law enforcement should be dispatched to assist traffic control
               2.5.1.2.5. Safety officer should be assigned to all traffic incidents.
               2.5.1.2.6. D/O should position apparatus to protect/block operating crews
                       from moving traffic.


      2.5.2.   Wildland Fire Suppression .All responders at wildland or wildland
           urban interface incidents shall follow:
               2.5.2.1.1. NFPA 1561 Incident Management System
               2.5.2.1.2. Lookouts, Communications, Escape Routes, and Safety Zones
                       (LCES). LCES should be established before fighting the fire:
                       select lookouts, set up communications, choose escape routes, and
                       select safety zones.
               2.5.2.1.3. National Wildfire Coordination Group 10 Standard Orders:
                  2.5.2.1.3.1. Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts.
                  2.5.2.1.3.2. Know what your fire is doing at all times.
                  2.5.2.1.3.3. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the
                             fire.
                  2.5.2.1.3.4. Identify escape routes and make them known.
                  2.5.2.1.3.5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger.
                  2.5.2.1.3.6. Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively.
                             Organizational Control
                  2.5.2.1.3.7. Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your
                             supervisor, and adjoining forces.
                  2.5.2.1.3.8. Give clear instructions and ensure they are understood.
                  2.5.2.1.3.9. Maintain control of your forces at all times.
                             If 1 through 9 are considered, then
                  2.5.2.1.3.10.      Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.




Created by Jerome King                                                                    - 10 -
             2.5.2.1.4. 18 Watch Out Situations
                2.5.2.1.4.1.      Fire not scouted and sized up
                2.5.2.1.4.2.      In country not seen in daylight
                2.5.2.1.4.3.      Safety zones and escape routes not identified
                2.5.2.1.4.4.      Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing
                               fire behavior
                2.5.2.1.4.5.      Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards
                2.5.2.1.4.6.      Instructions and assignments not clear
                2.5.2.1.4.7.      No communication link between crew members and
                          supervisors
                2.5.2.1.4.8.      Constructing line without safe anchor point
                2.5.2.1.4.9.      Building line downhill with fire below
                2.5.2.1.4.10.     Attempting frontal assault on fire
                2.5.2.1.4.11.     Unburned fuel between you and the fire
                2.5.2.1.4.12.     Cannot see main fire, not in contact with anyone
                                  who can
                2.5.2.1.4.13.     On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel
                                  below
                2.5.2.1.4.14.     Weather gets hotter and drier
                2.5.2.1.4.15.     Wind increases and/or changes direction
                2.5.2.1.4.16.     Getting frequent spot fires across line
                2.5.2.1.4.17.     Terrain or fuels make escape to safety zones
                                  difficult
                2.5.2.1.4.18.     Feel like taking a nap near fireline.
      2.5.3. Two in Two Out / RIC
           2.5.3.1. A Rapid Intervention Crew consisting of least two members shall
                 be established and prepared (PPE, rescue tools) to assist distressed
                 entry/interior suppression teams.
           2.5.3.2. The RIC should be assembled outside of the IDLH area.




Created by Jerome King                                                                   - 11 -
              2.5.3.2.1. The RIC members shall not be assigned to any other operation
                      that would distract or prevent them from performing RIC
                      functions IAW NFPA 1500 Chapter 8.
              2.5.3.2.2. The standby members shall remain in radio, visual, voice, or
                      signal line communication with the crew.
              2.5.3.2.3. The assignment of any personnel, including the incident
                      commander, the safety officer, or operators of fire apparatus, shall
                      not be permitted as standby personnel if by abandoning their
                      critical task(s) to assist or, if necessary, perform rescue, they
                      clearly jeopardize the safety and health of any fire fighter working
                      at the incident.


3. Communications
   3.1. The Fire and Emergency Services organization shall maintain a reliable
       communication system IAW NFPA 1221 Standard for the Installation,
       Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems
      3.1.1. At least two independent and reliable power sources shall be provided, one
           primary and one secondary, each of which shall be of adequate capacity for
           operation of the communications center.
      3.1.2. Telecommunicators shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA
           1061, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Public Safety
           Telecommunicator, as appropriate for their position.
      3.1.3. The first emergency response unit that arrives at the location of the alarm
           shall provide a brief preliminary report on observed conditions to the
           communications center.
      3.1.4. All emergency response agencies shall use common terminology and
           integrated incident communications. Ten codes or similar communications
           codes shall not be used.
      3.1.5. Integrated incident communications shall include a plan that provides
           for on-demand interoperability of communication methods among
           emergency response agencies.



Created by Jerome King                                                                    - 12 -
      3.1.6. The emergency communications plan shall provide for real-time
           communications between organizations responding to the same emergency
           incident.
             3.1.6.1.1. This plan shall be exercised at least once a year
      3.1.7. Communications centers shall have a logging voice recorder with one
           channel for each of the following:
           3.1.7.1. Each transmitted or received radio channel or talk-group
           3.1.7.2. Each dispatch alarm circuit
           3.1.7.3. Each telecommunicator telephone


   3.2. Emergency Traffic Communications and Distress Signals
      3.2.1. To enable responders to be notified of an emergency condition or situation
           when they are assigned to an area designated as immediately dangerous to
           life or health (IDLH), at least one responder on each crew or company shall
           be equipped with a portable radio and each responder on the crew or
           company shall be equipped with either a portable radio or another means of
           electronic communication. IAW NFPA 1561.
      3.2.2. Emergency traffic messages, “May Day” and other distress signals shall
           be utilized immediately when any potential life safety risk involves a
           responder at the incident.
           3.2.2.1. The Incident Commander shall take immediate action to mitigate
                  the hazard to the responder
           3.2.2.2. Emergency traffic messages shall be given priority above all
                  routine communication. The term “emergency traffic” shall be
                  communicated in order to clear the channel for emergency traffic
                  messages.
      3.2.3. Warning signals (i.e. 3 short blasts on the horn) shall be established and
           used when potential hazards are recognized for immediate evacuation of
           “hot zone” areas.




Created by Jerome King                                                              - 13 -
4. Command and Control
   4.1. The incident commander has overall responsibility for safety and accountability
       at all incidents.
      4.1.1. The Incident Commander (IC)
            4.1.1.1. The first arriving company officer shall establish command
                    immediately on arrival of the incident IAW NFPA 1561.
            4.1.1.2. Size up and establish incident priorities.
            4.1.1.3. Establish a stationary command post.
            4.1.1.4. Communicate a brief incident report.
            4.1.1.5. Develop and communicate an Incident Action Plan
            4.1.1.6. Secure, control, and maintain emergency communications
            4.1.1.7. Establish control zones
            4.1.1.8. Request additional needed resources immediately
            4.1.1.9. The IC shall perform risk management (risk vs. benefit analysis)
                    before implementing any strategic plan IAW NFPA 1500 Ch.8.
              4.1.1.9.1. No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when
                       there is no possibility to save lives or property.
              4.1.1.9.2. In situations where the risk to fire department members is
                       excessive, activities shall be limited to defensive operations.
            4.1.1.10. The IC shall maintain control of all operations at all times using
                    the ICS system.
            4.1.1.11. Transfer of command procedures shall be executed IAW NFPA
                    1561, i.e.; command will not be transferred to someone who is not
                    on scene. Command transfer is not automatic when ranking
                    personnel arrive on scene. Transfer of command will include a
                    briefing (face-to-face optimal) and an announcement of the transfer.
   4.2. Establish a unified command where jurisdictions or interests overlap.




Created by Jerome King                                                                   - 14 -
5. Special Operations
   5.1. Those emergency incidents to which the fire department responds that require
       specific and advanced training and specialized tools and equipment will
       considered Special Operations
      5.1.1. ICS will be implemented on all Special Operations and HAZ MAT/WMD
           Incidents IAW NFPA 1561
   5.2. Hazardous Materials/WMD Incidents
      5.2.1. Any Level II or Level III HAZ MAT incident will require a HAZ MAT
           Response Team meeting competency requirements IAW NFPA 472
           Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons
           of Mass Destruction Incidents, and OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous
           Waste Operations and Emergency Response.
      5.2.2.     A minimum of eight HAZ MAT Technicians, one HAZ MAT Incident
           Commander, one HAZ MAT Assistant Safety Officer, four HAZ MAT
           Awareness Responders, and an EMS team is required.
               5.2.2.1.The level of response shall not exceed the level of training,
                      resources, or risk before engaging in offensive or defensive
                      operations.
      5.2.3. Protective action should be implemented immediately IAW DOT ERG
      5.2.4. Isolate, Evacuate/Protect in Place, and Deny Entry should be executed as
           soon as HAZ MAT/WMD has been suspected or identified.
      5.2.5. Emergency Decontamination shall be established before rescue operations
           begin, i.e. manned fire hose.
      5.2.6. Incident Action Plan, Safety Briefing, and Decontamination procedures
           shall be briefed before hot zone entry is made.
      5.2.7. A minimum of a two technician level back up team will be dressed in
           place before hot zone entry takes place.
   5.3. Scenes of Violence, Civil Unrest, or Terrorism
      5.3.1. The fire department incident commander shall identify and react to
           situations that do involve or are likely to involve violence.




Created by Jerome King                                                                 - 15 -
      5.3.2. Under no circumstances shall fire department equipment or personnel be
           used for crowd control or to disperse.
      5.3.3. In such violent situations, the fire department incident commander shall
           stage all fire department resources in a safe area until the law enforcement
           agency has secured the scene.
      5.3.4. The IC shall withdraw fire responders from the scene if violence occurs
           after operations begin until the scene is secure.
   5.4. Rope rescue including high angle
      5.4.1. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications shall be conduct
           tactical operations.
      5.4.2. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task
   5.5. Water Rescue
      5.5.1. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           shall be conduct tactical operations
      5.5.2. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task
      5.5.3. Members involved in water rescue shall be issued and wear personal
           flotation devices that meet U.S. Coast Guard requirements
   5.6. Trench/collapse rescue
      5.6.1. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           shall be conduct tactical operations
      5.6.2. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task
   5.7. Confined space rescue
      5.7.1. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           shall be conduct tactical operations
      5.7.2. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task




Created by Jerome King                                                               - 16 -
   5.8. Extrication rescue
      5.8.1. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           shall be conduct tactical operations
      5.8.2. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task
   5.9. Urban / Wilderness search and rescue (USAR)
      5.9.1. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           shall be conduct tactical operations
      5.9.2. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task
      5.9.3. Mine/Tunnel/Cave rescue operations
      5.9.4. A minimum of four rescuers with requisite level I skills IAW NFPA 1006
           shall be conduct tactical operations
      5.9.5. At least one technician level or advanced skill qualified rescuer shall lead
           the rescue group/task.
6. Post Incident Operations
   6.1. Terminate emergency operations, Incident Termination. The conclusion of
       emergency service operations at the scene of an incident, usually the departure of
       the last unit from the scene is termination.
      6.1.1. Termination of emergency operations shall be determined and announced
           to all responders by the Incident Commander.
            6.1.1.1. All clear distinction shall be made between
            6.1.1.2. Non emergent activities (i.e. clean up and recovery) at the incident
                   shall be coordinated and briefed to all agencies involved.
            6.1.1.3. Safety briefings shall be conducted for non emergent activities.
      6.1.2. Debrief all responders
            6.1.2.1. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) shall be conducted for
                   all traumatic incidents and when it is requested by responders. Follow
                   up treatment for identified responders shall be immediately scheduled
                   by the IC, Health and Safety Officer or designee.




Created by Jerome King                                                               - 17 -
             6.1.2.1.1. CISD resources shall be identified and recognized by all
                     members during pre-incident planning
           6.1.2.2. Exposures Incidents. The fire department shall ensure that a
                  member who has experienced an exposure incident receives the
                  following:
             6.1.2.2.1. Immediate decontamination, medical guidance, evaluation,
                     and, where appropriate, post-exposure prophylaxis
             6.1.2.2.2. Appropriate, confidential, post-exposure counseling and
                     testing
             6.1.2.2.3. All exposure incidents shall be recorded in writing as soon as
                     possible after the incident using a standardized form designed to
                     allow for follow-up.
             6.1.2.2.4. The record shall include the following:
                 6.1.2.2.4.1. Description of the tasks being performed when the
                           exposure incident occurred
                 6.1.2.2.4.2. Source of transmission including any relevant medical and
                           social history
                 6.1.2.2.4.3. Portal of entry
                 6.1.2.2.4.4. PPE utilized
                 6.1.2.2.4.5. Disposition of medical management
                 6.1.2.2.4.6. Documentation records shall be in compliance with NFPA
                           1500 Ch.10
             6.1.2.2.5. The fire department physician shall determine fitness-for-duty
                     status after reviewing documentation of a member's exposure.
      6.1.3. Schedule a critique of the incident. Critiques should be a productive
           assessment of positive and negative procedures and results of the incident.
           The critique session should include:
           6.1.3.1. Clear objectives
           6.1.3.2. Time limit on the critique session ( i.e. 1 hour)
           6.1.3.3. Written reports to include findings and suggestions




Created by Jerome King                                                             - 18 -
           6.1.3.4. Comparison between the incident, SOP/SOG and training to
                 determine improvement measures objectively.
           6.1.3.5. When critiques include multiple agencies a pre-critique meeting
                 shall be conducted to ensure a conclusive organizational assessment
                 of events.
      6.1.4. Transfer command/authority to responsible party
           6.1.4.1. Transfer of command procedures shall be executed IAW NFPA
                 1561, i.e.; command will not be transferred to someone who is not
                 on scene. Command transfer is not automatic when ranking
                 personnel arrive on scene.
           6.1.4.2. Transfer of command will include a briefing (face-to-face optimal)
                 and an announcement of the transfer. Transfer shall be communicated
                 to all responders and documented on incident log.
           6.1.4.3. A detailed briefing of events shall be given before transfer of
                 command takes place.
           6.1.4.4. Once the Emergency Service Organization (ESO) has left the
                 property or returned the property to the owner or representative, the
                 ESO must receive permission to return to the property from the
                 owner.
           6.1.4.5. If an investigation is needed ( crime, WMD, arson) the ESO/ AHJ
                 is responsible for requesting an investigator via local Sheriff Office,
                 Fire Department, County Emergency Office, State Department of
                 Criminal Investigation, or State Fire Marshal.




Created by Jerome King                                                                - 19 -
                                      Fire Suppression

PURPOSE
 This policy established procedure for fire suppression response on all incidents.


SCOPE
   This policy is a minimum standard operating procedure and does not exclude local
    protocol or other standards of care.
   Policy


1. Fire Suppression Risk Management
    1.1. The IC shall perform risk management (risk vs. benefit analysis) before
        implementing any strategic plan IAW NFPA 1500 Ch.8.
    1.2. No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when there is no possibility
        to save lives or property.
    1.3. In situations where the risk to fire department members is excessive, activities
        shall be limited to defensive operations.
2. Company Operations
    2.1. The incident commander has overall responsibility for safety and accountability
        at all incidents.
       2.1.1. The Incident Commander (IC)
             2.1.1.1. The first arriving company officer shall establish command
                    immediately on arrival of the incident IAW NFPA 1561.
                 2.1.1.1.1. Size up and establish incident priorities.
                 2.1.1.1.2. Establish a stationary command post.
                 2.1.1.1.3. Communicate a brief incident report.
                 2.1.1.1.4. Develop and communicate an Incident Action Plan
             2.1.1.2.   Secure, control, and maintain emergency communications
             2.1.1.3.   Establish control zones
             2.1.1.4.   Request additional needed resources immediately




Created by Jerome King                                                                 - 20 -
      2.1.2. Company Officers
         2.1.2.1.   The first company officer on scene shall assume command and
                initiate the following operating modes depending on the incident:
             2.1.2.1.1. Investigation Mode
                 2.1.2.1.1.1. No fire evident on scene arrival, investigate incident
             2.1.2.1.2. Initial Attack Mode
                 2.1.2.1.2.1.Lead an initial quick attack in order to mitigate the situation
             2.1.2.1.3. Command Post Mode
                 2.1.2.1.3.1.Large or complex incident is identified and resources shall
                           be given assignments or staged as command post operation is
                           set up.
         2.1.2.2.Company Officers shall report to the IC for assignment and maintain
                100% accountability of their respective companies, crews, sectors, or
                groups. PAR counts shall be conducted and communicated as soon as
                possible when they are requested.
         2.1.2.3.Officers shall enforce safety procedures and activate “May
                Day”/distress signal procedures for any safety occurrence.
         2.1.2.4.Fire Officers shall report status of assignments at given increments or
                when the IC requests status reports
      2.1.3. Company Units/ Teams
         2.1.3.1.   Complete PPE and SCBA shall be worn in all hazardous/IDLH
                areas.
             2.1.3.1.1. Personnel shall not doff PPE/SCBA in hazardous areas until
                     monitors indicate safe conditions.
         2.1.3.2.   A minimum of four personnel shall respond as a company to a
                given incident
         2.1.3.3.   A minimum of four personnel shall respond as a company to a
                given incident.
         2.1.3.4.   Company members shall operate as a minimum two member teams
                when assigned to any tactical task or operation.




Created by Jerome King                                                                 - 21 -
         2.1.3.5.   Operations members shall maintain safety vigilance and operate
                within the scope of their training.
         2.1.3.6.   Operations members shall not freelance or perform any strategic or
                tactical operation that has not been assigned to them.
         2.1.3.7.   Members shall employ “May Day”/distress signals for any unsafe
                occurrence.
      2.1.4. Initial Attack Team
         2.1.4.1.   Initial attack operations teams shall be organized to ensure that if,
                upon arrival at the emergency scene, initial attack personnel find an
                imminent life-threatening situation where immediate action could
                prevent the loss of life or serious injury, such action is permitted with
                less than four personnel when conducted IAW NFPA 1500.
         2.1.4.2.   A minimum of four personnel shall be organized to conduct
                interior fire suppression operations.
         2.1.4.3.   A minimum of one 1 ½” attack line and one 1 ½” back up line
                should be deployed on all fire incidents and potential fire incidents
                including vehicle fires.
         2.1.4.4.   A stationary water source shall be secured on all fire incidents
                before interior fire attack is started.
      2.1.5. Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) consisting of least two members shall be
           established and prepared (PPE, rescue tools) to assist distressed
           entry/interior suppression teams.
         2.1.5.1.   RIC should be assembled outside of the IDLH area.
         2.1.5.2.   The RIC members shall not be assigned to any other operation that
                would distract or prevent them from performing RIC functions IAW
                NFPA 1500 Chapter 8.
         2.1.5.3.   The standby members shall remain in radio, visual, voice, or signal
                line communication with the crew.
         2.1.5.4.   The assignment of any personnel, including the incident
                commander, the safety officer, or operators of fire apparatus, shall not
                be permitted as standby personnel if by abandoning their critical task(s)



Created by Jerome King                                                               - 22 -
                 to assist or, if necessary, perform rescue, they clearly jeopardize the
                 safety and health of any fire fighter working at the incident


3. Tactical/Strategic Guidelines
   3.1. The Strategies and tactics shall be governed by the results of pre-incident
       planning, size up, risk vs. benefit analysis and an Incident Action Plan.
       3.1.1. Strategic goals shall include life safety (responders, victims, and potential
            victims), incident stabilization, and property/environment preservation in
            that particular order.
          3.1.1.1.    Tactical goals may include the priorities model Rescue Exposures
                 Confine Extinguishment Overhaul Ventilation and Salvage or RECEO
                 V/S.
       3.1.2. Modes of operation should guide the application of available resources.
          3.1.2.1.    Modes of operation may include Rescue, Offensive, Defensive,
                 Non-Intervention, and Investigation.
              3.1.2.1.1. These modes shall only be employed one at a time
              3.1.2.1.2.   Command and Quick Attack/Fast Action differentiate between
                        longer operations and operation that require immediate actions.
       3.1.3. No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when there is no
            possibility to save lives or property.
       3.1.4. In situations where the risk to fire department members is excessive,
            activities shall be limited to defensive operations.
       3.1.5. The IC shall maintain control of all operations at all times using the ICS
            system.
4. Special Facilities / Target Hazards
   4.1. Special Facilities that contain high hazard contents shall be classified as those
       that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or from which explosions are likely
       IAW NFPA 101 Life Safety Codes shall be considered special / target hazards.
   4.2. Mutual Aid and additional resources shall be notified and/or activated
       immediately to the incident scene.




Created by Jerome King                                                                - 23 -
   4.3. The Incident Action Plan shall be formed IAW pre-incident plans. Only
       advanced trained responders will engage in tactical operations for areas and
       special hazards that require advanced training to accomplish strategic and tactical
       goals.




Created by Jerome King                                                                - 24 -
                             Hazardous Materials Response
PURPOSE
 This policy established procedure for fire suppression response on all incidents.


SCOPE
   This policy is a minimum standard operating procedure and does not exclude local
    protocol or other standards of care.
   Policy


1. Hazard Materials Risk Management
    1.1. The IC shall perform risk management (risk vs. benefit analysis) before
        implementing any strategic plan IAW NFPA 1500 Ch.8.
    1.2. No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when there is no possibility
        to save lives or property.
    1.3. In situations where the risk to fire department members is excessive, activities
        shall be limited to defensive operations.
2. First Responder Operations
    2.1. First responders will isolate, deny entry, and assist in evacuation or protection in
        place IAW the Department of Transportation (DOT) Emergency Response
        Guidebook (ERG).
    2.2. HAZ MAT incidents that require a formal hazardous materials team or incidents
        that require state and federal involvement (i.e. Level II or Level III HAZ MAT
        incidents) will require a HAZ MAT Response Team meeting competency
        requirements IAW NFPA 472 and OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120. Level I HAZ MAT
        incidents or incidents that do not require evacuation of the public and can be
        mitigated by local responders will not require a hazardous materials team.
       2.2.1. A minimum of eight HAZ MAT Technicians, one HAZ MAT Incident
             Commander, one HAZ MAT Assistant Safety Officer, four HAZ MAT
             Awareness Responders, and an EMS team is required.
       2.2.2. The level of response shall not exceed the level of training, resources, or
             risk before engaging in offensive or defensive operations.



Created by Jerome King                                                                  - 25 -
      2.2.3. Regional Emergency Response Teams shall be notified through the state
           highway patrol or county Emergency Manager when the incident exceeds
           the response.
      2.2.4. Only defensive action shall be implemented until the HAZ MAT team is
           prepared to enter the hot control zone.
      2.2.5. Protective action should be implemented immediately IAW DOT ERG or
           other relevant documents
         2.2.5.1. Isolate, Evacuate/Protect in Place, and Deny Entry should be executed
                as soon as HAZ MAT/WMD has been suspected or identified.
      2.2.6. Emergency Decontamination shall be established before rescue operations
           begin, i.e. manned fire hose.
      2.2.7. Incident Action Plan, Safety Briefing, and Decontamination procedures
           shall be briefed before hot zone entry is made.
      2.2.8. A minimum of a two technician level back up team will be dressed in
           place before hot zone entry takes place.
   2.3. Weapons of mass destruction and terrorism incidents
      2.3.1. Local law enforcement and county emergency manager should be notified
           for WMD and suspected terrorism incidents
      2.3.2. Only trained explosive ordinance technicians shall handle any suspected
           explosive devices, packages, or substances.
      2.3.3. Responders will isolate, evacuate, deny entry and assume a defensive or
           non-intervention posture until an explosive ordinance team is on scene.
      2.3.4. All responders will stay vigilante against secondary devices or any actions
           designed to injury or kill responders.




Created by Jerome King                                                               - 26 -
                                      Administration


PURPOSE
 This policy established procedure for fire and emergency services administrative
    function.
SCOPE
   This policy is a suggested administrative procedure and does not exclude local
    protocol or other standards of care.


POLICY

1. Mission Statement
    1.1. The fire and emergency services organization shall write an organizational
        statement establishing the existence of the organization, the capabilities, and
        minimum manning and equipment sets in order to perform its functions IAW
        NFPA 1500 Ch.4.1
2. Risk Management Plan
    2.1. The fire department shall develop and adopt a comprehensive written risk
        management plan.
    2.2. The risk management plan shall at least cover the risks associated with the
        following:
       2.2.1. Administration
       2.2.2. Facilities
       2.2.3. Training
       2.2.4. Vehicle operations, both emergency and non-emergency
       2.2.5. Protective clothing and equipment
       2.2.6. Operations at emergency incidents
       2.2.7. Operations at non-emergency incidents
       2.2.8. Other related activities
    2.3. The risk management plan should address the following concerns for all previous
        items and including:



Created by Jerome King                                                                 - 27 -
      2.3.1. Risk identification
      2.3.2. A list of the risks to which members are or can be exposed
      2.3.3. Records of previous accidents, illnesses, and injuries, both locally and
           nationally
      2.3.4. Facility and apparatus surveys, inspections, and so forth
      2.3.5. Risk Evaluation Evaluate each item listed in the risk identification process
           using the following two questions: (Use professional statistical studies or
           reports as evidence)
         2.3.5.1.     What is the potential frequency of occurrence?
         2.3.5.2.     What is the potential severity and expense of its occurrence?
      2.3.6. Identify priorities for action.
         2.3.6.1.     Use high risk high probability versus low risk low probability to
                 prioritize.
      2.3.7. Establish risk control measures
         2.3.7.1.     Eliminate or avoid the risk
             2.3.7.1.1. Example - If ice on the ground causes risk of falling, don’t
                        walk on the ice.
         2.3.7.2.     Control the risk
             2.3.7.2.1. Example - Apply sand to ice to mitigate falling risks.
         2.3.7.3.     Other Control Methods
             2.3.7.3.1. Training
                 2.3.7.3.1.1. Defensive Driving Program
             2.3.7.3.2. Inspections
                 2.3.7.3.2.1. Monthly Maintenance
             2.3.7.3.3. Safety Program enforcement
                 2.3.7.3.3.1. Correcting unsafe acts
                      2.3.7.3.3.1.1. Follow Up and Monitoring
                      2.3.7.3.3.1.2. Annual risk management review




Created by Jerome King                                                                - 28 -
                  2.3.7.3.3.2.     The AHJ shall review the Risk Management plan
                  2.3.7.3.3.3.     The AHJ shall modify the Risk Management plan to
                                  rectify any deficiencies noted in the review.
3. Health and Safety Policy
      3.1.1. Organizational policy shall adopt NFPA 1500 Standard on Fire
           Department Occupational Safety and Health Program
      3.1.2. Respiratory Protection
          3.1.2.1.    NFPA 1981 Standard on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing
                 Apparatus (SCBA) for Emergency Services
          3.1.2.2.    All SCBA apparatus shall be NIOSH compliant to include:
          3.1.2.3.    Positive Pressure and not Demand Pressure capable
          3.1.2.4.    Heads Up Display/ Visual Alerting
          3.1.2.5.    Rapid Intervention Crew Universal Air Connection
          3.1.2.6.    Two independent End of Service Time Indicators
          3.1.2.7.    The air cylinder shall be hydrostatically tested IAW Department of
                 Transportation regulations and manufacturers instruction.
          3.1.2.8.    The last hydrostatic test date shall be indicated on the cylinder
          3.1.2.9.    NFPA 1989 Standard on Breathing Air Quality for Fire and
                 Emergency Services Respiratory Protection.
              3.1.2.9.1. Air samples shall be sent to an accredited testing laboratory at
                      least quarterly or whenever the air compressor, stored air, or
                      SCBA cylinder air has been exposed to contaminants.
              3.1.2.9.2. The fire department shall maintain documentation from the
                      accredited testing laboratory of the results of all air sample tests
                      for a period of not less than five (5) years.
          3.1.2.10.   All responders expected to work in IDLH environments :
              3.1.2.10.1.        Shall train IAW NFPA 1404 Standard for Fire Service
                      Respiratory Protection Training
              3.1.2.10.2.        Shall be medically clear to wear respiratory protection IAW
                      NFPA 1500 Ch.7, OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 Respiratory
                      Protection.


Created by Jerome King                                                                 - 29 -
             3.1.2.10.3.     Fit tests annually IAW 29 CFR 1910.134 App A Fit
                     Testing Procedures
             3.1.2.10.4.     When a member must wear spectacles while using full
                     facepiece respiratory protection, the facepiece shall be fitted with
                     spectacles in such a manner that they shall not interfere with the
                     facepiece-to-face seal.
             3.1.2.10.5.     Shall not have facial hair that comes between the sealing
                     surface of the facepiece and the face or that interferes with valve
                     function IAW NFPA 1500 Ch. 7, 29 CFR 1910.134
      3.1.3. Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting
         3.1.3.1.   Members who engage in or are exposed to the hazards of structural
                fire fighting shall be provided with and shall use a protective ensemble
                that shall meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1971, Standard on
                Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire
                Fighting
         3.1.3.2.   All protective ensembles shall meet or exceed NFPA 1971
                standards and be certified by an accredited organization indicated by a
                label on the equipment.
         3.1.3.3.   All new protective clothing and protective equipment shall meet
                the requirements of the current edition of the respective NFPA standard
                for that protective clothing or protective equipment.
         3.1.3.4.   Existing protective clothing and protective equipment shall have
                been in compliance with the edition of the respective NFPA standard
                that was current when the protective clothing or protective equipment
                was manufactured.
         3.1.3.5.   Structural fire-fighting protective clothing shall be cleaned at least
                every 6 months as specified in NFPA 1851, Standard on Selection,
                Care, and Maintenance of Structural Fire Fighting Protective
                Ensembles.
             3.1.3.5.1. Where such cleaning is conducted in fire stations, the fire
                     department shall provide at least one washing machine for this



Created by Jerome King                                                                - 30 -
                     purpose in the designated cleaning area specified in NFPA 1581,
                     Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Program
             3.1.3.5.2. Soiled or potentially contaminated ensembles or ensemble
                     elements shall not be brought into the home, washed in home
                     laundries, or washed in public laundries
         3.1.3.6.   IAW NFPA 1851 the required parts of the organizations protective
                equipment program shall include:
                 3.1.3.6.1.1. Records
                 3.1.3.6.1.2. Storage
                 3.1.3.6.1.3. Selection
                 3.1.3.6.1.4. Inspection
                 3.1.3.6.1.5. Repair
                 3.1.3.6.1.6. Cleaning and Decontamination
                 3.1.3.6.1.7. Retirement, disposition, and special incident procedures
         3.1.3.7.   Members' PPE shall be taken out of service after 15 years from
                date of manufacture, regardless of testing or inspection procedures.
         3.1.3.8.   Proper use consistent with NFPA 1500, and 29 CFR 1910.132,
                General Requirements of Subpart I, “Personal Protective Equipment”
         3.1.3.9.   Eye protection - Primary eye protection shall meet the
                requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z87.1,
                Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection
             3.1.3.9.1. The helmet faceshield alone shall not be considered and shall
                     not be used as primary eye protection
             3.1.3.9.2. The full facepiece of SCBA shall constitute face and eye
                     protection when worn
             3.1.3.9.3. When operating in the hazardous area at an emergency scene
                     without the full facepiece of respiratory protection being worn,
                     members shall wear primary eye protection that is designed to
                     protect the member's eyes from the expected hazards.




Created by Jerome King                                                             - 31 -
         3.1.3.10.   Hearing Protection – Hearing protection shall be provided for and
                used by all members operating or riding on fire apparatus when subject
                to noise in excess of 90 dBA.
             3.1.3.10.1.    Hearing protection shall be provided for and used by all
                     members when exposed to noise in excess of 90 dBA caused by
                     power tools or equipment, other than in situations where the use
                     of such protective equipment would create an additional hazard to
                     the user.
         3.1.3.11.   Personal Alert Safety System (PASS)
             3.1.3.11.1.    NFPA 1500 Standard on Fire Department Occupational
                     Safety and Health Program, requires that each person involved in
                     rescue, fire fighting, or other hazardous duties be provided with
                     and use a PASS.
             3.1.3.11.2.    NFPA 1982 Standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems
                     (PASS)
             3.1.3.11.3.    PASS should be worn on protective clothing or protective
                     equipment, or as an integrated part of another item of protective
                     clothing or protective equipment and used whenever the member
                     is involved in fire suppression or similar activities, regardless of
                     whether SCBA is worn
      3.1.4. Infection Control Program
         3.1.4.1.    NFPA 1581, Standard on Fire Department Infection Control
                Program, shall be followed by all responders
         3.1.4.2.    The fire department shall have a written infection control policy
                with the goal of identifying and limiting the exposure of members to
                infection during the performance of their assigned duties and within the
                fire department working and living environment.
         3.1.4.3.    The fire department shall have a designated infection control
                officer.
             3.1.4.3.1. The infection control officer shall be a designated member of
                     the fire department's occupational safety and health committee



Created by Jerome King                                                                - 32 -
             3.1.4.3.2. When notified of an exposure incident, the infection control
                     officer shall ensure the following:
                 3.1.4.3.2.1. Notification, verification, treatment, and medical follow-
                          up of members
                 3.1.4.3.2.2. Documentation of the exposure incident
         3.1.4.4.   The fire department shall provide for the cleaning and disinfection
                or disposal of the following:
             3.1.4.4.1. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
             3.1.4.4.2. Structural fire-fighting protective equipment
             3.1.4.4.3. Station/work uniforms
             3.1.4.4.4. Other clothing, if utilized as PPE
             3.1.4.4.5. Emergency medical equipment
             3.1.4.4.6. Apparatus and vehicles
      3.1.5. Health Maintenance
         3.1.5.1.   The fire department physician shall ensure that each member is
                offered currently recommended immunizations at no cost to the
                member
         3.1.5.2.   All members shall be immunized against infectious diseases as
                required by the authority having jurisdiction and by 29 CFR 1910.1030,
                Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne
                Pathogens.
         3.1.5.3.   Members who choose to decline immunizations offered by the
                department shall be required to sign a written declination.
             3.1.5.3.1. The declination shall become part of the member's confidential
                     health data base
             3.1.5.3.2. Members shall be allowed to recant their declinations at any
                     time and receive the offered immunizations
         3.1.5.4.   The following infectious disease immunizations or infectious
                disease screening shall be provided, as indicated:




Created by Jerome King                                                              - 33 -
             3.1.5.4.1.   Tuberculosis screen (PPD) (annually or more frequently
                     according to CDC guidelines) unless member has a history of
                     positive PPD
             3.1.5.4.2. Hepatitis C virus screen (baseline and following occupational
                     exposure)
             3.1.5.4.3.   Hepatitis B virus vaccinations and titers (as specified in CDC
                     guidelines)
             3.1.5.4.4. Tetanus/diphtheria vaccine (booster every 10 years)
             3.1.5.4.5. Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine
             3.1.5.4.6. Polio vaccine
             3.1.5.4.7. Hepatitis A vaccine offered to high-risk personnel (HazMat,
                     USAR, and SCUBA) and other personnel with frequent or
                     expected exposures to contaminated water
             3.1.5.4.8. Varicella vaccine offered to all nonimmune personnel
             3.1.5.4.9.   Influenza vaccine offered to all personnel annually
             3.1.5.4.10. HIV screening available to all personnel
             3.1.5.4.11. HIV testing offered on a confidential basis as part of post-
                     exposure protocols and as requested by the physician or
                     member
      3.1.6. Exposure Incidents.
         3.1.6.1.    If a member experiences an exposure incident, the exposed area
                shall be immediately and thoroughly washed using water on mucosal
                surfaces and soap and running water on skin surfaces.
         3.1.6.2.    If soap and running water are not available, waterless soap,
                antiseptic wipes, alcohol, or other skin cleaning agents that do not need
                running water shall be used until soap and running water are obtained.
         3.1.6.3.    The fire department shall have an established procedure and shall
                train in that procedure to ensure that when a member experiences an
                exposure incident, the immediate supervisor is notified and the member
                seeks immediate medical evaluation.




Created by Jerome King                                                              - 34 -
         3.1.6.4.   The fire department shall ensure that a member who has
                experienced an exposure incident receives the following:
             3.1.6.4.1. (1)      Immediate medical guidance, evaluation, and, where
                     appropriate, post-exposure prophylaxis
             3.1.6.4.2. (2)      Appropriate, confidential, post-exposure counseling and
                     testing
         3.1.6.5.   All exposure incidents shall be recorded in writing as soon as
                possible after the incident using a standardized form designed to allow
                for follow-up.
         3.1.6.6.   The record shall include the following:
             3.1.6.6.1. Description of the tasks being performed when the exposure
                     incident occurred
             3.1.6.6.2. Source of transmission including any relevant medical and
                     social history
             3.1.6.6.3. Portal of entry
             3.1.6.6.4. PPE utilized
             3.1.6.6.5. Disposition of medical management
             3.1.6.6.6. Documentation records shall be in compliance with NFPA
                     1500 Ch.10
         3.1.6.7.   The fire department physician shall determine fitness-for-duty
                status after reviewing documentation of a member's exposure.
      3.1.7. Fire Department Facilities
         3.1.7.1.   All fire department facilities shall comply with health and infection
                control laws, regulations, and standards for public use facilities IAW
                NFPA 1581 Ch.5
         3.1.7.2.   Contaminated and potentially contaminated equipment,
                SCBA, PPE shall not be stored, cleaned, or placed in
                kitchen/dinning, living, recreation or sleeping areas.
         3.1.7.3.   All PPE equipment should be considered potentially contaminated.
         3.1.7.4.   The fire department shall provide for cleaning of the following:
             3.1.7.4.1. PPE



Created by Jerome King                                                               - 35 -
             3.1.7.4.2. Station/work uniforms
             3.1.7.4.3. Structural fire-fighting equipment
         3.1.7.5.   Cleaning shall be performed by a cleaning service or fire
                department facility equipped to handle contaminated clothing.
         3.1.7.6.   Where cleaning provided by the fire department is conducted in
                fire stations, the fire department shall provide at least one washing
                machine and clothes dryer for the purpose of cleaning PPE and
                station/work uniforms in the designated cleaning area.
         3.1.7.7.   If structural fire-fighting equipment is to be cleaned at a fire
                department facility, a separate and dedicated machine for the sole
                purpose of cleaning structural fire-fighting equipment shall be
                provided.
      3.1.8. Medical Program
         3.1.8.1.   NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical
                Program for Fire Departments shall be followed.
         3.1.8.2.   The fire department shall establish a comprehensive occupational
                medical program that includes medical evaluations for candidates and
                members
         3.1.8.3.   For the purpose of conducting medical evaluations, the fire
                department shall assist the fire department physician to understand the
                physiological and psychological demands placed on members as well
                as the environmental conditions under which they must perform and the
                personal protective equipment (PPE) they must wear during various
                types of emergency operations.
         3.1.8.4.   NFPA 1582 Chapter 5 provides the outline for description of
                essential job tasks
         3.1.8.5.   All medical record keeping shall comply with the requirements of
                29 CFR 1910.1020, “Access to employee exposure and medical
                records,” and other applicable regulations and laws.




Created by Jerome King                                                                  - 36 -
         3.1.8.6.    A medical evaluation of a candidate shall be conducted prior to the
                candidate being placed in training programs or fire department
                emergency response activities
         3.1.8.7.    All members shall receive a baseline medical evaluation after
                hiring and prior to performing fire fighter emergency functions and at
                least annually thereafter.
             3.1.8.7.1. The baseline medical evaluation shall include the components
                     of the annual occupational medical evaluation not performed as
                     part of the candidate medical evaluation, provided the candidate
                     medical evaluation was performed within the past 12 months.
             3.1.8.7.2. The annual evaluation shall be completed every 12 months (±3
                     months).
             3.1.8.7.3. Annual medical evaluations shall be compared to baseline and
                     subsequent evaluations to identify clinically relevant changes.
             3.1.8.7.4. The interval requirements for performance of the annual
                     occupational medical evaluation shall not preclude more frequent
                     medical evaluations of members for new or recurring conditions
                     when requested by the member, fire department physician, or
                     AHJ.
             3.1.8.7.5. Medical Evaluation shall include
                 3.1.8.7.5.1.       Medical History Questionnaire
                 3.1.8.7.5.2.       Physical Examination
                 3.1.8.7.5.3.       Blood Test
                 3.1.8.7.5.4.       Urine Test
                 3.1.8.7.5.5.       Audiology
                 3.1.8.7.5.6.       Spirometry
                 3.1.8.7.5.7.       Chest Radiographs
                 3.1.8.7.5.8.       Electrocardiograms (EKG).
                 3.1.8.7.5.9.       Mammography
                 3.1.8.7.5.10.      Immunizations and Infectious Disease Screening
                 3.1.8.7.5.11.      Post-Exposure Bloodborne Pathogen Testing



Created by Jerome King                                                               - 37 -
                 3.1.8.7.5.12.          HIV Testing
                 3.1.8.7.5.13.          Heavy Metal Evaluation
                 3.1.8.7.5.14.          Colon Cancer Screening
      3.1.9. Occupational Safety Health Committee
         3.1.9.1.    The committee will serve to advise the fire chief
         3.1.9.2.    The committee shall consist of:
             3.1.9.2.1.      The Health and Safety Officer
             3.1.9.2.2.      A member of the organization’s management
             3.1.9.2.3.      Individual members of the organization
         3.1.9.3.    The committee shall meet a minimum of every 6 months
         3.1.9.4.    The meeting minutes shall be recorded
         3.1.9.5.    Inability or failure to meet applicable standards shall be
                documented with a brief but specific explanation.
         3.1.9.6.    The agenda shall focus on research, planning, and
                recommendations in order to meet NFPA 1500 standards and other
                safety goals.
      3.1.10. Records
         3.1.10.1.   The fire department shall establish a data collection system and
                maintain permanent records of all accidents, injuries, illnesses,
                exposures to infectious agents and communicable diseases, or deaths
                that are job related.
         3.1.10.2.   The Health and Safety Officer shall safeguard the health
                information and privacy of individuals. All medical record keeping
                shall comply with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1020, “Access to
                employee exposure and medical records,” and other applicable
                regulations and laws.
      3.1.11. Health and Safety Officer
         3.1.11.1.   The health and safety officer (HSO) shall be involved in the
                development, implementation, and management of the official written
                risk management plan IAW NFPA 1521 Standard for Fire Department
                Safety Officer Ch 5



Created by Jerome King                                                              - 38 -
         3.1.11.2.   The HSO shall manage or participate in these programs:
              3.1.11.2.1. Accident Prevention
              3.1.11.2.2. Accident Investigation, Procedures, and Review
              3.1.11.2.3. Records Management and Data Analysis
              3.1.11.2.4. Apparatus and Equipment
              3.1.11.2.5. Facility Inspection
              3.1.11.2.6. Health Maintenance
              3.1.11.2.7. Occupational Safety and Health Committee
              3.1.11.2.8. Infection Control
              3.1.11.2.9. Critical Incident Stress Management
              3.1.11.2.10.   Post-Incident Analysis
4. Pre-Incident Planning
      4.1.1. The AHJ shall conduct pre-incident planning surveys IAW NFPA 1620,
           Recommended Practice for Pre-Incident Planning
      4.1.2. The published pre incident plan shall address the following:
         4.1.2.1.    Occupancies
         4.1.2.2.    Life Safety
         4.1.2.3.    Construction Types
         4.1.2.4.    Exposures
         4.1.2.5.    Water Supply Availability and Suppression Systems
         4.1.2.6.    Detection Systems
         4.1.2.7.    Testing Maintenance
         4.1.2.8.    Emergency Operations
5. Training
      5.1.1. The AHJ shall pursue training, accreditation, and professional
           development for all members of the organization IAW each member’s
           respective position.
      5.1.2. The AHJ shall select a training manager
      5.1.3. The management of fire service training programs requires a manager,
           regardless of fire service affiliation or instructor level, who is able to
           accomplish the following tasks:



Created by Jerome King                                                                  - 39 -
         5.1.3.1.    Budgeting
         5.1.3.2.    Resource management
         5.1.3.3.    Management of personnel
         5.1.3.4.    Management of instruction
         5.1.3.5.    Program evaluation
         5.1.3.6.    Training needs analysis
         5.1.3.7.    Scheduling
         5.1.3.8.    Goal setting
         5.1.3.9.    Networking with other training agencies
         5.1.3.10.   Technical writing
         5.1.3.11.   Effective verbal and written communication
      5.1.4. The Training Manager shall:
         5.1.4.1.    Recommend training goals
         5.1.4.2.    Publish annual and monthly training schedules
         5.1.4.3.    Identify Training Deficiencies
         5.1.4.4.    Observe real world responses
         5.1.4.5.    Schedule, facilitate, and conduct training
         5.1.4.6.    Specialized Training
         5.1.4.7.    Skills maintenance
         5.1.4.8.    Manage all training records and reports
      5.1.5. Members of the organization
         5.1.5.1.    Should participate in all applicable training sessions IAW the AHJ
         5.1.5.2.    Should maintain certifications
         5.1.5.3.    Shall keep copies of certification documents
         5.1.5.4.    Should notify the training manager of any skills or training
                deficiencies
         5.1.5.5.    Certification, qualifications, and skills shall be commensurate with
                job position/title
         5.1.5.6.    The AHJ shall establish criteria for meeting certifications IAW
                with all applicable standards




Created by Jerome King                                                              - 40 -
6. Communication
      6.1.1. The Fire and Emergency Services organization shall maintain a reliable
           communication system IAW NFPA 1221
      6.1.2. At least two independent and reliable power sources shall be provided, one
           primary and one secondary, each of which shall be of adequate capacity for
           operation of the communications center.
      6.1.3. Telecommunicators shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA
           1061, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Public Safety
           Telecommunicator, as appropriate for their position.
      6.1.4. The first emergency response unit that arrives at the location of the alarm
           shall provide a brief preliminary report on observed conditions to the
           communications center.
      6.1.5. All emergency response agencies shall use common terminology and
           integrated incident communications. Ten codes or similar communications
           codes shall not be used.
      6.1.6. Integrated incident communications shall include a plan that provides
           for on-demand interoperability of communication methods among
           emergency response agencies.
      6.1.7. The emergency communications plan shall provide for real-time
           communications between organizations responding to the same emergency
           incident.
         6.1.7.1.This plan shall be exercised at least once a year
      6.1.8. Communications centers shall have a logging voice recorder with one
           channel for each of the following:
         6.1.8.1.      Each transmitted or received radio channel or talkgroup
         6.1.8.2.      Each dispatch alarm circuit
         6.1.8.3.      Each telecommunicator telephone

7. Information Management
      7.1.1. Incident Reporting
         7.1.1.1. The chief officer or designated representative of every fire protection
                jurisdiction in the state shall report all fires occurring that were reported or


Created by Jerome King                                                                    - 41 -
                that required an emergency response. The report shall include all
                information required by the Department concerning the origin, facts and
                circumstances of the fire determined by investigation under this act. The
                report shall be submitted electronically or in a digital format approved by
                the Department Fire Prevention and Electrical Safety. The report shall be
                furnished to the Department within one (1) week of the fire. IAW
                Wyoming Statute 35-9-107, 35-9-109 and Chapter V Section
                Department of Fire Prevention and Electrical Safety.
                http://soswy.state.wy.us/rules/RULES/6852.pdf
         7.1.1.2.The chief officer or designated representative should use the National
                Fire Incident Reporting system or equivalent to report all incident
                responses IAW the National Fire Incident Reporting System.
                http://nfirs.fema.gov/documentation/reference/
      7.1.2. Public Information
         7.1.2.1.The Fire Department Public Information Officer is responsible for the
                coordination and release of information regarding fires or other
                emergency related incidents in which the Fire Department is involved.
                He/she will assist the Incident Commander by obtaining and
                disseminating information concerning the incident to the news media.

         7.1.2.2.It should be understood that a Public Information Officer will not be
                required on every incident. Those times when a PIO does not respond,
                an officer at the scene should gather information using the “public
                information worksheet” and provide this information to inquiring
                media.
         7.1.2.3.The PIO will be notified of the following types of incidents:
             7.1.2.3.1. Working fires
             7.1.2.3.2. All technical rescue incidents
             7.1.2.3.3. Any accident involving injury or death to citizens or
                     firefighters
             7.1.2.3.4. Hazardous materials incidents
             7.1.2.3.5. At the request of the Incident Commander


Created by Jerome King                                                                 - 42 -
         7.1.2.4.    The PIO will use his/her discretion in responding based on the
                    information provided by the dispatcher and/or the Incident
                    Commander.
         7.1.2.5.The following guidelines define who is to deal with the press on fire
                    incident related issues:
              7.1.2.5.1. On The Fire Scene: Press personnel should be directed to the
                         Incident Commander or the Public Information Officer if he/she is
                         present.
              7.1.2.5.2. After Calls: Requests for information should be directed to the
                         Public Information Officer or his/her designee. If the Public
                         Information Officer is not present, the Battalion Officer involved
                         with the call should release information IAW departmental
                         guidelines.
         7.1.2.6. When any confusion arises concerning the release of any information
                    contact the Fire Chief, PIO, or designated fire officer.




Created by Jerome King                                                                   - 43 -
Appendix A

                                    Demand Zone


Standard Operating Guide/ Procedure- NFPA 1720 Standard for the Organization and
Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and
Special Operations to the Public by Volunteer Fire Departments

   1. Demand Zones – based on demographic (reference- NFPA 1720 Ch.4 Table
      4.3.2)
          a. Example Zone A – East side of town from 1st street to Main St.
          b. Example Zone B – West side
          c. Example Zone C - Refinery

   2. Authority Having Jurisdiction
         a. What position is identified as your AHJ, i.e. Fire Warden, City/Town Fire
             Chief, County Fire Marshal?
   3. Minimum Staffing and Deployment at the emergency scene
         a. Staffing and response capabilities will be established per Demand Zone by
             the AHJ IAW NFPA 1720 Ch.4.3 to ensure a safe and effective operation.


Demand Zone           Demographics          Staffing and           Percentage
                                            Response
Special Risks         AHJ                   AHJ                    90
Urban                 Greater than 1000     15 Firefighters / 9    90
                      people per sq. mi     minutes
Suburban              500-1000 people per 10 Firefighters / 10     80
                      sq. mi.               minutes
Rural                 Less than 500         6 Firefighters / 14    80
                      people per sq. mi.    minutes
Remote                Travel distance       4 Firefighters         90
                      greater than or equal
                      to 8 mi.

          b. Responders to all emergencies shall be organized as company units or
              response teams.
          c. Automatic response and mutual aid response assignments and procedures
              shall be predetermined by written agreement.
                  i. Resource capability and fire protection coverage contingency shall
                      be addressed in all agreements and plans for responding
                      organizations.
Automatic response staffing criteria should be added to response capability resources
where response times can be met.



Created by Jerome King                                                            - 44 -

								
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