GSC_Program_2010 by wuyunyi


									  The Global Studies Conference is held in conjunction
        with the European Studies Conference.
                                                                     GLOBAL STUDIES CONFERENCE
                                                                     Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East

                                                                                        7-9 October 2010
                                                                                     Milo Bail Student Center
                                                                                 University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                        Omaha, Nebraska

                         GSC 2011
           The 34th Annual Global Studies Conference
            will be held 6,7,8 October 2011. Submit
proposals/abstracts by 1 July 2011 to Sajida Grande, University of
                  Nebraska at Omaha, ASH 241,
                     Omaha, NE 68182-0227
        For more information, please visit the conference
                                                                                                Hosted by
              Website at                                     International Studies and Programs
                                                                                   University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                 University of Nebraska Medical Center
                                                                          Steering Committee
                    Shuttle Schedule
                                                                          Ahmadzai, Sherjan, International Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha
   Global Studies Conference and European Studies Conference
                                                                          Blomfield, Bridget, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska atOmaha
                 University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                          Conces, Rory J., Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska atOmaha
  Chief Bus Shuttle between Courtyard- Marriott and UNO Student
                             Center                                       Erhardt, Erwin F. III, Economics, University of Cincinnati

                  Thursday October 7th, 2010                              Grande, Sajida, International Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha

        Departure times from Hotel to UNO Student Center                  Kim, Halla, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska atOmaha
            European Studies Only: 2:30pm 3:30                            Kriese, Paul, Political Science, Indiana University East
                 4:30pm 5:30pm 6:00pm 6:30pm
        Departure times from UNO Student Center to Hotel                  Ludwig, Anne, International Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha
                             9:00pm                                       Mordaunt, Owen G., English, University of Nebraska at Omaha
                     Friday October 8th, 2010                             Schwartz, Elizabeth, International Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha
        Departure times from Hotel to UNO Student Center
                                                                          Stone, Vickie, International Studies and Programs, University of Nebraska at
             7:45am 8:15am 8:45am 10:00am 1:30pm                          Omaha
        Departure times from UNO Student Center to Hotel
              12:15pm 1:00pm 4:00pm 4:30p 5:15pm

                    Saturday October 9th, 2010

        Departure times from Hotel to UNO Student Center
                    8:15 AM 8:45 AM 10:00 AM
        Departure times from UNO Student Center to Hotel
   10:30 AM-12:30 PM -Shuttle runs continually during this time

Please note that the bus will be going between the Courtyard Omaha
Marriott (10th and Dodge) and the following marked locations on the
  UNO Campus map (Student Center and W.H. Thompson Alumni
    Center). For more information, please see individual shuttle
                     schedules or the front desk.

                                                                      2                                                                                   2
           Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the
                     Middle East
                            7-9 October 2010
                            Omaha, Nebraska

                         Sponsored by
              International Studies and Programs
               University of Nebraska at Omaha
     Conference Chair
     Thomas E. Gouttierre, International Studies and Programs, University of
     Nebraska at Omaha

     Program Chair
     Rory J. Conces, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha

     Conference Advisor
     Anne Ludwig, International Programs, University of Nebraska at Omaha

     Conference Coordinator
     Sajida Grande, International Programs, University of Nebraska at Omaha

     Conference Interns
     Talgat Ayapbergenov, University of Nebraska at Omaha
     Yulia Rashchupkina, University of Nebraska at Omaha

42                                                                              3
                                                             Conference presentations held in the Tower, Council and Gallery
                                                             Rooms on the third floor of the Milo Bail Student Center.
                                                             Reddick is a Hospitality Suite.

The Global Studies Conference provides a venue for a
wide array of presentations, continuing our tradition of
lively discussion in an interdisciplinary gathering. Held
on the campus of the University of Nebraska at Oma-
ha, this conference offers all of the amenities associated
with a university setting and emphasize collegiality and
the exchange of information.

We encourage participants to return for the next
Global Studies Conference, October 6,7,8 2011.

                                                         4                                                                      4
                Milo Bail Student Center - 2nd Floor
Conference presentations are held in Chancellor‘s Room and Aksarben
                               Room                                        The Venue for Global Studies Conference panels is:
                                                                           Milo Bail Student Center
                                                                           University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                           6001 Dodge Street
                                                                           Omaha, NE 68182

                                                                           The Venue for the Thursday evening dinner and speech is the Ball-
                                                                           room, Milo Bail Student Center is building 4.on the map.

                                                                      40                                                                  5
              Thursday, 7 October 2010                               Steps to curb illegal activity are being taken by all three governments, but much more will
                                                                     need to be done, and the question is whether there is the will to follow through as much
Social Hour 5:00—6:00 pm        Chancellor‘s Room                    as will be needed. There are many vested interests, and vested interests are very difficult to
Dinner      6:00 – 7:30 pm      Ballroom                             get past, indeed.
Speech      7:30 – 8:45 pm      Ballroom

                     Keynote Speech

The Honorable Said Tayeb Jawad, former Ambassador of the
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United States, will be
the 33rd annual Global Studies Conference keynote speaker.
As Ambassador to the United States, Said Tayeb Jawad has
created one of the most successful missions in Washington
DC. A fluent speaker of English, French and German,
Ambassador Jawad was educated in Afghanistan, France and
Germany before earning his MBA from Golden Gate
University in San Francisco. Subsequently, he worked for a
number of prominent law firms in the United States.
Ambassador Jawad has played a versatile and crucial role in
the Afghan government, serving as Presidential Press
Secretary, Chief of Staff and Director of the Office of
International Relations, and as the President’s principal
liaison for the Constitutional Commission. The Ambassador
has been equally active in his role as author, addressing
issues relating to Afghanistan’s politics, social development,
and historic heritage. Awards and honorary degrees granted
to Ambassador Jawad include the Constitutional Loya Jirga
Service Medal, Government of Afghanistan, 2003; Honorary
Doctorate Degree in Organization Leadership, Argosy
University, 2007; Award of Merit for Rebuilding a Nation,
2007; Global Citizen Award, Roots of Peace, 2008.

                                                                 6                                                                                                6
Tiengtrakul, Chanasai, Social and Cultural Sciences, Rockhurst University                        33nd Annual Global Studies Conference
Globalization and Development: Island Tourism in Phuket Thailand                                 Milo Bail Student Center University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                                 Thursday 7 October 2010
Thailand has been one of the world‘s premier destinations for tourism. Phuket, an island in      Social Hour: 5:00 - 6:00pm: Chancellor’s Room 2nd Floor Milo Bail Student Center
southern Thailand, has been on the circuit for the tourists‘ flow into the country. This is-
land continues to face rapid, unplanned development that has both positive and negative          Dinner: 6:00 -7:30pm: Ballroom
consequences. Tourism links different levels of ―the local‘ with the ―global‖. This paper        Keynote Speech: 7:30 - 8:45pm: Ballroom
examines globalization with special attention to the realities of the lives of the people who
live and work in a place advertised as an ―island paradise‖.
                                                                                                 Friday 8 October 2010
Wallace, Kevin, University of Cincinnati                                                         All panels are on the 2nd and 3rd floors of the Milo Bail Student Center
On The Bolivarian Revolution and 21st Century Socialism
                                                                                                 Panel Session One: 9:00 -10:15am
Ever since the Soviet Union collapsed, there has been no other economic model to chal-
lenge the near-unrestricted capitalist model that has been championed by the United States.      Round Table Discussion: Conflict and Current Issues in Afghanistan
Even China is in the midst of a major overhaul of its economic principles and continues to
open up its economy to further modernization, probably now entering waters not envi-             Nebraska Room (2nd floor)
sioned by Deng Xio-ping himself. In one corner of South America, however, there seems            Chair: Thomas E. Gouttierre, International Studies and Programs, University of
to be a growing movement that has become increasingly difficult to ignore. ―21st Century
                                                                                                       Nebraska at Omaha
Socialism‖ is the new ―cure all‖ for all of modern capitalism's problems; it can eradicate
poverty and fill empty bellies, at least, that is, according to Venezuela's president Hugo             Panelists: Said Tayeb Jawad, former Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of
Chavez. For over a decade this one man has led a revolution that looks poised to sweep a               Afghanistan to the United States, John F. Shroder Jr., International Studies,
continent and create an economic super bloc on the scale of the European Union. A close
examination of the revolution—and the man leading it--should answer the all-important                  University of Nebraska at Omaha; Sherjan Ahmadzai, International Studies,
question: Is Venezuela the first viable non-capitalist model since the collapse of the Soviet          University of Nebraska at Omaha
Union? The answer to this question will dictate American energy, economic, and military
policies in the region for the next fifty years. This paper will explore this question and of-
fer opinions based upon these ongoing trends in Venezuela and South America.                     The Acceptance of Western Educational Thought and Influence in Japan
                                                                                                 U Mo Ho Room (3rd floor)
Wattier, Jeff D. Independent Scholar
                                                                                                 Chair: Halla Kim, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Ungoverned Borders: How Corruption, Crime, and Terrorism Thrive in the Triple Frontier
                                                                                                       Papers: 1. Kant’s Critical Philosophy and His Lecture on Pedagogy, Motoki Fujii,
                                                                                                       Education, Shizuoka University
The border region where Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay meet is ungoverned in many are-
as. This is especially true of the Paraguay-Brazil border, which can be crossed on foot, of-           2. The Acceptance and Influence of Dewey’s Democratic Thought in Japan and
ten without papers or security stops of any kind. There is a large underground economy                 His Perspectives on Social and Political Philosophy, Shegeki Izawa, Education,
with cheap knock-offs sold by street vendors right next to legitimate goods. Political cor-
ruption allows a multitude of criminal activities to flourish – organized crime, drug smug-            Joestu University of Education
gling, weapons trafficking, and money laundering are all common. And, according to the                 3. How Parkhurst’s Dalton Plan Has Been Introduced in Japanese Academic and
United States government, terrorist activities are funded by some of the unregulated busi-
nesses. This paper looks at why it is difficult, if not impossible, for governments to control         School Communities, Atsushi Adachi, Education and Human Development,
areas such as this one and why it may be next to impossible to solve the problems.                     Nagoya University

                                                                                           38                                                                                           7
The Problems of Borders                                                                    Stahle, Noel C., English, William Penn University
Gallery Room (3rd floor)                                                                   Trying to find the Way: The Afrikaner Quest for a Sense of Home in Nadine Gordimer‟s „Burger‟s
                                                                                           Daughter‟ and Karel Schoeman‟s „Another Country‟
Chair: David H. Gray, Government, Fayetteville State University
      Papers: 1. Frayed Edges – Thailand’s Multiple Border Problems, Joseph L.
                                                                                           In his novel, The Covenant, American author James Michener captures something of the
      Pasztor, Geography, Delta College                                                    complexities and contradictions of the white Afrikaans community within the context of
      2. Ungoverned Borders: How Corruption, Crime, and Terrorism Thrive in the            South African history. Nadine Gordimer takes up this theme of the Afrikaner quest to
                                                                                           find their way in Africa in her 1979 novel, Burger‘s Daughter. In the character of Rosa
      Triple Frontier- Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, Jeff D. Wattier, Independent       Burger, Gordimer acknowledges this noble strain and offers a humanistic resolution to
      Scholar                                                                              the political and social problems caused by apartheid. In his most successful novel of the
                                                                                           1980s, Another Country (‗n Ander land), Karel Schoeman, an Afrikaans author and histo-
      3. Transnational Communities: Immigrant Women’s Narratives, Priscilla Falcon,        rian, also explores the Afrikaner quest for a sense of home. Schoeman‘s novel, however,
      Hispanic Studies, University of Northern Colorado                                    takes the reader back in time to the 19th century. In the character of Versluis, a consump-
                                                                                           tive Dutchman, Schoeman offers a similarly humanistic response to the social and politi-
                                                                                           cal problems of apartheid. The paper will compare and contrast these two apartheid-era
Cross Cultural Communication through Study Abroad                                          novels to identify the compatible visions offered by these English and Afrikaans language
Nebraska Room (2nd floor)                                                                  authors during the repressive era of high apartheid (1970s – 80s).

Chair: Emily Hardt, International Programs, University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                           Surovell, Jefferey, Liberal Arts, Vaughn College
      Discussants: Mathew Marx, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Coline
                                                                                           Soviet Policy toward Third World Reactionary Regimes
      Gauthier, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Josh Campbell, University of
      Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                           A debate has long raged among Western analysts over whether Soviet foreign policy was
                                                                                           guided by ideology or by other factors, and most analysts have attempted to show that
Language and Myth                                                                          realpolitik exigencies compelled Soviet policymakers to be guided by factors other than
                                                                                           ideology. On the basis of diverse explanations—realism, the operational code, the power
Council Room (3rd floor)                                                                   and security perspectives, etc.—Soviet foreign policy was said to be more pragmatic than
Chair: Priscilla Falcon, Hispanic Studies, University of Northern Colorado                 principled. One would assume prima facie that the very fact that the Soviets initiated and
                                                                                           maintained relations with third world ―reactionary‖ regimes—whose right-wing policies
     Paper: The Power of Language and Myth in Two Novels Pertaining to Peruvian
                                                                                           and value systems represented the very antithesis of communism—should have con-
     Bildungsroman Experiences, Heather Jeronimo, Modern Languages, University             firmed the validity of the aforementioned explanations and disconfirmed the ideological.
     of Nebraska- Lincoln                                                                  As this study seeks to demonstrate, however, using 3 case studies of what the Soviets
                                                                                           termed ―reactionary‖ regimes (Brazil, Chile, and Iran), from the 1960s to the 1980s Soviet
                                                                                           foreign policy toward these nations remained faithful to the precepts of Marxism-
Panel Session Two: 10:30 -11:45am                                                          Leninism. In addition to attempting this ambitious goal, this study also makes a potentially
                                                                                           significant contribution by examining a subject not yet researched. Although there are
                                                                                           numerous studies of Soviet policy toward the third world in general and of individual
Reform and Its Consequences in Latin America I                                             states within that grouping, no analyst—perhaps surprisingly, given its obvious im-
Council Room (3rd floor)                                                                   portance—has yet scrutinized Soviet relations with reactionary regimes.

Chair: Stu Burns, History, Independent Scholar
      Papers: 1. The Greatest Vampire Hunters in Mexico: Rural Modernization and
      Nahua Folklore, 1960- 1982, Stu Burns, History, Independent Scholar

                                                                                       8                                                                                                8
Slaikeu, Karl, Social Science, Chorda Conflict Management, Inc. and Mohammad                   2. The Evolution of Political Representation in Post-Neoliberal Latin America:
Faieq Zarif, BAE/ Human Terrain System
                                                                                                     A Comparative Perspective, Nicholas Vaccaro, Political Science, Doane College
Victory in Afghanistan? Why not
                                                                                                     3. Ongoing Deforestation in South America: Its Regional and Global Impact,
                                                                                                     Gavin Allen, University of Cincinnati
As the US anticipates a 2011 ―drawdown‖ of US troops in Afghanistan, the American
people, Congress and the Obama Administration will ask the military and their Afghan
partners these fundamental questions: is the war ―winnable‖ and if the answer is yes, how      Politics and Reconstruction in Africa
does this happen? Equally important, how long will it take, and how much will it cost?
                                                                                               Gallery Room (3rd floor)
As the clock ticks, skepticism on these questions abounds, though most agree that failing
in the effort is equally worrisome. To frame the debate, this presentation offers views of     Chair: Erwin F. Erhardt, III, Political Science, University of Cincinnati
an Afghan national educator and an American civilian social scientist recently returned
                                                                                                     Papers: 1. African Uproar: Reaction to Sudan’s Recent Election and Omar
from service with American and Canadian troops in Kandahar Province (2000-10). We
begin with a summary of the problems faced by Coalition forces (CF) and the Govern-                  al-Bashir’s Warrant, Grant Linkenbach, University of Cincinnati
ment of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) in their combined efforts to stabi-              2. Moving from the Past to the Present: Kenya Ushers in a New Political Era
lize the country in the face of a Taliban insurgency (notably the lack of a sustainable Hold
to follow Counterinsurgency (COIN) Clear operations). We turn next to signs of hope                  with a New Constitution, Erwin F. Erhardt, III, Political Science, University of
(majority of Afghans supporting the CF presence, tribes willing and able to partner with             Cincinnati
CF to secure and develop villages), and a call for debate and decision on five key ques-
tions, the answers to which have the potential to bring victory in Afghanistan and also              3. Aviation Safety Policy in Africa, Rebecca K. Lutte, Public Administration
provide a template that can be customized for similar struggles in other parts of the world.         and Aviation, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Smith, Brian, History and Political Science, Georgia Southwestern State University             Language and Culture in a Global Society I
Political Legitimacy and State Capacity in Weak or Non-Democracies                             U Mo Ho Room (3rd floor)
                                                                                               Chair: David H. Gray, Government, Fayetteville State University
This paper seeks to explicitly inject sources of legitimacy as an independent variable into
the debate concerning the creation of stable democratic states in weak or non- democra-             Papers: 1. Building Competency in Language and Culture with the FLIO Model,
cies with low state capacity. The classic debate concerns the relative importance of socio –        Modern Languages, Thomas F. Coffey, Modern Languages and Literature,
economic variables (no bourgeoisie, no democracy) and the importance of crafting proper
                                                                                                    Creighton University
political institutions. Government authority, however, rests on legitimacy, the perception
by the people of the government‘s right to rule. When political legitimacy is being consid-         2. A Love Story: The American Women’s Association and Ariana Airlines, 1968,
ered for the purpose of establishing a normative argument concerning whether a particu-
                                                                                                     Alleen P. Nilsen, English, Arizona State University
lar regime or government should be allowed to exist or continue existing, legitimacy can
be effectively used as a simple binary concept: either a government is legitimate and               3. Internationalizing the Curriculum: Global Perspectives and Pedagogic
shouldn‘t be overthrown, or the government is not legitimate, and it should be over-                Checklist, Nneka Osakwe and Joy C. Eyisi, Albany State University
thrown. There are many uses for the concept of political legitimacy. If power is the central
concept of political science, then authority rests alongside power. However, since legiti-
macy acts as an extension of power, by providing authority, state capacity can be increased    Health Issues
by the presence of any kind of legitimacy, regardless of the normative arguments concern-
ing acceptable or ethical sources of legitimacy. The paper provides a brief overview of        Nebraska Room (2nd floor)
how the typology can be applied to the case of Post-colonial French West Africa.               Chair: Paul Kriese, Politics, Indiana University East
                                                                                                    Papers: 1. Globalization and HIV/AIDS: Panel Regression Analysis, Satoshi
                                                                                                    Machida, Political Science, University of Nebraska at Kearney
                                                                                                    2. The Rise of Consumerism and the Role of Social Media in Healthcare

                                                                                         36                                                                                              9
     Marketing, Didem Koroglu, Journalism and Mass Communication, South Dakota          and there has been relatively little scholarly attention addressing the religious implica-
       State University                                                                 tions of these demographic changes for receiving communities in the rural Midwest in
                                                                                        particular. How can and do predominantly white Christian churches respond to rapid
                                                                                        Latino immigration in such communities? This paper examines the ways that participa-
Panel Session Three: 2:00-3:15pm                                                        tion in a religious community can ameliorate and/or exacerbate the fears, concerns, and
                                                                                        stereotypes that church members hold about recent immigrants. This research suggests
                                                                                        that factors such as explicit theological positions regarding hospitality and social justice
UC Engineers without Borders: Networking to Diminish Third-World Poverty                have less effect on a congregation‘s ability to integrate immigrants into the community
Council Room (3rd floor)                                                                than other, social-structural variables, such as congregational age, community history,
                                                                                        and pre-existing cross-ethnic friendships. The author concludes by looking at the fac-
Chair: Erwin F. Erhardt, III, Political Science, University of Cincinnati               tors that may shape the success of particular individuals and congregations in moving
      Presenters: Networking to Diminish Third-World Poverty, Kevin Knollman,           toward broader inclusion of immigrants in their community.
      University of Cincinnati; James Moyer, University of Cincinnati; Benjamin
      Gentry, University of Cincinnati                                                  Shonka, Michael, FLIO
                                                                                        Sponsored Study of Language and Culture
Topics on Security – I
                                                                                        Full language immersion, with exposure to multiple aspects of a culture, has demon-
Gallery Room (3rd floor)
                                                                                        strated a comprehensive solution to competence in both culture and language. Fr. Le-
Chair: Paul Kriese, Politics, Indiana University East                                   land Lubbers, S.J., well-known pioneer in foreign language television in the United
      Papers: 1. Staring into the Abyss: A Current and Future Assessment of the         States, recognized a woeful and acute lack of professional- level competency in foreign
                                                                                        languages among Americans. In response, he conceived the Free Language Immersion
      Security Situation of Afghanistan and Pakistan, David H. Gray, Government,        Operation (FLIO). FLIO endeavors to use realistic assessments for foreign languages,
      Fayetteville State University                                                     to arrange the logistics for students with the needs of business, education and govern-
                                                                                        ment, and to work with students, business, government and education to evoke the
      2. Pros and Cons of Continued United States-Led Occupation of Afghanistan,        highest levels of language possible.
      John P. Hall, Political Science, Troy University Montgomery
                                                                                        Simmons, Kelly, Creighton University
East Asian Philosophy                                                                   The Process of Instability: Challenging Static Models of Political Instability
U Mo Ho Room (3rd floor)
Chair: Halla Kim, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha              The scholarly literature discussing political stability is composed of numerous volumes
                                                                                        with cross multiple academic disciplines extending over three centuries. Yet, scholars
      Papers: 1. Thomas Aquinas and Laozi on God or the Ultimate Reality, Sam           have been unable to identify a coherent and empirically valid theory explaining political
      Kirwan, University of Nebraska at Omaha                                           instability. There is a plethora of explanatory variables such as economic development
                                                                                        which are indicative of instability in one study, but show no relationship to instability in
      2. Toegye’s Four-Seven Thesis and Xunzi’s View of Human Nature, Travis
                                                                                        the next. This paper provides a coherent theory of the process of political instability by
      Plummer, University of Nebraska at Omaha                                          examining the phenomenon in four stages: contextual constraints on government,
                                                                                        poor governance, the subsequent decline in well-being and the mobilization of the pop-
      3. Nishida on the Nature of Pure Experience, Jesica Keits, University of
                                                                                        ulation. The author contends that there is no single variable or group of variables which
      Nebraska at Omaha                                                                 is both necessary and sufficient to political instability. Rather, individual variables inter-
                                                                                        act with each other at these four stages to create instability.
Language and Culture in a Global Society II
Nebraska Room (2nd floor)

                                                                                   10                                                                                                  35
of human nature, and are the ―beginnings‖ of the four Confucian virtues – humanity, right-
eousness, propriety, and wisdom. Because they are the earliest forms of the purely good
                                                                                                        Chair: Thomas S. Coffey, Modern Languages, Creighton University
Confucian virtues, the Four Beginnings must be good as well. The Seven Feelings – pleas-
ure, anger, sorrow, fear, love, hatred and desire – may be good or evil, depending on                        Papers: 1. Afghan Humor vs. Other International Styles of Humor, Don L.F.
whether they are aroused harmoniously or disharmoniously. In this paper, I present some                      Nilsen, English, Arizona State University
of T‘oegye‘s views in the Four-Seven Debate and compare these views with those of the
classic Chinese Confucian philosopher Xunzi, seeking similarities and differences in their
approach to various elements of the debates, as well as in their concepts of self-cultivation.                2. War through Magazine Covers: A Semiotics Study, Fatih Benzer, Visual Arts,
                                                                                                              South Dakota State University
Proctor, Patrick, and David Oakley, Military History and 20th Century Studies,
                                                                                                              3. Sponsored Study of Language and Culture, Michael Shonka, Modern
Kansas State University
What Have We Learned? Understanding Our Limits and Applying the Lessons of Eight Years of                     Languages, Free Language Immersion Operation
                                                                                                        Panel Session Four: 3:30-4:45pm
A debate has long ranged among Western analysts over whether Soviet foreign policy was
guided by ideology or by other factors, and most analysts have attempted to show that real-
                                                                                                        2010 Haiti Earthquake
politik exigencies compelled Soviet policy makers to be guided by factors other than ideol-
ogy. On the basis of diverse explanations – realism, the operational code, the power and                U Mo Ho Room (3rd floor)
security perspectives, etc. – soviet foreign policy was said to be more pragmatic than princi-
                                                                                                        Chair: Rory Conces, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha
pled. One would assume prima facie that the very fact that the soviets initiated and main-
tained relations with third world ―reactionary‖ regimes – whose right-wing policies and                       Papers: 1. Rising from the Ashes: Haiti before, during, and after the Earthquake
value systems represented the very antithesis of communism – should have confirmed the                        of 2010, Andrew Gullion, University of Cincinnati
validity of the aforementioned explanations and disconfirmed the ideological. As this study
seeks to demonstrate, however, using 3 case studies of what the Soviets termed                                2. The Haiti Earthquake of 2010 and Its Impact on Economic Development,
―reactionary‖ regimes (Brazil, Chile, and Iran), from the 1960s to the 1980s Soviet foreign                   David Holmberg, University of Cincinnati
policy toward these nations remained faithful to the precepts of Marxism-Leninism. In
addition to attempting this ambitious goal, this study also makes a potentially significant
contribution by examining a subject not yet researched. The United States‘ experience since             Issues Regarding Christian and Muslim Belief Communities
2001, most notably Iraq and Afghanistan, highlights some of the failures in America‘s stra-
                                                                                                        Redick Room (3rd floor)
tegic thinking. Informed by the lessons of the past nine years, it is time for the United
States to develop a more pragmatic counterterrorism strategy that must set aside post-9/11              Chair: Owen Mordaunt, English, University of Nebraska at Omaha
emotions, consider the limits of American power, properly allocate American resources,
                                                                                                              Papers: 1. Spiritual/Transactional Integration with Asian Islamic Clients in a
and utilize a more holistic approach to the allocation of those resources.
                                                                                                              Western World, David J. Carter, Education, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Rehwaldt, Jeremy, Religion and Philosophy, Midland Lutheran College                                           2. Recent Immigrants and the Response of White Christian Congregations in the
Recent Immigrants and the Response of White Christian Congregations in the Rural Midwest: Resistance,         Rural Midwest Resistance, Accommodation, and Transformation, Jeremy
Accommodation, and Transformation                                                                             Rehwaldt, Religion and Philosophy, Midland Lutheran College
                                                                                                             3. Ahmadiyya Islam, Kevin Crowly, University of Concinnati
An analysis of Christian congregations in the rural Midwest can shed light on religion‘s
global role in addressing issues of human difference, as communities throughout the region
face dramatic demographic changes. Between 1990 and 2007, there has been a substantial                  Topics on Security – II
increase in the Hispanic/Latino population in the Midwest, more than doubling in 71 of                  Gallery Room (3rd floor)
the 93 counties in Nebraska, and increasing more than ten-fold in some counties. Such
enormous transformations have significant effects on all aspects of community life,                     Chair: Paul Kriese, Politics, Indiana University East

                                                                                                  34                                                                                             11
      3. The Battle for legitimacy: Hamas, The United Nations‟ Relief Works Agency and the           Osakwe, Nneka, English as a Modern Language and Mass Communication, Al-
      International Community, Farid Al-Salim, History, Kansas State University                      bany State University
                                                                                                     Internationalizing the Curriculum: Global Perspectives and Pedagogic Checklist

Literature and Cultural Identity
                                                                                                     This paper reviews global rationales for internationalizing the curriculum with imple-
Nebraska Room (2nd floor)                                                                            mentation framework and challenges. It explores the possibilities, needs, and challenges
Chair: Ginny Lewis, Language and Literature, Northern State University                               for the practice in Africa before presenting a practitioner‘s checklist with discussion of
                                                                                                     its pedagogic implications.
      Papers: 1. Land Ownership and Agency in Mahasweta Devi‟s Tale „Paddy Seeds‟, Ginny
      Lewis, Languages and Literature, Northern State University
                                                                                                     Pasztor, Joseph, Geography, Delta College
      2. Trying to Find Their Way: The Afrikaner Quest for a Sense of Home in Nadine
                                                                                                     Frayed Edges – Thailand‟s Multiple Border Problems
      Gordimer‟s „Burger‟s Daughter‟ and Karel Schoeman‟s „Another Country‟, Noel C. Stahle,
      Arts and Sciences, William Penn University
                                                                                                     Old animosities die slowly. In English, Siem Reap, the jumping off city for tours to Ang-
                                                                                                     kor Watt, translates into ―Siam Flattened,‖ a good indicator of relationships past. Cur-
Reform and Its Consequences in Latin America II                                                      rently, we find fights over border territory and holy sites; Cambodia giving refuge and
                                                                                                     recognition an ex-prime—minister on the run from Thai law; Thailand and Cambodia
Council Room (3rd floor)                                                                             both planning military action over disputed under-sea oil beds. In the south, restive
Chair: Frank LeVeness, Political Science, St. John‘s University                                      Muslim Malays have carried out a decade old drive for local autonomy, or at least more
                                                                                                     recognition and acceptance of their differences, with actions varying from moderate and
      Papers: 1. Puerto Rico: Continuing Saga of Economic Crisis, Frank LeVeness, Political
                                                                                                     co-operative to violent and unbending. The picture is considerably blurred by factional
      Science, St. John‘s University                                                                 differences. The participant list is long and complicated. A short list of participants
      2. On the Bolivarian Revolution and the 21st Century Socialism, Kevin Wallace,                 would include outside radical Islamic extremists, hard core local insurgents and moder-
                                                                                                     ate factions who just want peace and better education for their children. This list must
      University of Cincinnati                                                                       also include those who take advantage of the disarray – smugglers, rogue police and mili-
      3. Soviet Foreign Policy toward Third-World “Reactionary” Regimes, Jeffrey Surovell, Liberal   tary, as well as people with scores to settle. To the west and northwest lies another an-
                                                                                                     cient enemy, Burma. The Thai-Myanmar border is a place of danger and insecurity.
      Arts, Vaughn College                                                                           Many zones along that border are a no-man‘s land inhabited by powerful dealers, smug-
                                                                                                     glers and enforcers in the drug, arms, illegal animal, and/or human traffic business. In
                                                                                                     more recent times, increased illegal immigration and refugee traffic has increased, the
                                                                                                     bulk of these unfortunates being minorities, such as the Karen. Burma alternately de-
                                                                                                     mands return of refugees, or refuses to accept them. Thailand sometimes forcibly repat-
                                                                                                     riates people. At other times allows them to stay; but in Spartan refugee camps, with no
                                                                                                     opportunity for improvement – adding to the inflammatory conditions found along the
                                                                                                     western border lands.

                                                                                                     Plummer, Travis, University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                                     “T‟oegye‟s Four-Seven Debate and Xunzi's View of Human Nature”

                                                                                                     In the mid-16th century Korea, an important philosophical debate began as the result
                                                                                                     T‘oegye, a respected neo-Confucian scholar, attempting to clarify certain aspects of Con-
                                                                                                     fucian philosophy. The Four-Seven debate is so named because it involves Mencius‘s
                                                                                                     Four Beginnings and the earlier Confucian concept of Seven Feelings. The Four Begin-
                                                                                                     nings – compassion, disdain, respect, and approval and disapproval – are an innate part
                                                                                               12                                                                                             33
Nilsen, Don L. F., English, Arizona State University                                                   Saturday 9 October 2010
Afghan Humor vs. Other National Styles of Humor                                                        Panel Session Five: 9:00-10:15am

This presentation is a contrast of Horatian (gentle and humorous) satire and Juvenalian                Development Issues I
(bitter and sardonic) satire in both Classical Greece and in England (e.g. Gulliver‘s Travels          Gallery Room (3rd floor)
vs. A Modest Proposal), and America (e.g. Animal Farm vs. 1984). As a result of the non-
judgmental and deconstructed postmodernism, the genre of satire developed into the genre               Chair: Stu Burns, History, Independent Scholar
of gallows humor, represented by Slaughterhouse V and Catch 22. There will be a discus-                      Papers: 1. Systemic Functioning and Communication between the Developed and
sion of the types of humor that translate well (e.g. nonverbal, physical humor), vs. humor
that is situated in time and space (e.g. tall tales vs. urban legends, didactic humor, frontier              Devel oping Countries, Taysir Nashif, General Assembly Affairs, United Nations
humor, parody, and logical conundrums). The paper will begin and end with a discussion                       2. Fundamentals of Steady State Economics, Ghassan Karam, Economics, Pace
of Afghan humor.
                                                                                                             3. Successful Development Collaboration in Africa: A Case of the Iowa State University
Obradovic, Lana, East Asian Studies, Yonsei University
                                                                                                             Livestock Development Program in Uganda, Agatha Ampaire, Iowa State University
East Asian Women and the Military: Victors and Victims
                                                                                                             4. OPEC and Oil Prices: How the Developing World Manages Their Economies
                                                                                                             under Such Pressures, Zachary Koons, University of Cincinnati
In the region where the Cold War has not ended yet, where defense budgets continue to
grow, and where citizenship is often defined in militarized terms, analysis of women‘s role
in the armed forces has been largely neglected by Western social scientists. By exploring the          Success and Failure in Democratization
cases of China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, this paper will seek to explain the
degree to which the women of East Asia have been integrated in the military. What struc-               Council Room (3rd floor)
tural, institutional, cultural or international factors explain the state‘s military personnel         Chair: Rory J. Conces, Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha
policy regarding women? It will argue that while the states integrate women in their ranks
                                                                                                             Papers: 1. The Failure of Nation Building: An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Emerging
due to manpower shortage, military professionalization, need for technical skills, and per-
ceived levels of threat to national security, the degree to which they are integrated is a re-               Democracies, Kelly Simmons, International Relations, Creighton University
flection of societal views of women in uniform. More specifically, in China and North Ko-                    2. Political Legitimacy and State Capacity in Weak or Non-Democracies, Brian G. Smith,
rea they are considered champions of the social cause and enjoy a high degree of inclusive-
ness, while the role of South Korean and Japanese women continues to be limited by the                       Political Science, Georgia Southwestern State University
collective historical experiences of victimization, in Japan by their own military, and in                   3. Educational Reform in the Republic of Georgia: Progress in Democratization
south Korea by colonial and neocolonial powers.
                                                                                                             after Soviet Ties, Miles Bryant, Teacher Education, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
                                                                                                             and Nino Javakhishvili, Educational Administration/ Fulbright Scholar,
Oluoch, Jared, Information Science and Technology, University of Nebraska at
Omaha                                                                                                        University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The Role of Cell Phone Technology towards Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Case Study –

Following the widespread use of the internet, computers, and cell phone technology in the
late 1990s in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) studies have documented the impact
of these technologies on economic growth and development. Most of these studies have
focused on the digital divide – the gap of access to cell phones, computers, and the internet
between developed and developing nations. This study provides empirical data to show
how cell phone technology is used in rural areas in Kenya.

                                                                                                  32                                                                                                   13
Civil Rights Issues: Focus on Women                                                                      Machida, Satoshi, Political Science, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Nebraska Room (2nd floor)                                                                                Globalization and HIV/AIDS: Panel Regression Analysis
Chair: Bridget Blomfield, Philosphy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Papers: East Asian Women and the Military: Victors and Victims, Lana Obradovic,                    This study examines the relationship between globalization and HIV/AIDS. More spe-
                                                                                                         cifically, the present research analyzes how globalization forces affect the HIV/AIDS
      East Asian Studies, Yonsei University                                                              prevalence rates around the world. Panel regression analysis relying on the KOF index of
      2. Unveiling the Veil, Sheetal Savant and Fairoz Boali, University of Nebraska at                  globalization reveals that globalization forces tend to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS,
                                                                                                         Findings from the statistical analysis provide important implications to address the prob-
                                                                                                         lem of HIV/AIDS, thus advancing our understanding of globalization forces in the issue
      3. Implicit Bias in Civil Rights Workers, Anne M. Hobbs, Juvenile Justice Institute,               of HIV/AIDS.
      University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                                         Nashif, Taysir, General Assembly Affairs, United Nations
Evolving Technologies and Policies in the Developing World                                               Systemic Functioning and Communications between the Developed and Developing Countries
U Mo Ho Room (3rd floor)
Chair: Priscilla Falcon, Hispanic Studies, University of Northern Colorado                               This paper seeks to show analytically and theoretically that a system – whether global or
                                                                                                         sub-system – is structurally and functionally conditioned by the interaction among fac-
      Papers: 1. One Laptop per Child: The PC Revolution for the Rest of the World, Thomas S.            tors. Any act, idea, need, expectation, myth, social, economic and cultural institution,
      Kolasa, History and Social Science, Troy University                                                pressure, politics, plan, state, legitimacy, reason, stratification, or others, or lack of any of
                                                                                                         which is a factor. A system is a combination of interrelated, interdependent and interact-
      2. The Role of Cell Phone Technology towards Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Case
                                                                                                         ing factors that cause the performance, knowingly or unknowingly, of functions, forming
      Study – Kenya, Jared Oluoch, Information Science and Technology, University of                     a composite entity with a control mechanism that significantly helps the system perform
      Nebraska at Omaha                                                                                  its functions. There is a global system. Within this system there are sub-systems. Within
                                                                                                         each of these sub-systems there are also sub-sub-systems and it goes on.
      3. The Role of the Internet Technology in Promoting Interdisciplinary Arts Education, Fatih
      Benzer, Visual Arts, South Dakota State University                                                 Nilsen, Alleen, English, Arizona State University
                                                                                                         A 1968 Story about American Women‟s Love Affair with Ariana Airlines
Panel Session Six: 10:30- 11:45am

                                                                                                         In the late 1960s, we American women had a special fondness for Ariana Airlines. I am
Development Issues II                                                                                    giving an insider‘s view of two events that illustrate my assertion. The first event was
Gallery Room (3rd floor)                                                                                 when we all went to the Kabul airport for a grand sendoff for an American family re-
                                                                                                         turning to the States after their two-year commitment to USAID. They were late for the
Chair: Stu Burns, History, Independent Scholar                                                           plane, and when the mother of the family fainted, the air controller called the plane back
      Papers: 1. Barriers to Development: International Non-profit Organizations in China, Jonna         so the family could board. The second event is what I think of as ―The Great Coloring
                                                                                                         Book Fiasco.‖ We women naively thought we could launch an Afghan tourist industry
      Holland, Marketing and Management, University of Nebraska at Omaha and                             by making beautiful coloring books for Ariana attendants to give to young passengers.
      Jessica Holland, Foreign Service, Georgetown University                                            Things did not go quite as we planned. And now looking back on it, I can see that the
                                                                                                         kinds of misunderstandings we experienced were caused by American assumptions run-
      2. Globalization and Development: Island Tourism in Phuket Thailand, Chanasai
                                                                                                         ning over Afghan realities. Such things are still happening except on a grander scale.
      Tiengtrakul, Social and Cultural Science, Rockhurst University                                     I‘m hoping that our ―Coloring Book Fiasco‖ might still do some good in the world by
                                                                                                         illustrating the need for us to take a second look at some of those American assumptions
                                                                                                         that we take for granted.

                                                                                                    14                                                                                                       31
Le Veness, Frank P., Political Science, St. John’s University                                     Trauma and Literature
Puerto Rico: Continuing Saga of Economic Crisis                                                   U Mo Ho Room (3rd floor)
                                                                                                  Chair: Owen G. Mordaunt, English, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Puerto Rico, which though technically a Commonwealth, has been considered by many to                   Papers: 1. The Plight of Refugees through Literature, Nina Ha, Creighton
actually be, at least from an economic standpoint, in a state of dependency, one could
easily say, neo-colonialism. This has been heightened in the Twenty-First Century by two               University
events: (1) globalization, and (2) the current international and domestic economic crisis.             2. Rebuilding Violence in Une vie de Boy, Gabriel Kwambamba, University of
This paper examines the causes of the current situation, specifically zeros in on the issues
                                                                                                       Nebraska - Lincoln
of globalization and the crisis, and seeks to explore alternatives for future possibilities.

                                                                                                  University of Nebraska at Omaha and People‘s Friendship University of Russia: Using
Linkenbach, Grant, University of Cincinnati
                                                                                                  Technology and Total Physical Response to Teach Foreign Language and Culture
African Uproar: Reaction to Sudan‟s Recent Election and Omar al-Bashir‟s Warrant
                                                                                                  Council Room (3rd floor)
                                                                                                  Chair: Deepak Khazanchi, Information Science & Technology, University of Nebraska
This year, Sudan had an election to determine their president and parliament. They were
one of many African countries to hold an election. This process lasted four days and on                 at Omaha
April 26th, 2010, Omar al-Bashir was declared the winner by garnering over 60% of the                   Presenters: 1. United States-Russia Program: Improving Research and Educational
votes. The results did not come without controversy, as many reports of fraud and voter-
intimidation were reported. (The voting was in actuality only to last two days, but a two               Activities in Higher Education, Anastasia Atabekova, Foreign Languages,
day extension was granted). Former President Jimmy Carter presided over and monitored                   Peoples‘ Friendship University of Russia, and Anne Ludwig, International
the election process and he was pleased with the way the election were carried out. While
                                                                                                        Programs, University of Nebraska at Omaha
there was little violence during the election, the result still pose concern, as Omar‗s politi-
cal legacy to-date reflects a long history of controversy and violence. In 2004, the U.S.               2. Pedagogy for the Project, Tatyana Novikov, Foreign Languages, University of
claimed that genocide had been committed in Darfur and that the Sudanese government                    Nebraska at Omaha
was responsible. In 2008, the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court alleged
that Bashir bore individual criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity,              3. Project Implementation, Zachary Fowler, Information Science & Technology,
and war crimes in Darfur. An arrest warrant was later issued in 2009 by the International              University of Nebraska at Omaha
Crimes Court; however Sudan doesn‘t have to execute the warrant. This paper will take a
examine President Omar al-Bashir‘s role in his country‘s bloody past, his re-elections this             4. Moving into the Future: Second Life, Deepak Khazanchi, Information Science
year, and the cause-effect of his recently issued arrest warrant by the International Crimi-            & Technology, University of Nebraska at Omaha
nal Court.

Lutte, Rebecca K., Public Administration/Aviation, University of Nebraska at
Aviation Safety Policy in Africa

Africa, which accounts for 4.5% of the world‘s traffic, also accounts for 25% of the avia-
tion accidents. In March 2010, the EU banned a total of 111 African airlines, from 13
African countries from their airspace due to safety concerns. In the meantime, Africa is
experiencing an era of tremendous growth in passenger traffic. Safety needs must be ad-
dressed at this critical time. The presenter will summarize the result of the conference on
aviation in Cairo, Egypt, which covers three major themes, the current and forecasted
demand for training in Africa, the capacity for training in Africa, and the barriers for har-
monization of training in Africa. The presenter will then discuss the progress made and
additional calls for research.
                                                                                          30                                                                                              15
Global Studies Conference 2010                                                                      Those fights would sometimes lead to the involvement of the children‘s parents. The
                                                                                                   second part will show how the main character endured violence from almost all his first
Presenter Abstracts
                                                                                                   contact with Whites either directly or indirectly. For instance, his master, ―Le comman-
                                                                                                   dant,‖ kicked him from the first day for no real reason. In addition to that, the Greek Ja-
Adachi, Atsushi, Education and Human Development, Nagoya University; Fujii,                        nopoulos sent his dog to chase the young African men who were watching the Whites
Motoki, Education, Shizuoka University; Shigeki, Izawa, Education, Joestu                          having fan in a meeting organized in Le ―Cercle européen‖, the European club in Dangan.
University of Education                                                                            Torture was part of the sanction given to indigenous people. The first time Toundi was
                                                                                                   sent by his master‘s wife to the prison director, ―Monsieur Moreau‖, he was terrified by
The Acceptance and Influence of Western Educational Thought in Japan: Immanuel Kant, John Dewey,   the way his two compatriots were beaten by Moreau and his men. In fact, the scene left
and Helen Pakhurst                                                                                 Toundi speechless. In the third part I will explain the place of memory as a tool to recall
                                                                                                   and forget scenes of violence. The extreme violence was something Toundi refused to
                                                                                                   recall, but it was still there, stocked in his mind. The conclusion will try to explain the
Our research examines the acceptance of western educational thought and its influence in
                                                                                                   impossible ―humanization‖ of indigenous people in Dangan. Toundi called himself ―Je
Japan. In this presentation, we will focus on the educational views of influential thinkers,
                                                                                                   suis la chose qui obéit,‖ I am the thing made to obey. It is also important mentioning that
Kant, Dewey, and Parkhurst, to show how Japanese educational researchers have consid-
                                                                                                   the main protagonist in the novel died in exile after being tortured for a ―crime‖ he did
ered and appropriated western thought in constructing their own educational theory and
                                                                                                   not commit; it is a major moment that proves the heavy presence of violence in this nov-
practice. First, we will show how Japanese studies have accepted Kant‘s critical philoso-
phy and his lecture on pedagogy (1803) by referring to contemporary textual analysis
(Fujii). Second, our research reconsiders the acceptance and influence of Dewey‘s demo-
cratic thought in Japan and his perspectives on social and political philosophy (Izawa).           Lewis, Ginny, Languages, Literature and Speech Communication, Northern State
Finally, we will show how Parkhurst‘s Dalton Plan has been introduced in Japanese aca-             University
demic and school communities (Adachi). Through this presentation, we will highlight the
history of modern educational thought and its implications for Japanese studies in philos-         Land Ownership and Agency in Mahasweta Devi‟s Tale “Paddy Seeds”
ophy and history of education.
                                                                                                   Bengali activist Mahasweta Devi (1926- ) has recorded with ―Paddy Seeds‖ (1979) a tale
Allen, Gavin, University of Cincinnati                                                             that juxtaposes the self-maximizing profit mechanism of global capitalism with what Van-
                                                                                                   dana Shiva refers to as ―food democracy.‖ The protagonist Dulan Ganju is a characteriza-
Ongoing Deforestation in South America: Its Regional and Global Impact                             tion of a rather typical Bengali subaltern, who receives a mystifying gift of land from his
                                                                                                   landlord, Lachman Singh. Far from increasing Dulan‘s agency or capacity for acting on his
Deforestation is a growing issue in today‘s society, especially in South American countries        own behalf, the land he receives is calculated to diminish his and his fellow landless peas-
such as Brazil. Rain forest used to make up 14% of the world‘s total land mass and today           ants‘ action radius: Singh forces Dulan to allow him to bury there the peasant rebels he
they only make up 6%. Scientists predict that over half the remaining rainforests could be         kills in his repressive actions against them. When the peasant‘s son falls victim to this fate,
completely wiped out in less than 40 years. Deforestation affects people worldwide, the            Dulan uses the little agency he has to rebel against Singh‘s proscription on planting the
extinction of plant and animal species, people with health issues in need of medication,           land with a crop by growing rice there. The inevitable confrontation is set up by Devi to
and people living in and around the rainforests. Cutting down the rainforest could poten-          turn the tables on the power relationship between Singh and Dulan: the peasant kills the
tially lead to a slow extinction of the human race. Deforestation is a potentially life-           landlord in a manner that strips Singh of his status and renders him just as untouchable as
threatening issue in the fact that nearly 20% of earth‘s oxygen is derived from the rainfor-       his antagonist. Dulan now possesses agency he had never known before, but rather than
ests around the world. The profit motive comes into play here: many people harvest trees           use it to engage in the same self-maximizing profit-mongering typical of the landowning
in the rainforest to make a living by selling their product to logging companies. Also with        classes, the peasant shares the rice he grows on the dead rebels‘ burial ground with the
the current world economic crisis, people in South America are cutting down rainforest             community, thus bringing economic advantage to all the landless peasants in the area. In
on their land to make fields for farming, in the hope to turn a profit by selling their prod-      this way, Devi‘s Dulan Ganju illustrates the principle proposed by Val Plumwood of the
uct around the world. With people cutting down the rainforest comes many problems,                 ―view from below‖: the landless‘ intimate understanding of the consequences of econom-
such as the extinction of many plant species we are yet to discover that could possibly            ic injustice prepares them effectively for a just response to the inequities spread by global
cure life-threatening diseases. Experts, such as Leslie Taylor, suggest ―We are losing 137         capitalism.
plants, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation. That
equates to 50,000 species a year. As the rainforest species disappear, so do many possible
cures for life-threatening diseases‖ (Taylor 1).

                                                                                             16                                                                                                29
Though changing the emphasis is indeed challenging, such a program for adults could be-          In conclusion, this paper will look at the ongoing problem of rainforest destruction in
come as important as the historic ―micro-loan‖                                                   South America—and the impact it continues to have on the people and ecosystems re-
                                                                                                 gionally and globally.
Koroglu, Didem, Journalism and Mass Communication, South Dakota State Uni-
versity                                                                                          Al Salim, Farid, History, Kansas State University
“Rise of Consumerism and the Role of Social Media in Healthcare Marketing”                       The Battle for Legitimacy: Hamas, the United Nations‟ Relief Works Agency, and the International
This paper explores the rise of consumers and the role they play in today‘s health care mar-
keting environment. It will showcase how consumers are shaping and redefining healthcare         The United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) for Palestine Refugees in the
marketing in the context of social media in the digital age. The paper will define what social   Near East has maintained the mandate to administer aid to the refugee population of
media means to the health care consumer and the marketer. It will also examine the differ-       displaced Palestinians since 1950. While the UNRWA has assisted the large population
ent types of social media and give examples of how this technology is shaping the decision-      to the best of its ability, the demand for services greatly exceeds the capabilities that the
making process in health care marketing. Finally it will provide a comparison between the        UNRWA is able to provide. The existing vacuum has allowed for the rise of other organ-
traditional and the new way of marketing in this field. It will enable educators to better       izations willing to meet the needs of the population, though the motives for such in-
prepare their students to the new rules of health care marketing and help them navigate          volvement are not always pure. The primary example is Hamas, a branch of the Muslim
their decision making process in an ever-changing health care marketing environment.             Brotherhood in Palestine. Hamas seizes upon the needs of the Palestinian population by
                                                                                                 providing fundamental necessities such as food and healthcare in order to build a broad
                                                                                                 support base for its political and terrorist functions. An analysis of the budget and re-
Koons, Zachary, University of Cincinnati                                                         sources available to the UNRWA and a subsequent analysis of the known finances of
OPEC and Oil Prices: How the Developing World Manages Their Economies Under Such Pressures.      Hamas (only a fraction of the total finances available to Hamas) provide sufficient evi-
                                                                                                 dence as to the difficulties faced by the UNRWA. As the impact of terrorism has been
                                                                                                 felt on a global level, the global security environment places a high priority on extin-
OPEC's power and influence is widely known and observed in today's industrialized world.         guishing terrorist organizations. In order to combat the effectiveness of Hamas‘ terrorist
When oil prices reached a peak of nearly 150 dollars a barrel in 2008, the world began to        efforts, the international community needs to place a higher emphasis on providing ef-
worry about sustainable development at such high prices. Consumed with distress caused           fective services and sufficient aid to the refugee community in order to extinguish the
by the oil market, industrialized countries--dependent upon fossil fuels--remained relatively    demand for Hamas‘ humanitarian services.
unaware of the impact of oil prices upon developing countries. Further examination into
this realm of the world provides some confusing and conflicting eventualities that result
from differences in economic and political methods. The findings are even more drastic           Ampaire, Agatha; M.F. Rothchild, Animal Science, Iowa State University
when compared to their industrialized counterparts. However, to truly understand how             Successful Development Collaboration in Africa: A Case of the Iowa State University Livestock devel-
OPEC has been able to exercise such power, one must investigate the creation of this or-         opment Program in Uganda
ganization and its evolution as a dominant player in the oil market. With this in mind, we
will examine how oil prices affect the economies of developing countries.
                                                                                                 Development assistance to less developed countries has come increasingly under fire,
                                                                                                 with some suggesting that aid money has crippled the continent. Development programs
Gabriel Kwambamba, University of Nebraska - Lincoln                                              carried out in collaboration with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have
Re-building Violence in Une vie de Boy                                                           registered some success because they deal directly with the poor who need the assistance.
                                                                                                 This paper describes a livestock development program which the rural farmers in Kamuli
                                                                                                 district in Uganda are appreciative of. The livestock development program is part of a
Ferdinand Oyono built his novel, Une vie de boy, with scenes of violence which occurred          bigger program carried out in Kamuli in collaboration with the Center for Sustainable
mostly in the first contacts between Toundi and the White people. In what is presented as        Rural Livelihoods (VEDCO), and a local NGO. The program supports rural farmers by
Toundi‘s diary, the recall of violence is very important. The present paper intends to ana-      training them in animal management and giving them pigs, goats or chickens with the
lyze the progress of violence in Oyono‘s novel. The first part will try to demonstrate           goal to improve household income and nutrition.
Oyono‘s perception concerning the way White people colonized Africa. It appears that
colonization has its twin wing named violence. It all started from the beginning, when
Toundi and other children of his age would fight in order to get some sugar cubes thrown
at them by the missionary named Father Gilbert.
                                                                                         28                                                                                                             17
Benzer, Fatih, Visual Arts, South Dakota State University                                           solutions carry within them? Would any of these suggested policies make any real differ-
                                                                                                    ence in our ecological future or are they all so short sighted that they stand no meaning-
War through Magazine Covers: A Semiotics Study
                                                                                                    ful chance of delivering on any of their promises. This paper will argue that unless the
                                                                                                    global society undergoes major radical changes in its structure then all this talk about
This study examines and analyzes the magazine covers on war and terrorism through                   sustainability will be for naught.
semiotics. The main purpose of this study is to explore how images and words can be
transmitted into developing stereotypes. Surveys are given to the participants who are art
education majors in undergraduate level and interviews are conducted. A classroom dis-              Keit, Jessica, University of Nebraska at Omaha
cussion and hands-on project follows the survey. This study consists of two parts: the              “Nishida on the Nature of Pure Experience”
first part analyzes magazine covers that deal with war and terrorism, searching for an-
swers to the following questions: Is there evidence that the images on the cover have
cultural connotations? How does the text change the meaning of the images? In the se-               After Japan opened its doors to the West in the 1860‘s, new philosophies came flooding
cond part, students create their own magazine covers on war, terrorism, or stereotypes.             into the country, and from this arose the need for a creative synthesis between the con-
Implications are to build awareness about stereotypes, to learn acceptance and tolerance            tradicting philosophies of the East and West. Kitaro Nishida attempts to fuse these two
for diverse groups, and to acknowledge personal awareness for bridging the gap between              ideas in his theory of ―pure experience,‖ the most basic and fundamental type of experi-
different groups.                                                                                   ence, exclusive of cognition, judgment, meaning, or any other added elements that would
                                                                                                    defile the truth and purity of an experience. This paper is an in-depth analysis of the
                                                                                                    purpose and function of pure experience. It can be debated that Nishida‘s idea of pure
Boali, Fairooz, and Sheetal Savant, University of Nebraska at Omaha                                 experience is closely related to Buddhist concepts, such as Sunyata. This paper also sets
                                                                                                    Nishida‘s theory in the broad framework of the ancient East Asian philosophies, i.e.,
Unveiling the Veil
                                                                                                    those of Wonhyo, Fa-zang, and Zuangzi, that have helped mold the modern philosophi-
                                                                                                    cal ideas of the region.
This paper is based on a case study to understand the significance of wearing the Hijab
by Fairooz Boali, a Middle-Eastern graduate student of communications at the Universi-              Kirwan, Sam, University of Nebraska at Omaha
ty of Nebraska at Omaha. Considering the growing misconceptions with the Muslim
world, and a general viewpoint that the Muslim practice of Hijab is oppressive to its               “Thomas Aquinas and Laozi on God or the Ultimate Reality”
women, this paper is an attempt to give it an authentic voice and unveil its multiple in-
conspicuous layers. The Hijab means different things to the women who practice it; to
                                                                                                    This presentation is an examination of the attempts to know God, or the Ultimate Reali-
some, it is a reaffirmation of their Islamic faith. To others, it is representative of their
                                                                                                    ty, found in Laozi's Tao Te Ching and Thomas Aquinas' Quinque viae, or 'Five ways' to
public face, and to still others, a deep-sense of comfort. In essence, the Hijab is more
                                                                                                    prove the existence of God. These texts represent the orthodox ontological views of
than a veil. It is not merely representative of the woman who chooses to wear it, but,
                                                                                                    their respective disciplines, and will be explored in order to reveal the contrasting episte-
similar to other collectivist societies, the Hijab is strongly representative of her identity,
                                                                                                    mological approaches - experiential and rational - used to illuminate understanding of the
family, and her belief-system. The paper will also focus on how the Hijab has become a
                                                                                                    divine. I will then adjudicate the merits of these two radically different approaches and
source of suspicion in recent years, and the implications that this has on Muslim women
                                                                                                    ultimately defend the Taoist perspective.
like Fairooz who have undergone this experience.

                                                                                                    Kolasa, Thomas S., History and Social Science, Troy University
Bryant, Miles, University of Nebraska- Lincoln
                                                                                                    One Laptop per Child: The PC Revolution for the Rest of the World
Educational Reform in the Republic of Georgia: Progress in Democratization after Soviet Ties

                                                                                                    As early as 1997, various notables in both the computing industry and the huge field for
Like the directions many national systems of higher education are taking, Georgia has               helping the developing world got together and agreed that some form of inexpensive
worked to decentralize and democratize its higher educational system. As a conse-                   computer was needed to help millions of impoverished children throughout the world
quence, it should be expected that the faculty members in Georgia‘s universities will re-           escape their fate. The ―One Laptop Per Child‖ (OLPC) Project was born out of this
port changing work place conditions, changing role expectations, and greater degrees of             desire, and for the last decade or so has aided many children, but also had its own issues
autonomy and involvement in the academic life of the university.                                    both technical and political. I will argue that not only does the Project need to settle
                                                                                                    many of these issues before it can become fully successful but also it needs to broaden
                                                                                                    its goal not to just children but also many adults.
                                                                                               18                                                                                            18
Holmberg, David, University of Cincinnati                                                            This exploratory study examines the conditions under which higher education faculty
                                                                                                     work in the Republic of Georgia. We pay particular attention to issues of autonomy
The Haiti Earthquake of 2010 and Its Impact on Economic Development
                                                                                                     and self-monitoring as these have been identified as important factors in the moderni-
                                                                                                     zation of universities.
This study will investigate the practice of micro-lending and its effect on raising people
out of poverty—a practice which has been successful in other parts of the developing                 Burns, Stu, Independent Scholar
world. This course of action could have significant implications for Haiti, leading to en-
hanced employment of its people. This could be accomplished by employing the people                  The Greatest Vampire Hunters in Mexico: Rural Modernization and Nahua Folklore
to help rebuild their country while simultaneously providing them with employment and
the potential to raise their standard of living. The start of a ground up economy funded by
                                                                                                     In 1960, ethnographers Hugo Nutini and John Roberts investigated the tlahuelpuchi, a
global partners could have a significant impact and set the stage for Haiti to establish a
                                                                                                     supernatural creature that sucked children‘s blood. Along with their regimented catalog
new and legitimate foundation for development.
                                                                                                     of the shape shifting vampire‘s attacks and the folk rituals designed to counteract them,
                                                                                                     Nutini and Roberts‘ experiences included a particularly profound episode: Seven babies
Jerónimo, Heather, University of Nebraska - Lincoln                                                  in one rural Tlaxcala area died in one night, ostensibly at the tlahuelpuchi‘s hand. This
                                                                                                     convincing event, along with accounts from the people they spoke with, made it obvi-
The Power of Language and Myth in Two Novels Pertaining to Peruvian Bildungsroman Experiences        ous that the tlahuelpuchi was a living, ever-present part of Nahua folklife. Nutini and
                                                                                                     Roberts‘ fieldwork came at a time of profound reform and development. Successive
                                                                                                     presidential administrations actively pursued numerous initiatives in rural Mexico, and
In this presentation, I plan to discuss the role of language in two novels by Peruvian au-
                                                                                                     modern, urban values increasingly supplanted traditional ways of life. Government-
thors. I wish to highlight language‘s simultaneous role in the formation of the personal
                                                                                                     mandated primary education was ubiquitous, and new physicians were required to do
identities of the novels‘ protagonists and its ability to provide insight into various cultural
                                                                                                     rotations in underserved areas. Radio and television became pervasive influences,
and social dualities of Peru (thanks in part to the myths associated with language). This
                                                                                                     bringing a homogenizing influence throughout the country. to counteract them, Nutini
presentation will consist of a selection of the most relevant sections of a larger investiga-
                                                                                                     and Roberts‘ experiences included a particularly profound episode: Seven babies in one
tion I have written on this topic. Each of the novels to be discussed—Los ríos profundos
                                                                                                     rural Tlaxcala area died in one night, ostensibly at the tlahuelpuchi‘s hand. This con-
(The Deep Rivers, 1958) by José María Arguedas and Ximena de dos caminos (Ximena at
                                                                                                     vincing event, along with accounts from the people they spoke with, made it obvious
Two Roads, 1994) by Laura Riesco—focuses on the bildungsroman experience of child
                                                                                                     that the tlahuelpuchi was a living, ever-present part of Nahua folklife. Nutini and Rob-
protagonists (Ernesto and Ximena, respectively) growing up in Peru, a country of stagger-
                                                                                                     erts‘ fieldwork came at a time of profound reform and development. Successive presi-
ing and often divisive dualities. Despite the decades of difference in the publication dates
                                                                                                     dential administrations actively pursued numerous initiatives in rural Mexico, and mod-
of these two works, through the viewpoint of Ernesto and Ximena, each author similarly
                                                                                                     ern, urban values increasingly supplanted traditional ways of life. Government-
describes a country culturally divided by opposing indigenous and Spanish influences.
                                                                                                     mandated primary education was ubiquitous, and new physicians were required to do
Ernesto and Ximena are mere children seeking to discover their personal identity and
                                                                                                     rotations in underserved areas. Radio and television became pervasive influences,
their cultural position in a society full of dualities. One of the most important dualities
                                                                                                     bringing a homogenizing influence throughout the country. When Nutini and Roberts
they must deal with and embrace is that of language; they are in contact with both Spanish
                                                                                                     returned to Tlaxcala in 1982, tlahuelpuchi apotropaics had passed from daily concern.
and the indigenous language of Quechua. In their process of self-discovery, the protago-
                                                                                                     Older people still said they believed in the creature, but they no longer took an active
nists discover the power of language and myth, often used as a way to unite groups of
                                                                                                     role to prevent its attacks. To the younger generation, the tlahuelpuchi was little more
people and reaffirm their identities. By refusing to choose between Spanish and Quechua,
                                                                                                     than a story their parents may have told them. Tlahuelpuchi beliefs had been recorded
Ernesto and Ximena are able to use each language as a tool to create a strong self-identity
                                                                                                     by the Spanish literati as far back as the sixteenth-century, but legends lost their potency
that uniquely bridges the gap between their country‘s discordant cultural dichotomy.
                                                                                                     in a world of chemotherapy and nuclear weapons. This paper will historicize the pas-
                                                                                                     sage of tlahuelpuchi folklore from active practice to more detached discourse. Special
Karam, Ghassan, Economics, Pace University                                                           attention will be paid to the transformation of traditional culture in a modernizing
                                                                                                     country and to the appropriation of meanings in a time of unprecedented change.
Fundamentals of Steady State Economics

The world is inundated on a daily basis by all sorts of stories and developments about
environmental degradation and the need to develop solutions for our ecological predica-
ment. What are the prospects for success that many and arguably all of these proposed

                                                                                                26                                                                                                  19
Carter, David, Education, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Spiritual/Transactional Integration with Asian Islamic Clients in a Western World              Social psychologists have established that certain environments are more prone to par-
                                                                                               ticular forms of bias. Areas where there is informational uncertainty or contradictory
                                                                                               information seem especially vulnerable to underlying bias operating. Using an experi-
The focus of this interactive presentation is to explore the ―goodness of fit‖ between the     mental design, this study examines whether the unconscious biases of civil rights inves-
concepts of Transactional analysis and the spiritual beliefs of Asian Islamic clients in the   tigators impacts the cases they investigate. This is a critical area to study because any
United States as reflected in the Qur‘an. The participant will acquire increased               bias, and especially unconscious bias, may have serious unintended consequences in
knowledge, skills, and world view regarding the spiritual life of the Muslim client and the    the area of civil rights, but in many other areas of the law as well. This PowerPoint
importance that transactional analysis plays in the therapeutic relationship during times      presentation walks participants through the development of civil rights administrative
of crises.                                                                                     process and describes research that demonstrates the potential impact gatekeepers have
                                                                                               on such a system.
Coffey, Thomas F., Modern Languages, Creighton University
                                                                                               Holland, Jessica, Georgetown University and Holand, Jonna, Marketing and
Assessing Language Competency: Scales and Goals
                                                                                               Management University of Nebraska at Omaha
                                                                                               Barriers to Development: International Nonprofit Organizations in China
In order to meet the overall goal of providing individuals who are competent in the area
of foreign languages and at the same time meeting the needs of business, government
and education, one must have in place an accurate set of assessment tools. The Defense         Since the reform and opening of 1978, China‘s economic sector has developed quickly.
Language Institute (DLI) Scale and the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) Scales show the         Behind the façade of the ―third-largest economy in the world‖ and cities that boast
amount of time typically required to master a certain level of a given language. The Inter-    sky-scrapers and host Olympics, China‘s rural areas still have the second-largest popu-
agency Language Round table(ILR) and American Council for the Teaching of Foreign              lation of poor in the world after India according to the World Bank. In many coun-
Languages (ACTFL) scales give us a gold-standard breakdown for assessing the level of          tries, domestic and international nonprofit organizations (INPOs) serve as a safety net
proficiency that one has attained in a given language. One also needs to consider the          to mitigate negative impacts development can cause in specific areas of society. How-
attainment of the top levels of language proficiency; levels 4 and 5 of the ILR Scale and      ever NPOs and NGOs have been heavily regulated and restricted in the People‘s Re-
the Superior Level of the ACTFL Scale. In addition, the role of the heritage speaker           public of China. As a result, they have been slow in responding to the vast needs of
needs to be clarified, regardless of the scale that is being considered. The culture compe-    the Chinese poor. More recently, new policies have been instituted to allow these or-
tency of the individual must also be factored into the language equation. Ultimately, the      ganizations more operational independence, yet they lag behind economic reforms and
relative position of a given speaker on the road to full proficiency is shown.                 the building negative impacts on society. This paper will focus specifically on one type
                                                                                               of NPO designed to address the poverty gap between the countryside and cities: mi-
                                                                                               cro-financing institutions (MFIs). While urbanites have been able to benefit from Chi-
Crowley, Kevin, University of Cincinnati                                                       na‘s market economy reforms of the past thirty years, the majority of the rural popula-
Ahmadiyya Islam Community                                                                      tion has been excluded from these developments. The last section of this paper will
                                                                                               look at a specific case study: Wokai, a new micro-financing organization based in Cali-
                                                                                               fornia but operating in Beijing. Wokai has avoided some of the problems other NPOs
Ahmadiyya Islam is a branch of Islam practiced in over a hundred countries and it has          encounter because of their official status as a foreign company with a representative
caused severe and detrimental confrontations in Pakistan and several other countries.          office in Beijing: however, Wokai still encounters difficulties due to China‘s regulations
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian is the central leader/prophet of this branch of Islam.            on fundraising and lending practices. In conclusion, I will argue that if China is sincere
Ahmadiyya has some strong beliefs that intertwine with Christianity and believe that           in its aims to alleviate poverty in the countryside, it must further advance the process
Jesus went to India and is buried in Kashmir. Their belief in jihad is more consistent         of allowing domestic and international NPOs to operate legally in rural areas. It also
with the actual meaning of, "to strive or exert to the fullest" of spreading the Islamic       must encourage micro-financing NPOs to act in a financially responsible manner. Most
faith, than armed aggression of the extreme Islamic groups that partake in terrorist activi-   importantly the government must simplify the registration process and update the laws
ty. Like the Sunni and Shiite division, Ahmadiyya is also split into two divisions based on    regarding financial lending in rural areas to achieve its future economic and social
who the successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian would be. Ahmadiyya is op-                   goals.
pressed heavily in Pakistan where followers are called Kuffar or non-Muslims. Suicide
bombers have attacked the Ahmadiyya‘s mosques as recently as May 2010 expressing the
hatred towards this group of Islam. In India, Ahmadiyya is supported by the court ver-
dict of Shihabuddin Koya vs. Ahammed Koya, A.I.R. 1971 Ker 206 to be Muslims.
                                                                                         20                                                                                                 25
Hall, John P., Political Science, Troy University Montgomery                                          Even such a court verdict has not given this group of Islam equality in India. Looking at
                                                                                                      the beliefs and lifestyles of Ahmadiyya Muslims can demonstrate the differences between
Pros and Cons of Continued United States-Led Occupation of Afghanistan
                                                                                                      them and the other two large factions of Islam. The influence of the religion or govern-
                                                                                                      ments recognizing rights of the Ahmadiyya community in countries such as India can
There are several advantages to the successful continuation of Operation Enduring Free-               help validate this group. This could greatly improve the domestic situation in this region.
dom. The ability to deny international terrorist organizations a safe haven in Central Asia,
the creation of a quasi-democratic government in the rubble of sharia law, and the protec-            Erhardt, III, Erwin, Political Science, University of Cincinnati
tion of civil liberties for women in Afghanistan, to name a few. However, the possibility
that all of these outcomes may prove impossible cannot be overlooked. The history of Af-              Moving from the Past to the Present: Kenya Ushers in a New Political Era with a New Constitution
ghanistan is the history of a people who do not accept foreign occupation well. The last
foreign power to successfully control present day Afghanistan was controlled by, arguably,
                                                                                                      In August of 2010, Kenyans went to the polls to vote on a proposed new constitution.
the greatest military commander in history, Alexander the Great. This presentation will
                                                                                                      Kenya, up to this point in time, had been operating under a colonial-era constitution that
briefly examine the advantages and disadvantages of Allied Occupation of Afghanistan.
                                                                                                      had been enacted before the British granted full independence to Kenya in 1963. The
The paper will weigh the possible chances for success and failure and what factors could
                                                                                                      problem with the old constitution was that it placed the majority of political power in the
contribute to both.
                                                                                                      president‘s hands. As the years passed, it became clear the Kenyan presidents were more
                                                                                                      favorable to their own ethnic tribes when it came to the distribution of the nation‘s
Hesse, Brian, Political Science, Northwest Missouri State University                                  wealth. The constitution was 20 years in the making and the vote for its approval drew
                                                                                                      nearly 72 percent of Kenya‘s voting population—the largest number to participate in a
Somalia‟s Al-Shabaab: “Al-Qaeda lite” or “Taliban-like”?                                              national vote in Kenya‘s history. This new constitution was essential following the 2007-
                                                                                                      08 elections, which led to a power sharing agreement between President Mwai Kibaki
Somalia‘s radical Islamic group, Al-Shabaab, has proved capable of capturing and holding              and Prime Minister Raila Odinga. (It was particularly important given the outbreak of
territory in southern Somalia. In these areas, the organization has imposed a draconian               violence following the election that year). When the counting was over, approximately
form of Islamic law historically anomalous to communities there. Recently, the organiza-              68% of Kenyans voted to approve the constitution, while about 32% voted to reject it.
tion has carried out bombings in Uganda, and been shown to be adept at recruiting individ-            The new constitution now provides for an American-style system of checks and balanc-
uals in the Midwest of the United States. Is Al-Shabaab the equivalent of ―Al-Qaeda lite‖: a          es, which will also lessen the overreaching presidential powers of the past. The major
terrorist organization with international aspirations? Or is Al-Shabaab much like Afghani-            concerns which will still need to be addressed are land reform, Muslim family courts, and
stan‘s Taliban: an eclectic mix of clansmen, Islamists and others with mostly narrower ,              abortion. The Anglican, Catholic, and Evangelical Churches all stood in opposition to
more local objectives? Answering these questions will dictate how the international com-              the allowance for abortion in the new document. There is also some concern as to how
munity must act with regard to Somalia.                                                               land reform will, in the end, be enacted. When the new constitution is fully enacted, it
                                                                                                      will be up to the government to listen to these concerns, and try to address them proper-
Hobbs, Anne, Criminal Justice, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Implicit Bias in Civil Rights Workers                                                                 Falcon, Priscilla, Hispanic Studies, University of Northern Colorado
                                                                                                      Transnational Communities: Immigrant Women‟s Narratives
The administrative structure that emerged after the passage of the U.S. civil rights legisla-
tion generated a bureaucracy of gatekeepers with discretionary authority over various stages
of the complaint process. The administrative hurdles make it extremely difficult for a                There has been an increase in workplace raids since 2006 in the United States, which has
claimant to proceed with a complaint of discrimination–regardless of whether the protect-             left a tremendous impact on communities as well as many unanswered questions. The
ed basis is disability, race, national origin, color, sex, religion, etc. The purpose of this study   purpose of this paper is to examine the transnational linkages of immigrant families and
was to gain a better understanding of mechanisms that unconsciously perpetuate inequality.            the narratives of immigrant women affected by the work place raids. This document
One important area to probe is whether inequality is unconsciously reproduced is in civil             highlights the economic, political and cultural strategies implemented by immigrant
rights. United States law requires that anyone alleging to have been discriminated against in         women in the host and sending communities. As we begin to move into the second dec-
employment must first file a claim with the state or federal administrative agency designat-          ade of this century, are sectors of the US economy being transformed in ways that inevi-
ed to investigate such claims. Claimants are prohibited from filing their case directly in            tably increase the demand for low- wage immigrant labor? Are transnational labor migra-
court, as one might for other types of civil violations. The vast majority of claims of dis-          tion patterns an inevitable consequence of the powerful global market forces? This paper
crimination in this country are thereby filtered through the lens of the civil rights investiga-      will examine how immigrant women negotiate daily relationships in globalized communi-
tor.                                                                                                  ties.
                                                                                                 24                                                                                            21
Gentry, Benjamin; Knollman, Kevin; Moyer, James, University of Cincinnati                                and al-Qaeda elements in both Pakistan and Afghanistan, collaboration and control of
                                                                                                         such groups as Lashkar-e-Tabian, and the support and limits of support for these terrorist
Engineers without Borders: Networking to Diminish Third-World Poverty
                                                                                                         groups. In summary, this session will offer a strategic analysis of Pakistani-sponsored
                                                                                                         terrorism as an asymmetric instrument of national security resulting in deadly networks
In 2009, Engineers without Borders from the University of Cincinnati constructed a wa-                   and deadly operations.
ter distribution system for the rural village of Otho Abwao in southwest Kenya. The
year that has passed has brought encouraging success: Water borne disease has nearly                     Ha, Nina, English, Creighton University
disappeared from Otho Abwao, agriculture and livestock are on the rise, and EWB-UC
has expanded its horizons. We are continuing design work on classroom additions to the                   The Plight of Refugees through Literature
Otho Abwao primary school, as well as a new water distribution system for the 5000
residents of Nyambogo, Tanzania. We are also preparing to begin construction on new
                                                                                                         This paper addresses the importance and significance of using literature such as memoirs,
classrooms for another school in Burere, Tanzania. Most importantly, we are branching
                                                                                                         autobiographies, biographies, and oral histories, fictional novels and poetry by refugees to
out to like-minded individuals and organizations. We are strengthening connections with
                                                                                                         intervene in the hegemonic discourse that continually has someone else expressing and
other EWB chapters and similar NGOs. We partner with the communities in Kenya and
                                                                                                         interpreting the horrors that refugees have had to face first hand. Ms. Nina contributes to
Tanzania to jointly identify and sustainably provide for their most pressing needs. It is
                                                                                                         the work that Spivak articulated in her essay as well as build upon the ideas of others such
through this networking that Third World poverty can more efficiently be addressed. An
                                                                                                         as Peter Nyers‘ groundbreaking book Rethinking Refugees (2006).
individual can aid a small group, but only coalitions of creative and proactive minds can
empower communities to take control over their own quality of life.
                                                                                                         Hackworth, Andrew, University of Cincinnati
Gray, David H., Government, Fayetteville State University                                                China‟s Quest for Oil: Impact and Consequences for Itself and the Rest of the World
Staring into the Abyss?: A current and future Assessment of Security Situation of Afghanistan and
Pakistan”                                                                                                From the late 1980s to early 1990s, the Chinese government pushed heavily for market
                                                                                                         reforms, getting their economy onto the ‗high roller‘ table of worldwide economies. Dur-
                                                                                                         ing this time period, there was a 10-year development plan set in place to increase and
Within the past few months the security situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan has cer-
                                                                                                         enhance China‘s economy. Parallel to China‘s plan of intensifying economic develop-
tainly intensified. The purpose of this research is to provide a current and future assess-
                                                                                                         ment, was their need for increased energy sources. Since the commencement of the ‗new‘
ment of the relevant circumstances and moreover, investigate the strategic, regional and
                                                                                                         industrialization under Deng Xiao Ping, coal has been China‘s larger source of energy.
international implications. Specifically, this paper will examine the context of Central
                                                                                                         This has been the case because China has an abundance of coal as a resource and has
Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan with particular attention to the security factors. Addition-
                                                                                                         well-developed mines to harvest coal from. In 2005, the government announced that it
ally, this paper will address several integrated topics with a past, present, and future ap-
                                                                                                         wanted to start moving toward renewable energy resources and a healthier environment.
proach. For both Afghanistan and Pakistan, a summative year in review treatment will be
                                                                                                         Thus, the government moved toward a new direction of developing and utilizing more
provided. On the whole, this paper provides a strategic security perspective on Afghani-
                                                                                                         ―cleaner‖ sources for energy—with oil heading the list. In the year 2010, China is making
stan and Pakistan and will attempt to answer the pressing question of ―Is the Internation-
                                                                                                         oil deals with other less developed nations (and some developed) around the world. One
al Community staring into the abyss‖?
                                                                                                         source has said that since Dec 7, 2007, China has spent about 175 billion on oil purchases
                                                                                                         and loans to secure future oil production. Considering the large sum of money that has
Gray, David H., Government, Fayetteville State University                                                been spent on one source of energy, it would seem that China has come to focus on one
                                                                                                         alternative. These oil deals are often negotiated with questionable governments of less
Deadly Networks, Deadly Operations: Pakistani-Sponsored Terrorism as an Asymmetric Instrument of         developed nations—which leads to a concern of the funding of corrupt governments—
National Security                                                                                        and in some cases—continued human rights violations, and civil war. This paper will
                                                                                                         examine the rationale of China in securing its numerous oil contracts, both domestically
                                                                                                         and internationally, and the effect of these contacts—which primarily benefit China. It
This research presentation examines various aspects of Pakistan as a state-sponsor of
                                                                                                         will also be considered within the context of the rest of the world‘s continued quest for
international terrorism. Specifically, this assessment highlights the use of Pakistani-
                                                                                                         energy stability, and the impact these actions with have on the global political economy
sponsored terrorism merely as an asymmetric instrument of national security. A number
of issues are explored, including the historical background and context, objectives and
operations in Kashmir and beyond, the Pashtun element, relations with Taliban

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