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PTC Project

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									Job Enrichment And Empowerment Toward Job Satisfaction, Which In Turn Positive Or Negative Impact On Working Environment Of Pakistan Tobacco Company

MBA (HR)

SUBMITTED TO
THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BAHRIA UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

2008

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

BAHRIA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE FINAL PROJECT APPROVAL SHEET
Viva-Voce Examination Date: .

Topic of Project: Job enrichment and empowerment toward job satisfaction, which in turn positive or negative impact on working environment of Pakistan Tobacco Company. Name of Students: Shaikh Zakir Tahir Ambreen Ali MBA – HR 01-122061-038 01-122061-005

Class: Approved By:

Mr. Kashif Ahmed Project Supervisor

Mr. Tahir Masood Examiner – I

Mrs. Wajeeha Haider Examiner – II

Mr. Hammad Ashrf Research Coordinator

Mr. Khalid Mumtaz Head of Department Management Sciences I

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

ABSTRACT
The tobacco industry of Pakistan turned in an exceptional performance leveraging on a spectacular growth in aggressive marketing and increased efficiency. This study focuses of on two important Human resource The of area

practices enrichment Tobacco

Pakistan job

Tobacco satisfaction The

Company. level type of

highlighted in this study is how employee empowerment and affect Pakistan study is Company employees.

descriptive in nature. This project report will help to analyse the extent, to, which job enrichment and employee empowerment of such practice to on the employees resource of PTC, which would results in job satisfaction of employees. The application factors human activities provide an opportunity for cross-disciplinary research, which could increase the level of understanding in both fields. In was order to collect to data, both and primary and data secondary from the

sources were used. Questionnaires and interviews method adopted collect analyse respondents. The evaluation of the data was done by the help of graphs and tables. In the end, by keeping in view the graphs and comparing the data, a conclusion was reached. As a result of conducting this research, we came to know that Pakistan Tobacco Company‘s majority of employees are satisfied with their job and PTC should continue its practices, except their tradition enrichment system and traditional career growth process which affecting employee job satisfaction level negatively.

II

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
All Praise to Allah. First and foremost we thank Allah, the Generous, for having finally made this effort a reality. We praise Him because if it were not for His Graciousness, it would never materialize.

We

are

extremely

grateful

to

Mr.

Kashif

Ahmed,

our

project supervisor. He spent a lot of valuable time with us and gave all the related information and expertise very generously about project, research, HRM and report writing.

We

are

thankful

to

Pakistan

tobacco

Company to

and

its

employees who provide the platform to make our project successfully, Development Zahra Majid. especially Manager Mr. thanks Jamshed Organization Sheikh, Talent Inam

Manager Faraz, and Assistant Human Resource Manager Ms.

At last we, express our deepest gratitude to all those who contributed directly or indirectly to bring this project to this final format, because we would never have been able to achieve this by our self.

III

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

DEDICATION
We dedicate this project to our beloved families for keeping our spirits high and for their love, support and guidance throughout our lives. Shaikh Zakir Tahir Ambreen Ali

IV

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FINAL PROJECT APPROVAL SHEET ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENT DEDICATION CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BROADER PROBLEM AREA 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

I II III IV 1
1 1 1 2 4

CHAPTER 2: INDUSTRY OVERVIEW CHAPTER 3: ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW
3.1 ABOUT COMPANY 3.2 HISTORY 3.3 BRANDS 3.3.1 Benson & Hedges 3.3.2 John Player Gold Leaf 3.3.3 Capstan 3.3.4 Gold Flake 3.3.5 Wills 3.3.6 Embassy

5 10
10 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 14

CHAPTER 4: CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH
4.1 JOB EMPOWERMENT 4.2 JOB ENRICHMENT 4.3 JOB SATISFACTION

15
15 23 26

CHAPTER 5: IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES
5.1 DATA ANALYSIS 5.1.1 Analysis of Question # 1 5.1.2 Analysis of Question # 2 5.1.3 Analysis of Question # 3 5.1.4 Analysis of Question # 4 5.1.5 Analysis of Question # 5 5.1.6 Analysis of Question # 6 5.1.7 Analysis of Question # 7 5.1.8 Analysis of Question # 8 5.1.9 Analysis of Question # 9 5.1.10 Analysis of Question # 10 5.2 INTERVIEW ANALYSIS 5.2.1 Interview # 1 Analysis 5.2.2 Interview # 2 Analysis

31
31 31 34 37 39 41 43 45 47 50 53 55 55 60

V

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 6: KEY FINDINGS/PROBLEM CHAPTER 7: RECOMMENDATIONS CHAPTER 8: ACTION PLAN
8.1 WORK DIVISION/ IMPROPER ENRICHMENT PROBLEM 8.2 SLOW CAREER GROWTH PROBLEM 8.3 HIGH ENRICHMENT VS SALARY PROBLEM

64 65 67
67 68 69

CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION REFERENCES ANNEXURE
ANNEXURE A: QUESTIONNAIRE ANNEXURE B: INTERVIEW SHEET ANNEXURE C: CALL REPORTS Call Report # 1 Call Report # 2 Call Report # 3 Call Report # 4 Call Report # 5 Call Report # 6 ANNEXURE D: ACCEPTANCE LETTER

71 73 81
81 83 86 86 87 88 89 90 91 92

VI

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

LIST OF TABLES
Table 5.1.1 Table 5.1.2 Table 5.1.3 Table 5.1.4 Table 5.1.5 Table 5.1.6 Table 5.1.7 Table 5.1.8 Table 5.1.9 Table 5.1.10 31 34 37 39 41 43 45 47 50 53

VII

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 5.1.1 Figure 5.1.2 Figure 5.1.3 Figure 5.1.4 Figure 5.1.5 Figure 5.1.6 Figure 5.1.7 Figure 5.1.8 Figure 5.1.9 Figure 5.1.10 Graph 9.1 31 34 37 39 41 43 45 47 50 53 71

VIII

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Broader Problem Area
General perception of PTC is that their environment is healthy will employee for employee the job are satisfaction. to which job contributing in This research and work analyse level enrichment making

empowerment

environment of PTC healthy in terms of job satisfaction. This project report will also explore the processes and structures on the basis of which PTC gives autonomy to their employees, and how empowerment is contributing in job satisfaction level at PTC. As in human resource management literature, Keller and Donsereau (1995) also suggested that in an empowered organization, superiors empower sub-ordinates by delegating responsibilities to them jobs and and practice help job to enrichment perform techniques, up to the which in turn leads to satisfaction of sub-ordinates from their them superior‘s expectations. So the aim is to relate this theoretical perspective with the way HRM is practiced in PTC and as a result employee job satisfaction level is improved.

1.2 Problem Statement
To analyse the impact of HRM practices (job enrichment and employee empowerment) on job satisfaction level of the Pakistan Tobacco Company employees, which in turn effect the working environment of PTC.

1.3 Objectives Of Study
This project report will help to analyse the extent, to, which job enrichment and employee empowerment practice on the employees of PTC, which results in job satisfaction 1

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company of employees. The application of such factors to human resource activities would provide which an opportunity increase for the cross-disciplinary research, could

level of understanding in both fields. 

Conducted enrichment

a

review

of

the

literature

on

job their

and

employee

empowerment)

and

relation with employee job satisfaction level. 

Issues related to job enrichment and job empowerment are examined.



Carried out secondary and primary research in PTC to judge the opinions of their employees and managers regarding their work environment in terms of job enrichment and employee empowerment.



Conclusions and recommendations about present work environment of PTC were provided.

1.4 Research Methodology
 Target Industry/Company: Target industry is Tobacco industry of Pakistan and company selected for research is Pakistan Tobacco Company (head office, Islamabad). 

Sample: 35 employees. Simple random sampling was use as a sample method in this research. It is defined by (Sekaran, 2000) as a sampling method in which the population has a known and equal chance of being selected as a subject. As this research will 2 be conduct in Pakistani

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company environment, group will therefore use. Among a pre-determined participants, population a simple

the

random sampling method will be use to pick up the individuals to answer the questions. 

Questionnaire: the questionnaire was consisting of 10 questions regarding the effect of job enrichment and employee empowerment towards work environment. Two types of ranking scales were used in the questionnaire. Dichotomous scale and Nominal scale (Sekaran, 2000). Dichotomous scale will be used to elicit a Yes or No answer from the respondents in most of the questions. Nominal scale will allow assigning subjects to certain categories or groups of the respondents (Sekaran, 2000). Each participant will get same questionnaires and it will be make sure that the information provided by them would be totally confidential.



Interviews: A semi-structured interview was carried out with two middle level managers of the Pakistan Tobacco Company. The purpose of this interview was to establish opinion at the very top the organizational hierarchy towards management

development, as this will filter down through all levels of management. 

Observation: Apart from questionnaires, attitude of employees at their workplaces was also observed and this gave an opportunity to analyse what exactly happens to them at their jobs. This given as a clear idea about overall culture of the organizations and the data gathered from these observations is more reliable. 3

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

1.5 Scope And Limitations
The specific drivers of satisfaction should not

necessarily be expected to generalize to other settings. Comprehensive research carried at PTC may not be possible due to time limitation and transportation inconvenience. The availability of employees may not be warranted so number further of employees can The vary. Availability number of of the managers is also doubtful or may not be available for assistance. limited independent variables can also be limitation of this study.

4

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 2: INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
Pakistan's tobacco industry has been a traditionally dependable source of government income, contributing some 27.5 billion rupees per year - the equivalent of 4.4% of Pakistan's GDP. It has the largest yield of any crop in that country and employs some 1 million Pakistanis (www.yespakistan.com). But the in the last it For few years, the there health has and been well 90% a growing of

concern about the ill effects of cigarette smoking and impact has on being of Pakistanis. instance, approximately lung

cancers in Pakistan are attributable to cigarette smoking (www.yespakistan.com). The area under tobacco cultivation increased by 30 per cent during 1990-91 to 1998-99 — from 44,000 hectares to 57,000 hectares. The production has increased even more significantly during the same period — by 145 per cent from 75,000 the tones to 109,000 of 72 tones. per The — value-added a far from more 29.8 sector, cigarette production, depicted cent

unproportionate

increase

billion sticks to 51.5 billion sticks during the same period (www.yespakistan.com). Tobacco is the only crop grown in Pakistan whose yield is well above the world average and matches the per hectare yield in the — US of and 1,900 over other developed per countries hectare. distribution directly 1.2 — an and or average industry retailing 312,500 yield kilograms one million Tobacco

growing,

manufacturing,

employ jobs

persons

otherwise. This translates in the full time equivalent of supporting approximately million

5

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company persons. and 32 Manufacturing per cent employs in the highest number of

persons — 35 per cent followed by 33 per cent by growing distribution and retail (www.yespakistan.com). In the last decade or so, there has been a large antismoking backlash in the United States. The recent out-ofcourt settlement of $360 billion between "Big Tobacco" and participants in a class action suit has spurred the development of anti-smoking coalitions in other parts of the world (www.yespakistan.com). The decline in smoking in North America, especially the United States, has been offset by a strong push from the large tobacco companies to find converts in the developing world. As tobacco control is tightening in the West, transactional tobacco companies are becoming more active in developing countries. The result is that tobacco use is declining at the rate of 1.5% in the West but at the same time it is increasing at the rate of 1.7% in the developing countries (www.yespakistan.com). While the anti-tobacco movement in the USA helped lower cigarette sales, Big Tobacco, the largest US companies: Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds and Brown and Williamson, as well as the British American Tobacco Co., have continue to expand overseas.. They have flooded the markets in Asia and Eastern Europe with advertisements, promotional products and cut-price brands designed to encourage new smokers. According to the Pakistan Pediatric Association, every day more than 1,000 children between the ages of six and 16, start smoking. It is estimated that more than a third

6

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company of men and some four percent of women in the country are smokers (www.yespakistan.com). Every year, the government spends some US$20,000 on antismoking messages but cigarette companies spend millions of dollars annually on advertising (www.yespakistan.com). According to the prestigious advertising magazine 'Age', the Lakson Tobacco Company in spent an astounding that $6.4 year million on publicity in 1998, making it the third largest business advertiser Pakistan (www.yespakistan.com). Anti-tobacco campaigners accuse the government of being swayed by the tobacco industry. According to independent estimates, the Pakistani government collected over $300 million tenth of in tobacco tax in 1990, total slightly more than revenue earnings a the government's that

year (www.yespakistan.com). Anit-tobacco activists say that whatever benefits the

government is reaping in the short term from tobaccorelated industries will be significantly offset by the long term health care problems of average Pakistanis devastated by smoking addictions (www.yespakistan.com). Tobacco is a crop with myriad aspects. Not only does it involve marketing scientific stages. treatment, This crop but requires special attention by the producers during the growth, curing and possesses considerable economic significance and its impact on the fiscal and monetary policies of major producing, exporting/importing countries is quite pronounced. In Pakistan, although tobacco cultivation occupies a relatively small area of 7

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company 0.27% of the total irrigated land in the country, it is of great economic value as a source of revenue, employment and foreign exchange earnings to the country. During 2004-2005, above Rs.28 billion were contributed to the Federal Exchequer as Central Excise Duty and Sales Tax. Being a highly labour-intensive crop, about eighty thousand persons are involved in its cultivation, fifty thousands Industry exchange been raw are and engaged another for by in 26 one the factories million (US$ of the Tobacco indirect million on find 11.61

employment. It is also an important source of foreign earnings country Pakistan Rs.7-8 during 2004-2005). Had the production of tobacco crop not developed material the Tobacco Board per scientific lines, the country would have been importing worth billion annum (www.highbeam.com). Pakistan Tobacco Board was established under an Ordinance (Ordinance No.1 of 1968, dated 8th February, 1968) for the promotion of the cultivation, manufacture and export of tobacco and tobacco Products and matters ancillary thereto (www.highbeam.com). 

To

regulate, and

control tobacco

and

promote and

the to

export fix

of

tobacco

products,

grading

standards; 

To

undertake

and

assist

research

connected

with

tobacco industry, impart training in tobacco testing and generally to take measures in the interest of tobacco industry; 

To

render

assistance areas 8

for and

the

development

of of

new

tobacco

growing

establishment

model

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company farms, to organize and assist special research

connected with tobacco cultivation and generally to render assistance for improving tobacco production; 

To

collect

statistics

on

any

matter

relating

to

tobacco and tobacco industry; and 

To

perform

such may,

other from

functions time to

as

the time,

Federal direct

Government

(www.highbeam.com).

The Pakistan Tobacco Board kept a close vigil over the tobacco marketing operations through visits of its Senior Officers on daily basis and Governor's Inspection Teams in NWFP and also receipt the of information of tobacco on daily purchases/prices from tobacco companies

basis so as to safeguard the interest of all the cognate groups i.e. tobacco growers, tobacco dealers and tobacco companies. It is heartening to note that to-date weighted average prices and paid are well above those of the corresponding period of last years (www.highbeam.com).

9

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 3: ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW 3.1 About Company
Pakistan Tobacco Company Limited was incorporated in 1947 immediately had been after partition, in the when it took over the business of the Imperial Tobacco Company of India, which operational subcontinent since 1905. (www.ptc.om.pk)

They and

are which

part has

of a

the

trans-national in 180

British

American British

Tobacco Group, which employs some 90,000 people worldwide presence countries. American Tobacco has a position of market leader in more than 50 countries selling over 300 brands there. In 2004, the Group sold and produced a nearly 16% share of the global market of cigarettes. (www.ptc.om.pk)

PTC is the largest excise tax generator in the private sector in the country. In 2004 alone, PTC paid the government close to Rs.16 Billion in excise and sales taxes. This amounts to over Rs. 50 million per working day. Over one million people are economically dependent on the industry in Pakistan. (www.ptc.om.pk)

3.2 History
From being the first multinational to set up its business in Pakistan in 1947 and beginning operations out of a warehouse near Karachi Port, they have come a long way. (www.ptc.om.pk)

From being just a single factory operation to a company, which is involved in every 10 aspect of cigarette

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company production, from tobacco cultivation to packaging they have evolved and grown with Pakistan. However, what is significant about these fifty-seven years is the effort that PTC has demonstrated in the development of the country. By being instrumental in the campaign for modern agricultural and industrial practices, they have helped in the development and progress of the agricultural & industrial sector in the country. (www.ptc.om.pk)

They

have of

been

supporting and

&

contributing Educating in

to

various in the

causes latest

national

interest.

growers

techniques

technology

agriculture,

afforestation and free health care in designated areas are but a few examples. (www.ptc.om.pk)

Through

these

fifty-seven

years,

our

continuous

investment in people, brands, technology, innovation and the communities in which they operate has borne fruit in many ways and to mention just a few; they are deemed as a partner of choice by many, our Environmental, Health & Safety standards are a source of inspiration for local companies, our Industrial Relations practices have led and influenced local practices, and as a result of all these, their managers are highly valued and sought after people in the Pakistani corporate world based on the training and exposure they give them from very early on in their careers. (www.ptc.om.pk)

3.3 Brands
British American Tobacco consumers adult smokers -

drive everything it does. The Group's goal is to satisfy consumers‘ demands better and more profitably than its

11

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company competitors do. British American Tobacco invests effort and care in understanding adult smokers consumers‘ make preferences, choices and knows that informed about

brands. (www.ptc.com.pk)

British American Tobacco's brand strategy differentiates it from its competitors and underpins its approach to product development. The Group continues to build a focused, segmented and differentiated brand portfolio and allocates resources to a full range of brands deployed in the key industry areas that offer the most robust source of volume and profit growth. These are the international, premium lights and Adult Smokers Under the age of 30 (ASU30) segments. They continue to invest in our four global drive brands - Dunhill, Kent, Lucky Strike and Pall Mall, which have grown combined volumes by almost 50 per cent since 1999. Rothmans, Kool, Benson & Hedges, State Express 555, Peter Stuyvesant, Viceroy and John Player Gold Leaf are also part of our international brand portfolio, playing a key strategic role in the different regions where they do business. (www.ptc.com.pk)

3.3.1 Benson & Hedges
In 1873, Richard Benson & William Hedges started a partnership in London. From the very start, the idea was to make Benson & Hedges a style statement, which is why the business started from London‘s fashionable West End. (www.ptc.com.pk)

PTC launched Benson & Hedges in Pakistan in March 2003. Made with the finest hand picked golden Virginia tobacco from across three continents, the brand is packed with

12

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company perfection to seal its freshness. (www.ptc.com.pk)

3.3.2 John Player Gold Leaf
The story of John Player Gold Leaf has to start from the story of its founder, John Player. An enterprising businessman, John Player started a small tobacco selling business in 1877 and turned it into a thriving cigarette company, John Player and Sons. (www.ptc.com.pk)

With and

a

distinct

lifebuoy

and Thus

sailor staying

trademark, true to

John John

Player Gold Leaf has an identity entrenched in sailing maritime adventure. Player‘s very first big brand - Player‘s Gold Leaf Navy Cut cigarettes. (www.ptc.com.pk)

3.3.3 Capstan
Capstan has a rich heritage, originating in Britain in the 19th century. of W.D. The brand WILLS was created under the auspices & H.O. at Bristol and London.

(www.ptc.com.pk)

3.3.4 Gold Flake
Gold Flake, like many of our brands, also boasts its origins at W.D. & H.O. WILLS where it was a premium brand around the end of the 19th century. (www.ptc.com.pk)

Launched in 1982, in a 'soft cup' packaging, the brand took off when it was repositioned in the value for money segment and later a 'hinge lid' variant was introduced in 2000. (www.ptc.com.pk)

13

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

3.3.5 Wills
WILLS takes its name from the heritage of one of the origional Imperial Tobacco Company families: the Brothers of London. (www.ptc.com.pk) Wills

3.3.6 Embassy
Embassy, the third leading volume brand in Pakistan, is most popular in the Punjab where it enjoys a leading position due to its equity and loyalty. (www.ptc.com.pk)

14

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 4: CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH 4.1 Job Empowerment
At the root of empowerment, there lies the concept of power. Empowerment can be defined following two lines of research. In the structural approach, which is the traditional approach to empowerment, the focus is on the actions of the ―power holders‖ who transfer power to the less powerful. In this sense, empowerment is understood as the granting of power and decision-making authority down the organizational hierarchy and granting employees the ability to significantly affect organizational outcomes (www.emeraldinsight.com).

Other members

authors through

defined the

empowerment

as, of

a

process

of that

enhancing feelings of self-efficacy among organizational identification conditions foster powerlessness Conger and Kanungo, 2004, p. 474). Burke (1999) equates empowerment to delegation.

The original meaning of empowerment has been referred to as to ―authorise, give power to‖ (Tulloch, 2005). The use of the term ―power‖ appears to be common throughout the definitions argued that of empowerment; model for example, seen power Legge (1997) of a is empowerment should be whereby in terms

redistribuitive

equalisation

promoted for trust and collaboration. Similarly, Conger and Kanungo (2004) focused on power as the central point of empowerment, ―either to strengthen this belief or to weaken belief in personal powerlessness‖. Power is often redistributed by transferring control so that employees have the authority to make and implement their own decisions. Conger and Kanungo (2004) make a distinction

15

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company between the relational The and motivational aspect meanings examines of the

empowerment.

relational

relationship between managers and worker both before and after empowerment. The motivational dimension suggest a process through which initiative will need to pass for employees to feel motivated. Other authors in the field define empowerment in terms of its dynamic interaction, for example Pastor (2003, p. 5) stated that: ―it is part of a process or an evolution – an evolution that goes on whenever you have two or more people in a relationship, personally or professionally‖. Lee and Koh (2006) refined this description further by looking at the intersubjective nature of the subordinate and supervisor. They stated that empowerment is the combination of the psychological state of a subordinate, which is influenced by the empowering behaviours of supervisors.

The beginnings of the concept of employee empowerment can be found in several places. The socio-technical approach (Lewin, 1998) combined two aspects of work in a systemic manner. The idea of job enrichment (Herzberg, Mausner et al., 2002; Herzberg, 1968) work was focused on increasing control and decision-making in one‘s work. The literature on job autonomy, 2003; (Herzberg, and Mausner et al., 2002; and Herzberg, Hackman Oldham, 2003; Hackman

Oldham, 2005; Menon, 2006) addresses another component of what is today referred to employee empowerment.

The

espoused

benefits

of

empowerment

can

be

broadly

divided into two areas: benefits for the organisation; and benefits for the individual. Much of the research into empowerment has focused on organisational benefits assuming these are the driving force behind attempts to 16

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company engender empowered working (Cunningham et al., 2002).

Thomas

and

Velthouse

(2000)

defined

empowerment

as

a

cognitive state that results in increased intrinsic task motivation manifested in four cognitions:

   

Meaning (value of work goal or purpose); Competence (self-efficacy); Self-determination (autonomy in initiation and

continuation of work behaviors); and Impact (the degree to which the individual‘s

behavior makes a difference and influence on work outcomes).

Byham and Cox, see empowerment as a motivational tool for gaining commitment and increased performance from the workforce. They also see empowerment as a way of securing changes which are needed by the organization, demanded by the business environment and desired by the employees (Byham and Cox, 1999). In our work, empowerment will be defined as the involvement of employees in the decisionmaking Cole process et al., (Mitchell, 2004), 1998; Vroom the and Jago, of 2000; the inviting members

organisation to think strategically and to be personally responsible for the quality of their tasks (Bowen and Lawler, 2006), animating, favoring and rewarding employees for behaving always in a way they consider more suitable to satisfy customers (Bowen and Lawler, 2001) and to improve the organisation‘s functioning (Hermel, 2003). However, empowerment does not exclude an initial supervision to organise, train and guide employees, as well as certain self-control (Geroy et al., 2006; Lawler,

17

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company 2001).

In

essence,

empowerment with

is

the rest

management of the

style

where

managers

share

the

organisational

members their influence in the decision-making process – that is to say, the collaboration in the decision -making process is not limited to those positions with formal power with certain characteristics as far as information systems, training, rewarding, power sharing, leadership style and organisational culture are is concerned when (www.emeraldinsight.com). Empowerment formal

there are official and recognised channels to put it into practice (Locke and Schweiger, 2004); that is to say, there are certain norms or rules that impose or guarantee employee participation (Dachler and Wilpert, 1997; Harber et al., 2001). It is informal when the influence on decisions is based on the personal relationship between the manager and the subordinates (Locke and Schweiger, 2004), through a non-regulated exchange (Harber et al., 2001) that arises from the agreement among the members of the organisation (Dachler and Wilpert, 1997). Therefore, the more formal are the channels that make empowerment possible, the more participative will be the management style (Cole et al., 2004), because informal participation is a result of an exceptional relationship and it does not guarantee a long-term and general empowerment.

In line with more recent empowerment research, Menon and Borg (2006) mention three main dimensions of power underlying the empowerment process:  Perceived control (an internal urge or drive to

influence and control others);

18

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company  Perceived mobilize courses of competence the action (self-efficacy cognitive to needed meet beliefs to and

motivation,

resources,

situational

demands); and 

Goal

internalisation

(as

an

energizing

element

a

goal, a valued cause or meaningful project).

When the employee contributes directly in the decisionmaking process, we are in a direct participation way. When he influences through the representation of someone else – someone who acts in his name, his superior, or the delegate of his is group, indirect or another 1995; colleague Dachler – and participation (Cordova,

Wilpert, 1997; Harber et al., 2001). Cole et al. (2004) consider empowerment is characterised for being instead of through intermediaries. Also direct and Dachler

Wilpert (1997) affirm that the ideal way of empowerment is the immediate and direct involvement of the members of the organisation in the decision-making process.

We could consider several perspectives (Bowen and Lawler, 2001; Eccles, 1996; to Hinckley, to the That 2006). that we way, We can will analyse allow a influence according role managers

subordinates

play.

identify

continuum starting from a point when managers just tell employees the decisions that have been already taken, and ending at a point when managers delegate the decision making to subordinates (Cordova, 1995; Dachler and Wilpert, 1997; Harber et al., 2001).

The meaning of empowerment has tended to be associated with the concept of power, thereby implying that power is 19

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company redistributed by those in a senior position to those in more subordinate positions (Tulloch, 2005). The meaning of empowerment has been the subject of great debate and remains, at present, a poorly defined concept (Cunningham et al., 2002; Dainty et al., 2002; Psoinos and Smithson, 2002). Mondros and Wilson (2000), and clearly and is a frequently used Russ and Millam One (2003) similarly argued that the term is rarely defined rhetorically. possible reason for this lack of clarity is the tendency for empowerment to be attached to management concepts, for example, business total quality Furthermore, et al., the to term a process re-engineering (BPR) and (TQM) (Dainty et al., a 2002). wide and empowerment high of level represents of management

variety of activities, from ―sham‖ empowerment (Rosenthal 1997) of five upward involvement Wilkinson task devolution identified sharing; power. types Similarly, solving; (1998)

empowerment:

information autonomy;

problem

attitudinal shaping; and self-management.

Global competition and a changing business environment have instigated organisational change in response to increased pressures to improve efficiency and performance (Lawler et al., 2002). Specifically organisations have sought improvements in cost control, flexibility, quality improvement argued that et improvements (Applebaum economic (Psoinos in and Smithson, economic However, 2002). have It has been areas of may the be empowered al., organisations demonstrated

various 2005). of

performance measurement specifically

benefits

empowerment

difficult as often it is introduced as part of a broader initiative such as BPR and TQM (Psoinos and Smithson, 2002).

20

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company While the primary motive of empowerment is usually to improve benefits the to economic the performance of the organisation, also been individual employee have

identified. Nykodym et al. (2004) found that employees who consider themselves empowered have reduced conflict and ambiguity in their role, as they are able to control (to a certain that On a extent) this similar their theme, a and own it environment. strain sense on of was reported They the that job suggested employee. empowered reduces have emotional greater

employees

satisfaction,

motivation

organisational

loyalty

(Mullins and Peacock, 1998), as they feel more involved in the achievement of the organisational goals. Despite these benefits being frequently cited, the nature and meaning of this job satisfaction and motivation have not been fully explored within the academic field. The approach to leadership that empowers subordinates as a primary component is of managerial called and organizational empowerment effectiveness also employee

(Bennis, 2000; Block, 1999; Kanter, 2000; Kanter, 2001; Kanter, 2003; McClelland, 2000). Another dimension has its beginnings in the analysis of internal organization power and control (Kanter, 2003; Tannenbaum, 1994) which showed that the sharing of power and control increases organizational effectiveness. Others identify the team dimension of empowerment (Beckhard, 1985; Neilsen, 2002). Research on alienation (Seeman, 1982) and discussion of employee participation (Lawler, 2002) are also precursors of the idea of employee empowerment.

Thomas

and

Velthouse

(2002)

suggested

that

the

organizational environment can have a powerful influence on cognitions of empowerment. Studies on leadership and 21

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company management skills (Bennis and Nanus, 1997) suggest that the practice of empowering subordinates is a principal component of managerial and organizational effectiveness. Empowerment has been suggested as a means of facilitating productive (Conger approach, and and motivated by behavior In and Conger in the organizations motivational (2004), Kanungo, 2004).

pioneered

Kanungo

empowerment was conceptualized as psychological enabling.

Bennis

and

Nanus

(1997)

conclude

that

great

leaders

empower others to translate their vision into reality – and to sustain it. These authors further comment that leaders hence exciting with transformational their for followers the behaviors to act by rather energize providing than and an empower

vision

future

through

rewards and punishments.

Leaders with vision can create

a participative climate and more empowered condition in which organizational members assume the authority to take actions to enhance the vision. Beyond providing a vision, transformational leaders engage in ―inspiration‖ behaviours which build subordinates‘ self-confidence with respect to goal attainment (Bass and Avolio, 2000).

Empowerment there has

researchers been of little

have

devoted

their

attention to the –

primarily to individual-level models and interestingly, scholarly and work attention team interaction empowerment membership

that is, to empowerment at the team level of analysis. Actually, there has been very little empirical work on teams defined as ―empowered teams‖. Neilsen (2002) suggests that empowerment techniques play a crucial role in group development and maintenance.

22

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

4.2 Job Enrichment
Enrichment is redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition (Dessler). of jobs, Sokoya work to (2000) found in his study that the level of job satisfaction is determined by a combination and personal jobs characteristics. adds the benefit Rotating of task managers different

variety, resulting in increased performance of employees. The technique entails enriching the job, which refers to the inclusion of greater variety of work content, requiring a higher level of knowledge and skill, giving workers autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing, providing and the controlling opportunity their for own performance, growth and and personal

meaningful work experience (www.emeraldinsight.com)

There

is

no job

one

answer

in is

discovering However, the best

a

non-monetary (2006) increase to

motivator believes

for

employees.

Grensing way

enrichment

employee motivation and productivity. Some of the ways by which this may be accomplished are factors such as job re-design, this to job sharing, Grensing and flextime, indicates participation the need to and a team focus. However, to gain full employee commitment to approach, suggestions combine these with building employee autonomy, being responsive offering constructive feedback, empowering employees to develop client relationships and performing within a work unit context. This approach then assumes that money is a limited motivator and that the job is the source of the problem and not the employee. Therefore, by altering aspects of the job and the tasks

23

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company involved, isolated decision the task making, chain of monotonous, is broken variety and repetitive replaced challenge. and with This

performance planning

and

could include cross-over tasks that involve, for example, interaction with other departments

Weiss (2001) agrees with Grensing‘s (2006) approach and indicates that the normal reflex action of employers, to increase supply factors compensation is will that and benefits effective in when a tight combined labour with and market, only

increase

employee

involvement

interest in their jobs. In addition, using methods such as creating opportunity for job advancement, empowerment, creating challenges, treating employees with respect and recognizing their achievements will serve as more cost effective employee retention techniques. Employees surveyed in this research indicated general satisfaction with pay, but retention being less likely as a result of low morale stemming This improved from level inadequate of the job/personal was the use of satisfaction. significantly satisfaction

through

aforementioned techniques.

In

an

age

where and

advanced more that

technology

industries in

are these more and

becoming (2002)

more

prevalent, IT

employees

fields also require greater challenge and autonomy. Steen observed professionals such as flexible were hours interested in working with the latest and higher profile technologies. Also, things being able to work at home were of greater importance than obtaining a higher level position within the firm or increased pay. Of equal importance to pay were factors such as training, educational 24 assistance, the latest

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company equipment and a pleasant work environment. Again, the

elements of challenge, job evolution and recognition are of significant importance. The latter point is expanded upon by Holley (2005), who cites factors such as ―curb appeal‖, the physical attractiveness of the workplace at a glance, as being important both is in attracting and employees. Along with others, such as the challenge offered by the job vis-à-vis with growth, While fair personal pay professional, and as previously to similar along perceived pay equitable (externally

internally). considered

important,

mentioned, it is only relevant to the degree where it is and equitable compared positions within and outside of the organization.

Job

satisfaction are is

is

also to

enhanced create to

through a job

encouraging positive In to

autonomy and group cohesion (Swift and Campbell, 2005). These climate balanced combined positively more ―psychological climate‖ within in an organization. This related work satisfaction. in order fact, Sunoo (2000) stresses the importance of creating a and challenging environment increase employee optimism and retention, since it is the job, not the place of work, that will have the greatest effect on satisfaction.

In

order

for

employees learning

to and major

be

truly

satisfied

and

motivated in their jobs, they must feel that they are contributing, (Markovich, enjoying advantage themselves that small 1997). A

businesses enjoy over their larger counterparts is the ability to adapt quickly to changes in the environment. However, to fully achieve this, it is critical to be able to tap into the human resources within an organization. 25

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company Markovich has determined that by fostering trust through relationships, employees are more likely to communicate information and, in the process, learn, contribute and glean a sense of freedom from their work environment. The resulting enjoyment and satisfaction experienced by the employees are key factors in organizational success.

Utley et al. (2003) observed that both Herzberg et al.‘s (2002) motivator an and hygiene factors were required operate teamwork a pay it may in creating environment culture, were the in where employees focus, having more and

effectively and with greater success. Motivators such as organizational problem relationship improvement. sufficient a means in of customer cited context while as of solving positive quality may not be be

implementing

Therefore, reducing

adequate

dissatisfaction, pay and

sufficient as a stand-alone motivator. Job enrichment is complementing providing more motivational sources. If one of the two factors is in abundance and the other is noticeably lacking, Herzberg states that there could be a negating effect where each cancels the other, resulting in no net positive or negative behaviours (Vecchio and Appelbaum, 1999). Since every possible advantage is key in a small business‘s survival, this is hardly desirable.

4.3 Job Satisfaction
Employee satisfaction has been defined by Locke (2005) as ‗‘a pleasurable or positive by Petty emotional (2004) state resulting that job from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences‘‘. An analysis conducted concluded satisfaction and performance are positively correlated, moreover job satisfaction is also positively related with 26

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company specific behavior success. Another link between employee satisfaction and employee turnover is widely accepted in the literature. Models of employee turnover by Horn and Griffeth (1991) and Hulin (1985) employee by propose a negative appears (2001) to relationship be between for satisfaction and turnover. According to them, improving satisfaction and with instrumental found a decreasing employee turnover. Another research conducted Schneider Bowen has positive attitudes. satisfied correlation Organisations between employee satisfied and customer have facets that but is of performance (Organ not is 2001), formally critical like organisational is in employee a job

citizenship description

behavior that

which for

required

organisational

employees

customers. This results in organisations with satisfied employees having high level of customer retention, which increases (2006) overall profitability. research who are Anderson and Sallivan high higher into have support this and suggest that have

satisfaction is linked to retention of both customers and employees. repurchase repeat Customers intentions, and satisfied in turn are who which translate satisfied

purchases

employees

higher intentions of staying in the organisation, which results in decreased turnover. A to survey rate conducted their by Smith (2002) between of employee the work

satisfaction and employee retention, employees were asked satisfaction like pay, with aspects environment supervision, co-workers,

opportunities for promotion and work itself. The results suggest that if employees develop a feeling that their

27

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company inputs are ignored, this leads to reduction in

satisfaction and thereby increases the turnover rate. Miles and Creed (1995) of suggests that effectively because because

measuring and improving employee satisfaction is thus a critical businesses function are contemporary more management and becoming competitive,

employees with the skills and abilities needed to obtain competitive advantages are becoming scarcer, management can no longer afford to see employees as a replaceable input.

All of the information presented to this point begs the question of how relevant job satisfaction is with regard to employee to job productivity. that satisfaction Once is and again, a the literature correlation via the tends indicate there strong

between

productivity

following question. ―Is it important for employees to be satisfied?‖ If job satisfaction does not add any value or is not quantifiably beneficial, how important is it? With only 47 per cent of the Canadian workforce claiming to be satisfied with their jobs, this becomes particularly relevant (Anonymous, 2006).

Grant (2003) echoes the importance of job enrichment and recognition. determined positively In that with a survey the higher of 55,000 workers, it was that following profits: attitudes workers correlated

perceive

they are doing what they do best; they are able to make input in day-to-day operations; that there is a quality commitment from their peers; and that there is a clear link between their activities and the corporate mission. A difference in returns of about 10 per cent was observed 28

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company between firms with dissatisfied employees in favour of those with satisfied staff.

Similarly, Oliver (2000) used a seven-year longitudinal study of 100 medium sized firms and determined that effective management in maintaining employee satisfaction resulted in 19 per cent higher profits and 18 per cent greater profit productivity. advantage There by was a greater that output invested and in enjoyed firms

meeting the satisfaction needs of employees and training staff to maintain a skilled and motivated workforce. The factors of greatest importance training, were reward found to be job ―recruitment, appraisal, systems,

design and communication‖.

Another study, appearing in People Management (Anonymous, 2005), found that job satisfaction was the most important predictor of future productivity. By ―managing the whole person‖, ownership, these invest firms instill a and oft sense skill made of accountability, within creativity and and the the development claims of

employees. The study goes on to point out that, despite findings, in HR By employees are they so are ―being the most important asset‖, firms frequently under people they know profess that significant. letting employees

valued and that their opinions are important and should be expressed, firms can increase profits and productivity by as much as 27 per cent and 22 per cent, respectively, over firms that do not promote these beliefs (Prickett, 2007). In this study, job satisfaction was also found to be positively (2003) related observed to organizational and Utley, among other performance. and job things, Similarly, Turner Gingras (2004) Westbrook,

that, 29

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company dissatisfaction on productivity. resulting from a lack of perceived

relevance within the organization had a negative effect

Among the naysayers, Walsh and Tseng (1998) indicate that job satisfaction has little effect on employee levels of active effort. Wages were also found to be of little significance on active effort. Nevertheless, recognition and employee participation were found to be directly and positively related to active effort. This finding is similar to Mendonsa (2002) as recognition, again, plays a key role without being linked to job satisfaction.

Interestingly, in a study of the causal link between job perception and job satisfaction, Wong et al. (1998) found a reciprocal relation between job perception and job satisfaction. This opposes Sunoo‘s (2000) finding that it is the job, not the company that one works for, which is the primary determinant of job satisfaction. It is also in indirect conflict with Holley‘s (2005) curb appeal theory.

Still,

the

evidence

seems

to

be

quite

positive

in

response to whether a satisfied employee is a productive one. Though the manner in which it manifests itself may vary. that For job of upon example, their them. McCue ability This is and to Gianakis better (2005) the observed be a demands satisfaction among professionals meet by accomplished would

symptom placed

constantly

improving their skills and knowledge base.

30

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 5: IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES 5.1 Data Analysis 5.1.1 Analysis of Question # 1
Table 5.1. 1

Yes

Sr.

Question

No

1 By granting of power and decisionmaking authority to your subordinates, affects their job satisfaction level positively?

29

6

83% 17%

Figure 5.1. 1

Question # 1
17%

Yes No

83%

The question, ―By granting of power and decision-making authority of to your Tobacco favour subordinates, Company of of effects 83% their job satisfaction level positively?‖ was asked to 35 employees Pakistan in which and respondents 17% are answered question remain

disagree with the statement.

Majority

of

respondents

agrees

that

when

subordinates

gets empowerment its effects their Performance level in positive way. Because they get autonomy, they can think as they want to, and by doing so, their interest in work

31

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company also increased. They come up with innovative ideas and can make their work more It gives them confidence easy and interesting for them. that they can make their

decisions about their carriers.

Empowerment increases job satisfaction and reduces role stress and ambiguity Empowerment when led their to discretionary powers of increased. quicker resolution

customer problems because employees did not waste time referring customer complaints to managers.

Empowerment Inspires teamwork and co-operation, producing honest communication and improved at all team performance. of the Fosters personal pride and responsibility, which improves client/customer organization. service levels

An atmosphere of personal and professional growth, which directly benefits and the organization through, increased and selfproductivity improved self-confidence

respect which contributes to the development of new and repeat business through service-orientated relationships.

Rest 6 of employees said that they are not agreed that employee empowerment effects their job satisfaction level positively increased because power they given think to employees them; it can is abuse too the much

responsibility for some employees; employees who focus on their own success rather than group's may leave; managers must be better trained to facilitate through sharing of information, cooperation, and referrals to appropriate resources; all employees must "buy in" to the concept for 32

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company it to be effective; there is an increased cost to the organization for training and education; there is increased time in groups or committees which takes away from regular jobs; there may be increased conflict or power struggle between employees due to group work; some employees may not be knowledgeable enough to make good business decisions; decisions made on the basis of personality versus logical reasoning.

33

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.2 Analysis of Question # 2
Table 5.1. 2

Yes

Sr.

Question

No

2 When you are empowered then you have a greater sense of job satisfaction,

35

0

motivation and organizational loyalty? 100% 0%

Figure 5.1. 2

Question # 2
0%

Yes No

100%

The question, ―When you are empowered then you have a greater sense of job satisfaction, was asked to motivation 35 employees and of organizational loyalty?‖

Pakistan Tobacco Company and 100% respondents answered in favour of this statement.

All respondent replied in a positive way because they believes that through empowerment, trust upon each other increased, employee employee e.g. that that if will his manager senior or will boss give give autonomy feeling to to him his his and definitely

is trusting

giving this right to him that he can make decisions and can handle so many issues, by this trust an employee gets confidence and get motivated as well, and will try to work in a better way so that he can keep the trust and

34

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company through this motivation an employee‘s loyalty toward his organization will definitely increase. Employees will more likely to agree with changes if they participate in decision-making.

Empowerment

is

the

recognition

that

employees

do

have

skills and can be trusted and therefore authority can be passed down the hierarchy to them. It trusts employees to make decisions within the business. This leads to employees gaining self-confidence and therefore leads to higher motivation.

Legge (1997) argued that empowerment should be seen in terms of a is redistribuitive promoted for model trust and whereby power equalisation collaboration.

Similarly, Conger and Kanungo (2004) focused on power as the central point of empowerment, ―either to strengthen this belief or to weaken is belief in personal by powerlessness‖. Power often redistributed

transferring control so that employees have the authority to make and implement their own decisions. Conger and Kanungo (2004) make a distinction between the relational and motivational meanings of empowerment. The relational aspect worker examines both will the before need relationship and to between managers and The which feel after for empowerment. employees to

motivational dimension suggest a process through initiative motivated. pass

They also agreed that employee empowerment also increased job satisfaction increased power and with this employee contribution equals lower 35 absenteeism and better increased, respect among employees secondary to teamwork-

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company productivity increased. Employees become more motivated so the firm becomes more productive. This leads to a decrease in the costs per unit and finally an overall increase in the business' profits.

36

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.3 Analysis of Question # 3
Table 5.1. 3

Yes

Sr.

Question

No

3 I have considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in how I do my job. In other words I have been empowered at my job.

20 15 57% 43%

Figure 5.1. 3

Question # 3

43%

Yes No
57%

The

statement,

―I

have

considerable

opportunity

for

independence and freedom in how I do my job. In other words I have been empowered at my job‖ was given to 35 employees of Pakistan Tobacco Company and 20% respondents answered yes for this statement and remaining 15% respondents answered against of this statement.

Twenty employees were agreed to this statement, they said yes when they are empowered in their work it involves the delegation of responsibility down the hierarchy so as to give Thus, "employees increased decision-making such or authority as in job work respect of the execution of their primary work tasks‖. empowerment encompasses practices enrichment, self-managing teams autonomous

37

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company groups, many aspects of total quality management, and

various involvement schemes. Furthermore, empowerment has featured as a key component of the more general notion of "high involvement management, "participation, empowerment and job redesign".

They said when they have the autonomy to make ongoing improvements, adjustments be done‖. in It they the can work the also fine-tune as and they increase make become their process

increasingly knowledgeable about how their work can best "improves knowledge motivation and, dealing with the idea of participation of work, so they said we can do better job when we have control on our work, we can choose adequate strategies to deal with the situation. Skills can only be acquired when there is control at work.

Well some of employees were disagree with this situation they were not they in this the favour that by of giving freedom chances them and of empowerment making get to opportunity

independence, because they said by delegating decision authority inexperience employee errors in work are more and it can effect the company end result in a negative way, it is too much responsibility for some employees; rather group than employees group's some who may focus leave. on their may not own be be success due to There may

increased conflict or power struggle between employees work; employees knowledgeable enough to make good business decisions.

38

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.4 Analysis of Question # 4
Table 5.1. 4

Yes

Sr.
4

Question
This is the type of job in which I can feel a sense of accomplishment.

No
0

35

100% 0%

Figure 5.1. 4

Question # 4
0%

Yes No

100%

The statement, ―This is the type of job in which I can feel a sense of accomplishment‖ was asked to 35 employees of Pakistan Tobacco Company and 100% respondents answered in favour of this statement.

According

to

above

table

100%

of

our

sample

size

employees thinks that this is the job in which they feel sense of accomplishment. There can be many factors due to which about all this employees have they same school single of thought for statement. There cannot answer

everyone in every situation, but it's clear that there are a few common sources. And they seem to match the different roles people find themselves in at work. There can be factor of empowerment and freedom. The freedom of doing things at PTC is comparative higher then the other companies working in Pakistan. The more employee is

39

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company empowered the more creative and productive he will be and result will to sense of accomplishment et al., for the the job. As according (Cunningham 2002), espoused

benefits of empowerment can be broadly divided into two areas: benefits for the organisation; and benefits for the individual. Much of the research into empowerment has focused on organisational benefits assuming these are the driving working. force behind attempts to engender empowered

There can be another factor due to which employees feels sense of accomplishment in their jobs at Pakistan Tobacco Company and hat is Job Enrichment. PTC job enrichment is in-built on in the system; they project have and and verities of job where take description rather than one. They rotate their employees different are short-term given has assignment freedom that by to employees decision. authority

Markovich

determined and, in

fostering learn,

trust through relationships, employees are more likely to communicate environment. experienced information The by the process, and key contribute and glean a sense of freedom from their work resulting the enjoyment are satisfaction factors in employees

organizational success (Markovich, 2007).

40

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.5 Analysis of Question # 5
Table 5.1. 5

Yes

Sr.

Question

5 Rotating you to different jobs adds the 35 0 benefit of task variety, resulting in 100% 0% increased performance?

No

Figure 5.1. 5

Question # 5
0%

Yes No

100%

The statement, ―Rotating you to different jobs adds the benefit of task was variety, asked to resulting 35 employees in of increased Pakistan performance?‖

Tobacco Company and 100% respondents answered in favour of this statement.

Every factor

employees that of

form

out them

sample to

size

agree jobs in

with adds

the the

Rotating task

different resulting and

benefit assign

variety, assignments

increased to their their

performance because Pakistan Tobacco Company frequently different so project employees their employees will maintain

creativity and learn through these tasks. They project and job rotation increases performance of PTC employees. As Sokoya (2000) found in his study that the level of job

41

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company satisfaction is determined by a combination of jobs, work and personal jobs characteristics. adds the Rotating of managers task to different benefit variety,

resulting in increased performance of employees.

The

factor,

which

is

directly

related

to

the

job

rotation, is job enrichment, which results the increase in employee job performance. Whenever employee get new task he will learn that process and get decision making ability in that situation. This will give increase performance which results career growth recognition and personal growth. The technique entails enriching the job, which refers to the inclusion of greater variety of work content, requiring a higher level of knowledge and skill, giving workers autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, growth directing, and and controlling work their own performance, and providing the opportunity for personal meaningful experience (www.emeraldinsight.com).

42

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.6 Analysis of Question # 6
Table 5.1. 6

Yes

Sr.

Question

No

6 Job enrichment is the best way to increase employee motivation and productivity, which results job satisfaction?
Figure 5.1. 6

35

0

100% 0%

Question # 6
0%

Yes No

100%

The

statement,

―Job

enrichment

is

the

best

way

to

increase

employee

motivation

and

productivity,

which

results job satisfaction?‖ was asked to 35 employees of Pakistan Tobacco Company and 100% respondents answered in favour of this statement.

All employees form our selected sample size are agree with this statement because, job enrichment with respect to Pakistan Tobacco Company is done through assigning the responsibilities, assigning more and challenging work to the job, evolving the employee in different roles and operations, which automatically enrich the job. In short will say these factors provide personal development and growth of employee, which in results job satisfaction. In order for employees to be truly satisfied and motivated 43

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company in their jobs, they must feel that they are contributing, learning and enjoying themselves (Markovich, 2007).

Vertical job enrichment plays a major role at Pakistan Tobacco Company, which brings positive attitude towards work environment by reducing boredom. Major problem occur at different companies is boredom and PTC overcome this problem by enrichment. At PTC vertical job enrichment adds more authority, responsibility, achievement, growth and learning.

The most important factor at Pakistan Tobacco Company for job satisfaction in terms of job enrichment is, their working environment and organizational culture. These are the two factors at PTC, which provides right path for job enrichment. Other factors which are assigning roles and responsibility, organizational hierarchy, working conditions, perks and benefits, and motivating factor

44

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.7 Analysis of Question # 7
Table 5.1. 7

Not Enough Enough Too Many

Sr.

Question

7 In thinking about the variety of tasks your position requires, would you say that there are:
Figure 5.1. 7

18

15

2

51% 43% 6%

Question # 7
6%

43%

51%

Too many Enough Not Enough

The statement, ―In thinking about the variety of tasks your position requires, would you say that there are; too many, enough, or not enough‖ was asked to 35 employees of Pakistan only 6% Tobacco said not Company. enough We from came the to know that of 51% 35 respondents said too many, 43% respondents said many and sample size employees. Majority of employees at PTC respond that they have too many task for their position. This can be due to factor of high job enrichment. PTC in built system of enrichment in which employees are moved frequently to different project, which might sometimes increases, the level of stress. Factors can be different job roles, verity of job 45

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company description rotation, trainings. Another important factor due which employee‘s thinks they have too many things for their job is the salary. They salary PTC office is equivalent to market but it doesn‘t have comparison with the telecom industry. The second maximum group of employees (15 employees) said that they have enough. These responses and are can due to employee can get experience, more job designation, and they personality capable to to (not short specific term and to single term job description), and

different responsibilities, self scheduling of tasks, job long assignment,

characteristics. The employees who are more experience enrichment in built handle high level of enrichment. At PTC all employees get enrichment grade and through system well according as their designation as personality

characteristics, which tell level of enrichment they are capable to handle. But according to our analysis there are small group of employees who thinks they have less job enrichment. Now we see there is small flaw in Pakistan Tobacco Company in built enrichment system. There system doesn‘t support employees who have high level of capabilities to handle high job enrichment or in other words more then variety of task assign to normal employees.

46

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.8 Analysis of Question # 8
Table 5.1. 8

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree

Neutral

Agree

Sr.

Question

8 I have enough involvement in decisions that affect my work.
Figure 5.1. 8

10 29%

5 14%

15 43%

5 14%

0 0%

Question # 8
14% 0%
29%

Strongly Agree Agree A Neutral N Disagree D Strongly Disagree SD
43%
14%

The statement, ―I have enough involvement in decisions that affect my work.‖ up with was given From agree and to 35 employees size for of 29% this were Pakistan employees response, Tobacco came 14% Company. this sample

strongly disagree,

response 0%

statement, 14% respondents with Agree, 43% with neutral respondents disagree with this statement.

Now

in

this results

situation depends

we

have the

mix

results, of

basically

these

upon

level

experience,

expertise and designation employee have. If the employee is more experienced and having more expertise then at PTC

47

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company they will get more involvement in decision making and if the employees is with less expertise and experience than they will get less involvement in decision making.

The methods Pakistan Tobacco Company is using for job empowerment satisfaction. authority to subordinate, culture of doses These impact factors positively are giving of towards authority job to decision-making empowerment it is not

employee, freedom,

delegation and

different Company but

assignments. Basically empowerment is built in system and Pakistan Tobacco necessary in some situations. Level of empowerment can be differing according to the employee and its experiences as well as its expertise. Initial level and MTO are less empowered then the senior and experienced employee.

There

are

different

things employee

can

do at PTC

to

improve their career satisfaction and make decision about them. They have potential for growth they can chose the project or assignment/training, which can help them in career growth. They can improve career growth by their performance, which bring positive impact.

We could consider several perspectives (Bowen and Lawler, 2001; Eccles, 1996; to Hinckley, to the That 2006). that we way, We can will analyse allow a influence according role managers

subordinates

play.

identify

continuum starting from a point when managers just tell employees the decisions that have been already taken, and ending at a point when managers delegate the decision making to subordinates (Cordova, 1995; Dachler and Wilpert, 1997; Harber et al., 2001).

48

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company In our analysis we found that maximum employees respond neutral for this statement. It is because we have to keep a balance not and between exclude guide empowerment an initial and supervision, to which makes the idea situation for the employee. Empowerment does train supervision as well as organise, selfemployees, certain

control (Geroy et al., 2006; Lawler, 2001).

49

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.9 Analysis of Question # 9
Table 5.1. 9

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree

Neutral

Agree

Sr.

Question

9

Generally speaking, I am very 15 satisfied with my job. 43%

10 17%

5 %

5 14%

0 0%

Figure 5.1. 9

Question # 9
14% 14% 0%

Strongly Agree
43%

Agree A Neutral N Disagree D Strongly Disagree SD

29%

The statement, ―Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with up my job‖ was agree given to 35 for employees this of Pakistan 29% Tobacco Company. From this sample size 43% employees came strongly response statement, respondents with Agree, 14% with neutral response, 14% with disagree, and 0% respondents were strongly disagree with this statement.

According to our analysis most of the employees strongly agree and agree that they are satisfied with their jobs. These were due the factor of enrichment like and job the empowerment. Enrichment factors 50 assigning

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company responsibilities, assigning more and challenging to in

the job, evolving the employee in different roles and operations, which automatically enrich the job. In short we will say these factors provide personal development and growth of employee which results job satisfaction.

Vertical job enrichment is another factor, which plays a major role at Pakistan Tobacco Company, which brings positive attitude towards work environment by reducing boredom. Major problem occur at different companies is boredom and PTC overcome this problem by job enrichment. At PTC vertical job enrichment adds more authority, responsibility, achievement, growth and learning.

A to

survey rate

conducted their

by

Smith

(2002)

between of

employee the work

satisfaction and employee retention, employees were asked satisfaction like pay, with aspects environment supervision, co-workers,

opportunities for promotion and work itself. The results suggest that if employees develop a feeling that their inputs are ignored; this leads to reduction in satisfaction and thereby increases the turnover rate.

According to one PTC employee, the most important factor at Pakistan Tobacco Company for job satisfaction in terms of job enrichment is, our working job environment enrichment. hierarchy, and Other organizational culture. These are the two factors at PTC, which and provides right path for factors which also like to mention are assigning roles responsibility, organizational working conditions, perks and benefits, and motivating factor.

51

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company Another factor, which play a major role in employee job satisfaction Pakistan at PTC, is job is empowerment. using for job The methods Tobacco Company empowerment

doses impact positively towards job satisfaction. These factors are giving decision-making authority to employee, delegation is built of in authority system and to subordinate, of freedom, and different empowerment assignments. Basically empowerment culture Pakistan Tobacco Company.

There for

are

different they can

things employee can which improve chose can career

can the

do at PTC project in by

to or

improve their career satisfaction. They have potential growth They assignment/training, growth. help them growth career their

performance, which bring positive impact.

Small factor

group of

of

employees PTC does

respond provide

that

they

are

not

satisfied with their job at PTC; this can be due to the wages. market equivalent salary but they are still less then the telecom sector. Among the naysayers, Walsh and Tseng (1998) indicate that job satisfaction has little effect on employee levels of active effort. Wages were also found to be of little significance on active effort. Nevertheless, recognition and employee participation were found to be directly and positively related to active effort. This finding is similar to Mendonsa (2002) as recognition, again, plays a key role without being linked to job satisfaction.

52

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.1.10 Analysis of Question # 10
Table 5.1. 10

Responsibility

None of Them

Achievement

Recognition

All of Them

Growth

Sr.

Question

10 What

factors

do to

you your

think, 10 job

15 20

0

10

0

contribute satisfaction?

18% 17% 73% 0% 18% 0%

Figure 5.1. 10

Question # 10
18% 0% 0%

18%
Responsibility Achievement Growth Recognition All of Them None of Them

17%
37%

The statement, ―What factors do you think, contribute to your job satisfaction?‖ Tobacco said for was given to 35 said employees size only, of 18% 18% Pakistan 37% of voted Company. 0% From with of this 17% sample

respondents

responsibility,

achievement,

growth, said

recognition factor

respondents were with all of these given factors and %0 respondents none these contributes towards their job satisfaction.

Employees are more focus on their career growth, and as we see according to our analysis of data that employees 53

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company of Pakistan Tobacco Company related their career growth directly with the job satisfaction. This thing gives us hypotheses growth in career takes the job satisfaction level high. Enrichment is redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition (Dessler). But we cannot ignore other factor like achievement, recognition, and responsibility, which also support employee job satisfaction in positive way.

54

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.2 Interview Analysis 5.2.1 Interview # 1 Analysis
This interview was conducted at Pakistan Tobacco Company, Islamabad head office. The purpose of this interview was to find out on was the PTC impact of on job job 6th enrichment February and 2008, job and empowerment Interview employee satisfaction level.

conducted

interviewee was Ms. Zahra Majid, Assistant Human Resource Manager. Question of interview are related to research study and all questions are open-ended questions.

There are many definition of job enrichment but how would you define job enrichment with respect to PTC. If we talk about job enrichment with respect to Pakistan Tobacco Company the to roles then in I will job, say, it is the done through and in assigning challenging different responsibilities, the and operations, assigning which more employee

evolving

automatically

enrich the job. In short I will say these factors provide personal development and growth of employee.

How effective vertical job enrichment can be and does it support positive attitudes toward work environment? Why? Yes, Vertical work job enrichment by plays a major role at

Pakistan Tobacco Company, which brings positive attitude towards environment reducing boredom. Major problem occur at different companies is boredom and PTC overcome this problem by boredom. At PTC vertical job enrichment adds more authority, responsibility, achievement, growth and learning.

55

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company What are the factors that effect employee job

satisfaction at PTC in terms of job enrichment? According to me the most important factor at Pakistan Tobacco Company for job satisfaction in terms of job enrichment is, our working environment and organizational culture. These are the two factors at PTC, which provides right would path also for like job to enrichment. mention Other factors which I are assigning hierarchy, roles and

responsibility,

organizational

working

conditions, perks and benefits, and motivating factor.

Please

describe

the

benefits/advantages

of

your

job

enrichment experience. I would like to share one of my project experiences,

which was ―Business Partner Project‖ in which I managed around 300 employee of Business Partner. Advantage was that I got opportunity to work with high responsibilities then my normal routine, high interaction with different employees, on the spot decision making skills, personal development, and career growth.

Please

explain

the

disadvantages/drawbacks

of

this

experience. There was no disadvantage of that experience.

Did your job enrichment experience have any impact on your attitude/motivation when you returned to your regular assignment? Yes, this experience brings many positive impacts on my attitude and motivation level when I returned to my routine assignment. This opportunity provided me personal development, growth, recognition, and most important is 56

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company ability to solve the problem on the spot as well as quick decision-making. Generally speaking, this opportunity increased my job satisfaction level.

How PTC provides job enrichment to their employees, what are the different techniques? By assigning different roles, verity of job description (non specific to single job description), assigning responsibilities, self scheduling of tasks, job rotation, job rotation, short term and long term assignment, and trainings.

Tell me 3 best things about your job and company 1. Organization Culture. 2. Company‘s growth, volume and value share. 3. Company‘s reputation.

Tell me 3 things about your job and company and u like least 1. Slow Career growth 2. Salaries are completive but not compared with telecom sector of Pakistan.

What are the different methods of empowering employees at PTC and do you think this affects their job satisfaction level in a positive way? The methods Pakistan Tobacco Company is using for job empowerment satisfaction. authority to doses These impact factors positively are giving of towards authority job to decision-making

employee,

delegation

57

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company subordinate, freedom, and different empowerment

assignments. Basically empowerment is built in system and culture of Pakistan Tobacco Company.

Do you think sometimes empowerment is not necessary and can bring negative effect, if yes then discuss why? I do agree that employment is built in system and culture of Pakistan Tobacco Company, but it is not necessary in some situations. Level of empowerment can be differing according to the employee and its experiences as well as its expertise. Initial level and MTO are less empowered then the senior and experienced employee.

What used?

method

to

collect

employee

suggestion

at

PTC

is

At Pakistan Tobacco Company there is online Database to collect feedbacks from the employees. These feedbacks are shared among the entire employees on that database. We can say it is sort of discussion form where other employee can give their point of view regarding feedback and its solution.

At what extent PTC considers these feedbacks? As we already discussed it is a discussion form open for all employee and these feedbacks are seen by top to down hierarchy of Pakistan Tobacco Company. Whenever there is a feedback, which reflect the personal matter or could not be discussed with other employee then management take that feedback in close loop (direct discussion).

58

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company Are there things that employee at PTC themselves can do to improve their career satisfaction? Yes there are different things employee can do at PTC to improve their career satisfaction. They have potential for growth They they can can which improve chose can career the project in by or their assignment/training, growth. help them growth career

performance, which bring positive impact.

59

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

5.2.2 Interview # 2 Analysis
This interview was conducted at Pakistan Tobacco Company, Islamabad head office. The purpose of this interview was to find out on was was the PTC Mr. and impact of on job job 6
th

enrichment February Sheikh, are

and 2008,

job and

empowerment Interview interviewee research questions.

employee Jamshed all

satisfaction

level.

conducted

Inam

Organization open-ended

Development Manager. Question of interview are related to study questions

There are many definition of job enrichment but how would you define job enrichment with respect to PTC. Job enrichment with respect to Pakistan Tobacco Company is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities. A range of tasks and unit challenges of work a of varying difficulties. task A complete meaningful Feedback,

encouragement and communication.

How effective vertical job enrichment can be and does it support positive attitudes toward work environment? Why? Through vertical job enrichment employees becomes more responsible and they learn a lot so vertical job enrichment definitely support positive attitudes toward work environment because it gives confidence as well.

What

are

the

factors

that

effect

employee

job

satisfaction at PTC in terms of job enrichment? According to me the important factors at Pakistan Tobacco Company which effects employee job satisfaction are

60

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company working most environment the at PTC, Compensation and packages and work

important

challenging

interesting

assigned to them.

Please

describe

the

benefits/advantages

of

your

job

enrichment experience. I would like to answer this question from my personal experience few months back I have been assigned for a project with the name of ―Employee Climate Survey‖ in which I have worked with 500 employee, that was really a challenging and new task for me because I was first time conducting that project, the advantage through that I got opportunity to interact with number of people, increases my personal in growth, my and above I all can I have gained a confidence self that perform challenging

work, beside the normal routine job.

Please

explain

the

disadvantages/drawbacks

of

this

experience. No I didn‘t feel any disadvantage so far in that project.

Did your job enrichment experience have any impact on your attitude/motivation when you returned to your regular assignment? Yes! Definitely because after doing that project, my

personal growth increased, as I discussed above I have got more confidence that I can do challenging work as well.

61

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company How PTC provides job enrichment to their employees, what are the different techniques? PTC provides job enrichment to their employees through job rotation and by assigning different and interesting work tasks.

Tell me 3 best things about your job and company 1. Company‘s name in the market. 2. Culture of organization 3. Informal and friendly environment.

Tell me 3 things about your job and company and u like least 1. Slow Career growth 2. Salary is not equivalent to market.

What are the different methods of empowering employees at PTC and do you think this affects their job satisfaction level in a positive way? The methods, which PTC used, for Job empowerment to are take

delegation

of

authority,

provides

freedom

decisions and yes through these methods it increased job satisfaction level among employees.

Do you think sometimes empowerment is not necessary and can bring negative effect, if yes then discuss why? Yes some time it is not necessary to give empowerment to employees, because those employees who are inexperienced can create serious errors in future, so it is dangerous to give decision-making authority to those who are new in

62

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company organization.

What used? We

method

to

collect

employee

suggestion

at

PTC

is

have

online

Database

system

in

Pakistan

Tobacco

Company to collect feedbacks from the employees. Where employee can share their ideas among themselves and every other employee can see the other‘s point of view.

At what extent PTC considers these feedbacks? As far as responding is concerned these suggestions after taking from employees are than further discussed with management to sought out the issues.

Are there things that employee at PTC themselves can do to improve their career satisfaction? Yes employees by at PTC can the improve project their or career

satisfaction

choosing

assignment

according to their choice in which they feel they can improve their career growth besides this they can go on different training programmes for their growth.

63

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 6: KEY FINDINGS/PROBLEM
There is small flaw in Pakistan Tobacco Company

enrichment system. Their system doesn‘t support employees who have high level of capabilities to handle high job enrichment or in other words, more then variety of task assign to normal employees. The basic problem is work division is not according to the individual capabilities.

The major problem with PTC employees is the slow career growth as compare with the organization growth. The career growth of employees is slow at PTC but the growth of company is high which result small demotivation factor in employee job satisfaction.

Another problem according to our data analysis is that PTC employees are not when that they much satisfied with their with salary packages compared themselves

telecom sectors employees. Because they are more enrich in term of job responsibilities and tasks as compared to telecom sectors employees and the pay, which they are getting, in return of their work is not comparable.

64

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 7: RECOMMENDATIONS
To minimize to improper their Work Division Pakistan for Tobacco every

Company needs to allocate responsibilities for employees according capabilities. Because growing organization it is very important that whatever the task has been given to their people should be end up according to the desire demand and for that its is very important to know before handing over the work to any employee that either that employee can do this job properly or either that employee can do a lot more than the current assignment. Because if an employee who has a lot more capability of performing task will receive a work which doesn‘t require any special skill than that task will not be appropriate for him and he will not take interest in that work, and if a person who is not enough experienced in any specific field will receive a hard task than it will become hard for him in performing that work, so It is very important for Pakistan Tobacco Company that in case of work enrichment they keep this point in their accounts that work enrichment should be done by seeing the employee capability. As far as but slow they carrier are not of growth is concerned with they their need Pakistan carrier to seek

Tobacco Company employees are satisfied with the company growth long satisfied promotion, growth. So for this problem PTC needs to cut down the time duration visible carrier growth plans so that employee can perform in a better way and prove themselves and than on their performance they can get promotion and can see improvement in their carrier growth. The next complain which PTC employees has is that they are not that much satisfied with their salary packages, 65

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company their employees are getting less salary as compared to the telecom sector of Pakistan. So for this PTC needs to revise their salary packages by doing this employee will be more motivated and will perform in a better way, they should make the salary package according to the work done by employees. Because if employees are producing more and in return company is not paying them according to their effort than it can de motivate them.

Other practices used by Pakistan Tobacco Company are up to the marks so we will recommend that they should continue those practices.

66

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 8: ACTION PLAN 8.1 Work Division/ Improper Enrichment Problem
The first problem at Pakistan Tobacco Company is improper division needs to of work or in other words for improper employees implementation of job enrichment. To resolve this problem allocate responsibilities according to their capabilities. For this their action plan should consist of two factors; task analysis and person analysis. By analysing on the bases of these two factors they can reach to the capabilities of employees. For task analysis what Pakistan Tobacco be the Company taught needs to to

collect the data about a specific job or group of job to determine the employee should and achieve include skills, required performance. The result from analysis appropriate standards, knowledge,

abilities, and other characteristics that employee needs to possess in order to meet the standards. Before assigning any task to employee they should develop the job description for that specific task, outlines the job in terms of typical duties and responsibilities. They should also develop job specification for that particular task or assignment. List the specific tasks required for each job, more specific than job description. Speciation may extend to judgments of knowledge, skills, other attributes required for the task. When they identifying the task than they should focus on what should be done in each task and what is actually done in each task. After task analysis is done than they should moved to person analysis which will help PTC to determine the training need to the individual employees to meet the

67

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company required the the capabilities for the of to given work task. They can

involve employee immediate supervisor, and depending upon individual‘s information nature required employee‘s the peers, employee they customers, and subordinates may also be contacted to get analyse the capabilities. discrepancies While between analysing the person need,

should also focus on employee performance, identify the employees behaviour required for effective performance. Once a job and individual capabilities has been

identified then PTC can assign variety of tasks to their employees, which will not overload the duties or reduce the employee performance level. After implementing this action plan, enrichment will work effectively in the system of Pakistan Tobacco Company.

8.2 Slow Career Growth Problem
The second problem at Pakistan Tobacco Company is slow career growth of employee while company is growing rapidly. PTC needs to cut down the long time duration of promotion, they need to seek visible carrier growth plans so that employee can perform in a better way and prove themselves and than on their. To overcome this rewards problem with they group system need of in to assign Rather employee small then get

promotional traditional

tasks. which

promotional

promotion after waiting for long time, they should give promotion to employee when he/she will complete number os assignment or tasks. Or if there is large project then even they can assign promotion with complete of that particular project successfully.

68

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company Rather then by analysing should the the employee the and on grant the or them time of

appraisal, completed

they

analysis

task

project small

employee,

promotional reward in terms of career growth. The data of person analysis, which we recommended in previous action plan, their can also be utilized over here They for should the career few growth of employee. Above all they needs to reconsider organizational structure. make small changes in their organization hierarchy, by adding new positions between one level and its upper level. By implementing this action plan slow carrier growth,

will turn in to fast career growth in Pakistan Tobacco Company. And employees will become more satisfied with the company when company is growing rapidly.

8.3 High Enrichment Vs Salary Problem
The third problem at Pakistan Tobacco Company is there is high job enrichment for employee‘s but the salary they are getting in return is not equivalent to the number of tasks in they perform. to the The salary of for tasks the particular are designation is equivalent to the market but when we see according number employees perforating then, PTC employees are getting less salary as compared to the telecom sector of Pakistan.

To over come is problem, PTC needs to revise their salary packages by doing this employee will be more motivated and will perform in a better way, they should make the salary package according to the work done by employees. They need to do market salary survey in telecommunication industry structure of of Pakistan. telecom By keeping mind the they salary need to industry 69 employees

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company redesign their salary structure and which increments are directly related with number of tasks employee perform.

By

implementing structure

this

action

plan

and

introducing

new

salary

rather

then

traditional

structure

Pakistan Tobacco Company can make their employees maximum satisfied with their job. This will make employees think they are working in the best company of Pakistan, which take care of their needs.

70

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION
We came to conclusion that job enrichment and empowerment toward job satisfaction resulting of Pakistan positive Tobacco impact Company on the employee, overall

working environment of Pakistan Tobacco Company.

Graph 9. 1

Job Empowerment & Job Enrichment Towards Job Satisfication
10%

Yes No

90%

There are few small factors related with job enrichment, impacting negatively on job satisfaction level of employee, but they can be removed by implementing our giving action plan. It is very important for Pakistan Tobacco Company that in case the of job enrichment they capabilities. and they in prove can their keep this point need and If to seek in their visible their see are accounts that job enrichment should be done by analyzing employee way They carrier growth plans so that employees can perform in a better themselves get than and on can performance improvement promotion growth.

carrier

employees

producing more and in return company is not paying them according to their effort than it can de motivate them. So if PTC will implement the given action plan then they can over come the problems discussed above. 71

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company Conclusion based on our overall analysis is that Pakistan Tobacco it is Company‘s except we majority discussed of in employees our are satisfied and with their job and PTC should continue its practices as recommendation action plan.

72

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

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Organizations,

Thomas, K.W., Velthouse, B.A. (2002), "Cognitive elements of empowerment: an ‗interpretive model‘ of intrinsic task motivation", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 15 pp.666-81. Tulloch, S. (2005), The Reader’s Wordfinder, Clarendon, Oxford, . Digest Oxford

Utley, D.R., Westbrook, J., Turner, S. (2003), "The relationship between Herzberg‘s two-factor theory and quality improvement implementation", Engineering Management Journal, Vol. 9 No.3, pp.5-13. Vecchio, R.P., Appelbaum, S.H. (1999), Managing Organizational Behaviour: A Canadian Perspecitve, Harcourt Brace & Company Canada Ltd, Toronto, pp.211-14. Vroom, V.H., Jago, A.G. (2000), The New Leadership. Managing Participation in Organizations, Prentice-Hall, New York, NY, .

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company Weiss, T.B. (2001), "Show me more than the money", HR Focus, Vol. 74 No.11, pp.3-4. Walsh, J.P., Tseng, S.-F. (1998), "The effects of job characteristics on active effort at work", Work & Occupation, Vol. 25 No.1, pp.74-96. Wilkinson, A. (1998), "Empowerment: theory and practice", Personnel Review, Vol. 27 No.1, pp.40-56. Wong, C.-S., Hui, C., Law, K.S. (1998), "A longitudinal study of the job perception-job satisfaction relationship: a test of the three alternative specifications", Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, Vol. 71 pp.127-46. Searching for effect of enrichment on working environment Accessed on 28th November, 2007 Available at:www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServle t?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0260 250605.html Searching for Employee Empowerment Accesses on 14th February, 2008 Available at:www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentSe rvlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/ 0220240603.html Searching for Employee Empowerment Accesses on 14th February, 2008 Available at:www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentSe rvlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/ 0220240206.html Searching for Overview of Tobacco Industries in Pakistan Accesses on 16th February, 2008 Available at: www.yespakistan.com/people/tobacco.asp Searching for Tobacco Industries in Pakistan Accesses on 16th February 2008 Available at: www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20766415.html Searching for Overview of Pakistan Tobacco Company Accessed on 28th November, 2007 Available at: http://www.ptc.com.pk/OneWeb/sites/PAK_62VK ZB.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/15C661D68814DD28C1256F070021D679?op endocument&SID=&DTC= 79

Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Searching for History of Pakistan Tobacco Company Accessed on 28th November, 2007 Available at: http://www.ptc.com.pk/OneWeb/sites/PAK_62VK ZB.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/FE1CB3D3BE7AD255C1256F0700247CB3?op endocument&SID=&DTC= Searching for Brands of Pakistan Tobacco Company Accessed on 15th January, 2008 Available at: http://www.ptc.com.pk/OneWeb/sites/PAK_62VK ZB.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/5D51C565FC1F363CC1256F0E00232045?op endocument&SID=&DTC= Searching for Brands of Pakistan Tobacco Company Accessed on 15th January, 2008 Available at: http://www.ptc.com.pk/OneWeb/sites/PAK_62VK ZB.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/3594EE18570DDC92C1256F0E00236017?op endocument&SID=&DTC= Searching for Brands of Pakistan Tobacco Company Accessed on 15th January, 2008 Available at: http://www.ptc.com.pk/OneWeb/sites/PAK_62VK ZB.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/EE0AE78F29774E71C1256F0E002397F5?op endocument&SID=&DTC=

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

ANNEXURE Annexure A: Questionnaire Purpose
This question will help to find out the impact on employee empowerment and employee enrichment on employee job satisfaction. "Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision making in autonomous ways." "Enrichment is redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition"

Miscellaneous Questions
1. To which Grade do you belong? 2. In which Group/Department do you work?

Questions
1. By granting of power and decision-making authority to your subordinates, affects their job satisfaction level positively?  Yes  No 2. When you are empowered then you have a greater sense of job satisfaction, motivation and organizational loyalty?

 

Yes No

3. I have considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in how I do my job. In other words I have been empowered at my job.  Yes



No

4. What factors do you think, contribute to your job satisfaction?  Responsibility.  Achievement

 

Growth Recognition

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

   

All above None of them

5. Rotating you to different jobs adds the benefit of task variety, resulting in increased performance? Yes No

6. Job enrichment is the best way to increase employee motivation and productivity, which results job satisfaction?  Yes



No

7. In thinking about the variety of tasks your position requires, would you say that there are:  Too many

 

Enough Not enough

8. I have enough involvement in decisions that affect my work.  Always  Usually

   

Sometimes Rarely Never Not sure

9. This is the type of job in which I can feel a sense of accomplishment.  Agree  Disagree 10. Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with my job.

    

Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree

Any Other Comment / Suggestion you would like to add:

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Annexure B: Interview Sheet Name : Designation : Department:
__________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

1. They are many definition of job enrichment but how would you define job enrichment with respect to PTC.

2. How effective vertical job enrichment can be and does it support positive attitudes toward work environment? Why?

3. What are the factors, which effect employee job satisfaction at PTC in terms of job enrichment?

4. Please describe the benefits/advantages of your job enrichment experience.

5. Please explain the disadvantages/drawbacks of this experience.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company 6. Did your job enrichment experience have any impact on your attitude/motivation when you returned to your regular assignment?

7. How PTC provides job enrichment to their employees, what are the different techniques?

8. Tell me 3 best things about your job and company 1. 2. 3. 9. Tell me 3 things about your job and company and u like least 1. 2. 3. 10. What are the different methods of empowering employees at PTC and do you think this effects their job satisfaction level in a +ve way?

11. Do you think sometimes empowerment is not necessary and can bring negative effect, if yes then discuss why?

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company 12. What method to collect employee suggestion at PTC is used?

13. At what extent these feedbacks are considered by PTC?

14. Are there things that employee at PTC themselves can do to improve their career satisfaction?

Notes:

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Annexure C: Call Reports Call Report # 1
At 3:30 pm on November 29 th 2007 we met Mr. Jamshed Inam Sheikh, He Organization us with Development general Manager, Pakistan their and Tobacco Company. We discussed the purpose of our visit. provides information products about brands, company, culture, environment,

company policy for the research projects. Mr. Jamshed introduced us with their company‘s Talent

Manager, Mr. Faraz and Assistant human resources manager Ms. Zahra Majid. We briefly explain the factors we want to study over PTC, they told us to make few changes in our problem statement. They told us to submit the detailed proposal of our project. We came back to university and discussed the visit with our project supervisor Mr. Kashif Ahmed.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Call Report # 2
At 4:30 pm on December 6 th 2007 we met Ms. Zahra Majid, Assistant methodology Human of Resource Manager, We Pakistan Tobacco the Company. We discussed the project proposal with her and our research. briefly discussed data collection tools we will be using for our project and then we submitted our project proposal. We asked few general questions about our project, she provided Zahra us few we guidelines visited the for our research. and met With ms Majid company different

employees. We came back to university and discussed the visit with our project supervisor Mr. Kashif Ahmed.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Call Report # 3
At 10:00 am on February 18 th 2008 we met Mr. Jamshed Inam Sheikh, Organization Development Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company. We discuss the employee survey we want to conduct at PTC we show him questionnaire we made for the survey. He point out few changes in our questionnaire and schedule us for conducting survey after two days. We came back to university and discussed the visit with our project supervisor Mr. Kashif Ahmed.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Call Report # 4
At 11:00 am on February 20 th 2008 we met Ms. Zahra Majid, Assistant Company. Human She was Resource already Manager, expecting Pakistan us, and Tobacco with her

assistants we conducts our project questionnaire survey in which our sample size was 35 employees of Pakistan Tobacco Company. Our questionnaire respondents were quite relax with our questionnaire, as it was simple, quick, short, and not time consuming. We came back to university and discussed the visit with our project supervisor Mr. Kashif Ahmed.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Call Report # 5
At 9:30 am on March 3 rd 2008 we met Ms. Zahra Majid, Assistant Human Resource Manager, and Mr. Jamshed Inam Sheikh, Organization Development Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company. Interview to find was out on was conducted the PTC impact at of on Zahra Mr. Pakistan job job 6th Tobacco Company, and 2008, job and Human

Islamabad head office. The purpose of this interview was enrichment February Inam, empowerment Interview Resource of interviewees employee Ms. and satisfaction Assistant level.

conducted

were

Majid,

Manager are

Jamshed to

Organization and all

Development Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company. Question interview related research study questions are open-ended questions. We came back to university and discussed the visit with our project supervisor Mr. Kashif Ahmed.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Call Report # 6
At 3:30 pm on March 27 th 2008 we met Mr. Jamshed Inam Sheikh, Organization Development Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company. We discuss the overall all project. Our main emphasis on the recommendation we made and the action plan we suggested to Pakistan Tobacco Company. Mr. Jamshed was quite happy with our work and kept company of our project with him for future referencing. We came back to university and discussed the visit with our project supervisor Mr. Kashif Ahmed.

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Final Project: Pakistan Tobacco Company

Annexure D: Acceptance Letter

From:Zahra_Majid@bat.com Sent: Wednesday, April 02, 2008 4:23:36 PM To: ZAKIR TAHIR (zakir_tahir@hotmail.com) Cc: Tariq_Jamal@bat.com

Dear Zakir This is to confirm that you and your colleague Ambreen worked on interviews and survey of your university project with few PTC HR Employees namely Zahra Majid, Jamshed Inam and also interviewed Tariq Jamal.

Regards, Zahra Assistant HR Manager Pakistan Tobacco Company 051-2083532

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