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Elements of Drama/ Theater http://jcps.jefferson.k12.ky.us/AngelUploads/Content/HomeworkHelp/_assoc/96312CAAB3FCE3B6BCB3 3A08A40C0162/index.html Theater—Production, Performance, and Dramatic Elements Guided Notes A _____________________________ is the writer of the novel, movie, or play. Authors create plots. A plot is __________________________________________ that take place before an audience. Plots can be broken down into specific genres. We will discuss these later. For now, you need to know that all plots written by authors and dramas. A Drama is ___________________ to be _______________________ in front of the ____________________________________. Often, authors will employ literary tools in order to assist them in the entertaining of the audience. One of these literary tools is called foreshadowing. _____________________________ is a plot device that exposes what will happen in the plot at a later time. Another literary tool is called reversal. If a character or the plot itself has a major change in direction, this can be defined as ________________________________. An example of reversal is the Hobgoblin helping Spiderman beat Venom and Sandman after they had kidnapped Mary Jane Watson in Spiderman 3. Sometimes, as a reader, you have to really look into the script or play you are reading. You must try to find actor’s reasons for playing parts and playwright’s reason for writing the play in the first place. Many plays are chock full of subtleties and symbolism you may miss if you simply scanned the plot for entertainment. If you are reading between the lines of a play to get a deeper meaning and trying to understand the subtle actions of the actors that tell the emotion that the words do not convey, you are adept at understanding _____________________. Subtext is used in all areas of human contact. An example of subtext is when your mother tells you clean your room, then taps her foot with her hands on her hips while staring a hole through you. Through her nonverbal clues, you know she means business. These nonverbal clues are subtext. Another interesting literary focus in drama is motivation. Motivation can be defined as . Perhaps a character has had a bad childhood or parents that didn’t love them enough. Every action and word should have a reason behind it. Your job, as a reader, is to find those reasons. The tools of drama are really simple. There are four tools employed. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. These four tools are necessary in almost all productions. The first of these tools is props. Props are things _________________________ by the actors that further the story. That is, they must be used or employed to be considered a prop. A gun is a prop only if it is handled. A pie sitting on a windowsill is not a prop unless it is touched. If it remains untouched, it is a part of the set. Sets do two things. They 1. 2. Another tool of theater is costumes. Costumes, like sets, dress something. In this case, they dress the actors. This allows the actor to __________________________ the character they will be playing. Finally, the last tool of drama is the lighting and/ or technology. Lighting and technology may be simple or complicated. Through lighting and. Or technology, the playwright or director wants to help get across the _______________________ of the play. /20 When the playwright writes, he, like authors for other genres, like short stories, novels, or other fictional works, uses specific literary concepts. Most important among these is Freytag’s Pyramid. All stories employ Freytag’s Pyramid when building a plot. There are five parts to Freytag’s Pyramid. It looks like this It is called Freytag’s Pyramid because the five parts correspond to a specific part of a triangular structure. The exposition is gives ___________________________ about the characters or setting of the play. Exposition is entirely told and not acted out. You don’t see exposition; you hear it. For example, in a Shakespearean play, the exposition is often told/ sung at the very beginning of Act I by the Chorus. Rising action can also be called the _____________________________. It is the progression of the plot of the play. At the beginning of the rising action, the first event takes place that begins to tell the story. This opens the plot to the audience. This beginning point is called the ______________________________________. During the rising action, characters are put into conflicts by the playwright. In the middle of the action—as the characters struggle to find answers to the situations they have been put in—the rising action turns into the _______________________. This can be defined as the __________________ of the play. After the climax, the characters deal with the situation. This is called the falling action. By the end of the falling action, the characters have all undergone some sort of change. This change—this solution or explanation tells the audience what will happen ―_______________________________.‖ An example of resolution is found in the play, Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and Juliet have committed suicide already. The resolution is that the families—both Montague and Capulet—band together and forget their feud which caused Romeo and Juliet to die. They will build monuments to the fallen lovers and live ―happily ever after.‖ In short, these characters have all learned how their hate led to the death and destruction of true love. Speaking of characters, playwrights have specific types of characters they must use. A character can be defined as ___________________________________________________. The main characters found in a play are generally the protagonist and the antagonist. The protagonist can be defined as ________________________________________________________ . Protagonists do not necessarily have to be good guys. They don’t necessarily have to be heroes. They do have to be the main characters found in the play. The person opposite the main character is the _____________________________________. This character caused _______________________ in the life of the protagonist. If your life were to be made into a play or movie, your ex-girlfriend or boyfriend may be an antagonist. So, too, may your teachers, parents, or the police. An example of a protagonist from today’s world is Captain Jack Sparrow. He’s not necessarily good or a hero; he is the main character in the movie trilogy. His antagonist would probably be Davy Jones, the squid-bearded guy with the cool accent and the crew that looks like a mix of man and sea. The art of acting and performance, meanwhile, depends on a variety of things. However, the most important of these are fairly simple. The first performance tool is verbal quality. When critiquing a play or an actor, you must first hear them, right? Verbal quality can be defined as Playwrights depend on verbal quality to express their words. These words can be broken down into two subsets. The first of these is when one actor speaks a large portion of the play by himself. This is referred to as a . When two or more people are speaking at the same time, this is referred to as . Sometimes, actors don’t need to speak to convey emotion. When actors use nonverbal cues to symbolize emotion—such as crying silently or falling down a flight of stairs, they are employing _________________________________. This is the art of transferring information without words. Renaissance Overview http://jcps.jefferson.k12.ky.us/AngelUploads/Content/HomeworkHelp/_assoc/96312CAAB3FCE3B6B CB33A08A40C02DE/index.html After the fall of Rome, Europe entered a period called the ― .‖ This period of history is labeled ―dark‖ because historians point out that there was an obvious in many of the categories of civilization. Government and community organizations deteriorated, writing became rare, education was reserved for those entering a , engineering techniques were lost, most of the population lived on , where personal health and hygiene suffered. By the 14th Century, a dramatic change swept across the continent which marked —or Renaissance. In 1446, invented the printing press and Education became more available to the masses, and many studied the works of the and developed skills in the arts. In , sometimes called the birthplace of the Renaissance, the was the driving force behind the ―rebirth‖ and hired the best artists to beautify the city. Many of the artists discovered a new technique that gives a three- dimensional appearance to paintings, a method known as . The best known of all Elizabethan authors was . /12 A Midsummer Night’s Quiz 1. You have to read a play for English 200 in college. The play synopsis includes the following snippet of information: ―When Titania wakes, the first creature she sees is Bottom, the most ridiculous of the Athenian craftsmen, whose head Puck has mockingly transformed into that of an ass. Titania passes a ludicrous interlude doting on the ass-headed weaver. Eventually, Oberon obtains the Indian boy, Puck spreads the love potion on Lysander’s eyelids, and by morning all is well.‖ Which play are you likely going to read? a. A Midsummer’s Night Dream b. Othello c. MacBeth d. Richard III 2. Who was King of the Fairies? a. Lysander b. Demetrius c. Theseus d. Oberon 3. Who was Queen of the Fairies? a. Hermia b. Puck c. Titania d. Oberon 4. In A Midsummer’s Night Dream, who eventually ends up married? a. Oberon and Titania b. Hermia and Lysander c. Helena and Demetrius d. All of the above 5. What is Puck’s other name? a. Robin, the Boy Wonder b. Robin Leach c. Oberon d. Robin Goodfellow 6. Who is turned into an ass? a. Puck b. Oberon c. Lysander d. Bottom 7. As you watch A Midsummer Night’s Dream, you notice the prevalence of fairies, magic, and names meant for an audience more Greek and Roman than English. Which of the following helps to explain Shakespeare’s use of Greek and Roman influences in his plays? a. His education b. His early travels spent touring Europe, especially Greece and Rome c. Greek and Roman plays were the only plays to read and emulate d. Greek and Roman culture was really unpopular at the time and Shakespeare was a leading part of bringing it back into popularity with the public Commedia D’ell Arte http://www.trimble.k12.ky.us/tchsweb/teachers/jgraham/ahstudy_files/Commedia.ppt Harlequin Masks There are three types of Harlequin masks: 1. 2. 3. The traditional Arlecchino mask is speckled with wart looking blemishes. The lozenge costume gave his name to a fashion motif, the mask to a shape for eyeglass frames: see Harlequin. Oddly enough, Arlecchino was originally created by the French, and later adapted by the Italians. Arlecchino (Harlequin, Truffaldino), a , one of the zanni. He is a poor peasant who has left his native Bergamo to seek his fortune in the city of Venice. He is , a fact that often causes amusement when a message arrives and Arlecchino pretends to read it. He is and a and carries a baton which he sometimes uses to bash other characters for comedic relief, leading to the modern term Brighella (Figaro, Scapin, Mezzetino), A money-grabbing , one of the zanni characters, and often a partner of Arlecchino. He is a self-made man, who has become comfortably off despite humble beginnings. He is sometimes the proprietor of the . He is a ladies' man, and a typical Latin macho, with all the charm that involves, and all the drawbacks. He is associated with Bergamo. Columbina (Columbine, Harlequine, Pierrette), A maidservant to the Innamorata and lover of . She is usually involved in intrigue and is rather intelligent. She is associated with Venice. Il Capitano (the Captain) A cheap he-man soldier, but a underneath. He is often one of the vecchio. Il Dottore (the Doctor, usually called Dottore Balanzone or Dottore Graziano), A local aristocrat, who went all the way to Bologna to read for his degree. He is , with "old" money and is one of the vecchio. He adores food and good wines, thus he is a little Innamorata (the Lover) The leading woman. She wore no mask (see innamorati). Innamorato (the Lover) The leading man. He wore no mask (see innamorati). Pantalone (Pantaloon, Cassandro, Cassandrino, Facanappa) A rich and miserly merchant who is frequently the , and is one of the vecchio. He also employs Arlecchino and treats him . He is associated with Venice. Pedrolino (or Pierino, most commonly nowadays known as Pierrot, also Burrattino, Bertoldo, A mild-mannered zanni. He tends to be so kindly that other characters for things he never did, and he that it was all his fault. Pulcinella Is a hunchback who still , and is one of the zanni. He was the model for Punch in the English puppet theatre Punch and Judy. He is associated with Naples. La Ruffiana (Old Woman) Is usually a or who intrudes into the lives of the Lovers. Scaramuccia (see also Scaramouche) A roguish adventurer and swordsman who replaced Il Capitano in later troupes. He is the servant to another character. He wears a black velvet mask and black trousers, shirt and hat. Zanni Is a threadbare old servant from Bergamo. He is associated with Venice. /21 Shakespeare Overview http://www.trimble.k12.ky.us/tchsweb/teachers/jgraham/ahstudy_files/Shakespeare%20Intro.ppt Born 1564 in , England…April 23rd Shakespeare—The facts •Parents were John—glovemaker, local politician and Mary—daughter of wealthy landowner •Shakespeare had 7 brothers and sisters •Spelling not yet standardized, thus name spelled in different ways • Shakespeare, Shakspere, Shackspere, Shaxper, Shagspere, Shaxberd, etc. •Throughout the Middle Ages, plays were performed by workers in towns and were , often retelling stories from the . Elizabethan writers introduced theatre audiences to horror, the supernatural and gore. Elizabethan Playwrights The most well known playwright of Elizabethan times is . The Plays •plays firmly attributed to Shakespeare: •14 – ends in marriage A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, Much Ado about Nothing •10 – primarily tales of English kings and heroism •Richard III, •Richard II, •Henry IV •10 – ends in death Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, Othello •4 – •Pericles, •Cymbeline, •A Winter’s Tale, •The Tempest The Performances •The theatres often had mechanisms that allowed and to be lowered down onto the stage. Stages were also equipped with a trapdoor leading to a beneath the stage. The trapdoor was also used as a in theatrical funerals. •There was very little available for theatres, so the writers often used to explain to the audience where the scene was taking place. • was very important in Elizabethan theatre. Actors wore colourful and elaborate costumes that would tell the audience the characters status, family ties or profession. •The emphasis that was given to a character’s clothing made the theme of a common convention of Elizabethan theatre. In order to exchange places with another character or conceal his identity, all an actor needed to do was to change his costume. • The Elizabethan theatre also used a variety of . Music played an important role in setting the mood of the plays. Other sounds created were thunder, running horses, falling rain, and cannon blasts. Shakespeare Today •Elizabethan theatre is still plays a part in our day to day lives, mostly through the influence of Shakespeare. You can find references to his work in • • • • • • • • Even today, his characters and storylines continue to inspire. Shakespeare in Language Elizabethan theatre has had a very important effect on today’s theatre, and other parts of every day life. For example: •Shakespeare coined over words still used today including countless, critical, excellent, lonely, majestic, obscene and its. •Names coined by Shakespeare: - Imogen in the play Cymbaline, - Jessica in the play The Merchant of Venice - Miranda in the play The Tempest - Olivia in the play Twelfth Night - Cordelia in the play King Lear And lastly, ―If you cannot understand my argument, and declare " ", if your lost property has , if you have ever refused to or suffered from , if you have , if you have been , or , if you have , insisted on , , , if you have , if you have or if you think it is and that that is , if you believe that and that even if it involves , if you till the because you suspect , if you have your ( ) - it is all one to me, for you are quoting Shakespeare!‖ Renaissance Era Overview http://jcps.jefferson.k12.ky.us/AngelUploads/Content/HomeworkHelp/_assoc/96312CAAB3FCE 3B6BCB33A08A40C02DE/index.html ~ The original Renaissance man, he studied all forms of knowledge, including art and science. ~ known for painting the Sistine Chapel and for sculpture. At left is his sculpture of Moses. Da Vinci was a master of , , and . Not since classical Rome had the world seen such depictions of real people, as seen in the famous example of Mona Lisa. Notice the background that seems to fade in the distance. This is called . This is a skill completely absent in art from the medieval period. It is often reported that the eyes of Mona Lisa seem to follow the observer; however, the photo below which was taken of the painting disproves those rumors... or does it? Giovanni Palestrina ~ "one of the greatest Renaissance masters. A prolific composer of , and other sacred works, as well as madrigals, he was basically conservative. In his sacred music he assimilated and refined his predecessors' techniques to produce a 'seamless' texture, with all voices perfectly balanced. The nobility and restraint of his most expressive works established the almost legendary reverence that has long surrounded his name and helped set him up as the classic model of Renaissance ." (from http://w3.rz- berlin.mpg.de/cmp/palestrina.html - 2/14/2005) Commedia dell' Arte ~ "a type of comedy developed in 16th and 17th century Italy, characterized by improvised text based on plot outlines (scenarios). Commedia dell' Arte featured , some of whom wore distinctive . Literally, it means comedy (Commedia) of the professional guilds or artists (dell' Arte). Its popularity in Renaissance Europe can be attributed to the talents and special skills of the actors who were acrobats, dancers, musicians, orators, quick wits, and improvisors possessing thorough insights into politics and human nature. The populace loved the stock characters and their antics, much the way contemporary audiences love the Marx Brothers' movies or TV with stock characters like 'Gilligan's Island' and 'Friends.'" (from http://www.commedia-dell- arte.com/commediainfo.htm - 2/15/2005) William Shakespeare ~ greatest playwright of the Renaissance. During the Elizabethan Age, he produced many comedies, such as The Taming of the Shrew, tragedies such as Othello, histories such as Richard III, and over 150 poems such as Sonnet XVIII. He was not only the " " of the Renaissance poets, he was the . Shakespearean Tragedy a story of exceptional leading to the of an exceptional man of high estate but with a uses the (such as the insane), the (such as ghosts), and the concept of has a conflict that is partially , meaning at least part of the problem is outside the hero’s control, and partially , thus meaning that the hero struggles within himself; therefore, heroes are responsible for the catastrophe of their falls. contains a plot that follows these steps: Renaissance Dance The Renaissance Period saw the beginning of , which were fancy occasions for the upper class to show off in front of the nobility. Two such dances were the pavane and the galliard. The pavane was a sad, slow dance, something you might expect to see at a funeral. The galliard, on the other hand, was a lively dance, looking something like a combination of a skip and an Irish jig. Both dances involved foot work only; the arms during the Renaissance were usually so encumbered with fancy lace, heavy material, and other articles of clothing that dances left their arms dangling at their sides. Legs were relatively free of confining wear, since both men and women wore stockings. /35 Romantic Era Overview Characteristics of Romantic Era Against and Revolt against Left wing statements against established government Intensity of vision Individuality of artist, born talent Idealized nature, not idealized forms Fluid Brooding Historic paintings of , tragic victim Historical A reaction to the A tendency to portray life as ; Life may distort the real world in order to from it. (Romanticism stands opposed to ) Exotic A defiance of the established artistic rules Romanticism is the opposite of Faith in the . Reason came in second to and . Playwrights abandoned the old rules and started using stylized methods Faith in the Humanitarianism and interest in the common person became important Intense interest in the past, especially and Growing interest in as a positive force in man's existence Nature was conceived of as in opposition to society which was Belief in . Anyone, even a rebel or outlaw, standing outside the evil influence of society, was good if he or she lived by , not . It viewed man in isolation and a creature of emotion instead of man as part of a social order and a creature of reason. Music in Romanticism style contains strong Beethoven's later music is considered a transition to the Romantic. He produced beautiful melodies for and powerful symphonies with strong themes, but it must be noted that he was mainly known as a Classical composer. wrote sweet, light . His ballets are recognized around the world. Tchiakovsky’s most famous ballet is The Nutcracker, a Christmas favorite. Tchaikovsky also composed The 1812 Overture, in which a cannon is used to simulate battle. Wagner composed stirring (in German, of course) based on Germanic themes. The Bugs Bunny cartoon, What’s Opera, Doc? with the song, Killed the Rabbit, by Elmer Fudd, is a parody of Wagner’s operas. grew out of Romanticism. Several differences between melodrama and Romantic drama, including Melodrama had acts, romantic had acts and Romantic dramas happy endings and were more poetic. Melodramas have 3 acts and can be defined as Usually, the was more memorable than the . (Example: the villain who ties a lady to railroad tracks.) and they had highly developed cliffhanger. Romantic Literature The literature of the Romantic period was just as melodramatic as the . wrote the classic Wuthering Heights in the middle of the 1800s. The story is set in the bleak moors of remote England, with the characteristic windy storms, hopeless love, haunted houses, and mystery so frequent in literature from this period. Two other great writers of the Romantic period were and , both of whom showed the Romantic idea that ; in other words, when you feel happy, the world around you will be physically brighter, the birds will sing louder, and the clouds will all be rose-colored, but if you are depressed, the weather will be stormy, the sun will hide behind storm clouds, and birds will burrow in their nests. Questions After Reading: 1. In your opinion, what one word would be best in describing the Romantic Era? Why? 2. In looking at the aspects of melodrama, can you think of a modern day theater form or television show that follows the melodramatic principles? 3. Do you agree with the Romantic notion that we should view the world as it is not, rather than as it is? Why or why not? Is this a realistic notion? 4. Do you agree with the assertion that people influence their own emotions and the day around them, as Wordsworth and Dickinson believed? Why or why not? Romantic Era Theater Romantic Era Plays Romantic Plays, old and new, tended to appeal to rather than . focused on the supernatural and the mysterious – visual over , rather than intellectual.. Aristocrats tended to go to the opera and ballet, and more now went to the theatre. – Doctor makes a deal with the Devil in order to live a few more years. Romantic Theater Practice Audience size increased even more. As (remember, the sound was so important before, and detailed, realistic sets were not the norm), the orchestra seats (which had up till then been the cheap seats) became more valuable. The upper galleries – the " " – were the cheapest. Audiences, especially those in the gods, were and . Scenery included drops, flats, ground rows ( ). and painted. Natural settings. Candles or oil lamps and gaslight used to better illuminate and capture attention of audience Gaslight increased illumination, had better control of intensity, but still had wavering flames. Many special effects: o o o o o o Assumptions: . Significance While Romanticism was not at all realistic in its acting, drama, or direction, in , , and it attempted to be as realistic as possible. Romanticism inadvertently paved the way for easier acceptance of Realism. Melodrama Primary form of theatre during the 19th century Still popular today. Focused on o o o Characteristics of Melodrama Comes from "music drama" – Signature Music– Superman theme A simplified moral universe; Episodic form: the villain poses a threat, the hero or heroine escapes, etc.—with a . Almost never five acts – usually 2-5 Five acts reserved for "serious" drama. Many special effects: fires, explosions, drownings, earthquakes Melodramatic Forms Equestrian dramas: horses, often on treadmills – o forerunners of the modern Western. o True Grit Canine melodramas o Lassie o Benji Nautical melodramas o interest in the sea o The Poseidon Adventure Disaster melodramas o Armageddon o Dante’s Peak Melodrama for Your Momma DIRECTIONS: Research each of the following movies, television shows or plays and tell what form of melodrama they might be. Write an “E” for westerns/ equestrians; write a “C” for dog movies; write an “N” for sea stories; write a “D” for disaster stories. 1. Black Beauty c 2. Chism E 3. Das Boot e 4. Day After Tomorrow d 5. Deep Impact d 6. El Dorado e 7. Gunsmoke e 8. Heroes e 9. Homeward Bound c 10. Hurricane! n 11. Lonesome Dove e 12. McKlintock! d 13. Milo and Otis c 14. Moby Dick n 15. My Friend Flicka c 16. Rin Tin Tin d 17. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly e 18. Titanic n 19. Twisterd 20. Unforgiven d DIRECTIONS: Decide whether the following movies, serials, and television shows might be melodramas. Write an “M” next to those that are melodramas and an “NM” next to those that are not. Research those you are not familiar with. 21. When Harry Met Sally nm 46. Mission Impossible m 22. Gone With the Wind m 47. The Rock m 23. Casablanca m 48. The Mummy m 24. Superman m 49. Streetcar Named Desire nm 25. Guiding Light nm 50. The Birds m 26. Kill Bill nm 27. 16 Candles m 28. The Breakfast Club nm 29. Back to the Future m 30. Batman Returns m 31. The Perfect Storm m 32. Silent Hill m 33. Nightmare on Elm Street m 34. Dazed and Confused nm 35. Blazing Saddles m 36. Ferris Bueller’s Day Off m 37. The Graduate m 38. The Great Escape m 39. The Godfather m 40. Chinatown nm 41. Children of the Corn m 42. Varsity Blues m 43. Die Hard m 44. Goldfinger m 45. Never Say Never Again m Theater Henrik Ibsen—― ‖ Examined the realities that lay behind many social facades, most often Hedda Gabler The Doll’s House Ibsen’s most famous play First truly feminist play leaves husband, , after he accuses her of bringing shame to his family name. Quote from play, A Doll’s House NORA: "I was simply your little songbird, your doll, and from now on you would handle it more gently than ever because it was so delicate and fragile… I realized that for eight years I'd been living with a strange man and that I'd borne him three children. Oh, I can't bear to think of it - I could tear myself to little pieces!" Act III George Benard Shaw Nobel Prize winner (1925) Playwright of Shaw’s work Before WW I, light and clever After WW I, dark and clever Pygmalion Protagonists— and Dr. "I have to live for others and not for myself: that's middle class morality." "I sold flowers. I didn't sell myself. Now you've made a lady of me I'm not fit to sell anything else." " . . . the difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves, but how she's treated." Modern/ Contemporary Theater Modern Theater Modern Drama genres: Experimentation key word to all Modern Arts Two American cities central to Drama: Vaudeville Broadway Hollywood Two key 20th century playwrights: Vaudeville Poetry recitation Dramatic scenes/ Monologues Songs Dancers Comedians Trained animals Magicians Developed from saloons, bars, concert halls, freak shows, and other public entertainments Performers would re-create act day after day, year after year Allowed for security of professional actors, but little real money Perfecting the craft Popularity waned, so acts went with ―big money‖ of Hollywood Made good money for a short time, but left with little to nothing No royalties Vaudeville stars who “made it big” English Vaudeville ―star‖ The Little Dictator ―All things considered, I’d rather be in Philadelphia.‖ ―Never work with dogs or children.‖ Buster Keaton the Marx Brothers , , and Duck Soup ―Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it’s too dark to read.‖ I shot an elephant in my pajamas. What he was doing in my pajamas I’ll never know.‖ Jack Benny Cheapskate stereotype Most popular radio/ television show of early media The Three Stooges , , and Nyuck, nyuck, nyuck Abbott and Costello routine Bob Hope Variety shows Road movies (with Bing Crosby) Thanks for the Memories Judy Garland Wizard of Oz Meet me in St. Louis, Louis Vaudeville After invention of radio and popularity of Broadway, Vaudeville became a kind of minor league for Broadway/ Hollywood Many stars moved either to larger venues/ movies/ radio, retired, or went to the ―Borscht Belt‖ Effects of Vaudeville Stuck on You (Greg Kinnear, Matt Damon) There’s Something About Mary (Ben Stiller, Cameron Diaz) Saturday Night Live Late Night with Conan O’Brien Liar, Liar (Jim Carrey) Who’s Line Is it Anyway? Broadway Most Broadway shows are commercial productions intended to make a profit for the producers and investors ( ), and therefore meant to have open-ended runs, meaning , word of mouth, and the effectiveness of the show's advertising, all of which determine Two genres of plays: ― ‖ “Straights” Serious Drama Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Arthur Miller Tennessee Williams Williams won the Pulitzer Prize in Drama for ―A Streetcar Named Desire” and for “Cat on a hot tin roof”. Streetcar Named Desire Leading characters/actors (JessicaTandy), (Marlon Brando) Marlon Brando is one of the most important and famous actors of Modern Theater. Career lasted almost 50 years Famous for works like A Streetcar Named Desire, The Godfather, Apocalypse Now, and On The Waterfront. Streetcar Named Desire The Plot follows with Blanche DuBois, who has deep family money, arriving at her sister’s house. , Blanche’s sister, is married to and is carrying his child. Stanley who is physically and emotionally abusive towards Stella turns toward Blanche. In the end Blanche has a nervous breakdown from Stanley raping her.
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