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					Welcoming Remarks




                    1
              Instructions
Lunch
Dinner
  transport




                             2
           Thanks
College of Arts and Sciences /
National Science Foundation

Sandra




                                 3
  Background

 FMA   RCC
 MOR AMIUF
NCGIA NCOR
               4
          FMA
Foundational Model of Anatomy
Department of Biological Structure
University of Washington, Seattle


                                     5
          RCC
Region Connection Calculus
Qualitative Spatial Reasoning
 Group, University of Leeds
                            6
         MOR
Medical Ontology Research,
National Library of Medicine,
       Bethesda, MD
                                7
    AMIUF
Department of Medical
Informatics, University of
   Freiburg, Germany

                             8
         NCGIA
National Center for Geographic
    Information and Analysis
Buffalo, NY / Orono, MN / Santa
          Barbara, CA
                              9
     NCOR
 National Center for
Ontological Research
 Buffalo / Stanford /
(ECOR Saarbrücken)
                        10
                Problem
Each biomedical discipline uses its own
 system for classification of data
Data now available in quantities which can
 only be managed by computer
Therefore need for integration of data across
 disciplinary boundaries in ways that can
 support computer processing


                                            11
           Goals of NCOR
Massive effort of outreach and dissemination
Bring ontology groups together in an attempt to
  stop people reinventing (square) wheels
Data and information integration
  - within the bio-sciences
  - in general
via
  standardized reasoning tools
  standardized top-level classes and relations
                                           12
Goal of NCOR in biomedicine
use the methodology of formally defined
relations and a common top-level ontology
to bridge the granularity gap between
genomics and proteomics data and
phenotype (clinical, pharmacological,
patient centered) data


From molecules to diseases
                                        13
             Cooperation
RCC, NCGIA                      GALEN

FMA
                  NCOR
MOR                       Gene Ontology

AMIUF         Open Biomedical Ontologies

                                       14
      Cooperation
RCC           Werner Ceusters
            ECOR, Saarbrücken




                            15
Joint anatomy
joint HAS-HOLE joint space
joint capsule IS-OUTER-LAYER-OF joint
meniscus
    – IS-INCOMPLETE-FILLER-OF joint space
    – IS-TOPO-INSIDE joint capsule
    – IS-NON-TANGENTIAL-MATERIAL-PART-OF
      joint
joint
    – IS-CONNECTOR-OF bone X
    – IS-CONNECTOR-OF bone Y
synovia
    – IS-INCOMPLETE-FILLER-OF joint space
synovial membrane IS-BONAFIDE-
  BOUNDARY-OF joint space
                                            16
17
Wounded Knees
           Barry Smith
http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith

         with thanks to
      Jose L. V. Mejino Jr.,
Stefan Schulz, Anand Kumar, and
        Cornelius Rosse
                                    18
From Geospatial Ontology
                           19
to Anatomy Ontology



                      20
  what the two domains share

Shapes (Morphology, Qualitative Geometry)
3D Objects/Features
Boundaries, Separation, Connectedness
Reference Object
Pathology
                          together with ...

                                          21
Landmarks
   History
         22
Maps




       23
Fiat Boundaries




                  24
Vagueness




        25
Holes and Other Superficialities
Many of the boundaries of the objects with
which we have to deal in biomedicine are
difficult to specify. Many anatomical
objects are sponge-like; they are replete
with vessels, capillaries, cavities, holes
and ducts of various sorts.



                                         26
Complexity: Process




                      27
Complexity: Granularity




                                                        28
              kidshealth.org/kid/ body/skin_noSW.html
           Two kinds of
spatial ontology reference object:

         Earth = GIS
       Human Body = AIS


                                29
Spatial Data Transfer Standards
 Quantitative: Spatial Object Definitions
  (Raster/Vector ...)
 Qualitative: Standard Entities




                                            30
                               SDTS
Spatial Object Definitions
  – 0-, 1-, 2-dimensions
  – elemental and aggregates
  – some examples from SDTS
       • Node: topological junction of two or more links or
         chains, or is at an end point of link or chain
       • Chain: nonbranching sequence on non-
         intersecting line segments or arcs, bounded by
         nodes at each end

                                                              31
 http://campus.fct.unl.pt/ama/tsig/slides/overview.ppt
        Conceptual Level
Standard Entities
  – Watercourse: a way or course through which
    water may or does flow (includes stream, river,
    anabranch, barranca, branch, brook, canal,
    channel, creek, culvert, ditch, drain, flume, fork,
    lode, narrows, ... wash)
Standard Attributes
  – Intermittent/Perennial: occurring in interrupted
    sequence vs. present at all seasons of the year


Comprehends only some 100 entity types
                                                          32
       Geospatial Ontologies
GIS systems strong on quantitative side,
 weak on qualitative side
But strong systems for qualitative geospatial
 reasoning based on mereotopology
No robust qualitative ontology = no
 theoretically grounded taxonomy of the
 types of entities and relations in the
 geospatial world

                                            33
Geospatial information science
characterized by large mass of spatially
referenced instance data
+ powerful systems for reasoning with and
representation of this data
+ treatment of the corresponding classes
that is relatively impoverished from the
theoretical point of view.


                                        34
Biomedical ontologies weak on quantitative side
– no fixed coordinates (cf. flexible earth), 3-
  Dimensional views, standing vs. sitting position




                                               35
  Biomedical ontologies strong on
         qualitative side
FMA comprehends some 75,000 classes
UMLS comprehends some 900,000 classes
 and 3 million class names

but formal machinery for reasoning and
  ontology integration even in biomedical
  ontologies thus far poorly developed

                                            36
                                                         Anatomical
                                                         Anatomical
        Anatomical Space
        Anatomical Space                                  Structure
                                                          Structure


Organ Cavity
Organ Cavity           Organ
                       Organ              Organ
                                          Organ                          Organ Part
                                                                         Organ Part
 Subdivision
 Subdivision           Cavity
                       Cavity


 Serous Sac
  Serous Sac         Serous Sac
                     Serous Sac                           Organ
                                                          Organ            Organ
                                                                           Organ
   Cavity
    Cavity             Cavity
                                        Serous Sac
                                        Serous Sac      Component
                                                        Component        Subdivision
                                                                                        Tissue
                                                                                        Tissue
                       Cavity                                            Subdivision
 Subdivision
 Subdivision




                                                 Pleural Sac
                                                  Pleural Sac            Pleura(Wall
                        Pleural                                           Pleura(Wall
                         Pleural                                            of Sac)
                                                                             of Sac)
                         Cavity
                          Cavity
                                          Parietal
                                           Parietal
                                           Pleura
                                            Pleura                    Visceral
                                                                       Visceral
               Interlobar                                             Pleura
                                                                       Pleura
                Interlobar
                 recess
                  recess           Mediastinal
                                   Mediastinal
                                    Pleura
                                     Pleura             Mesothelium
                                                        Mesothelium
                                                         of Pleura
                                                          of Pleura
                                                                                           37
      Qualitative Ontologies

        controlled vocabularies
                   +
           is_a hierarchies
          part_of hierarchies

but even here the formal machinery for
reasoning is still very weak, e.g. because
of inconsistent use of top-level categories
               and relations
                                          38
  To support reasoning across
  ontologies and data sources
relational expressions such as
    is_a
    part_of
         ...
should be used in the same way by all the
ontologies to be integrated


                                        39
to define these relations properly
     we need to take account of both
     classes and instances in reality

  classes = invariants in reality, that to
    which the general terms in science
             texts correspond
 Instances = you or me, as instances of
          the class human being
                                             40
    Instances and Classes
In the geospatial domain we are interested
primarily in instances and in the associated data
and map-like representations.
In the anatomical world classes play a much
more important role in virtue of the fact that we
have increasing amounts of scientific knowledge
about the ways in which classes on the coarse-
anatomical levels are connected to the classes
at finer grains, down to the level of molecules. (--
> Molecular medicine)
                                                  41
           Kinds of relations
<class, class>: is_a, part_of, ...

<instance, class>: this explosion
  instance_of the class explosion

<instance, instance>: Mary’s heart part_of
  Mary

                                             42
Instance-level relations

  part_of
  located_in
  contained_in
  has_participant
  has_agent
  earlier
       ...
                           43
Class-Level Relations
is_a
part_of
transformation_of
derives_ from
located_at
                    Relations in
adjacent_to         Biomedical
contained_in        Ontologies
preceded_by
has_participant
has_agent
                                   44
                                                         Anatomical
                                                         Anatomical
        Anatomical Space
        Anatomical Space                                  Structure
                                                          Structure


Organ Cavity
Organ Cavity           Organ
                       Organ              Organ
                                          Organ                          Organ Part
                                                                         Organ Part
 Subdivision
 Subdivision           Cavity
                       Cavity


 Serous Sac
  Serous Sac         Serous Sac
                     Serous Sac                           Organ
                                                          Organ            Organ
                                                                           Organ
   Cavity
    Cavity             Cavity
                                        Serous Sac
                                        Serous Sac      Component
                                                        Component        Subdivision
                                                                                        Tissue
                                                                                        Tissue
                       Cavity                                            Subdivision
 Subdivision
 Subdivision




                                                 Pleural Sac
                                                  Pleural Sac            Pleura(Wall
                        Pleural                                           Pleura(Wall
                         Pleural                                            of Sac)
                                                                             of Sac)
                         Cavity
                          Cavity
                                          Parietal
                                           Parietal
                                           Pleura
                                            Pleura                    Visceral
                                                                       Visceral
               Interlobar                                             Pleura
                                                                       Pleura
                Interlobar
                 recess
                  recess           Mediastinal
                                   Mediastinal
                                    Pleura
                                     Pleura             Mesothelium
                                                        Mesothelium
                                                         of Pleura
                                                          of Pleura
                                                                                           45
 We can reason across such
hierarchies and combinations

but only if the top-level categories and
associated formal-ontological relations are
well-defined and used consistently
and only if they hold universally




                                         46
                 is_a
      A is_a B =def. every A is a B

          human is_a mammal

all instances of the class human are as a
matter of necessity instances of the class
mammal

                                             47
               part_of
A part_of B =def every A is an part_of
some B

part_of = instance-level parthood
(for example between Mary and her heart)




                                         48
      “Relations in Biomedical
             Ontologies”
  Smith, Ceusters, Klagges, Köhler, Kumar,
Lomax, Mungall, Neuhaus, Rector, and Rosse

        Genome Biology, in press




                                        49
Relations in Biomedical Ontologies

                             GALEN

FMA
               NCOR
                      Gene Ontology

           Open Biomedical Ontologies

                                    50
       Digital Anatomist
Foundational Model of Anatomy
   University of Washington, Seattle




                                       51
 The Foundational Model of
         Anatomy
a computer-based representation of the
entities and relations which together form the
phenotypic structure of the human organism
a qualitative spatial reference system for the
human body
designed to be
  understandable to human beings
  navigable by machine-based systems.
  a general-purpose resource
                                                 52
                     FMA
A spatial-structural ontology of the human
  organism at all biological salient levels of
  granularity and comprehending some 1.5 million
  statements of ontological relations between
  some 70,000 anatomical classes.
The acronym ‘FMA’ is currently used both for this
  ontology and for its computerized representation
  within the Protégé 2000 frame-based ontology
  editing environment
DARPA’s Virtual Soldier Project -->
      Physiology Reference Ontology
      Pathology Reference Ontology
                                                 53
                                                         Anatomical
                                                         Anatomical
        Anatomical Space
        Anatomical Space                                  Structure
                                                          Structure


Organ Cavity
Organ Cavity           Organ
                       Organ              Organ
                                          Organ                          Organ Part
                                                                         Organ Part
 Subdivision
 Subdivision           Cavity
                       Cavity


 Serous Sac
  Serous Sac         Serous Sac
                     Serous Sac                           Organ
                                                          Organ            Organ
                                                                           Organ
   Cavity
    Cavity             Cavity
                                        Serous Sac
                                        Serous Sac      Component
                                                        Component        Subdivision
                                                                                        Tissue
                                                                                        Tissue
                       Cavity                                            Subdivision
 Subdivision
 Subdivision




                                                 Pleural Sac
                                                  Pleural Sac            Pleura(Wall
                        Pleural                                           Pleura(Wall
                         Pleural                                            of Sac)
                                                                             of Sac)
                         Cavity
                          Cavity
                                          Parietal
                                           Parietal
                                           Pleura
                                            Pleura                    Visceral
                                                                       Visceral
               Interlobar                                             Pleura
                                                                       Pleura
                Interlobar
                 recess
                  recess           Mediastinal
                                   Mediastinal
                                    Pleura
                                     Pleura             Mesothelium
                                                        Mesothelium
                                                         of Pleura
                                                          of Pleura
                                                                                           54
                                Anato mic al Entity

      Phys ic al                                             Co nc e ptual
   Anato mic al Entity                     -is a-          Anato mic al Entity

                                                                  Anato mic al
                                                                  Re latio ns hip

    Mate rial Phys ic al                            No n-mate rial Phys ic al
    Anato mic al Entity                               Anato mic al Entity

      Bo dy                                                             Anato mic al
                                      Anato mic al
   S ubs tanc e                                                           S pac e
                                       S truc ture


 Bio lo g ic al
                                   Ce ll                 Org an
Mac ro mo le c ule

            Ce ll                          Org an     Org an           Bo dy        Human
                     Tis s ue
            Part                            Part     S ys te m         Part          Bo dy 55
The FMA Anatomy Reference Ontology
 is organized in a graph-theoretical structure
   involving two sorts of links or edges:
 is-a (= is a subtype of )
   (pleural sac is-a serous sac)
 part-of
   (cervical vertebra part-of vertebral column)


                                             56
Parthood vs. Location for instances
a contained_in b
  for b a cavity (an immaterial part)

a part_of b
     ↔ a located_in b or a contained_in b




                                        57
at every level of granularity




                                58
                    Scales of anatomy
 Organism

            Organ

10-1 m              Tissue

                             Cell

                                    Organelle
10-5 m
                                                Protein

                                                          DNA

10-9 m
                                                            59
Top-Level Categories in the FMA
                                   anatomical
                                     entity



                        physical                     non-physical
                    anatomical entity              anatomical entity



      material physical      non-material physical
      anatomical entity        anatomical entity



anatomical     body        body         boundary     anatomical        anatomical
 structure   substance     space                      attribute        relationship



                                                                                      60
anatomical structure
body substance
anatomical space
boundary
anatomical attribute
anatomical relationship



                          61
anatomical structure (cell, lung, nerve,
 tooth)
 material
 result from the coordinated expression
 of structural genes
 have their own 3-D shape




                                       62
   Mereotopology of Anatomical
           Structures
  anatomical structures are maximally self-
  connected = they have their own complete
  three-dimensional connected bona fide
  boundaries
modulo: connections, enclosing conduits of
  various sorts, to neighboring anatomical
  structures, which means fiat boundaries which
  are very small in relation to the total boundary of
  an entity
and modulo: structures distinguished by physical
  landmarks
                                                    63
64
Fiat boundaries and landmarks
The stomach is an unproblematically fiat entity: it is
merely a segment of a certain tubular continuum
containing also e.g. the esophagus and the small and
large intestines.
But there are specific changes within the mucosal and
muscular layers which go to form the wall of the stomach
and esophagus at the junction between the two, and
there is a specific sling of muscle around this junction.
These provide bona fide landmarks for the drawing of
that part of the fiat boundary which extends across the
relevant cavity.
Anatomical structures, at those places on their surface
where they are demarcated by fiat boundaries, must be
demarcated by landmarked fiat boundaries in this sense.

                                                       65
Fiat Boundaries and Partitions
Fiat boundaries come in two types: those
which demarcate physical anatomical
entities (for example the plane of the
esophagogastric junction, which
demarcates the esophagus from the
stomach) and those which demarcate
anatomical spaces (for example the plane
of the pelvic inlet, which demarcates the
abdominal from the pelvic cavity).
                                        66
                 A hole
Solid physical boundaries at the floor
and walls

but with a fiat lid:




    hole
                                         67
           An extremity
Solid physical boundaries at the summit
and walls

but with a fiat base:
                                   hill




                                          68
      Cross-Cutting Partitions
Appeal to fiat boundaries allows us to do justice to
  the fact that one and the same anatomical
  structure can be partitioned in different ways The
  stomach can be decomposed in one context into
  its fundus, body and pyloric antrum and in
  another into its wall and cavity.
Hypothesis: there is only one demarcation of the
  human body into bona fide parts
All bona fide demarcations at all levels of
  granularity would then be consistent with each
  other
                                                  69
portion of body substance
material
(inherits its shape from container)
   urine
   cytosol
   menstrual flood
   blood ...


                                      70
anatomical space
non-material
  cavities, conduits, orifices




                                 71
boundary
  bona fide
  fiat




                                                          72
              www.enel.ucalgary.ca/ People/Mintchev/stomach.htm
anatomical attribute
 mass
 weight
 temperature
    your temperature
    its value now



                       73
anatomical relationship
    located_in
    contained_in
    adjacent_to
    connected_to
    surrounds
    lateral_to (cf. West_of)
    anterior_to


                               74
The FMA is a Representation of
     Canonical Anatomy
It is a collection of generalizations
deduced from the qualitative observations
of the normal human body which have
been refined and sanctioned by
successive generations of anatomists and
presented in textbooks and atlases of
structural anatomy.


                                        75
           Instances in FMA
lobe of liver part_of liver
expresses a class-class relation
but gets its reference to reality via instances:
  every canonical instance of the class lobe
  of liver is a part (in the instance-level, i.e.
  in the standard mereological, sense of
  ‘part’) of some instance of the class liver.
Note the all–some structure of this assertion
                                               76
No Counterpart of Canonical
   Anatomy in GIScience
In cartographic terms, canonical anatomy would
correspond to a map of an idealized portion of
geographic reality (an idealized city, an idealized lake,
an idealized continent).
Corresponding to actual maps (of actual cities or actual
continents) is instantiated anatomy, which comprehends
anatomical data about actual human beings, data of the
type that might be recorded in a clinical record or
captured in a radiographic image. Instantiated anatomy
deals with individual, living, human subjects, but in a way
which relies on the categories or kinds isolated in
canonical anatomy.
                                                         77
   No Normative GIScience
Certainly, there are healthy and unhealthy
cities. But there is no counterpart of the
contemporary evidence-based medicine in
the geospatial domain, and thus no
counterpart of its central organizing
discipline of canonical anatomical science
(and thus no scientific interest in, for
example, maps of ideal cities).

                                         78
               Function
We use our knees to realize goals
Knees are healthy when they can be used to
 realize our goals
Relation between health, normality,
 canonicity, goals and functions




                                         79
           Instances in FMA
lobe of liver part_of liver
expresses a class-class relation
but gets its reference to reality via instances:
  every canonical instance of the class lobe
  of liver is a part (in the instance-level, i.e.
  in the standard mereological, sense of
  ‘part’) of some instance of the class liver.
Note the all–some structure of this assertion
                                               80
Canonical Anatomy




                    81
     FMA Canonical Anatomy
canonical vs instantiated dichotomy does not exist in
  geospatial science.

Geospatial maps deals in every case with specific
   instances (specific portions of the surface of the earth),
the FMA deals not with the instances, the individual human
   beings, whose bodily organization has been investigated
   over the centuries with the aid of surgical dissection,
   radiological imaging, and other techniques, but rather
   with a certain (‘canonical’) idealization thereof (actually
   with two idealizations, corresponding to the male and
   female adult human beings, respectively).

                                                             82
    And the all-some structure
ensures that both males and females satisfy
  almost all of the relational assertions
  contained in the FMA

 every A stands in R to some B




                                          83
       FMA needs extending
to other species
to development and growth (embryo, fetus ...)
to pathological human bodies

to biopsies




                                           84
To define bio-ontological relations
we need to take into account both
   components and processes
 (= continuants and occurrents)

Components are that which changes; they
are the bearers of processes.




                                          85
C                   C1
c at t              c at t1




    transformation_of



                              86
C                      C1
c at t                 c at t1




 embryological development



                                 87
 tumor development
C                C1
c at t           c at t1




                           88
         transformation_of
fetus transformation_of embryo
larva transformation_of pupa
adult transformation_of child


 C2 transformation_of C1 =def. any instance
 of C2 was at some earlier time an instance
 of C1

                                          89
             derives_from
c derives_from c1
  =def c and c1 are non-identical
  and exist in continuous succession




                                       90
            the initial component ceases to exist
C                    with the formation of the new
c at t                                 component
                                         C1
                                      c1 at t1

         the new component detaches itself from
               the initial component, which itself
C                              continues to exist
c at t                               c at t1

                                         C1
                                     c1 at t
                                                 91
          two initial components fuse
          to form a new component

 C                        C1
c at t                    c1 at t1



C'
c' at t




                                     92
           Kinds of relations
<class, class>: is_a, part_of, ...

<instance, class>: this explosion
  instance_of the class explosion

<instance, instance>: Mary’s heart part_of
  Mary

                                             93
             Types of relations
involving canonical instances of anatomical
  classes within the canonical organization of the
  human body (is_a, part_of )
involving also non-canonical instances of
  canonical anatomical classes (two uteri)
involving instances of pathological anatomical
  classes (for example wounded knee or
  amputation stump)
involving entities (implants, food, etc.) imported
  into the body
involving entities (tissue samples, excreta, etc.)
  exported from the body.                          94
  Connectedness and Continuity

The body is a highly connected entity.
Exceptions e.g. cells floating free in blood and other body
  substances
Connectedness in FMA =
       continuous_with,
       attached_to (muscle to bone)
       synapsed_with (nerve to nerve and nerve to muscle)
  Two continuants are continuous on the instance level if
  and only if they share a fiat boundary. A continuant is
  self-connected if and only if any division of the entity
  yields parts which are continuous.

                                                         95
 Continuity on the class level is not
             symmetric
If instance a is continuous with instance b then of course
    the relation holds also in the opposite direction.
But consider the relation between the two classes lymph
    node and lymphatic vessel. Each lymph node is
    continuous with some lymphatic vessel, but there are
    lymphatic vessels (e.g. lymphs and lymphatic trunks)
    which do not stand in continuous connection to any
    lymph nodes.

Attachment, too, is symmetrical on the instance but not on
   the class level, and the same applies also to adjacency


                                                             96
   Part_of relations for continuants
      must be indexed by times
              lobe of liver part_of liver

But suppose a lobe of a liver is removed from a
  donor and transplanted into a hepatectomized
  patient. An instance of the lobe of liver is then for
  a certain time not a part of any instance of liver.
But still: every instance of lobe of liver stands in an
  instance-level parthood relation to some
  instance of liver at some time
More precisely : every instance of lobe of liver
  stands at the initial moment of its existence in
  such a relation to some instance of liver).         97
    Containment vs. Parthood
During the time in which the lobe in process
 of removal it is still located in the interior of
 the original host body: it is contained in a
 cavity created by the surgeon




                                                 98
    An account of transplantation
            processes
must allow for the existence of transitions
  between containment and parthood.
(Compare also the process of digestion)
Is a bolus of food part of, or merely located
  in, a digestive tract? Is an oxygen
  molecule part of, or merely located in, a
  lung?


                                                99
    Non-Canonical Anatomy
The FMA is a representation of canonical
  anatomy = it deals with an “idealized
  human being”
Problem with this: ontologically expensive.
  Transcends empirical investigation




                                              100
FMA = Canonical Anatomy
 Alternative: FMA deals with a
  certain family of instances (we
  are all of us, modulo age, etc.,
  canonical)

 Somehow a statistical matter?



                                     101
              Prototypes




good
functioning



                           102
              Poor functioning




poor
functioning



                                 103
             Malfunctioning




malfunctioning
                              104
              Death?




not
functioning
at all

                       105
The individual variables of the FMA
 then range over those adult male and
 female human beings who satisfy the
 corresponding generalizations as these
 appear in textbooks of structural anatomy.




                                          106
Is this the clue to the treatment of
       pathological anatomy?
The class colon as it appears within the
FMA comprehends only instances of
normal colonsm, the FMA-based ontology
for non-canonical anatomy it must have
the facility to range also over abnormal
colons.



                                       107
             Solution?
Mark classes with this augmented
extension with +




                                   108
        Canonical instances




colon




                              109
         Instances




colon+




                     110
            We then have:
not: abnormal colon is_a colon
but: abnormal colon is_a colon+
but still simply:
  carconomatous colon is_a abnormal colon
and
  colon carcinoma pathological structure
  part_of abnormal colon

                                        111
                 All-some
We also have:
  colon carcinoma pathological structure part_of
  colon+
Every colon carcinoma is part of some colon, even
  though not every colon has some colon
  carcinoma as part.
And
  abnormal colon transformation_of colon
  colon with carcinoma is_a abnormal colon
  colon with carcinoma transformation_of normal
  colon
                                               112
 And do we have
wounded knee is_a knee

          or


wounded knee is_a knee+


          ?
                          113
The End




http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith

                             114

				
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