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                                                  Comp. Lit 8 (2010-2011)
                                            County Competency Study Guide
       All the information below can be found on the Harrisonburg City SOLmate & the Rockingham County SOLmate
       web sites. (SOL’s 1-9) (SOL’s 20-27)

Computer Basics (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 20)
       - A _____________ application is best suited for composing reports, letters, & desktop publishing documents.
       - A ______________ application is best suited for analyzing & calculating data.
       - A _______________ application is best suited for collecting & organizing data.
       - Documents that are formatted in .pdf need to be opened using __________ __________ ____________.
       - ____________ refers to any information entered into a computer.
       - The ____________ ___________ ____________ refers to the chip in a computer that performs all the information
       processing (also known as the “brains”).
       - ___________ ____________ ___________ refers to a computer‟s temporary memory that is quickly accessed
       (also known as RAM).
       - A _____________ device is any device that is plugged into a CPU in order to perform a specific task.
       - _____________ devices are any peripheral devices that allow users to put information into a computer.
       - _____________ devices are any peripheral devices that allow the computer to put information out to the user.
       - _____________ devices store and retrieve information,
       - A _____________ is any location where a computer is used.
       - A ____________ is a system where computers are connected and share such things as public files or printers.
       - A _________ is an on-screen display that lists available options or functions.
       - The ____________ is the blinking symbol on the computer screen that shows where the next character will appear.
       - A person who writes computer programs is referred to as a _____________.
       - ___________ usually refers to applications, programs, or documents that are stored on disks.
       - A software program‟s _________________ refers to its‟ ability to work with other programs and versions.
       - ______________________ refers to computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a
       task that the user wishes to perform (Microsoft Office, Appleworks, Claris Works, etc.).
       - An ___________ refers to software designed to control the hardware of a specific data-processing system in order
       to allow users and application programs to make use of it (Windows XP, Windows Vista, MAC OSX, etc.).
       - ___________ refers to the physical parts of the computer (mouse, keyboard, monitor, etc.).
       - In order to install new software on a computer, the user must _____________ it.
       - The ______________________ is the code, made up by series of 0‟s and 1‟s, which computers use to
       communicate. Each character stands for 8 bits of this code.
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       - Information on a computer is broken down into various sizes:             1 ________ = 8 bits/1 character
                                                                                  1 ________ = one thousand bytes
                                                                                  1 ________ = one million bytes
                                                                                  1 ________ = one billion bytes
       - A _____________ is a type of personal computer that is small and lightweight, allowing users to transport it easily.
       - A _____________ is a type of personal computer that is larger than a laptop and usually is located on a desk.
       - A _____________ is the largest of all computers and is used by NASA to navigate satellites.
       - A _____________ is a computer that is usually used by businesses to process large amounts of information/data.
       - ___________ keys refer to the feeling points on a keyboard that help bring fingers back to the home row position.
       - An ___________ refers to a picture symbol of a program or a document.
       - ________________________ refers to a program interface that uses windows, menus, and icons instead of
       complex keyboard commands (also known as GUI).
       - ______________ is a tool that can be used to troubleshoot certain computer program problems.
       - _______________ refers to taking something off the Internet and storing it on your computer‟s hard drive.
Word Processing (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 21)
       - _______________ is another term for selecting wanted words or phrases in a document.
       - A good rule of thumb while typing a report, or any other document, is to _________ early and often. That way if
       something happens you will not have to start over from the beginning.
       - The ____________ allows users to look up common words and replace them with synonyms.
       - ____________ is a tool that allows users to check a document for grammatical errors and offers corrections.
       - _____________ is a tool that allows users to check a document for spelling errors and offers corrections.
       - The ____________ is a tool that allows a user to look up the spelling, definition, and synonyms/antonyms of
       unknown words.
       - ____________ is a tool that allows users to locate and change a word or group of words while typing a report.
       - ____________ is an action that allows a user to place data into a clipboard & then place it into another document.
       - ____________ is an action that allows users to remove data into a clipboard & then place it into another document.
       - _______________ is a style of personal & formal letter writing where everything is left aligned with no indentions.
       - _______________ is sometimes seen on business letters and takes the place of the return address. It usually
       includes the logo, name, and address of the person/company sending the letter.
       - An __________________ is usually found at the end of a letter and tells the reader there is something else
       included with the letter.
       - On a formal letter, the user should hit return _____ times after the closing to leave room to sign it.
       - The ______________ refer to the blank white space on all four sides of a word processing document (MLA
       standard is 1 inch).
       - ______________ refers to adding elements of style to a word processing document.
       - _________ refers to the actual names of the text (arial, courier, times, etc.).
       - ___________ refers to the way the text is presented (bold, italic, underlined, etc.).
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       - _______________ refers to the height & width of the text (usually measured in points).
       - Punctuation spacing:     End of Sentence Punctuation (. ? !) = ____ time
                                  Mid-Sentence Punctuation (, ; ) = ____ time
                                  After abbreviations or initials (.) = _____ time
                                  Mid-Word Punctuation (- / -- „) = _____ times
                                  After a : = _____ times
       - A ___________ refers to information that appears at the top of every page.
       - A ___________ refers to information that appears at the bottom of every page.
       - The _____________ refers to how the document will be printed. __________ (horizontal) or _________ (vertical).
       - Tables can be inserted into a word processing document. Just like in a spreadsheet, ___________ run horizontal
       and ___________ run vertical.
       - In a table, the intersection of a row & a column is a __________.
       - The _________________ is a special section found at the end of a report that lists all the sources used for research.
       - A ___________________ is a special indentation that has the first line flush against the left margin and all other
       lines indented underneath (usually seen in Works Cited and Bibliography sections).
       - Works Cited pages and Bibliographies are always listed in ________________ order.
       - ______________ is a writing technique were another person‟s ideas are put into your own words, and then written
       in your paper.
       - _______________ is a writing technique were another person‟s exact words are written into your paper with
       __________ _____________ on both sides of the sentence.
       - The ______________ tools can allow users to insert objects such as circles and rectangles into a Word Processing
Computer Ethics & Safety (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 22)
       - A ____________ is a secret code that restricts unauthorized access to your account & should not be shared with
       - _____________ are referred to as the standards of honesty, morality, and fairness.
       - ______________ is the set of etiquette rules that outline & govern behavior & responsibilities when connected to
       the Internet.
       - A ________ is an angry message sent to another person online. If this happens, do not respond & tell an adult.
       - Websites on the Internet can be rude, embarrassing, and inappropriate. If you come across such a website quickly
       _______ the website & _______ ____ __________.
       - Emails and attachments from unknown users should be ____________ immediately! They could contain viruses.
       - __________ ___________ (names, contact information, demographic information, etc) is private and should not be
       shared online.
       - Information posted online or in a chat room can be seen by ____________.
       - Computer programs or applications that are available at no cost are referred to as _________________.
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       - ________________ is software that is free to use for a specified period of time if it meets the user‟s needs, it must
       be purchased after the trial period.
       - A _________ is any computer program that disrupts the normal operation of a computer.
       - Software that covertly gathers user information through an Internet connection is referred to as _______________.
       - _____________ are programs that duplicate themselves on a computer, eventually slowing or halting all tasks.
       - A message used to scare Internet users into thinking their computer is infected with a virus is called a __________.
       - A virus that does something different that what is expected is referred to as a ___________ __________,
       - A _______ __________ is a virus that is triggered by the appearance or disappearance of specific data.
       - A virus that does not cause damage until a certain date or time is called a ________ __________.
       - ____________ ____________ are laws that protect software producers from software piracy.
       - ____________ is the illegal copying and using of software without the creator‟s consent (music downloading is an
       - ______________ refers to manipulating a computer or data to obtain money or property.
       - A ____________ is a person who accesses your computer without your permission or knowledge.
Desktop Publishing (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 23)
       - ____________ __________ is the process of using the computer to combine text & graphics to produce documents
       such as newsletters, brochures, books, etc.
       - The basic rule in design is __________ ____ _____________.
       - A __________ is the smallest element of a graphic.
       - _________ _____________ is a Desktop Publishing technique, where text can be fit around pictures and other
       - When an object is selected, little black squares known as ______________ appear on all sides.
       - _____________ refers to the overlapping of two or more graphic images in a document.
       - _____________ refers to selecting two or more individual objects in a document & combining them as one.
       - By holding down _________ & ________ the mouse, the user can select more than one item at a time.
       - The __________ tool allows the user to select an image & rotate it up to 360 degrees.
       - The ___________ tool allows the user to insert words into a drawing document.
       - The __________ tool allows the user to change a picture by cutting certain parts out.
       - Some Desktop Publishing documents, such as a Newsletter and brochures, have a ___________ ____________
       layout where the page is split up into different sections vertically.

Spreadsheets (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 24)
       - Words inside a cell are referred to as ____________.
       - Numbers inside a cell are referred to as _____________.
       - ____________ in a spreadsheet run horizontally & are identified by numbers.
       - ____________ in a spreadsheet run vertically & are identified by letters.
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       - ____________ are combinations of values or cell references & mathematical operators.
       - ____________ are a group of built in formulas designed to help the user save time (Average, Min, Max, Sum, etc).
       - The results of a formula are displayed in the ___________.
       - When entering a formula, ____________ sign must be at the beginning.
       - The following example would be an acceptable ______________ formula: = A2 + B2
       - The following example would be an acceptable ______________ formula: = A2 - B2
       - The following example would be an acceptable ______________ formula: = A2 / B2
       - The following example would be an acceptable ______________ formula: = A2 * B2
       - The ____________ function allows a user to organize data alphabetically or numerically.
       - In a spreadsheet, the _________ is made by the intersection of a row & a column. It is identified by the
       _______ ____________, which is nothing more than the column letter & the row number.
       - ___________ (sometimes called graphs) use bars, lines, or other visual representations to show the relationship
       among the values in a spreadsheet.
Databases (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 25)
       - A ____________ is the collection of all the records in a single database document.
       - A ____________ describes the different categories of a database.
       - A ____________ is the collection of fields that contain data on a single subject.
       - The ____________ view allows the user to change the appearance of fields, add graphics, & create special forms
       to print out.
       - Database ____________ are the printouts of specific information requested by the user.
       - The ____________ view, which looks similar to a spreadsheet, has the records organized in rows & columns.
       - The ____________ view allows the user to search for records that match certain criteria.
Internet (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 26)
       - Most people can connect to the Internet at home via a phone line by using a ____________.
       - The ___________ __________ _________ is a global network of other computers that communicate with each
       other and offer email & information retrieval services.
       - A __________ ____________ _________, or LAN, is a network of devices occupying a small area such as a
       - A __________ ____________ __________, or WAN, is a network where many computers are connected to one
       main computer called a server.
       - ________________ is a new trend that allows people to work from home by using telephones, fax machines, and
       modems to communicate with the workplace.
       - An ____________ _____________ _______________, or ISP, is a service company that sells access to the
       Internet for a fee.
       - _____________ ______________ _____________ is also known as HTTP.
       - All material on the World Wide Web is written in this computer language that is abbreviated HTML. Many
       programs now automatically convert regular type into ________________ _____________ ___________.
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       - All electronic files that make up the World Wide Web are stored on computers called _____________.
       - A ___________ _____________ is a special website that allows users to search for specific information relating to
       specific keywords.
       - An _____________ ___________ uses various techniques designed to narrow results while researching
       information on the Internet.
       - Music, videos, & animations are referred to as _____________.
       - ____________ are small software packages a user has to download in order to access some multimedia files on the
       - The _____________ ____________ ______________, or URL, identifies a website‟s unique location on the
       - ________________ can be in the form of text or graphics & hide the URL of a web page. They direct users to
       other websites or locations on a web page.
       - An _____________ __________ is a special kind of picture where different parts of the graphic image act as
       hyperlinks to different websites.
       - The ___________ ____________ comes at the end of a URL‟s domain name, & it identifies the organization or
       group the produces the website.
       - A __________ __________ is a software program that allows a user to view various kinds of Internet information.
       - Short for electronic mail, ______________ is the transmission of messages over communications networks.
PowerPoint (Comp/Tech RCPS SOL 27)
       - _______________ give the user multiple ways to look at and work on a presentation.
       - A slide _______________ refers to the way the information on a slide is organized and displayed.
       - A slide _______________ is a pre-made template of backgrounds and color schemes the user can select to enhance
       a presentation.
       - _______________ allow the user to draw attention to information as it enters a slide, while it is on a slide, or as it
       leaves a slide.
       - Slide _______________ keep the audience's attention as the presenter changes from one slide to another.
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Computer Basics          GRAMAR CHECK                         ROTATE
ANCHOR                   HEADER                               TEXT
BYTE                     LETTERHEAD                           Spreadsheets
UNIT                     ONE                                  ADDITION
COMPATIBILITY            ONE                                  CELL
CURSOR                   ONE                                  CELL
DATA                     PAGE LAYOUT                          CELL REFERENCE
DATABASE                 PARAPHRASING                         CHARTS
DESKTOP                  PORTRAIT                             COLUMNS
DOWNLOAD                 QUOTATION MARKS                      DIVISION
DOWNLOADING              QUOTING                              EQUALS
GIGABYTE                 ROWS                                 FORMULAS
GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE   SAVE                                 FUNCTIONS
HARDWARE                 SPELL CHECK                          LABELS
HELP                     STYLE                                MULTIPLICATION
ICON                     THESARUS                             ROWS
INPUT                    ZERO                                 SORT
KILOBYTE                                                      SUBTRACTION
LAPTOP                   Computer Ethics & Safety             VALUES
MEGABYTE                 DELETED                              Databases
MENU                     ETHICS                               FIELD
NETWORK                  EVERYONE                             FILE
OPERATING SYSTEM         EXIT                                 FIND
OUTPUT                   FLAME                                LAYOUT
PERIPHERAL               FRAUD                                LIST
PROGRAMMER               FREEWARE                             RECORD
RANDOM ACCESS            HACKER                               REPORTS
MEMORY                   HOAX
SOFTWARE                 LOGIC BOMB
STORAGE                  PASSWORD
Word Processing          TELL AN ADULT
BLOCK                    VIRUS
CELL                     WORMS
COPY AND PASTE           Desktop Publishing
DICTIONARY               CROP
FIND                     HANDLES
FONT                     KEEP IT SIMPLE
FOOTER                   LAYERING
FOUR                     PIXEL
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Internet             LOCAL AREA NETWORK             WIDE AREA NETWORK
ADVANCED SEARCH      MODEM                          WORLD WIDE WEB
E-MAIL               MULTIMEDIA
HYPERLINKS           PLUG-INS                       PowerPoint
         LANGUAGE    SERVERS                        DESIGN
IMAGE MAP                  LOCATOR                  VIEWS

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